Definition of "contemporary": having particular relevance to the present time. Contemporary means 'present day', or reasonably close. Two individuals are sometimes called contemporaries, meaning that their lives overlapped significantly. The term could be used to indicate that they had similar cultural and social experiences, for example, even if the people never met. things made during the same time period: i.e. if two different writers were both writing in the same time frame, their works would be contemporary to one another, in other words, "uncle sam wants you" and "buy war bonds" posters would be considered WWII contemporary.
Examples of current contemporary issues:
International Conflict Terrorism Pollution & Waste Management Natural Resources & Energy Conservation Urban Development Bioethics Market & Workforce Globalization Mobile Technology & Communications Information Management & Security
Mobile Communication Technology
GSM (Global System for Mobile communication): The Basics
GSM is the digital mobile phone network that is used throughout Europe and in most other areas around the world. GSM can provide for voice-mail (answer phone service), faxing, SMS and high-speed data transfer (WAP) as well as for talk..
GPRS (General Packet Radio System): The Basics
GPRS is a technology that does not replace GSM, but uses the GSM network to allow data to be sent/received at higher speeds.
Further, the technology (without going into the science) allows you to pay only for the time that the information takes to send/receive. This payment method is only valid for the use of WAP (see below) and does not apply when talking. The advantages of GPRS are further highlighted in the next section.
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
WAP is a technology designed to allow Internet material (web pages, e-mail, etc) to be viewed on mobile phones. WAP browsers on the phone display text-only versions of web pages as images have to be removed due to the limited bandwidth that the network currently has to offer. GSM offers speeds of around 9.6Kbps but the new GPRS has allowed speeds of around 2024Kbps. The older WAP phones will still use the original GSM network but the new WAP phones that you see available today will use GPRS. GSM phones have to go through the slow log-in processes when using WAP, but GPRS provides a continuous connection for the day once logged in. As said before, GPRS will allow web pages to be read without the worry of cost because the time used to download the information is the only chargeable period for using WAP (Important: talk time rates will be independently charged): GSM charges for the total time connected. The information that can be viewed by WAP mobile phones is currently limited to news, finance, directories, travel, shopping, sport and e-mail (detailed later) but can be extremely useful. Although GPRS has expanded the capabilities of WAP such as faxing and e-mailing, the next generation technology will make a huge difference to how we will interact between mobile phones and the Internet.
3G: The Third Generation Future of Mobile Phone Technology
The first generation (1G) of mobile phones (1970s – 1980s) involved:
Analogue transmission The limitation to making „voice‟ calls Only being able to use the mobile phone in one country
The second generation (2G) began in the early 1990s and saw the introduction of digital transmission allowing SMS to be integrated into the service of mobile phones. The advance into new technology during the millennium, such as WAP, has been called 2.5G: this is where we are now and 3G is just around the corner. 3G is the era for the introduction of broadband so that the number of possibilities from a mobile phone could be endless such as interactive media e.g. high quality video-conferencing. Web pages will become more accessible and will be received at much higher speeds of around 2Mbps. 3G will also allow mobile phones to support Java so that interactive web pages can be downloaded. The next generation of mobile phones will also see the introduction of MMS (Multimedia Messaging) allowing images, animations, clips and text to be sent to another MMS phone or PC. The phones that offer this capability were available to buy in the UK around May 2002 at prices averaging £150. The introduction of colour screens on mobile phones made available during the same time further enhances the MMS feature. Built-in mobile phone cameras, made available at the same time as MMS, allows images to be displayed on mobile
phone screens (just like a digital camera). Images can then be saved as JPEG‟s and can be stored or sent to other MMS mobile phones and PCs. It is predicted that 3G technology will see mobile phones (and other mobile units such as Palm-tops) being used just as much as desktop PCs once the technology has been fully integrated. As a result, it has been suggested that mobile phones are mass-produced as lap-top computers.
With the introduction of WAP, came the availability of e-mail from mobile phones. The user must first have an on-line e-mail account: these can usually be set up directly with your mobile phone service provider by registering your details on their web site. To send an e-mail, you would write it on your mobile phone (as you would text messages) and send it directly to the required address. The length of the e-mails is not restricted in length and so you can write messages in full. To receive an e-mail, you would download your e-mails directly to your phone by using WAP to connect to your e-mail account via the Internet. Some service providers send an indication to your phone when you have received a new e-mail usually in the form of a load “beep” or SMS. Some of the newer phones without WAP do offer an e-mailing option but emails can only be sent and not received. The lengths of these e-mails are still limited to the 160character length as for SMS.
Blue-tooth is a technology that allows communication between digital devices such as PCs, mobile phones, lap-tops and Personal Digital Assistants (PDA). It is achieved by a short-range (around 10 metres) wireless connection that will vary in form depending on what hardware it is to be associated with:
The back of a mobile phone will be replaced by a compatible blue-tooth battery PDAs/lap-tops will have a compatible blue-tooth connectivity card PCs will have a USB (common on PCs) blue-tooth adaptor
Not all mobile phones are compatible for blue-tooth technology but the phones that are becoming available do compensate for such use. The most common mobile phone that is compatible for the use of blue-tooth communication is the Nokia 6210e pictured on the right. The blue-tooth technology can be used to create a three-way connection allowing three pieces of hardware to be connected together at any one time. Information can then be replicated from, say, a mobile phone to a PC by sending the data via the wireless (infra-red) blue-tooth connection. For information to be transferred, all devices must have the same software application in which the data can be replicated i.e. a mobile phone must have the application Microsoft Word for a Word document to be replicated from a PC.
Service Provider and Mobile Phone Manufacturers Web Site Links
Service Providers Mobile Phone Manufacturers O2 Ericsson
T-Mobile Orange Vodafone
Motorola Nokia Sony
3G Service Provider: „Three‟
Until the closing years of the last millennium, we saw mobile phones with a respect for communicating with others whilst on the move. Today, the potential has been identified for moving into new markets by introducing software applications and Internet access to mobile phones therefore extending their use for business communication and interactivity. Mobile phones are now fast becoming a useful business tool that will soon replace hand-held PC devices in popularity due to the proposed range of functionality and increasing possibilities. We have seen WAP being taken to a new level with the introduction of GPRS allowing Internet material to be displayed on mobile phones with increased speed and content. With the integration of broadband just coming into force, you will be able to view videos in high quality from mobile phones along with the increased access to Internet based services. It is believed that such third generation technology will bring business communication to a different era and it is therefore important for all business owners to assess the value of mobile technology in regard to their own current and future needs.
India - Mobile Communications - Market Overview, Technologies and Forecasts Synopsis
From a humble start, growth in India‟s mobile sector rapidly picked up pace and developed a sustained momentum, aided by higher subscriber volumes, lower tariffs and falling handset prices. Home to a clutch of global operators working with local companies, India had around 900 million mobile subscribers (including both GSM and CDMA services) at the start of 2012; the market was continuing to grow at an annual rate of around 40%. While ARPU has been steadily declining as competing operators offer cheaper tariffs the usage levels have remained reasonably high thus slowing the decline in revenues. There had been a major push in recent years to take mobile services into the poorer and rural areas of the country, a move that was weighing down on ARPU. The arrival of two more operators also added to the heat in the market place as they launched networks in late 2009. In 2010 the long-awaited 3G auctions finally took place. In 2010/2011 the 3G networks were being rolled out and services delivered to customers. But things went sour for the mobile industry in particular when the unfolding scandal over the awarding of 2G licences in 2008 took centre stage at the beginning of 2012. The Supreme Court directed that 122 licences awarded four years earlier be cancelled, throwing the sector into chaos. Further court decisions and the subsequent responses of the regulators are key to the eventual outcome.
This report looks at the mobile market in India and presents a set of relevant market statistics. It also examines the technology platforms in place and those being put in place. And finally the report looks at the range of mobile voice and data services in India. Key developments: A competitive market continues to see the subscriber base expanding by 20% annually; with mobile penetration of around 74% in early 2011 there was room for further growth; ARPUs continue to shrink, however, much to the consternation of the operators; the crowded mobile market is showing the first signs of a fresh move towards rationalising the number of operators; the launch of 3G services has commenced and proceeding briskly; 3G may present operators with the chance to re-build ARPUs; the so-called 2G scandal has seen the large scale cancellation of mobile licences; many issues remain to be resolved in the wake of the court decision directing these cancellations. Companies covered in this report include: Aircel/Dishnet, Bharti Airtel, Loop Mobile (BPL Mobile), Quadrant (HFCL), Idea/Spice, Reliance Communications, Tata Teleservices, Vodafone Essar, Uninor (Unitech), Videocon, S Tel, Bharti Telenet, Reliance Infocomm, Tata Teleservices, Sistema (Shyam Telelink), Swan Telecom, Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd (VSNL), Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd (BSNL), Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd (MTNL), Data Access, Hughes Telecom, Videocon, SingTel.
Pollution and Waste Management aims to facilitate and develop programmes, projects,
co-operative management and policy mechanisms, measures and decision-support systems to ensure integrated pollution and waste management. Pollution and Waste Management also aims to:
Ensure efficient and effective provision of staff for the new structure and development of personnel Collect, analyse and disseminate relevant and current information regarding pollution and waste management Promote programmes on pollution and waste management that give effect to integrated pollution and waste management Promote public participation in environmental governance and decision-making with respect to integrated pollution and waste management Provide efficient and effective support to all clients and ensure co-operative governance to achieve integrated pollution and waste management Develop and implement pollution and waste management legislation, policies, norms, standards and guidelines and ensure compliance with relevant environmental legislation.
Pollution and small islands Pacific island countries, like the rest of the world, face serious problems with disposal of wastes and pollution. Organic and most metal wastes can be recycled, and this is practised in a limited way in most rural areas. Increased urbanisation and growing populations have accelerated problems with the collection and disposal of both solid and liquid wastes. Every year the importation of packaged consumer goods adds to the growing amount of non-biodegradable waste. Pollution from industrial waste and sewage and disposal of toxic chemicals are significant contributors to marine pollution and coastal degradation. Manmade chemicals, many of them very toxic, can be difficult to recycle and expensive to destroy. Most wastes, hazardous or not, are simply dumped together at the nearest available government owned land. In Fiji, Tonga, and Vanuatu, for example the public dumps are in mangrove forests and the Department of Health dusts them regularly with pesticides and rat poison. Perhaps more dangerous is the widespread use of toxic agricultural chemicals in areas where these can later pollute rivers and groundwater sources. Groundwater contamination is common in fresh water sources adjoining agricultural areas. Pollution from wastes has serious implications for the small island developing states. These problems fall into three categories. (I) aesthetics, (ii) human health (iii) environmental degradation. Costs of pollution to the tourist industry Since tourism is the great economic hope for the Pacific islands, ambient beauty has a cash value. Yet in most of the Pacific islands, tourists are confronted with litter; wrappers and aluminium cans line the roads, fast food plastic packaging is heaped on the edges of scenic overviews, disposable diapers drift through the clear waters or tangle in the branches of corals. Open municipal dumps are often close to major urban centres and almost always on fire, with the aromatic fumes distracting from the romance of the tropical atmosphere. Costs of pollution to human health Human health is, indirectly, endangered by litter. The mosquito that carries the dengue fever abrovirus is a “domesticated” insect. It breeds in water trapped in cans, old tyres, jars, and plastic containers. Dengue epidemics are common in the Pacific islands. A study in New Caledonia, for example, found the epicenter for a recent outbreak of dengue in a squatter city where litter was abundant. There are 23 different strains of dengue, most of them debilitate the victim for several weeks to several months. One variety causes internal haemorrhaging and can be deadly. In 1998 an epidemic of Dengue spread across the South Pacific. Fiji spent millions of dollars combating the disease. More than 6,500 people required hospitalization. Improper disposal of waste also contaminates water supplies. Sewage contamination of water is common in all island countries of the region and few streams and even many ground water supplies, are safe for human consumption without treatment. Diarrhoea - often related to water related diseases - was the third most common cause for hospitalization in the Pacific islands. In Kiribati, diarrhoea and other water related diseases were the number one cause of death (WHO 1984). In Ebey Lagoon, in the Marshall islands, where pollution levels have reached 25,000 times higher than WHO safe levels, epidemics of gastroenteritis were almost impossible to control (Keju and Johnson, 1982). Cholera, which caused diarrhoea and dehydration, killed 18 people in Kiribati in 1977 and initiated renewed efforts at improving sanitation and water supplies (Kiribati UNCED 1992). Droughts and subsequent floods amplify water related health problems. Leptospirosis and Amoebic dysentery both increased following the prolonged droughts in 1987. Leptospirosis is transmitted by
contamination of water supplies by rat or dog urine. Amoebic dysentery is transmitted by sewage contaminated water. In New Caledonia and French Polynesia Leptospirosis increased from 9 cases in 1987 to 87 in 1988 and 158 in 1989. It fell again in 1991 in parallel with the incidence of Amoeboensis. In French Polynesia, leptospirosis hospitalized 100 out of every 100,000 people in 1992. This compares to 0.4/100,000 cases in France. Environmental costs of pollution Environmental degradation from pollution indirectly impacts human health through reduction of food security, loss of drinking water supplies, and loss of economic opportunity. The major industries in the small island states are agriculture, tourism, forestry, mining and fisheries. All of these generate wastes – some a by-product of the activity, some a necessary part of the product stream. By-product wastes are generally the result of poorly managed operations and include siltation (from mining and land clearing during agricultural of forestry activities), oil pollution (used oil from machinery and from accidental spills), poisons (from pest control), and miscellaneous plastic trash (old fishing gear, plastic sheeting, drums and bags). Production wastes include organic wastes from food processing, chemical wastes (from oil palm refineries, mining processes, wood treatment). Hazardous chemicals and nutrient pollution find their way into the marine environment via effluents, dumps, storm runoff, sewage, and wind-blown dust. These cause environmental insults to inshore estuarine and marine environments. This is especially damaging to coastal marine nursery areas like sea grass beds, coral reefs, and mangrove forests. While many of these effluents cause local environmental insults, siltation, oil pollution, poisons and plastic trash contribute to extensive, damage to inshore marine environments. The islands are just the exposed peaks of the great mountain ranges of the Pacific Ocean. Ocean currents form eddies around these mountains and it is in these oceanic vortices that many sea creatures proliferate in their planktonic stages. The lagoons of atolls and bays of high islands are also key areas for planktonic development. Air blown dust, smoke, and fresh water storm run-off from the islands carry oil soluble man-made toxins from gardens, food processing areas, kitchen sinks, and municipal dumps onto the surface layer of the sea. The sea surface micro-layer is a vital nursery for the vast majority of all marine organisms and, because of its special characteristics, is easily polluted by man-made chemicals. Almost all of the multitude of marine species of fish, plants and invertebrates shed their eggs into the sea water. These float, and so almost all sea creatures spend the most delicate first few hours of life close to the micro-layer boundary at the sea surface. Under normal conditions, this layer is enriched by a very thin layer of natural oils, slowly digested by special marine bacteria. The nutrient enriched surface layer of the sea is thus the largest single nursery environment of the planet. Tests have demonstrated that this critical habitat is polluted by heavy metals, agricultural poisons, and beak-down petroleum products. Bioassays demonstrate that these toxins can and do kill the eggs and larval stages of fish and invertebrates. Scientists are concerned that this problem may be contributing to the global decline in marine communities and fish populations. Pollution from mining Mining is a non-renewable activity and environmental management is essentially a process of removing the minerals with minimal harm to the environment and maximum profit to society. There are four kinds of mining in the Pacific islands: (i) mineral extraction (nickel, gold, silver, copper, iron, uranium, titanium); (ii) coal mining; (iii) construction mining (for fill, building stone and cement); and (iv) oil and gas extraction. Each activity has it’s own environmental impact during extraction, processing, and transport. PNG, New Caledonia, the Solomon Islands and Fiji are the major mineral mining centres in the subregion, and PNG also produces petroleum and natural gas, mostly from off-shore wells. Mining in all
these countries results in unavoidable localised environmental damage. Regulations attempt, with varying degrees of success, to mitigate damage from mine tailings, processing fumes, and siltation of streams and rivers. In New Caledonia and PNG, for example, minerals are taken by strip mining in mountainous areas. The more rugged the terrain, the more practical difficulties in preventing massive siltation of waterways. Prior to the 1980’s there were few, if any, environmental precautions taken with mining activities. Siltation of waterways and coastal areas was common. Even after regulations were enacted the practicalities of mine operation in rugged terrain often precluded effective environmental protection. For example, siltation settlement ponds at the OK Tedi gold mine in PNG were destroyed by an earthquake but the mine was allowed to operate anyway. Sediments polluted the Fly River damaging coastal gardens and fisheries. Local land owners successfully sued the mine owners and forced construction of new settlement ponds but the success of these will tested by future earthquakes and torrential rains. Action on Waste Issues in the Pacific Islands Hazardous wastes and the Pacific Islands In the late 1980's there were at least 10 attempts to use Pacific islands as a place to install hazardous waste dumps, incineration sites, or storage areas. These were sophisticated proposals with a multitude of financial benefits. The governments of Oceania rejected the proposals on environmental grounds. The Basal Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (1989) entered into force in 1992 to ensure that transboundary movement of hazardous wastes are consistent with the protection of human health and the environment. In 1994, the Basal Convention was strengthened, outlawing export of hazardous waste for final disposal from OECD to non-OECD countries. The revised Convention agreed to phase out transnational shipments of waste destined for recycling by 1998. In 1995, the South Pacific Forum presented its members with the Waigani Convention to Ban the Importation into Forum Island Countries of Hazardous and Radioactive Wastes and to control the Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes within the South Pacific Region. Costs associated with the Waigani Convention include each country: (i) banning import of hazardous and radioactive wastes; (ii), minimising the production of hazardous wastes; (iii) establishing proper disposal methods for hazardous wastes; (iv) developing national legislation to prevent and punish illegal trafficking of wastes; (v) consider becoming signatories to the London Dumping Convention, the SPREP Convention and the Basal Convention. The Convention was signed in Port Moresby PNG but by 1999, only FSM, Fiji and PNG had ratified the Convention.
Pollution and Waste Management
Land-based pollution of marine and coastal environments eventually makes its way back to and concentrates along coastal areas, affecting and degrading rich natural resources. Countries and their coastal communities are highly dependent on natural resources provided by these coastal environments, and it is important to mainstream pollution management into local and national coastal planning strategies.
Strategic action plans for pollution reduction have been developed in all PEMSEA ICM sites. Most local governments have given priority to address nutrient reduction and other waste management problems to reduce the negative impacts of eutrophication, marine litter, urban garbage and hospital wastes, which affect the health and economic well-being of urban centers. Among the examples are the Operational Plan for the Manila Bay Coastal Strategy, adopted by the Manila Bay Project Coordination Committee (PCC) and the Philippine Department of Environment and Natural Resources, which set the stage for the development and implementation of the World Bank/GEF Manila Third Sewerage Project with a grant of $5 million and loans amounting to $67 million. In PR China, the findings on the Total Load Study of Sewage Discharged into Bohai Sea served as the rationale for the Blue Sea Action Plan (2001–2010), which has a financial commitment of over $6 billion. The Plan entails the construction of three new sewage treatment plants in Shenyang, Liaoning Province, providing treatment capacity for one million tons/day of municipal sewage. In Fujian, the radical improvements brought about by the cleanup and rehabilitation of Xiamen's Yuan Dang Lagoon inspired the provincial government to invest RMB3 billion ($395 million) in water pollution control and ecological management, resulting in substantial reductions in total discharge of pollutants in the basin. Grassroots, or 'bottom-up' action from local communities are also important and can often help solve difficult problems with simple actions. A pilot implementation for community-based solid waste management project in Sihanoukville, Cambodia, provided an initial step to involve local communities in solid waste management. Supported through the ICM Project in the area, the municipal government, the Ministry of Environment and the Commune Council, worked with community members and the CINTRI Waste Company to reduce the volume of stockpiled domestic wastes. The project fostered improved local capacity to deal with solid wastes through training, awareness campaigns, and household involvement in cleanup and waste segregation. The project also fostered greater cohesion among neighboring families and established a strong alliance between the community and the private sector company, both of which resulted in a greater appreciation of each party on their respective roles in improving community sanitation and promoting waste management as an economic opportunity for the village. Learning from the experience of the pilot implementation, the project is now being scaled up to cover 1,155 families in the entire Sangkat (Commune). Part of the scaling up process includes beefing up the revolving fund component of the project to create a self-sustaining mechanism for the project in the long run.