Definition Of

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Definition of 'Working Capital'
A measure of both a company's efficiency and its short-term financial health. The working
capital ratio is calculated as:

This ratio indicates whether a company has enough short term assets to cover its short
term debt. Anything below 1 indicates negative W/C (working capital). While anything over
2 means that the company is not investing excess assets. Most believe that a ratio between
1.2 and 2.0 is sufficient.

Also known as "net working capital", or the "working capital ratio".


1. Gross working capital

Total or gross working capital is that working capital which is used for all the current assets. Total
value of current assets will equal to gross working capital. In simple words, it is total cash and cash
equivalent on hand. But remember, we do not account of current liabilities in gross working capital.

2. Net Working Capital

Net working capital is the excess of current assets over current liabilities.

Net Working Capital = Total Current Assets – Total Current Liabilities

This amount shows that if we deduct total current liabilities from total current assets, then balance
amount can be used for repayment of long term debts at any time. It also measure of both
a company's efficiency and its short-term financial health.

3. Permanent Working Capital

Permanent working capital is that amount of capital which must be in cash or current assets for
continuing the activities of business. It also shows the minimum amount of all current assets that is
required at all times to ensure a minimum level of uninterrupted business operations.

4. Temporary Working Capital

Sometime, it may possible that we have to pay fixed liabilities, at that time we need working capital
which is more than permanent working capital, then this excess amount will be temporary working
capital. In normal working of business, we don’t need such capital.

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