Disaster Preparedness & Mitigation

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Disaster Preparedness & Mitigation

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Definition:
Activities designed to minimize loss of
life and damage, to organize the temporary
removal of people and property from a threatened
location &facilitate ,timely &effective rescue,
relief & rehabilitation
National & International agencies
conduct activities like planning,
organization ,training &communicating
,educating the people to provide prompt
and appropriate responses to prevent
&reduce adverse effects.
Ongoing ,multisectoral activity
Integral part of national system &
responsibility
Difference in developed and developing
countries (infrastructure, resources,
management capacity, communication
&logistic problem)

To prevent excess mortality by impact, rescue, relief
, appropriate health care & disruption .
To provide appropriate &timely health care for
casualities,malnutrition & comm. Diseases.
To prevent exposure to adverse climatic &
environmental conditions.
To prevent long term & short term disaster related
morbidities.
Reestablishment of health services to or above the
pre- disaster level.
1. Identify the hazards and estimate their effects.
2. Assess the likely needs –preliminary list, local
capacity, quantify the needs, consider basic needs.
3. Discuss the needs –teams involved in planning process
4. Determine operational procedure & review existing
priorities. --- provide frame work, hazard
prioritization, fundamental policy set out, goals
approve by higher authority, delegation of
responsibility.
5. Assign the responsibility.
6. Make an inventory of local capacity & available
resources.
7 Review steps 2 & 5
8. Identify critical areas-----strengthening &
monitoring plan
9. Confirm priorities ---needs & resources, time

10. Finalize the plan ---easy to read, not rigid, standard
layout
11. Practice the plan – reg.reviewed , updated,
responsible people, identify weakness.
12. Evaluate the plan ---lesson learned & applied
13. Compile an information package –demography,
epidemiology, Geographic Information System (GIS)
1. Treatment of casualties
a) Pre hospital plan : - search &
rescue of victims, first aid at
disaster site (triage)
b) Hospital plan : emergency
plan, training & information
safety of pts &health personnel.
c) Back up system: water, power,
communication, transportation.
2. Identification of bodies
:coordination with FM, protocol
for identification & transport.
3. Epidemiological surveillance &
disease control ---simple data
collection ,warning mechanism
with list of potential illnesses
,special programmes for diseases
4. Basic sanitation & sanitary
Engineering: collaboration with
diff.departments ,contingency
plan
5. Health management in shelters or
temporary settlements---control of
infectious diseases, vaccination of
children, nutrition surveillance
6. Training Health personnel & public
health management ---in service
training ,professional staff,
professional curriculum, research,
officers ongoing information
7. Logistic resources---budget,
networking
8. Simulation exercises—desktop,
field exercise, drills
9. Evacuation :temporary transfer of population
from areas at risk to safer location.
 Organized e.g..
(tropical storm air attack,military action,
industrial accidents)
 Spontaneous e.g..
(floods,drought,chemical &nuclear
accidents)
 Environmental health services : --short travel
time ,clean potable water,excreta solid waste
rest stop & knowledge
 Disaster warning :simple language ,clear exact
nature of message.
 Restore of radio & broad casting



Legislation to develop preparedness
&response plan, routine, simulation
assign financial resources.
Coordination mechanism :health disaster
coordinator -Incharge of preparedness
activities ,
- coordinating plans with
Government ,International agencies, NGOs
&other dept.. water, housing power
,communication
-communication &co
ordination with PAHO, WHO& civil
protection agencies, emergency
preparedness program.


Definition :
These are actions aimed at reducing
or eliminating the impact of future hazard events
by avoiding hazard or strengthening resistance to
it.
 Reduce vulnerability of
the system
e.g. improving & enforcing
building codes
 Reduce magnitude of
hazard.
e.g. diverting flow of
river
Definition:
It is the degree to which population, individual,
or organization is unable to anticipate, cope
with resist & recover from the impact of
disaster .(Blaikie 1994)
 Risk ,threat assessment
 To identify hazard &their possible effects,
capacity to prevent & respond
 Develop strategies
 Emergency prevention mitigation preparedness
measures
 Rapid, relevant emergency response
 Gaps in resources
Assess vulnerability
Prevent/mitigation
Prepare for emergency
Develop policy
Vulnerability reduction
1. Determine aim, objectives, scope& context of
VCA& task.
2. Formation of planning group .
3. Hazard identification &description.
4. A community & environmental description
5. Determining effects– community vulnerability
6. Hazard prioritization
7. Recommendation for action
8. Documentation of results & decision
Identify areas exposed to natural hazards
with help of specialists.
Coordinate the work of multidisplinary teams
in developing design & building codes.
Include disaster mitigation in health sector
Identify the priority hospitals & critical
health facilities -----current building
standards & codes.
Ensure disaster mitigation measures in maintains
plan, structural modification& functional aspects.
Inform & sensitize & train those personnel involved
in planning, administration, operation,
maintenance .
Include disaster mitigation in the curricula of
professional training institution related to
construction, maintenance, administration,
financing & planning health facility
1. Health facilities – loss of life,
hospital functions
 Structural
 Non- structural
 Administrative
/organizational
2.Drinking water supply ,sewage
system.
3. Mitigation to reduce
community vulnerability.
1. Structural vulnerability : part of building
required for support (foundation, columns, beams,
diaphragm &supporting walls )
2. Non-structural vulnerability :
 Joined to building structure: e.g.
window, door, roof
 Building functionality: e. g.
plumbing, air-conditioning, power,
water, communication.
 Items located with in building: e.g.
medical, furniture, mechanical
equipments
3.Administrative &
organizational vulnerability:
 Physical design : external site,
internal , distribution of space,
access route.
 Physical & functional
relationship with diff. sectors
e.g. hiring, maintenance, supply.
 Administrative & operational
facility: disaster management,
simulation exercises




1. Start with low cost measures e.g. Non structural
2. Implement mitigation at National, local level
discussion with all parties (client, owner, finance
officer& technical personnel)
3. Measures 4-8 % of total hospital cost—failure of
systems
 Water supply & sewage system vulnerable
 Outbreak of communicable disease & sanitation
deteriorates. e.g. Mexico city in1985
 Strategies to quickly & effectively restore system
 Hazard analysis by team –focus on operation
maintenance, administration &impact on service.
 Mitigation measures in master plan.
 Measures –retrofitting ,replacement, repair,
Back up equipments relocation of components (rigid
joints, flexible pipes).
1. Reduce risk of communicable diseases.
2. Improve general health status of population
3. Water & sanitation projects organized by self
help basis e.g. community based organization
4. Local emergency planning in disaster
5. Public education
6. Discussion with water vendors
7. Intervention by Government & municipal
authorities in industrial plant contamination
1. Natural disasters protecting public health WHO
publication.
2. Principals of disaster mitigation in health facility
PAHO publication.
3. Environmental health in emergencies & disaster.
4. Text book of PARK
5. Indian journal of public health Jan-march 1992

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