Diplomacy of Africa

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DIPLOMACY OF AFRICA

COTE D'IVOIRE

BACKGROUND

It is a country in West Africa which is commonly known in English as Ivory Coast. Prior to its colonization by Europeans, it is home to several states including Gyamaan, the Kong Empire and Baoule. Independence day: AUGUST 7, 1960 It was ruled by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, from 1960 to 1993.

It maintained close political and economic association with its West African neighbours, while at the same time maintaining close ties to the West, especially to France. Since the end of Houphouët-Boigny's rule, Côte d'Ivoire has experienced one coup d’état, in 1999, and a civil war, which broke out in 2002.

A political agreement between the government and the rebels brought a return to peace.
It is a republic with a strong executive power invested in the President. Its de jure capital is Yamoussoukro and the biggest city is the port city of Abidjan.

The official language is French, although many of the local languages are widely used, including Baoulé, Dioula, Dan, Anyin and Cebaara Senufo. The main religions are Islam, Christianity (primarily Roman Catholic) and various indigenous religions.
Through production of coffee and cocoa, the country was an economic powerhouse during the 1960s and 1970s in West Africa. However, Côte d'Ivoire went through an economic crisis in the 1980s, leading to the country's period of political and social turmoil. The 21st century Ivoirian economy is largely market-based and relies heavily on agriculture, with smallholder cash crop production being dominant.

POLITICS
Its government takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Côte d'Ivoire is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive Branch -exercised by the government. - Côte d'Ivoire's 1959 constitution provides for strong presidency within the framework of a separation of powers. The executive is personified in the president, elected for a five-year term. The president is commander in chief of the armed forces, may negotiate and ratify certain treaties, and may submit a bill to a national referendum or to the National Assembly. According to the constitution, the President of the National Assembly assumes the presidency in the event of a vacancy, and he completes the remainder of the deceased president's term. The cabinet is selected by and is responsible to the president. Changes are being proposed to some of these provisions, to extend term of office to 7 years, establish a senate, and make president of the senate interim successor to the president.

Legislative Branch: -vested in both the government and the parliament - The National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) has 225 members, elected for a five year term in single-seat constituencies. It passes on legislation typically introduced by the president although it also can introduce legislation. Côte d'Ivoire is a one party dominant state with the Ivorian People's Front in power.

Judicial Branch - The judicial system culminates in the Supreme Court. The High Court of Justice is competent to try government officials for major offenses. The Supreme Court or Cour Supreme consists of four chambers: Judicial Chamber for criminal cases, Audit Chamber for financial cases, Constitutional Chamber for judicial review cases, and Administrative Chamber for civil cases; there is no legal limit to the number of members. Administrative Divisions: - For administrative purposes, Côte d'Ivoire is divided into 58 departments, each headed by a prefect appointed by the central government. There are 196 communes, each headed by an elected mayor, plus the city of Abidjan with ten mayors.

International Organizations Affiliated with: ACP- Lome Convention AfDB-African Development Bank ECA-United Nation Economic Commissions

ECOWAS-Economic Community of West African States
Entente-Conseil de I'Entente FAO-Food and Agriculture Organization FZ G-24 G-77 IAEA-International Atomic and Energy Agency IBRD-International Bank for Reorganization and Development ICAO-International civil aviation organization ICCt-International Criminal Court(signatory) ICRM-International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

IDA-International Development Association

IDB-Islamic Development Bank
IFAD-International Fund for Agricultural Development IFC-International Finance Corporation IFRCS ILO-International Labor Organization IMF-International Monetary Fund IMO-International Maritime Organization Interpol IOC IOM-International Organizatin for Migration ISO

ITU
ITUC MONUC NAM

OAU OIC OPCW UNCTAD UNESCO UN UNHCR UNIDO UPU WADB (regional) WAEMU WCO WFTU -World Federation of Trade Unions WHO-World Health Organization WIPO-World Intellectural Property Organization WMO-World Meteorological Organization WToO-World Tourism Organization WTrO-World Trade Organization

FOREIGN POLICY/RELATIONS
Throughout the Cold War, Côte d'Ivoire's foreign policy was generally favorable toward the West. In particular, Félix HouphouëtBoigny kept relations with France that was among the closest between any African country and a former colonial power. The country became a member of the United Nations at independence in 1960 and participates in most of its specialized agencies. It is also an associate member of the European Union. In general, President Bédié initiated and maintained relations with many countries of the European Union and Asia. Côte d'Ivoire maintains a wide variety of diplomatic contacts. Houphouët-Boigny was one of the first African leaders to establish ties with Israel. In 1973, first Ethiopia, then the Organization of African Unity (OAU), broke ties with Israel as an act of solidarity with Arab members of the OAU. Virtually all of Africa followed suit including Côte d'Ivoire. However, it was one of the first to re-establish relations with Israel in 1986.

Côte d'Ivoire also sought change in South Africa through dialogue, and its newly-named ambassador was among the first to be accredited to post-apartheid South Africa. Côte d'Ivoire's foreign relations suffered following the December 1999 coup that brought President Guei to power. Many foreign institutions (including the IMF) withheld foreign aid. Most of the western international community, as well as the OAU, considered the October 2000 elections to have been seriously flawed. Foreign donor institutions which halted aid pending a return to civilian rule have largely continued their freeze. The London Club has also not expressed a willingness to revisit the issue of debt rescheduling. The electoral shifts in the country therefore continue to mar foreign relations.

Regional and international assistance, however, helped to end the conflict in 2002, and to bring about the establishment of a power sharing government in 2003. The cooperative stance augurs well for Côte d'Ivoire's foreign relations.

 Regional Relations:

The Ivorian government has historically played an important and constructive role in Africa. President Houphouët-Boigny was active in the mediation of regional disputes, most notably in Liberia and Angola. Côte d'Ivoire is a member of the newly created OAU conflict resolution mechanism. In 1996-97 Côte d'Ivoire sent a medical unit to participate in regional peacekeeping in Liberia, its first peacekeeping effort. Côte d'Ivoire is a member of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA), the African Mauritian Common Organization (OCAM), the Council of Entente Communaute Financiere Africaine (CFA), the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Nonaggression and Defense Agreement (ANAD), INTELSAT, the Nonaligned Movement, the African Regional Satellite Organization (RASCOM), the Inter-African Coffee Organizations (IACO), the International Cocoa Organization (ICCO), the Alliance of Cocoa Producers, African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries (ACP), and the Association of Coffee Producing Countries (ACPC). Côte d'Ivoire also belongs to the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the African Development Bank.

 Bilateral Relations

>Ghana In 1989, after fifteen years of no progress, the Ghana-Côte d'Ivoire border redemarcation commission finally agreed on the definition of the 640-kilometer border between the two countries. The PNDC thereafter worked to improve thetransportation and communication links with both Côte d'Ivoire and Togo, despite problems with both countries. By 1992 Ghana's relations with Côte d'Ivoire were relatively good. Hopes for lasting improvement in Ghana's relations with its western neighbor, however, were quickly dashed following some ugly incidents in late 1993 and early 1994. They began on November 1, 1993, with the return of sports fans to Côte d'Ivoire following a championship soccer match in Kumasi, Ghana, that had resulted in the elimination of Côte d'Ivoire from competition. Ghanaian immigrants in Côte d'Ivoire were violently attacked, and as many as forty or more Ghanaians were killed.

>France Despite electoral wrangling, Côte d'Ivoire continues to maintain extremely close relations with France. President Houphouët-Boigny, who was a minister in the French colonial government prior to independence, insisted that the connection be maintained. President Chirac visited Côte d'Ivoire soon after his election in 1995, followed by the French secretary of state and the ministers of foreign affairs and defense. Examples of Franco-Ivorian cooperation are numerous. French is Côte d'Ivoire's official language. Ivorian security is enhanced by a brigade of French marines stationed in Abidjan. Some 20,000 French expatriates continue to make their home in Côte d'Ivoire, and the country's currency, the CFA franc, is tied to the French franc. France maintains a military base at Port Bouët and has assisted in the restructuring of the Ivorian armed forces. France was the first country to recognize the victory of President Gbagbo in the October 2000 elections. France was also instrumental in the military efforts in the country during the 2002-2003 civil conflict. In February 2009, the French government decided to withdraw half of the 1800 French troops currently stationed in Côte d'Ivoire; the French president saying "The security risk in Côte d'Ivoire has abated and waiting for elections whose timing remains uncertain no longer justifies the maintenance of a full military presence".

>India The bilateral relations between the Republic of India and the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire have considerably expanded in recent years as India seeks to develop an extensive commercial and strategic partnership in the West African region . The Indian diplomatic mission in Abidjan was opened in 1979. Côte d'Ivoire opened its resident mission in New Delhi in September 2004.[1] Both nations are currently fostering efforts to increase trade, investments and economic cooperation. >USA Côte d'Ivoire's relationship with the U.S. was cordial, if less intimate than its ties with its former colonizer France >Russia Russia works on UN missions to help the people of Côte d'Ivoire. The help is sometimes done from the Russian embassy in Abidjan, but is also done from the embassy in Accra, Ghana. From these point of view, Russia regarded the outcome of the extraordinary summit held in Dakar, Senegal, of the Economic Community for West African States.

BURUNDI

BACKGROUND
It is a landlocked country in the Great Lakes region of Eastern Africa bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. Its size is just under 28,000 km² with an estimated population of over 10,000,000. Its capital is Bujumbura. Although the country is landlocked, much of the southwestern border is adjacent to Lake Tanganyika. The Twa, Tutsi, and Hutu peoples have occupied Burundi since the country's formation five centuries ago. Burundi was ruled as a kingdom by the Tutsi for over two hundred years. However, at the beginning of the twentieth century, Germany and Belgium occupied the region, and Burundi and Rwanda became a European colony known as Ruanda-Urundi. Political unrest occurred throughout the region because of social differences between the Tutsi and Hutu, provoking civil war in Burundi throughout the middle twentieth century. Presently, Burundi is governed as a presidential representative democratic republic. Burundi is one of the ten poorest countries in the world. It has one of the lowest per capita GDP of any nation in the world.[5] Burundi has a low gross domestic product largely due to civil wars, corruption, poor access to education, and the effects of HIV/AIDS[citation needed]. Burundi is densely populated, with substantial emigration. Cobalt and copper are among Burundi's natural resources. Some of Burundi's main exports include coffee and sugar.

POLITICS/GOVERNMENT
Its politics takes place in a framework of a transitional presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Burundi is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system.
 Political Landscape after the Civil Wat

The political landscape of Burundi has been dominated in recent years by the civil war and a long peace process and move to democracy. The current President of Burundi is Pierre Nkurunziza, a former rebel leader of the Hutu National Council for the Defense of Democracy-Forces for the Defense of Democracy who was elected unopposed as the new President of Burundi by the parliament on 19 August 2005. Nkurunziza was the first president chosen through democratic means since the start of the civil war in 1993 and was sworn in on 26 August, replacing transitional president Domitien Ndayizeye.

Executive Branch - The president is elected by the people. He nominates two vice-presidents, who form together with the Council of Ministers the executive branch.

Legislative Branch - The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) has 118 members, elected for a five year term by proportional representation with a 2% barrier. The Senate (Sénat) has 49 members, elected for a five year term by electoral colleges of communal councilors. Extra seats in both chambers can be added to ensure that ethnic and gender quotas are met. Burundi has a multi-party system, with two or three strong parties and a third party that is electorally successful. Parties are usually based on ethnic background.

Administrative Divisions -It has 17 provinces: Bubanza, Bujumbura Mairie, Bujumbura, Rural, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi , Rutana and Ruyigi. International Organizations Affiliated with: -It is member of ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO.

FOREIGN POLICY/RELATIONS
Burundi's relations with its neighbours have often been affected by security concerns. Hundreds of thousands of Burundian refugees have at various times crossed to neighboring Rwanda, Tanzania, and theDemocratic Republic of the Congo. Hundreds of thousands of Burundians are in neighboring countries as a result of the ongoing civil war. Most of them, more than 340,000 since 1993, are in Tanzania. Some Burundian rebel groups have used neighboring countries as bases for insurgent activities. The 1993 embargo placed on Burundi by regional states hurt diplomatic relations with its neighbors; relations have improved since the 1999 suspension of these sanctions. Burundi is a member of various international and regional organizations, including the United Nations, the African Union, the African Development Bank and the Francophonie. Burundi is also a member of theInternational Criminal Court with a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the US-military (as covered under Article 98). The Swedish Minister for Integration and Gender Equality, Nyamko Sabuni, was born in Burundi.

 Bilateral Relations

>Rwanda
Burundi and Rwanda dispute sections of border on the Akanyaru/Kanyaru and the Kagera/Nyabarongo rivers, which have changed course since the 1960s, when the boundary was delimited; cross-border conflicts among Tutsi, Hutu, other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces persist in the Great Lakes region.

>USA
Burundi–United States relations are the international relations between Burundi and the United States. Official U.S. Government goals in Burundi are "to help the people of Burundi realize a just and lasting peace based upon democratic principles and sustainable economic development." The United States encourages political stability, ongoing democratic reforms, political openness, respect for human rights, and economic development in Burundi. In the long term, the United States seeks to strengthen the process of internal reconciliation and democratization within all the states of the region to promote a stable, democratic community of nations that will work toward mutual social, economic, and security interests on the continent. The United States supported the Arusha peace process, providing financial support through its assessed contributions to a UN peacekeeping force established in 2004.

UGANDA

BACKGROUND
The Ugandans were hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to 2,300 years ago. These groups brought and developed ironworking skills and new ideas of social and political organization. The Empire of Kitara which covered most of the great lakes area, from Lake Albert, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, to Lake Kyoga. Its leadership headquarters were mainly in what became Ankole, believed to have been run by the Bachwezi in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. They represented the earliest forms of formal organization, followed by the kingdom of BunyoroKitara, and in later centuries, Buganda and Ankole . As several other territories and chiefdoms were integrated, the final protectorate called Uganda took shape in 1914. From 1900 to 1920, a sleeping sickness epidemic killed more than 250,000 people,about two-thirds of the population in the affected lake-shore areas. Uganda gained independence from Britain in 1962, maintaining its Commonwealth membership. The first post-independence election, held in 1962, was won by an alliance between the Uganda People's Congress (UPC) and Kabaka Yekka (KY). UPC and KY formed the first post-independence government with Milton Obote as executive Prime Minister, the Buganda Kabaka (King)Edward Muteesa II holding the largely ceremonial position of President and William Wilberforce Nadiope, the Kyabazinga (paramount chief) of Busoga, as Vice President.

In 1966, following a power struggle between the Obote-led government and King Muteesa, the UPC-dominated Parliament changed the constitution and removed the ceremonial president and vice president. In 1967, a new constitution proclaimed Uganda a republic and abolished the traditional kingdoms. Without first calling elections, Obote was declared the executive President. Obote was deposed from office in 1971 when Idi Amin seized power. Amin ruled the country with the military for the next eight years.Amin's rule cost an estimated 300,000 Ugandans' lives.He forcibly removed the entrepreneurial South Asian minority from Uganda.The Ugandan economy was devastated. Amin's reign was ended after the Uganda-Tanzania War in 1979 in which Tanzanian forces aided by Ugandan exiles invaded Uganda. This led to the return of Obote, who was deposed once more in 1985 by General Tito Okello. Okello ruled for six months until he was deposed after the so called "bush war" by the National Resistance Army (NRA) operating under the leadership of the current president, Yoweri Museveni, and various rebel groups, including the Federal Democratic Movement of Andrew Kayiira, and another belonging to John Nkwaanga. Museveni has been in power since 1986. In the mid to late 1990s, he was lauded by the West as part of a new generation of African leaders.[17] His presidency has included involvement in the civil war in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and other conflicts in the Great Lakes region, as well as the civil war against the Lord's Resistance Army, which has been guilty of numerous crimes against humanity including child slavery and mass murder. Conflict in northern Uganda has killed thousands and displaced millions.

POLITICS/GOVERNMENT
Uganda is a presidential republic, in which the President of Uganda is both head of state and head of government; there is a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative poweris vested in both the government and the National Assembly. The system is based on a democratic parliamentary system with universal suffrage for all citizens over 18 years of age. In a measure ostensibly designed to reduce sectarian violence, political parties were restricted in their activities from 1986. In the non-party "Movement" system instituted by the current president Yoweri Museveni, political parties continued to exist but could not campaign in elections or field candidates directly (although electoral candidates could belong to political parties). A constitutional referendum cancelled this 19-year ban on multi-party politics in July 2005. The presidential elections were held in February 2006. Museveni ran against several candidates, of whom the most prominent was the exiled Dr. Kizza Besigye. Museveni was declared the winner. Besigye alleged fraud, and rejected the result. The Supreme Court of Uganda ruled that the election was marred by intimidation, violence, voter disenfranchisement, and other irregularities. However, the Court voted 4-3 to uphold the results of the election.

Executive Branch -The head of state in Uganda is the President, who is elected by a popular vote to a five-year term. This is currently Yoweri Museveni, who is also the head of the armed forces. The previous presidential elections were in February 2006 and in the election of February 2011 Museveni was elected with 68% of the vote. The cabinet is appointed by the president from among the elected legislators. The prime minister, currentlyApolo Nsibambi, assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet. -The Cabinet of Uganda, according to the Constitution of Uganda, "shall consist of the President, the Vice President and such number of Ministers as may appear to the President to be reasonably necessary for the efficient running of the State. Legislative Branch -The National Assembly has 332 members. 215 members are elected directly via universal adult suffrage - in single-seat constituencies. In addition, each of Uganda's 79 (soon to be 80) districts elects a Woman Representative via a direct vote, and 25 MPs are selected from so-called "special interest" groups via a complicated regional electoral college system. These special interest MPs include ten representatives of the UPDF (Uganda's Armed Forces), 5 youth representatives, 5 representatives of people with disabilities and 5 representing workers. Uganda's Parliamentary elections were held in March 2006, and the next will be contested in 2011.

Judicial Branch -The Ugandan judiciary operates as an independent branch of government and consists of magistrate's courts, high courts, courts of appeal, and the Supreme Court. Judges for the High Court are appointed by the president; Judges for the Court of Appeal are appointed by the president and approved by the legislature. -The Ugandan constitution was adopted on October 8, 1995 by the interim, 284-member Constituent Assembly, charged with debating the draft constitution that had been proposed in May 1993. Uganda's legal system since 1995 has been based on English common law and African customary law (customary law is in effect only when it does not conflict with statutory law). Law enforcement policy is decided by the Police Council, with a special force in charge of suppressing cattle theft. The system accepts compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction, with reservations. International Organizations Affiliated with: -ACP, AfDB, C, EADB, ECA, FAO, G77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, IL O, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OI C, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Ministries of Uganda
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ministry of Justice & Constitutional Affairs Ministry of Public Service Ministry of Finance, Planning, and Economic Development [1] Ministry of Education and Sports Ministry of Local Government Ministry of Health Ministry of Works, Housing and Communications Ministry of Internal Affairs Ministry of Water and Environment Ministry of Gender, Labour & Social Development Ministry of Energy and Minerals Ministry of Defense Ministry of Agriculture, Animal, Husbandry and Fisheries

FOREIGN POLICY/RELATIONS
Uganda is landlocked and depends on foreign imports for most of its consumer goods and energy requirements. Even before independence, maintaining an open trade route to the Indian Ocean was the primary foreign policy objective of all governments. For this reason, once the railroad from Mombasa to Kampala was completed early in the protectorate period, relations with Kenya became the government's most significant foreign concern. During much of the period of British rule, the most worrying foreign issue for politically conscious Ugandans was the possibility that Kenyan white settlers would gain control over all of East Africa. During the 1950s, nationalism gained the upper hand in the four East African territories, the achievement of closer relations among the four also became an important foreign policy objective. Later, however, economic differences eroded initiatives toward federation and eventually led to hostilities between Uganda and Kenya in the 1980s that would have been unimaginable two decades earlier. After independence, political issues erupting into violence within Uganda or its neighbors also caused serious strains in their bilateral relations, frequently involving rebels, refugees, and even military incursions. Because of its former colonial rule, Britain maintained a close and special relationship with Uganda. But over time, this role slowly diminished as Uganda cultivated new links with other industrialized countries. And, despite its protestations of nonalignment, Uganda remained far more closely linked, both economically and politically, to the capitalist than to the socialist bloc.

 AMIN
Ugandan foreign policy objectives changed considerably after Idi Amin's coup d'état in 1971. For the first decade after independence, policymakers had emphasized cooperation with Uganda's neighbors and the superpowers, participation in international organizations, and nonalignment in order to protect the state's sovereignty and support the African bloc as much as possible without losing opportunities for expanding trade or gaining assistance for development. When Amin seized power, he followed a far more aggressive, though unpredictable, foreign policy. Uganda threatened its neighbors both verbally and militarily. The gratuitous verbal attacks that Amin launched on foreign powers served mainly to isolate Uganda.
The NRM government introduced new radical foreign policy objectives when it first came to power and consequently brought new complications into Uganda's foreign relations. At the outset, President Musevenienthusiastically supported international and especially African cooperation but conditioned it on an ideological evaluation of whether or not other regimes were racist, dictatorial, or corrupt, or violated human rights. On this basis, shortly after taking power the government went to great lengths to enter trade agreements with other developing countries based on barter rather than cash, in order to publicize Uganda's autonomy, even though most of its exports continued to consist of coffee purchased by the United States or by European states, and most of its imports came from Europe. In response, Uganda's neighbors were suspicious of Museveni's radical pronouncements and felt that he was attacking their rule through his denunciations of their human rights policies. They also avoided close ties to Uganda because they suspected that the NRM government, having come to power through a guerrilla struggle, might assist dissidents intending to overthrow them. The Ugandan government generally seeks good relations with other nations without reference to ideological orientation. Relations with Rwanda, Congo and Sudan have sometimes been strained because of security concerns. President Yoweri Museveni has been active in attempts to implement a peace agreement with Burundi and has supported peace initiatives in Sudan and Somalia.

 Bilateral Relations
>Democratic Republic of the Congo On December 19, 2005, the International Court of Justice found against Uganda, in a case brought by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, for illegal invasion of its territory, and violation of human rights. A rebel group operating in western Uganda and eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, near the Rwenzori Mountains, the Allied Democratic Forces, emerged as a localized threat in 1996 and inflicted substantial suffering on the population in the area. It has largely been defeated by the UPDF and the areas secured. >Denmark Denmark–Uganda relations are foreign relations between Denmark and Uganda. Denmark has an embassy in Kampala, and Uganda has an embassy in Copenhagen. Diplomatic relations were established on 1 April 1968. On 12 November 1971, Denmark and Uganda signed a treaty on a Danish Government loan to Uganda.Bilateral relations between Denmark and Uganda are described as strong.

>Israel

Ugandas relations with Israel remain uneasily strained due to the 1976 capturing of a French airliner hijacked by the Palestinian Liberation Organization in an airport in the now-famous city.
>Kenya From 1961 to 1965 the two states, along with Tanzania, were united in the East African Common Services Organization, a common market with a loose federal structure.

>Libya
In the past, neighbors were concerned about Uganda's relationship with Libya, which had supplied military equipment and bartered fuel to Uganda. >North Korea In addition to its friendly ties to Western nations, Uganda has maintained ties with North Korea.

>Russia Russia–Uganda relations (Russian: Российско-угандийские отношения) is the bilateral foreign relations between the two countries, Russia and Uganda. Russia has an embassy in Kampalaand Uganda has an embassy in Moscow. The Soviet Union established diplomatic relations with Uganda on October 11-12, 1962. In 1964, the USSR and Uganda signed a trade agreement and an agreement on economic and technical cooperation, which provided for a loan of 14 million rubles to Uganda. >Sudan Uganda's has strained relations with Sudan because of alleged Sudanese support for the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The LRA seeks to overthrow the Uganda government and has inflicted brutal violence on the population in northern Uganda, including rape, kidnapping, torture, and murder. In 2002 Uganda and Sudan reestablished diplomatic ties and signed a protocol permitting the Uganda People's Defence Forces (UPDF) to enter southern Sudan and engage the LRA. The protocol must be renewed periodically, and has lapsed at least twice since it was signed.

>USA Although U.S.-Ugandan relations were strained during the rule of Idi Amin in the 1970s, relations improved after Amin's fall. In mid-1979, the United States reopened its embassy inKampala. Relations with successor governments were cordial, although Obote and his administration rejected strong U.S. criticism of Uganda's human rights situation. Bilateral relations between the United States and Uganda have been good since Museveni assumed power, and the United States has welcomed his efforts to end human rights abuses and to pursue economic reform. Uganda is a strong supporter of the Global War on Terror. The United States is helping Uganda achieve export-led economic growth through the African Growth and Opportunity Act and provides a significant amount of development assistance. At the same time, the United States is concerned about continuing human rights problems and the pace of progress toward the establishment of genuine political pluralism. U.S. development assistance in Uganda has the overall goal of reducing mass poverty. Most U.S. program assistance is focused in the areas of health, education, and agriculture. Both theU.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have major programs to fight the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Other programs promote trade and investment, curb environmental degradation, encourage the peaceful resolution of local and international conflicts, and promote honest and open government. The United States also provides large amounts of humanitarian assistance to populations without access to adequate food supplies because of conflict, drought and other factors. U.S. Peace Corps Volunteers are active in primary teacher training and HIV/AIDS programs. The Department of State carries out cultural exchange programs, brings Fulbright lecturers and researchers to Uganda, and sponsors U.S. study and tour programs for a wide variety of officials from government, non-governmental organizations and the private sector. Through Ambassador's Self-Help Fund, local groups in poor areas receive assistance for small projects with a high level of community involvement. U.S.-Ugandan relations also benefit from significant contributions to health care, nutrition, education, and park systems from U.S. missionaries, non-governmental organizations, private universities, HIV/AIDS researchers, and wildlife organizations. Expatriate Ugandans living in the U.S. also promote stronger links between the two countries. The U.S. maintains an embassy in Kampala, Uganda.

CURRENT ISSUES COMMON TO THE THREE COUNRTRIES
The common current issues between these countries are those pertaining to environmental matters:


Cote D’Ivoire
Deforestation (most of the country's forests - once the largest in West Africa - have been heavily logged); water pollution from sewage and industrial and agricultural effluents.



Burundi
Soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations



Uganda Draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching

Thank you very much...

-Mamintal “MIKO” R. Adiong III

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