Disaster Preparedness Orientation

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DISASTER PREPAREDNESS ORIENTATION
HCCS AVR; June 8, 2016
   BASIC TERMS AND CONCEPT IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT

 BANTA (HAZARD)
o Ito ay isang delikadong pangyayari na maaaring maging sanhi ng kamatayan,
aksidente, kapansanan sa katawan; pagtigil, pagkawala o pagkasira ng kabuhayan
at mga serbisyo sa publiko; may idudulot itong hindi magandang epekto sa
ekonomiya o sa lipunan; o mga pagkasira sa kalikasan.
 SAKUNA (DISASTER)
o Matinding pagtigil ng komunidad o lipunan. Malawak ang negatibong epekto sa tao,
ari-arian, sa ekonomiya o sa kalikasan na lampas sa abilidad ng komunidad na
labanan ito gamit ang sariling kakayahan.
 KAHINAAN (VULNERABILITY)
Mga katangian o kalagayan ng isang komunidad o sistema na maaring maglagay sa
mga tao, komunidad, kabuhayan o ari arian sa di kanais. Nais na mga kasiraan
dulot ng mga panganib.
KAKAYANAN (CAPACITY)
o Matinding pagtigil ng komunidad o lipunan. Malawak ang negatibong epekto sa tao,
ari-arian, sa ekonomiya o sa kalikasan na lampas sa abilidad ng komunidad na
labanan ito gamit ang sariling kakayahan.
PANGANIB (DANGER)
o Mga tao, kasangkapan, estruktura, sistema, o ano pa mang elemento na nakalugar
sa mga bantang lugar (hazard zones) na maaring pagbuhatan ng posibleng kawalan
o masamang epekto.
PELIGRO (DISASTER RISK)
o Ang posiblen sakuna na magdudulot ng pagkakawala sa buhay, sa kalusugan,
kabuhayan, ari-arian at serbisyo na maaring mangyari sa isang komunidad o
lipunan sa isang panahon sa kinabukasan.
PAG-IWAS (PREVENTION)
o Ang mismong paglihis sa mga di kanais nais na epekto ng mga panganib o ano pa
mang PAGPIGIL (MITIGATION)
o Ang pagbawas o pagpigil ng mga di kanais nais na epekto ng mga banta o ano
mang sakuna.
PAGHAHANDA (PREPAREDNESS)
o Ang pagturo ng kaalaman, pagoorganiza ng komunidad, at paggawa ng mga
sistema upang makalikha ng kapabilidad ang komunidad upang tumugon at
sumalba sa panahon ng sakuna. Malaki rin ang tulong kung kaugnay ang gobyerno
at mga organizasyon sa paghahanda.
TUGON (RESPONSE)
o Paglalaan ng serbisyo sa panahon ng kagipitan o agarang tulong pampubliko sa
panahon ng pangyayari o mismong pakatapos ng sakuna para makapagsalba ng
buhay, bawasan ang ipekto sa kalusugan, seguraduhing ligtas ang publiko at
harapin ang mga payak na pangangailangan ng naapektuhang tao.
BAWI (RECOVERY)
o Ang pagpapanumbalik at pagpapatibay kung saan kailangan ng mga pasilidad,
kabuhayan at kondisyon ng tirahan ng apektadong komunidad kasama na ang
ginagawang pamamaraan para bawasan ang mga dahilan ng peligro sa sakuna.
NAGBABAGONG KLIMA (CLIMATE CHANGE)
o Ang pagbabago sa klima na nakikita ang sanhi ay ang mga ginagawa ng mga tao na
nakakaapekto sa himpapawid (global atmosphere) na dumadagdag sa natural na
pagbabago ng klima na nakikita natin sa pagkumpara sa iba’t ibang panahon.
KATATAGAN (RESILIENCY)
o Ang kakayahan ng sistema, komunidad at lipunan na nakalantad sa mga banta
para malabanan , maranasan at makapanumbalik at makabawi mula mula sa mga
epekto ng banta at sakna ng napapanahon at ng may laayusan at mahusay na
pamamaraan.
DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT
o Isang pamamaraang systematiko na gumagamit ng administratibong direktiba,
organizasyon, at maayos ng mga kakayahan para maisakatuparan ang mga
stratehiya, polisiya at naipayabong na mga kakayahang umahon para mabawasan
ang mga negatibong epekto ng mga banta at sakuna
o





















 DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
o Sistematikong pag aanalisa at pangangasiwa sa mga ugat ng mga panganib.
Ginagawa ang mga ito bago magkaroon ng sakuna para mabawasan ang pinsalang
dulot nito.

   EXAMPLES OF HAZARDS

THYPOON AND FLOOD








TYHPOON/TROPICAL CYCLONES
An extremely large, powerful and destructive storm wherein massive count of rainfall and
strong winds occur.
STORM SURGE
A coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low
pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones),
the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body
relative to storm path, and the timing of tides.
PUBLIC STORM WARNING SIGNALS
The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services
Administration (PAGASA) releases tropical cyclone warnings in the form of Public Storm
Warning Signals. An area having a storm signal may be under:
PSWS #1
winds of 30–61 km/h (20-38 mph) are expected to occur within
36 hours
PSWS #2
winds of 61–120 km/h (38–73 mph) are expected to occur within
24 hours
PSWS #3
winds of 121-–170 km/h, (74–105 mph) are expected to occur
within 18 hours.
PSWS #4
winds of 171–220 km/h, (106–137 mph) are expected to occur
FLOOD within 12 hours.
an
PSWS #5
of a
winds of at least 220 km/h, (137 mph) are expected to occur
of
within 12 hours.

overflowing
large amount
water
beyond

normal, especially over what is normally dry land
WHAT














TO DO IN CASE OF THYPOON AND FLOOD
Stay indoors and keep calm.
Monitor TV and radio reports.
Secure your home.
Trim trees dwellings.
Keep roads clear for emergency.
If your house is in a flood-prone areas, go to the nearest designated evacuation area.
Stock up on food, potable water, kerosene, batteries and first aid supplies.
In case of flooding, turn off the main sources of electricity, gas and water in your home.
Stack furniture above the expected flood level. Keep appliances, valuables, chemicals,
toxic substances and garbage beyond reach of floodwaters.
Avoid low-lying areas, riverbanks, creeks and coastal areas, slopes, cliffs and foothills.
Rains can trigger landslides, rockslides or mudslides.
Avoid wading through flooded areas. Do not attempt to cross flowing streams.
Do not operate any electrical equipment during a flood.
Do not use gas or electrical appliances that have been flooded.

FIRE



The rapid oxidation of matters accompanied by a release of energy in a form of heat.
Elements of Fire
• Oxygen







Fuel
Heat
Chemical Reaction

TYPES OF FIRE



COMMON CAUSES OF FIRE
 Electrical
 Open Flame
 Lighted matchstick or lighter
 Smoking
 Arson (Panununog)
 Flammable liquids
 Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG)
 Fireworks



METHODS OF EXTINGUISHING FIRE
 Cooling down the heat
 Excluding Oxygen
 Removing the fuel
 Inhibition of Chain Reaction



HOW TO USE A FIRE EXTINGUISHER
Even though extinguishers come in a number of shapes and sizes, they all operate
in a similar manner. Here’s an easy acronym for fire extinguisher use: PASS (Pull
the pin, Aim the nozzle at the end of the fire, Squeeze the lever, Sweep from side to
side covering the area of the fire)



TIPS ON FIRE SAFETY
 Stop: Don't run. Running feeds oxygen to the fire and makes it worse.
Drop: Instead, drop immediately to the floor.
Roll: Cover your face with your hands and roll over and over to smother the
flames.
Naturally, many people, especially children, panic when their clothing
catches fire. Be prepared to tackle them if necessary and to help them
follow these steps.
 Call for help immediately. Phone the Fire Department (Call 117) at once. Be
sure to give the exact address.
 If the fire is beyond control, warn the family and go to the nearest and safest
exit. Do not attempt to save your belongings, you might get trapped inside
the burning house. Your life is more important than your things.
 If fire starts in any electrical wire or device inside the house, cut-off the
current first whenever possible at the switch or at the plug.
 Do not jump from upper storey, except as a last recourse.
 It is always dangerous to remain in a burning building. Fires often spread
rapidly and cut-off escape and are likely to generate poisonous gases.
 If you are trapped inside the burning building, do not open a door that feel
warm. Superheated air might quickly kill you. Try to get out some other way.
 Stuff clothes in the cracks under and around the door to keep out smoke and
gases. Open windows, break it if necessary and shout for help.
 If there is dense smoke but no flame, crawl and if possible, get a wet towel
and wrap it around yourself. Cover your nose and mouth with damp cloth.
 If there is a panic rush for the main exit, keep out of the crowd and attempt
to find some other means of escape. Above all, keep calm.
 A temporary refuge may be behind any door. Even a thin, wooden door will
temporary stop smoke and hot gases and may not burn through for several
minutes.





When forced to remain in a smoke-filled building, remember that the air is
usually better near the floor. If you must make a dash through smoke or
flame, hold your breath.
If you are cut-off upstairs, make a rope out of beddings or clothing. You can
utilize porch and garage roofs or trees to get to the ground.

EARTHQUAKE










A weak to violent shaking of the ground produced by the sudden movement of rock
materials below the earth’s surface.
Two types of earthquake:
Tectonic
- earthquakes produced by sudden movement along faults and plate boundaries
Volcanic
- earthquakes produced by movement of magma beneath volcanoes

INTENSITY vs. MAGNITUDE
INTENSITY
perceived strength of an earthquake based on relative effect to people and
structures; generally higher near the epicenter.
MAGNITUDE
based on instrumentally derived information and correlates strength with the
amount of total energy released at the earthquake’s point of origin
SEISMIC HAZARDS
 Ground shaking
the disruptive up and down and sideways motion experienced during an
earthquake
 Ground rupture and fissuring
creation of new or the renewed movements of old fractures, oftentimes with
the two blocks on both sides moving in opposite directions
 Ground Failure
 Liquefaction
o a process that transforms thebehavior of a body of sediment
from that of a solid to that of a liquid
 Landslides
 Tsunami
“Giant harbour waves”
WHAT TO BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER EARTHQUAKE?
 BEFORE
 Determine if site is along an active fault and/or prone to liquefaction or
landslide.
 Use proper structural design and engineering practice when
constructing a house or building.
 Evaluate structural soundness of buildings and important
infrastructures; strengthen or retrofit if found necessary.
 Determine if site is along an active fault and/or prone to liquefaction or
landslide.
 Use proper structural design and engineering practice when
constructing a house or building.
 Evaluate structural soundness of buildings and important
infrastructures; strengthen or retrofit if found necessary.
 Strap heavy furniture to walls to prevent sliding or toppling.
 Store breakable items, harmful chemicals and flammable materials in
lower most shelves and secure firmly.
 Turn off gas tanks when not in use.
 Keep heavy materials in lower shelves.
 Check stability of hanging objects.
 Maintain an earthquake survival kit.
 DURING
 Protect your body from falling debris by bracing yourself in a doorway
or by getting under a sturdy desk or table.
 Get away from power lines, posts, walls and other structures that may
fall or collapse.







Stay away from buildings with glass panes.
Run away from the shore toward higher ground
If on a mountain, or near a steep hill slope, move away from steep
escarpments which may be affected by landslides
Do not attempt to cross bridges or overpasses which may have been
damaged.

AFTER
 Get out calmly in an orderly manner. Do not rush to the exit.
 Use the stairs. Do not use elevators.
 Check yourself and others for injuries
 Clean up chemical spills, toxic flammable materials to avoid any chain
of unwanted events.
 Check for fire and if any, have it controlled.
 Check water and electrical lines for defects. If any damage is
suspected, turn the system off in the main valve or switch.
 Take with you your earthquake survival kit, which should contain all
necessary items for your protection and comfort.
 Don’t enter partially damaged building, strong aftershocks may cause
these to collapse.
 Gather information and disaster prevention instruction from batteryoperated radios.
 Obey public safety precautions.
 Do not use your telephone to call relatives and friends. Disaster
prevention authorities may need the lines for emergency
communications
 Do not use your car and drive around areas of damage. Rescue and
relief operations need the road for mobility.

TSUNAMI







Japanese term “tsu” and “nami” which means “harbour wave”.
also known as a seismic sea wave or as a tidal wave, is a series of waves in a
water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an
ocean or a large lake.
Can be generated by earthquakes , volcanic eruptions and other underwater
explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), landslides, glacier
calvings, meteorite impacts and other disturbances above or below water .
Tsunami threat in the Philippines
 Local Tsunamia tsunami from a nearby source, generally less than 200 km away.
 Regional Tsunamia tsunami capable of destruction in a particular geographic region,generally
within about 1000 km of its source.
 Trans-Pacific Tsunamia tsunami capable of widespread destruction not only in the immediate
region of its generation, but across the entire Pacific Ocean.
TSUNAMI SAFETY RULES
 All earthquakes do not cause tsunami, but many do. When you hear that an
earthquake has occurred, stand by for a tsunami emergency.
 An earthquake in your area is a natural tsunami warning. Do not stay in lowlying coastal areas after a strong earthquake has been felt.
 A tsunami is not a single wave, but a series of waves. Stay out of danger
areas until an "all-clear" is issued by competent authority.
 Approaching tsunami are sometimes preceded by a noticeable rise or fall of
coastal water. This is nature's tsunami warning and should be heeded.
 Small tsunami at one point on the shore can be extremely large a few miles
away. Don't let the modest size of one make you lose respect
for all.
 All tsunami like hurricanes or cyclones are potentially dangerous, even
though they may not damage every coastline they strike.
 Never go down to the shore to watch for a tsunami. When you can see the
wave you are too close to escape it. Never try to surf a tsunami; tsunami do
not curl or break like surfing waves.







During a tsunami emergency, your local civil defense, police, and other
emergency organizations will try to save your life. Give them your fullest
cooperation.
The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center does not issue false alarms. When a
Warning is issued, a tsunami
exists.
Sooner or later, tsunami visit every coastline in the Pacific. Warnings apply to
you if you live in any Pacific coastal area. Destructive tsunami have also
struck coast in the Atlantic, Caribbean, Mediterranean, and the Indian Ocean.

SCHOOL DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND
MANAGEMENT COUNCIL (SDRRMC)


RATIONALE
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 10121
Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010 (DRRM Act)
An act strengthening the Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management System,
providing for the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Framework and
institutionalizing the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan,
appropriating funds therefore and other purposes.



OBJECTIVES
Prevention and Mitigation
To implement activities and strategies to prevent and minimize the adverse effects of
disaster-causing phenomena to the HCCS.

Preparedness
To develope plans, allocate resources, and establish procedures for an effi cient and
effective implementation of the plans to save lives and prevent further damage to HCCS
students, personnels and properties in the event of a disaster.
Emergency Response
To devise efficient and effective ways of translating into action what are called for by the
preparedness plans of HCCS.
Recovery (Rehabilitation and Reconstruction)
To decide and act with the end view of restoring or improving the pre-disaster living
conditions of the affected HCCS’ students and personnels and encouraging, facilitating the
necessary adjustments to reduce disaster risks and vulnerabilities.


FET DRILL (Fire, Earthquake and Tsunami Drill)
• STAGE 1 – Planning
• STAGE 2 - Development of Evacuation Plan
• STAGE 3 - Orientation Prior to the Conduct of the Drill
• STAGE 4 - Actual Conduct of the Drill
EARTHQUAKE DRILL
PHASE 1 : Alarm
Continuous ringing of siren/bell for one minute which means on-going earthquake.
PHASE 2 : Response
Stay where you are unless danger is noticeable. Move to a safer place with caution.
While the alarm is on-going, everyone should perform “DUCK, COVER and HOLD”
until the siren/bell stops.
PHASE 3 : Evacuation
After the alarm/siren stops (meaning the shaking stops) drill participants should
then start to evacuate the building.
The evacuees proceed through predetermined routes and evacuees should then
gather outside in a designated evacuation area.
PHASE 3 : Evacuation
After the alarm/siren stops (meaning the shaking stops) drill participants should
then start to evacuate the building.
The evacuees proceed through predetermined routes and evacuees should then
gather outside in a designated evacuation area.
PHASE 5 : Headcount
Advisers should check and make sure all participants are present and accounted for.
An assigned leader will report to the adviser.
PHASE 6 : Evaluation

The Chairman will announce the termination of drill or “ALL CLEAR”.
An evaluation of the drill must be done to identify the problems encountered during
the drill and how can these be improved in future drills.
FIRE DRILL

When the bell rang, the occupants of the affected
building will evacuate first. Occupants of other unaffected building will
follow.

The same procedure will be done from phase 3-6 of the
earthquake drill.

For the drill to terminate, “Fire Out”
TSUNAMI DRILL
• Phases 1-6 of the earthquake drill will be done.
• If a Tsunami Alert Warning was given, an alarm will be activated and all
evacuees will proceed and occupy the 3rd floor and above of a certain
building.
• Evacuees must stay close together.
REMINDERS:
• Please teach the drill to your pupils/students RELIGIOUSLY.
• Please prepare the following: First aid kit (per class), personal flashlight and whistle (both
teachers and students)
• Dates to remember: June 21, 2016; 9:00 am - FET DRILL DRY-RUN
June 22, 2016; 9:00 am - ACTUAL FET DRILL
(Pupils/students will be wearing their PE Uniforms)
• WE ARE EXPECTING FOR YOUR 100% COOPERATION. =)
“BASTA LAGING HANDA, WALANG PUWANG ANG SAKUNA.”
“BE AWARE, BE PREPARED AND BE SAFE.”

HCCS’ Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council

2016-17

EVACUATION AREA PLAN 2016-17

EVACUATION AREA FLOW (BUILDING TOP-VIEW
EVACUATION AREA FLOW (AREA PLAN)

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