Effective Advertisment Media

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Chapter: 1
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Advertising, generally speaking, is the promotion o goo!s, ser"i#es,
#ompanies an! i!eas, $s$ally perorme! %y an i!entiie! sponsor& Marketers
see a!"ertising as part o an o"erall promotional strategy& 'ther #omponents o
the promotional mi( in#l$!e p$%li#ity, p$%li# relations, personal selling, an!
sales promotion&
A!"ertising in"ol"es the pro#ess )here in a massage is !esigne! so as to
promote a pro!$#t, a tho$ght, an i!ea or e"en a ser"i#e& The #on#ept o
a!"ertising has ass$me! a !ynami# orm )ith the $se o the "ario$s me!i$ms
o #omm$ni#ation& *rom the ne)spaper, maga+ines, posters, neon an!
l$ores#ent sign%oar!s, %ill%oar!s to the #ommer#ial on TV, laser sho)s to
inlate! high,rise ig$res an! o%-e#ts, a!"ertising has #ome a long )ay& The
)ork is ormi!a%le as it spearhea!s a pro#ess inten!e! to attra#t, mo!iy,
#hange an! inl$en#es p$%li# opinion&
*rom the lo#al %$siness to m$ltinational irm an! all nee! to a!"ertise&
.hile politi#ians, so#ial organi+ations, go"ernment spe#ial gro$ps nee! to
a!"ertise their motto, national airlines, a$to mo%ile man$a#t$res, oo! an!
#ons$mer goo!s man$a#t$rers ha"e to rea#h the #ons$mer& Spe#ialist pro!$#ts
an! ser"i#es are oten a!"ertise! thro$gh tra!e maga+ines an! e(hi%itions&
/ately mail,shots, han!%ill #ir#$lation, spe#ial oers ha"e %e#ome "ery
pop$lar& There are still other )ays o a!"ertising& There are )in!o) !isplays,
!isplay on telephone !ire#tories, transit sign on %$ses, lamp posters, %anners,
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et#& A!"ertising thro$gh the ele#troni# me!ia has %een perhaps the most
pop$lar me!i$m&
A!"ertising, as an ee#ti"e me!i$m, $ses a "ariety o te#hni1$es to
#reate ee#ti"e a!"ertisements& A %asi# appeal is at the heart o a!"ertising&
Slogans an! pro!$#t #hara#ters are #reate! to #at#h the attention o the
"ie)ers& Most )inning a!"ertisements )o$l! en#ompass a#t$al inormation
)ith emotional appeal& The a!"ertising in!$stry has three maor se!tors&
• 2$siness or organi+ation )hi#h )ishes to a!"ertise,
• Me!ia )hi#h pro"i!es the me!i$m or a!"ertising an!
• A!,agen#y )hi#h #reates the a! to s$it the nee! o the irm&
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Chapter: "
I#TR$%UCTI$#
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I#TR$%UCTI$#
Advertising
• Advertising is the promotion o a #ompany5s pro!$#ts an! ser"i#es
#arrie! o$t primarily to !ri"e sales o the pro!$#ts an! ser"i#es %$t also
to %$il! a %ran! i!entity an! #omm$ni#ate #hanges or ne) pro!$#t
6ser"i#es to the #$stomers& A!"ertising has %e#ome an essential element
o the #orporate )orl! an! hen#e the #ompanies allot a #onsi!era%le
amo$nt o re"en$es as their a!"ertising %$!get& There are se"eral
reasons or a!"ertising some o )hi#h are as ollo)s7
• In#reasing the sales o the pro!$#t6ser"i#e
• Creating an! maintaining a %ran! i!entity or %ran! image&
• Comm$ni#ating a #hange in the e(isting pro!$#t line&
• Intro!$#tion o a ne) pro!$#t or ser"i#e&
• In#reasing the %$++,"al$e o the %ran! or the #ompany&
Th$s, se"eral reasons or a!"ertising an! similarly there e(ist "ario$s me!ia
)hi#h #an %e ee#ti"ely $se! or a!"ertising& 2ase! on these #riteria there #an
%e se"eral %ran#hes o a!"ertising& Mentione! %elo) are the "ario$s #ategories
or t&pes o' advertising:
(rint Advertising ) #e*spapers+ Maga,ines+ -ro!h.res+ /liers
The print me!ia ha"e al)ays %een a pop$lar a!"ertising me!i$m& A!"ertising
pro!$#ts "ia ne)spapers or maga+ines is a #ommon pra#ti#e& In a!!ition to
this, the print me!ia also oers options like promotional %ro#h$res an! liers
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or a!"ertising p$rposes& 'ten the ne)spapers an! the maga+ines sell the
a!"ertising spa#e a##or!ing to the area o##$pie! %y the a!"ertisement, the
position o the a!"ertisement 9ront page6mi!!le page:, as )ell as the
rea!ership o the p$%li#ations& *or instan#e an a!"ertisement in a relati"ely
ne) an! less pop$lar ne)spaper )o$l! #ost ar less than pla#ing an
a!"ertisement in a pop$lar ne)spaper )ith a high rea!ership& The pri#e o
print a!s also !epen! on the s$pplement in )hi#h they appear, or e(ample an
a!"ertisement in the glossy s$pplement #osts )ay higher than that in the
ne)spaper s$pplement )hi#h $ses a me!io#re 1$ality paper
$.tdoor Advertising ) -ill0oards+ 1ios2s+ Tradesho*s and Events
'$t!oor a!"ertising is also a "ery pop$lar orm o a!"ertising, )hi#h makes
$se o se"eral tools an! te#hni1$es to attra#t the #$stomers o$t!oors& The most
#ommon e(amples o o$t!oor a!"ertising are %ill%oar!s, kiosks, an! also
se"eral e"ents an! tra!esho)s organi+e! %y the #ompany& The %ill%oar!
a!"ertising is "ery pop$lar ho)e"er has to %e really terse an! #at#hy in or!er
to gra% the attention o the passers %y& The kiosks not only pro"i!e an easy
o$tlet or the #ompany pro!$#ts %$t also make or an ee#ti"e a!"ertising tool
to promote the #ompany5s pro!$#ts& 'rgani+ing se"eral e"ents or sponsoring
them makes or an e(#ellent a!"ertising opport$nity& The #ompany #an
organi+e tra!e airs, or e"en e(hi%itions or a!"ertising their pro!$#ts& I not
this, the #ompany #an organi+e se"eral e"ents that are #losely asso#iate! )ith
their iel!& *or instan#e a #ompany that man$a#t$res sports $tilities #an
sponsor a sports to$rnament to a!"ertise its pro!$#ts&
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-road!ast advertising ) Television+ Radio and the Internet
2roa!#ast a!"ertising is a "ery pop$lar a!"ertising me!i$m that #onstit$tes o
se"eral %ran#hes like tele"ision, ra!io or the Internet& Tele"ision
a!"ertisements ha"e %een "ery pop$lar e"er sin#e they ha"e %een intro!$#e!&
The #ost o tele"ision a!"ertising oten !epen!s on the !$ration o the
a!"ertisement, the time o %roa!#ast 9prime time6peak time:, an! o #o$rse the
pop$larity o the tele"ision #hannel on )hi#h the a!"ertisement is going to %e
%roa!#aste!& The ra!io might ha"e lost its #harm o)ing to the ne) age me!ia
ho)e"er the ra!io remains to %e the #hoi#e o small,s#ale a!"ertisers& The
ra!io -ingles ha"e %een "ery pop$lar a!"ertising me!ia an! ha"e a large impa#t
on the a$!ien#e, )hi#h is e"i!ent in the a#t that many people still remem%er
an! en-oy the pop$lar ra!io -ingles&
Covert Advertising ) Advertising in Movies
Co"ert a!"ertising is a $ni1$e kin! o a!"ertising in )hi#h a pro!$#t or a
parti#$lar %ran! is in#orporate! in some entertainment an! me!ia #hannels like
mo"ies, tele"ision sho)s or e"en sports& There is no #ommer#ial in the
entertainment %$t the %ran! or the pro!$#t is s$%tly9 or sometimes e"i!ently:
sho)#ase! in the entertainment sho)& Some o the amo$s e(amples or this
sort o a!"ertising ha"e to %e the appearan#e o %ran! Nokia )hi#h is !isplaye!
on Tom Cr$ise5s phone in the mo"ie Minority Report, or the $se o Cadillac
#ars in the mo"ie Matrix Reloaded&
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S.rrogate Advertising ) Advertising Indire!tl&
S$rrogate a!"ertising is prominently seen in #ases )here a!"ertising a
parti#$lar pro!$#t is %anne! %y la)& A!"ertisement or pro!$#ts like #igarettes
or al#ohol )hi#h are in-$rio$s to heath are prohi%ite! %y la) in se"eral
#o$ntries an! hen#e these #ompanies ha"e to #ome $p )ith se"eral other
pro!$#ts that might ha"e the same %ran! name an! in!ire#tly remin! people o
the #igarettes or %eer %ottles o the same %ran!& Common e(amples in#l$!e
*osters an! =ingisher %eer %ran!s, )hi#h are oten seen to promote their
%ran! )ith the help o s$rrogate a!"ertising&
(.0li! Servi!e Advertising ) Advertising 'or So!ial Ca.ses
P$%li# ser"i#e a!"ertising is a te#hni1$e that makes $se o a!"ertising as an
ee#ti"e #omm$ni#ation me!i$m to #on"ey so#ially rele"ant message! a%o$t
important matters an! so#ial )elare #a$ses like AI>S, energy #onser"ation,
politi#al integrity, !eorestation, illitera#y, po"erty an! so on& >a"i! 'gli"y
)ho is #onsi!ere! to %e one o the pioneers o a!"ertising an! marketing
#on#epts ha! reporte!ly en#o$rage! the $se o a!"ertising iel! or a so#ial
#a$se& 'gli"y on#e sai!, "Advertising justifies its existence when used in the
public interest - it is uch too powerful a tool to use solely for coercial
purposes!"& To!ay p$%li# ser"i#e a!"ertising has %een in#reasingly $se! in a
non,#ommer#ial ashion in se"eral #o$ntries a#ross the )orl! in or!er to
promote "ario$s so#ial #a$ses& In USA, the ra!io an! tele"ision stations are
grante! on the %asis o a i(e! amo$nt o P$%li# ser"i#e a!"ertisements aire!
%y the #hannel&
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Cele0rit& Advertising
Altho$gh the a$!ien#e is getting smarter an! smarter an! the mo!ern !ay
#ons$mer getting imm$ne to the e(aggerate! #laims ma!e in a ma-ority o
a!"ertisements, there e(ist a se#tion o a!"ertisers that still %ank $pon
#ele%rities an! their pop$larity or a!"ertising their pro!$#ts& Using #ele%rities
or a!"ertising in"ol"es signing $p #ele%rities or a!"ertising #ampaigns,
)hi#h #onsist o all sorts o a!"ertising in#l$!ing, tele"ision a!s or e"en print
a!"ertisements&
personal selling
Introd.!tion
Personal selling #an %e !eine! as ollo)s7
"ersonal selling is oral counication with potential buyers of a product with
the intention of aking a sale! #he personal selling ay focus initially on
developing a relationship with the potential buyer$ but will always ultiately
end with an attept to "close the sale"
Personal selling is one o the ol!est orms o promotion&
It in"ol"es the $se o a sales 'or!e to s$pport a p.sh strateg& 9en#o$raging
interme!iaries to %$y the pro!$#t:
or a p.ll strateg& 9)here the role o the sales or#e may %e limite! to
s$pporting retailers an! pro"i!ing ater,sales ser"i#e:&
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3hat are the main roles o' the sales 'or!e4
=otler !es#ri%es si( main a#ti"ities o a sales or#e7
516 (rospe!ting , trying to in! ne) #$stomers
5"6 Comm.ni!ating , )ith e(isting an! potential #$stomers a%o$t the pro!$#t
range
576 Selling , #onta#t )ith the #$stomer, ans)ering 1$estions an! trying to #lose
the sale
586 Servi!ing , pro"i!ing s$pport an! ser"i#e to the #$stomer in the perio! $p
to !eli"ery an! also post,sale
596 In'ormation gathering , o%taining inormation a%o$t the market to
ee!%a#k into the marketing planning pro#ess
5:6 Allo!ating , in times o pro!$#t shortage, the sales or#e may ha"e the
po)er to !e#i!e ho) a"aila%le sto#ks are allo#ate!
3hat are the advantages o' .sing personal selling as a means o'
promotion4
A Personal selling is a a#e,to,a#e a#ti"ityB #$stomers thereore o%tain a
relati"ely high !egree o personal attention
A The sales message #an %e #$stomise! to meet the nee!s o the #$stomer
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A The t)o,)ay nat$re o the sales pro#ess allo)s the sales team to respon!
!ire#tly an! promptly to #$stomer 1$estions an! #on#erns
A Personal selling is a goo! )ay o getting a#ross large amo$nts o te#hni#al or
other #omple( pro!$#t inormation
A The a#e,to,a#e sales meeting gi"es the sales or#e #han#e to !emonstrate
the pro!$#t
A *re1$ent meetings %et)een sales or#e an! #$stomer pro"i!e an opport$nity
to %$il! goo! long,term relationships
Di"en that there are many a!"antages to personal selling, )hy !o more
%$sinesses not maintain a !ire#t sales or#eE
Main disadvantages o' .sing personal selling
The main !isa!"antage o personal selling is the #ost o employing a sales
or#e& Sales people are e(pensi"e& In a!!ition to the %asi# pay pa#kage, a
%$siness nee!s to pro"i!e in#enti"es to a#hie"e sales 9typi#ally this is %ase! on
#ommission an!6or %on$s arrangements: an! the e1$ipment to make sales #alls
9#ar, tra"el an! s$%sisten#e #osts, mo%ile phone et#:&
In a!!ition, a sales person #an only #all on one #$stomer at a time& This is not a
#ost,ee#ti"e )ay o rea#hing a large a$!ien#e&
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Chapter: 7
;iterat.re S.rve&
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Impa!t o' te!hnolog& on advertising
In the mi! [email protected], the arri"al o !esktop p$%lishing an! the intro!$#tion
o sot)are appli#ations intro!$#e! a generation o !esigners to #omp$ter
image manip$lation an! 4> image #reation that ha! pre"io$sly %een
$na#hie"a%le& Comp$ter graphi# !esign ena%le! !esigners to instantly see the
ee#ts o layo$t or typography #hanges )itho$t $sing any ink in the pro#ess&
Comp$ters are no) #onsi!ere! to %e an in!ispensa%le tool $se! in the
a!"ertising an! graphi# !esign in!$stry& Comp$ters an! sot)are appli#ations
are generally seen, %y #reati"e proessionals, as more ee#ti"e pro!$#tion tools
than the tra!itional metho!s&
Comp$ters may or may not enhan#e the #reati"e pro#ess o graphi#
!esign, !epen!ing on )hi#h pro#ess %est stim$lates the #reati"ity o the
!esigner& Rapi! pro!$#tion rom the #omp$ter allo)s many !esigners to
e(plore m$ltiple i!eas 1$i#kly )ith more !etail than )hat #o$l! %e a#hie"e!
%y tra!itional han!,ren!ering or paste,$p on paper, mo"ing the !esigner
thro$gh the #reati"e pro#ess more 1$i#kly& Fe) i!eas may #ome in the orm o
e(ploring so't*are 'eat.res that )o$l! not ha"e %een #onsi!ere! )itho$t the
sot)are& Go)e"er, some proessional !esigners may e(plore i!eas on paper to
a"oi! #reating )ithin the limits o the #omp$ter #onig$ration, ena%ling them
to think o$tsi!e the %o(B the %o( %eing the #omp$ter& Some #reati"e graphi#
!esign i!eas are initiate! an! !e"elope! to near #ompletion in the min!, %eore
either tra!itional metho!s or the #omp$ter is $se!&
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A graphi# !esigner may also $se sket#hes to e(plore m$ltiple or #omple(
i!eas 1$i#kly )itho$t the potential !istra#tions o te#hni#al !ii#$lties rom
sot)are mal$n#tions or sot)are learning& Gan! ren!ere! #omps may %e $se!
to get appro"al o a graphi# !esign i!ea %eore in"esting )hat )o$l! %e too
m$#h time to pro!$#e on a #omp$ter i re-e#te!& Th.m0nail s2et!hes or ro$gh
!rats on paper may then %e $se! to rapi!ly reine an! pro!$#e the i!ea on the
#omp$ter in a hy%ri! pro#ess& The tra!itional,!esign6#omp$ter,pro!$#tion
hy%ri! pro#ess may %e $se! or reeing ones #reati"ity in page layo$t or image
!e"elopment as )ell& Tra!itional graphi# !esigners may employ #omp$ter,
sa""y pro!$#tion artists to pro!$#e their i!eas rom sket#hes, )itho$t nee!ing
to learn the #omp$ter skills themsel"es&
The $se o #omp$ters in !esign is sometimes reerre! to as CA%
9#omp$ter ai!e! !esign:, the same a%%re"iation o #omp$ter ai!e! !rating an!
a homophone o the a#ronym Comp$ter Ai!e! >esign H >rating 9CA>>:
)hi#h is the $se o #omp$ters in engineering !esigns or me#hani#al pro!$#ts
an! asso#iate! )ith #omp$ter ai!e! pro!$#tion o these pro!$#ts kno)n as
CAM 9Comp$ter Ai!e! Man$a#t$ring:& This makes no !istin#tion %et)een
graphi# !esign an! te#hni#al !ra)ing& >$e to this #ommon mis$n!erstan!ing,
CA> is rarely $se! to !es#ri%e #omp$ter $se in graphi# !esign& The more
#ommon term $se! to !es#ri%e #omp$ter $se in graphi# !esign is >TP 9!esktop
p$%lishing:& Go)e"er, >TP is oten o"ersimpliie! to the narro)er s#ope o
graphi# !esign kno)n as page layo$t an! p$%lishing te#hnology&
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E''e!t o' Advertisement on Cons.mers
MET<$%S $/ MEASURI#= A%VERTISI#= E//ECTIVE#ESS
A!"ertising is aime! at impro"ing the sales "ol$me o a #on#ern so its
ee#ti"eness #an %e e"al$ate! %y its impa#t on sales& Most o the managers
%elie"e that the a!"ertisement !ire#tly ae#ts the sales "ol$me an! hen#e they
e"al$ate the ee#ti"eness o the a!"ertising #ampaign %y the in#rease in the
sales "ol$me&
There may %e t)o types meas$res
9i: >ire#t meas$res7 an!
9ii: In!ire#t meas$res7,
516 %ire!t Meas.res o' Advertising E''e!tiveness
Un!er !ire#t meas$res, a relationship %et)een a!"ertising an! sales is
esta%lishe!& A #omparison o sales o t)o perio!s or t)o perio!s or t)o
markets may %e !one an! the #orrespon!ing #hanges may %e note!& The
ollo)ing are some o the metho!s that are generally $se! in meas$ring that
a!"ertising ee#ts&
5a6 <istori!al Sales Method
Some insights into the ee#ti"eness o past a!"ertising may %e o%taine!
%y meas$ring the relationship %et)een the a!"ertising e(pen!it$re an! the total
sales o the pro!$#t& A m$ltiple regression analysis o a!"ertising e(pen!it$re
an! sales o"er se"eral time perio!s may %e #al#$late!& It )o$l! sho) ho) the
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#hanges in a!"ertising e(pen!it$re ha"e #orrespon!ing #hanges in sales
"ol$me& This te#hni1$e estimates the #ontri%$tion that a!"ertising has ma!e to
e(plaining in a #o relational manner rather than a #as$al sales, the "ariation in
sales o"er the time perio!s #o"ere! in the st$!y
506 E>perimental Control
The other meas$re o a!"ertising ee#ti"eness is the metho! o
e(perimental #ontrol )here a #as$al relationship %et)een a!"ertising an! sales
is esta%lishe!& This metho! is 1$ite e(pensi"e )hen relate! to other a!"ertising
ee#ti"eness meas$res yet it is possi%le to isolate a!"ertising #ontri%$tion to
sales& Moreo"er this #an %e !one as a pre,test to ai! a!"ertising in #hoosing
%et)een alternati"e #reati"e !esigns& Me!ia s#he!$les e(pen!it$re le"els or
some #om%ination o these a!"ertising !e#ision areas& 'ne e(perimental
approa#h to meas$ring the sales ee#ti"eness o a!"ertising is test marketing&
5i6 -e'ore?a'ter *ith Control =ro.p %esign
This #lassi# !esign $ses se"eral test an! #ontrol #ities in this !esign t)o
types o #ities are sele#te!& Cities in )hi#h a!"ertising #ampaigns are ae#te!
may %e name! as test #ities an! other #ities may %e #alle! #entral #ities& *irst
o all, the normal sales le"el is #al#$late! or %oth type o #ities prior to
a!"ertising #ampaign, an! then the a!"ertising #ampaign is presente! to the
test #ities an! not the #entral #ities& The ee#t o a!"ertising #ampaign, #an
then, %e meas$re! %y s$%tra#ting the amo$nt o post #ampaign ig$re o sale
rom the pre #ampaign sale ig$res in test #ities

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5ii6 M.ltivaria0le E>perimental %esigns
.hile the e(perimental !esign !is#$sse! a%o"e yiel!s a reasona%ly
a##$rate estimate o the ee#ts o the a!"ertising on sales, it is not s$##ess$l
in e(plaining the s$##ess or ail$re o the #ampaign itsel& M$lti"aria%le
!esigns Pro!$#e these e(planations an! are, thereore $se! %y some "ery large
irm %e#a$se o their !iagnosti# "al$e&The po)er o this m$lti"aria%le a#torial
!esign is e(plaine! %y D&G&2ro)n, ormer *or!s >ire#tor o Marketing
Resear#h& *or any single me!i$m, eight possi%le geographi# areas ha"e %een
e(pose! an! eight ha"e not %een e(pose!& Th$s, in this e(perimental mo!el it
is possi%le to e"al$ate ho) ea#h in!i"i!$al me!i$m %eha"es alone an! in all
possi%le to e"al$ate ho) ea#h in!i"i!$al me!i$m %eha"es alone an! in all
possi%le #om%inations )ith other me!ia&
5"6 Indire!t Meas.res
As it is "ery !ii#$lt to meas$re the !ire#t ee#t o a!"ertising on
#ompany5s proits or sales, most irms rely hea"ily on in!ire#t meas$res& These
meas$res !o not e"al$ate the ee#ts o a!"ertisements !ire#ting on sales or
proits %$t all other a#tors s$#h as #$stomer a)areness or attit$!e or #$stomer
re#all o a!"ertising message ae#t the sales or proits or goals o the %$siness
in!ire#tly& >espite the $n#ertainties a%o$t the relationship %et)een the
interme!iate ee#ts o a!"ertising an! the $ltimate res$lts, there is no other
alternati"e %$t to $se in!ire#t meas$res& The most #ommonly $se! meas$res
are I
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5a6 E>pos.re to Advertisement
In or!er to %e ee#ti"e, the a!"ertisement m$st gain e(pos$re& The
management is #on#erne! a%o$t the n$m%er o target a$!ien#es )ho see or
hear the organi+ation message set in the a!"ertisement& .itho$t e(pos$re,
a!"ertisement is %o$n! to ail$re& Marketers or a!"ertisers may o%tain an i!ea
o e(pos$re generate! %y the me!i$m %y e(amining its #ir#$lation or a$!ien#e
!ata )hi#h re"eal the n$m%er o #opies o the maga+ine, ne)spaper or -o$rnal
sol! the n$m%er o persons passing the %ill%oar!s or ri!ing in transit a#ilities,
or the n$m%er o persons li"ing in the tele"ie)ing or ra!io listening area, an!
the n$m%er o persons s)it#hing on their T&V& an! ra!io sets at "ario$s points
o time& This n$m%er #an %e estimate! %y inter"ie)ing the n$m%ers o the
a$!ien#e or !ierent me!ia&
506 Attention or Re!all o' Advertising Message Content
This is one o the )i!ely $se! meas$res o a!"ertising res$lts& Un!er
this meas$re, a re#all o the message #ontent among a spe#iie! gro$p or
gro$ps or prospe#ti"e #$stomers is meas$re! )ithin 38 ho$rs o the e(pos$re
o the a!"ertisement&
Attention "al$e is the #hie 1$ality o the a!"ertising #opy the
a!"ertisements #annot %e sai! to %e ee#ti"e $nless they attra#t the attention o
the target #ons$mers& There are t)o metho!s or e"al$ating the attention
getting "al$e o the a!"ertisements& 'ne is pre,test an! the other is post,test& In
a pre,test e"al$ation, the #ons$mers are aske! to in!i#ate the e(tent to )hi#h
they re#ognise or re#all the a!"ertisement, they ha"e alrea!y seen& This test is
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#on!$#te! in the la%oratory setting& Gere #ons$mers rea!, hear or listen to the
a!"ertisement an! then resear#hers ask 1$estion regar!ing the a!"ertisement
-$st to test the re#all an! then e"al$ate it& In post,test metho!, the #ons$mers
are aske! 1$estions a%o$t the in!i#ation o re#ognition or re#all ater the
a!"ertisement has %een r$n& These meas$res ass$me that #$stomers #an re#all
or re#ogni+e )hat they ha"e "ie)e! or listene! to& Vario$s me#hani#al !e"i#es
are %eing $se! in the )estern #o$ntries )hi#h pro"i!e in!i#es o attention s$#h
as eye,#amera et#&
5iii6 -rand A*areness
The marketers )ho rely hea"ily on a!"ertising oten appraise its
ee#ti"eness %y meas$ring the #$stomer5s a)areness a%o$t the parti#$lar
pro!$#t or %ran!& The ass$mption o this type o meas$re is that there is a
!ire#t relationship %et)een the a!"ertisements an! the a)areness& This type o
meas$re is also s$%-e#t to the same #riti#isms as is appli#a%le to !ire#t
meas$res o ee#ti"eness 9sales meas$res %e#a$se a)areness is also not the
!ire#t res$lt o the a!"ertisements& It is also ae#te! %y many other a#tors&
2$t, or ne) pro!$#ts, #hanges in a)areness #an oten %e attri%$te! to the
inl$en#e o a!"ertising&
5iv6 Comprehension
Cons$mers generally $se a!"ertisements as a means o o%taining
inormation a%o$t the pro!$#t, %ran! or the man$a#t$rer& They #annot %e
inorme! $nless they #omprehen! the message 9grasp the message mentally
[email protected] | P a g e
an! $n!erstan! it $lly:& Vario$s tests or "al$ating #omprehension are
a"aila%le I
'ne is re#all tests I an in!i#ator o #omprehension %e#a$se it is e"i!ent
that #ons$mers re#all )hat they #omprehen!& Another meas$re o the "aria%le
is to ask 1$estions a%o$t s$%-e#ts ho) m$#h they ha"e #omprehen!e! a
message they ha"e re#ently hear! or seen& 'ne may employ some)hat
impre#ise test o the #omprehension o a ne)spaper an! ra!io a!"ertisement&
'ne may ask typi#al target #ons$mers rom time to time s$#h 1$estions like
J)hat !i! yo$ think o o$r ne) #ommer#ialE5 an! J>i! it get the message
a#ross5E The ans)ers o these 1$estions )ill pro"i!e s$i#ient insight into
a!"ertising !e#ision making&
5v6 Attit.de Change
Sin#e a!"ertising is #onsi!ere! to %e one )ay o inl$en#ing the state o
the min! o the a$!ien#e to)ar!s a pro!$#t, ser"i#e or organisation, the res$lts
are "ery oten meas$re! in terms o attit$!es among gro$ps e(pose! to
a!"ertising #omm$ni#ation& Se"eral meas$res are $se! ranging rom asking the
1$estions a%o$t )illingness to %$y the likelihoo! o %$ying to the meas$rement
o the e(tent to )hi#h spe#ii# attri%$tes 9s$#h as mo!ern or ne): are
asso#iate! )ith a pro!$#t&
5vi6 A!tion
'ne o%-e#ti"e o a!"ertisement may %e ass$me! to %e to stim$late a#tion
or %eha"ior& The a#tion or intention to take an a#tion may %e meas$re! on the
intention to %$y meas$ring instr$ment& Un!er this type o meas$re, #ons$mers
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are aske! to respon! )hy they are intereste! in p$r#hasing the pro!$#t or
%ran!& 'ne type o a#tion that a!"ertisers attempt to in!$#e is %$ying %eha"ior&
The ass$mption is that i an in#rease in sales ollo)s a !e#rease in a!"ertising
e(pen!it$re, the #hange in sales le"els are goo! in!i#ators o the ee#ti"eness
o a!"ertising& /ogi# s$ggests that meas$rement o sales is preera%le to other
meas$rements&
Th$s, these a%o"e meas$res 9!ire#t or in!ire#t: are $se! to e"al$ate the
ee#ti"eness o a!"ertisements& It seems rom the analysis o the a%o"e
metho!s o meas$ring ee#ti"eness that !ire#tly or in!ire#tly #hanges in sales
or proits are taken as the meas$ring ro! o the ee#ti"eness o the a!"ertising&
C$MMU#ICATI$# E//ECTS $/ A%VERTISEME#T
The management sho$l! attempt to e"al$ate the ee#ti"eness o the
a!"ertising #ampaign i the irm5s a!"ertising goals are to %e a#hie"e! an! the
a! ee#ti"eness is to %e in#rease!& 2y reg$lar e"al$ation o the ee#ti"eness,
the short #omings an! the pl$s points )o$l! %e re"eale! an! the management
)o$l! %e a%le to impro"e the #ampaign %y negating the short#omings an!
retaining the a"ora%le point& *or this p$rpose, it is "ery ne#essary to kno)
ho) a!"ertising ae#ts the %$yer5s %eha"iors& 2$t this is "ery !ii#$lt task
%e#a$se meas$rements are impere#t an! impre#ise&
The ee#ti"eness o a!"ertising #an %e meas$re! %y the e(tent, it to
)hi#h it a#hie"es the o%-e#ti"es set or it& I it s$##ee!s in attaining the
o%-e#ti"es& A!"ertising #an %e sai! to %e ee#ti"e other)ise it )ill %e a )aste
30 | P a g e
o money an! time& In this sense, a!"ertising #an %e re#ogni+e! as a %$siness
a#ti"ity like other a#ti"ities&
In a "ery real sense the integrity o promotional a#ti"ities rests on ho)
)ell those a#ti"ities )ork& An a!"ertising %$!get that is spent on some poorly
!eine! task or on $n!eine! tasks may %e regar!e! as an e#onomi# )aste as
#ompare! to that spent to a#hie"e the )ell !eine! o%-e#ti"es or )hi#h the
res$lts #an %e meas$re!& Any so#ial instit$tion $pon )hi#h a signii#ant
portion o o$r total pro!$#ti"e eorts is e(pan!e! sho$l! %e a%le to point to its
spe#ii# a##omplishment& In!ee!, it is a so$r#e o !is#omort that spe#ii#
res$lts o a!"ertising a#ti"ities ha"e not al)ays %een s$%-e#t to pre#ise
meas$rement& 2oth pra#titioners an! #riti#s eel that promotional a#ti"ities
sho$l! only %e a##epte! as so#io I e#onomi# I instit$tion )ith $ll right an!
pri"ileges K)hen the means
e(ist to pro"e that a!"ertising s$per are pro!$#ti"e r$pees5 It is $n!o$%te!ly a
so$r#e o em%arrassment that )e #annot e(a#tly meas$re the ee#ti"eness o
a!"ertising in !einiti"e terms&
The e(a#t res$lt o a!"ertisement e(pen!it$re is "ery !ii#$lt to pre!i#t
%e#a$se&,
9a: The rea#tion o #ons$mer I %$yers to the a!"ertising eorts #annot %e
kno)n in a!"an#e&
9%: The rea#tion o #ompetitors in the iel! #annot %e g$esse! in anti#ipation
an!
30 | P a g e
9#: The $ne(pe#te! e"ents 9s$#h as #hange in so#ial an! e#onomi#
en"ironment an! the go"ernment poli#ies et#&: #annot %e a##$rately
anti#ipate!& S$#h e"ents may inl$en#e the res$lts o the a!"ertising eorts& I
)e take a hypotheti#al #ase o a retailer )ho #ontra#t to spent Rs&;000 on
a!"ertisement )ith a lo#al ne)spaper or a spe#ial sales e"en& The
a!"ertisement is seen an! the response is m$#h greater than it is anti#ipate!&
.hat #a$se! the s$##ess o saleE They message theme #olors et#&, o the
a!"ertisement or the lo) pri#es 1$ote! !$ring the sale o the s$perior 1$ality
o the pro!$#t or a%sen#e o #ompetition in the market on the !ay or the
a"ora%le& .eather #on!itions or the goo!)ill o the irm et#& The
o"er)helming s$##ess o the sale is the -oint res$lt o all the a%o"e "aria%les
an! it is 1$ite impossi%le to isolate the role o any one "aria%le& It is so %e#a$se
the #a$se an! ee#t I relationship #annot %e esta%lishe! in a!"an#e )hen a
m$ltit$!e o "aria%le impinge $pon a parti#$lar e"ent& It is entirely possi%le
that a poor a!"ertising s$pport may p$sh $p the sale %e#a$se e"erything else
alls into its proper pla#e or the re"erse may %e possi%le& 2$t it !oes not mean
that that )e #annot meas$re the ee#ts o parti#$lars a!"ertising eort& The
a!"ertising e(e#$ti"es are m$#h #on#erne! a%o$t the assessment o the
ee#ti"eness o the a!"ertising eorts& *or this p$rpose, the management
nee!s ans)ers to s$#h 1$estions as7 )as the a!"ertising #ampaign really
s$##ess$l in attaining the a!"ertising goalsE .ere o$r T&V& #ommer#ials as
goo! as those o o$r #ompetitorsE .ill the print a!"ertisement, )hi#h )e ha"e
!esigne!, make #ons$mers a)are o o$r ne) pro!$#tE To get ans)ers o these
1$estions, "ario$s tests o ee#ti"eness 9Pre, tests an! post I tests : are !ee!e!
to !etermine )hether propose! a!"ertisement sho$l! %e $se!, an! i they are
not satisa#tory ho) they might %e impro"e!, an! )hether on going #ampaign
33 | P a g e
sho$l! %e stoppe! #ontin$e! or #hange!& Pre, tests are #on!$#te! %eore
e(posing target #ons$mers to the a!"ertisements an! post tests ater #ons$mers
ha"e %een e(pose! to them&
As in!i#ate! earlier, the a!"ertisers are intereste! in kno)ing )hat they
are getting or their a!"ertising r$pees, So they test the propose! a!"ertisement
)ith pre test an! meas$re the a#t$al res$lts )ith a post test& In the past,
protesting )as !one %y the a!"ertising agen#ies %$t no) the a!"ertisers ha"e
%een taking an in#reasingly a#ti"e role in protesting pro#ess& Pre test may %e
!one either %eore an a!"ertisement has %een !esigne! or e(e#$te! ater it is
rea!y or p$%li# !istri%$tion or at %oth points&
>$ring protesting there is oten resear#h on three "ital 1$estions7,
9i: >o #ons$mers eel that the a!"ertisement #omm$ni#ates something
!esira%le a%o$t the pro!$#tE
9ii: >oes the message ha"e an e(#l$si"e appeal that !ierentiates the pro!$#t
rom that o the #ompetitorsE
9iii: Is the a!"ertisement %elie"a%leE
Altho$gh a lot o money is spent on protesting yet the a!"ertisers like to
#onirm the res$lts %y post testing o their promotional #ampaigns !$e to the
ollo)ing reasons7,
9i: There is a nee! pro!$#e more ee#ti"e a!"ertising %y retaining the goo!
an! remo"ing the %a!&
34 | P a g e
9ii: The a!"ertising e(e#$ti"es #an pro"e to the satisa#tion o the management
that a higher a!"ertising %$!get )ill %eneit the irm&
9iii: There is a nee! or meas$ring the res$lts to !etermine the le"el o
e(pen!it$re that is most promising&
Most resear#h o#$ses on the #omm$ni#ation ee#t rather than sales
ee#t %e#a$se it is a long r$n pro#ess& In the short r$n, ho)e"er sales may %e
slight an! important %$t in the long r$n its ee#ts o% %ran!s an! #ompanies
may %e o great importan#e& In!ire#tly it )ill ae#t the sales in the long r$n, %y
#hanging the #ons$mer a)areness an! attit$!e& The a!"ertisers are thereore,
#on#erne! )ith their impa#t on #ons$mer a)areness an! attit$!e&
The #omm$ni#ation ee#t on sales may %e presente! in the ollo)ing
ig$re7,
Comm$ni#ation Ee#t on Sales
A)areness,Attit$!e,Trial,Satisa#tion,P$r#hases or rep$r#hase
A)areness %$il!s a a"ora%le or at least a #$rio$s attit$!e to)ar!s the
pro!$#t )hi#h lea!s to e(perimentation& I #ons$mer is satisie! )ith the trial
he may !e#i!e to p$r#hase the pro!$#t& There are many #riti#al an! $nresol"e!
iss$es in !etermining ho) to test the #omm$ni#ation ee#ts o a!"ertising&
Among these are7,
90: E(pos$re Con!itions I Sho$l! a!"ertising %e teste! $n!er realisti#
#on!itions or $n!er more #ontrolle! la%oratory #on!itionsE
38 | P a g e
93: E(e#$tion I Protesting a inishe! a!"ertisement as an e(pensi"e an! time
#ons$ming& >oes protesting a preliminary e(e#$tion pro!$#e a##$rate an!
$se$l !ataE
94: L$ality Vs& L$antity >ata, L$antitati"e !ata are the easiest an! the almost
pre#ise meas$rement& 2$t 1$alitati"e !ata #olle#te! thro$gh inter"ie)s may
pro"i!e inormation that short ans)er 1$estions ne"er #an&
Many types o a!"ertising tests are #on!$#te! 9!ierent metho!s o pre
tests an! post I test are gi"en in 1$estion n$m%er: In T&V& #ommer#ials are
teste! %y in"iting a gro$p o people to the st$!io to "ie) a program& The
a$!ien#e is then s$r"eye! a%o$t the #ommer#ials& Print a!"ertisements are
teste! thro$gh !$mmy maga+ine portolio tests&
Comp.n!tion E''e!tiveness Vs Sales E''e!tiveness
It is easier to assess the #omm$ni#ation ee#t o a!"ertising than the
sales ee#t& Many irms try to meas$re the ee#ti"eness o a!"ertising in
terms o sales res$lts %$t this pra#ti#e is al)ays mislea!ing& Sin#e, the ee#t is
the res$lt o so many "aria%les, a !istin#t ee#t o a!"ertising on sales #annot
%e #orre#tly meas$re!, Altho$gh there may %e some e(#eptions& *or e(ample
!ire#t mail a!"ertising #an ee#ti"ely %e meas$re! %y the in1$iries re#ei"e!&
2$t in many sit$ations the e(a#t relationship %et)een a!"ertising a#ti"ity an!
sales #annot %e esta%lishe! satisa#torily&
.e #an #orre#tly ass$me that some sales )ill o##$r e"en tho$gh there is
no a!"ertising or little a!"ertising or #on"ersely there )ill %e no in#rease in
sales ater the point o sat$ration is rea#he! or it may %e that sales )ill sho) a
3; | P a g e
!e#reasing tren! at this point in spite o large amo$nt o e(pen!it$re on
a!"ertising is !one& It is so %e#a$se a!"ertising is no the only "aria%le that
ee#t the sales&
Th$s, )e may #on!$#t that sales ee#t o a!"ertising is !ii#$lt to
meas$re %e#a$se a n$m%er o "aria%les ae#t the 1$ant$m o tales an! the
#ontri%$tion o a!"ertisement #annot %e meas$re! separately $nless all other
"aria%les are pres$me! to %e #onstant& This sit$ation is 1$ite hypotheti#al an!
almost none(istent& A!!e! to this is the a#t that a!"ertisement itsel is ma!e o
a "ariety o "aria%les s$#h as me!ia, messages, #olo$rs, page or time o the
!ay, lo#ations, the si+e o the hea!line an! the appeals $se!& Th$s e"en i the
a!"ertising "aria%le is separate! this )o$l! still not ans)er the 1$estion a%o$t
the ee#ti"eness o the in!i"i!$al #omponents o the a!"ertising #ampaign& So
a!"ertisers try to meas$re the #omm$ni#ation ee#t o the a!"ertising&
S.ita0ilit&
In small %$siness irms )here the marketing resear#h reso$r#es are
limite! a!"ertising managers may !e#i!e on less e(pensi"e an! less rele"ant
meas$res& The %ig %$siness ho$se, )hi#h has more a##ess to resear#h, may
!e#i!e on the more rele"ant an! e(pensi"e meas$res&
/a!tors A''e!ting Advertising
The inal e(ternal a#tor in the planning rame)ork #on#erns
en"ironmental a#tor so#ial, legal, an! glo%al& /a) or%i!s !e#epti"e
a!"ertising& 'ne sol$tion is to #reate %ran! a!"ertising that is "ag$e an!
#ontains little spe#ii# inormation& Go)e"er, s$#h an approa#h #an res$lt not
3< | P a g e
only in inee#ti"e a!"ertisingB %y it #an lessen the so#ial "al$e o a!"ertising
%y re!$#ing the amo$nt or $se$l inormation that it pro"i!es to so#iety& Th$s,
an! a!"ertiser )ho attempts to pro"i!e spe#ii#, rele"ant inormation m$st %e
)ell a)are o a!"ertising reg$lation&
E"en more !ii#$lt #onsi!eration or people in"ol"e! in the a!"ertising
eort is %roa! so#ial an! e#onomi# iss$es& Another #on#ern is that a!"ertising,
espe#ially )hen it is more irritating than entertaining, is an intr$sion into an
alrea!y e(#essi"ely poll$te! en"ironment& A )hole set o r$les is emerging to
#o"er a!"ertising !ire#te! at #hil!ren, an! a!"ertising or pro!$#ts s$#h as
al#ohol an! #igarettes, an! the $se o en"ironmental an! health #laims in
a!"ertising&
Th$s a!"ertising has a tremen!o$s impa#t on international marketing
an! the t)o #on#epts thereore go han! in han! an! are !epen!ent on ea#h
other&
3? | P a g e
Chapter: 8
Compan& (ro'ile
[email protected] | P a g e
Compan& (ro'ile
MRI%[email protected] S$/TEC< (VTA ;T%A
(er'e!tion =iving (er'orman!e
I# $UR -USI#ESS 3E RACE A=AI#ST T<E C;$C1 -ECAUSE 3E
SE;; TIME
Mri!a+ Sote#h Pri"ate /t! is a lea!ing IT ena%le! ser"i#e Pro"i!er Company
sit$ate! in >elhi& '$r mission is to pro"i!e #ost,ee#ti"e )e% an! !esktop
ser"i#es, #reati"e an! po)er$l 1$ality lash %anner internet a!"ertisement
sol$tion that target yo$r %$siness market& .e !e"elop )e%site a##or!ing to
yo$r %$siness nat$re, streamline in,ho$se operations, an! !e"elop !ynami#
)e% appli#ations&
A%o$t Us
Mri!a+ Sote#h Pri"ate /t! is a lea!ing IT ena%le! ser"i#e Pro"i!er Company
sit$ate! in >elhi& '$r mission is to pro"i!e #ost,ee#ti"e )e% an! !esktop
3C | P a g e
ser"i#es, #reati"e an! po)er$l 1$ality lash %anner internet a!"ertisement
sol$tion that target yo$r %$siness market& .e !e"elop )e%site a##or!ing to
yo$r %$siness nat$re, streamline in,ho$se operations, an! !e"elop !ynami#
)e% appli#ations&
Mri!a+ Sote#h has a )ell e1$ippe! team o User E(perien#e Cons$ltants& '$r
#ons$ltants )ork an! !e"elop ne) i!eas %y ass$ming the #$stomer %$ying
pattern )hi#h in res$lt helps o$r #lients in o$r higher re"en$es& The o$r
a#tors )hi#h help Mri!a+ in pro"i!ing $ni1$e )e% i!eas )hether in terms o
)ell roote! .e% Con#epts or inno"ati"e .e% Sol$tions are the !e!i#ation,
moti"ation, passion an! the aim o !oing the %est& Mri!a+ Sote#h is orme!
)ith the in#lination an! eagerness o pro"i!ing the %est possi%le I!ea s$ite! to
the #lients I!eas an! t$rning the !ream into reality&&
'$r Strengths
$ne?Stop 3e0 Sol.tions Compan& And /.ll?C&!le %evelopment Servi!es
.hether yo$ nee! a simple yet appealing )e%site !esign or #omple( m$lti,tier
e,#ommer#e )e%site or #$stom sot)are !e"elopment $sing latest te#hnologies
an! in!$stry tren!s , MSP/ has re1$ire! e(perien#e an! e(pertise to !o it all&
.e s$pport a $ll,#y#le !e"elopment pro#ess rom re1$irements !einition an!
spe#ii#ation, ar#hite#t$re !esign, #o!ing, testing an! "ali!ation to pro!$#t
maintenan#e an! s$pport&
40 | P a g e
L$ality Stan!ar!
B.alit& Ass.red Servi!e (rovider
Ga"ing o"er 8 years o e(perien#e in pro"i!ing internet ser"i#es an! sol$tions
an! ha"ing #omplete! "ario$s pro-e#ts in !ierent !omains& L$ality personnel,
L$ality Pro#ess an! L$ality Comm$ni#ations& Ea#h pro-e#t at MSP/ is
monitore! or 1$ality at ea#h phase o the !e"elopment #y#le&
.e are #ommitte! to !eli"ering ma(im$m "al$e to o$r #lients helping them
s$##ee! in a #ontin$ally #hanging an! !eman!ing %i+ )orl!& .e as #ompany
$n!erstan! the a#t that o$r s$##ess is tie! )ith s$##ess o o$r #lients&
Strategy
$.r 1e& -.siness (rin!iples Are
Un!erstan! Clients Fee!s 7,
.e #are$lly st$!y the re1$irements o ea#h #$stomer to $n!erstan! the #lientMs
nee!s an! o%-e#ti"es an! !eli"er a relia%le sol$tion& .e make o$r #lients a)are
o all a"aila%le options an! pro"i!e them )ith a #ompetent a!"i#e ena%ling
them to take a )ell inorme! %$siness !e#ision&
Partner )ith Clients 7,
.e are #ommitte! to %e#oming yo$r long,term, relia%le partner& '$r priority is
to not only pro"i!e yo$ )ith proessional ser"i#es an! sol$tions %$t %e#oming
a #ompany yo$ #an !epen! $pon to meet #$rrent nee!s an! help yo$ take #are
40 | P a g e
o yo$r gro)ing %$siness nee!s in $t$re&
Earn Clients Tr$st an! Coni!en#e 7,
'$r aim is to earn #$stomerMs tr$st an! #oni!en#e thro$gh personal attention
or their nee!s an! #ommitment to long,lasting relationship& .e )ill go an
e(tra mile to !eli"er yo$ a ee#ti"e an! relia%le sol$tion an! help yo$ a!opt
an! s$##ee! in the internet&
43 | P a g e
$.r (rod.!ts
Mri!a+A#a!emia
Mri!a+A#a!emia is )in!o)s %ase! appli#ation sot)are or S#hools, Colleges
an! Instit$tions& This pro"i!es a %est an! "ery le(i%le sol$tion or !ay to !ay
e(er#ise in a s#hool&
This sot)are in#l$!es Mst$!ent a!missionM, Mst$!ent re#or! maintainerM,
Me(amination an! #lass s#he!$lerM, Mres$lt ta%$lator an! p$%lisherM, Memployee
re#or! keeper an! GR managementM, Ma##o$nting an! assetsM as main mo!$les&
44 | P a g e
Mri!a+Aarogya
Mri!a+Aarogya is )in!o)s %ase! appli#ation sot)are or hospital, Clini#s
an! n$rsing homes& This is "ery easy to $se an! intera#ti"e sot)are to
a$tomate the entire hospital&
This sot)are in#l$!es MIP>M, M'P>M, MEle#troni# patient re#or!M, MPathologi#al
Ra!iologi#al an! other Test Mo!$lesM, MAppointments, registration an! patient
%illingM, Memployee re#or! keeper an! GR managementM, Ma##o$nting an! assetsM
as main mo!$les&
R&2& Memorial Gospital the *irst an! 'nly *$lly Comp$teri+e! Gospital in
Forth 2ihar is $sing this Sot)are "ery s$##ess$lly&
48 | P a g e
Mri!a+A$sha!h
Mri!a+A$sha!h is )in!o)s %ase! appli#ation sot)are or pharma#e$ti#als
Store& This ena%les the store keeper to keep re#or!s o sales an! sto#ks an!
helps him to !o other )orks )hi#he"er is re1$ire! or a pharma#e$ti#als&
This sot)are in#l$!es MSales, or!er an! #halanM, Mp$r#haseM, Msto#ksM, M%illing an!
a##o$ntingsM, as main mo!$les&
Mri!a+Aatithya
Mri!a+Aatithya is )in!o)s %ase! appli#ation sot)are or Gotels, Motels, an!
D$est Go$se et#& This is "ery intera#ti"e an! easy to $se sot)are )hi#h
pro"i!e the pea#e o min! to the stas o the hotel or keeping re#or!s an!
maintain the rooms an! g$ests&
4; | P a g e
This sot)are in#l$!es MChe#kIFM, MChe#k'$tM, MRoom Ser"i#eM, M=it#henM, M*ront
'i#eM, M* H 2M, MSales an! MarketingM, MA##o$ntingM, MGRM as main mo!$les&
Mri!a+>isti%$tor
Mri!a+>istri%$tor is )in!o)s %ase! appli#ation sot)are or >istri%$ters o
any Type o Pro!$#t& This ena%les the store keeper to keep re#or!s o sales an!
sto#ks an! helps him to !o other )orks )hi#he"er is re1$ire! or a >istri%$tor&
This sot)are in#l$!es MSales, or!er an! #halanM, Mp$r#haseM, Msto#ksM, M%illing an!
a##o$ntingsM, as main mo!$les&
Mri!a+,E,Post
Mri!a+,E,Post is a )e% %ase! portal to keeping re#or!s o the #o$riers in an
organisation )here !aily #o$riers are in %$lk amo$nt an! the re#or! keeping o
the sent an! re#ei"e! #o$riers %e#ome a hea!a#he like %anks, tra"el agen#y,
4< | P a g e
Ins$ran#e Company& This re!$#es the time #ons$me! in keeping re#or! o
#o$rier an! %$!geting o the #o$rier&
ICICI Prudential is using this portal very successfully and they
are saving time and money consumed before for couriers.
in this portal the budgeting and courier record keeps the
employee informed that the couriers sent and received by
him is known to admin and he avoid to send the personal
couriers from ofce
Mri!a+A!hyayan
Mri!a+A!hyayan is )in!o)s %ase! appli#ation sot)are or /i%rary& This
pro"i!es a %est an! "ery le(i%le sol$tion or !ay to !ay e(er#ise in a /i%rary&
4? | P a g e
This sot)are in#l$!es M2ook Re#or!M, MRea!ers an! Mem%ersM, M2ook
Transa#tionM, MFe)sletters an! No$rnalsM, Memployee re#or! keeper an! GR
managementM, Ma##o$nting an! assetsM as main mo!$les&
Mri!a+,E,S#hool
Mri!a+,E,S#hool is a )e% %ase! inormation system or the s#hool& This
ena%les an inormation system or s#hool to p$%lish the s#he!$les o #lass,
E(ams, holi!ays, in"ents, "a#ation home )orks, res$lts an! many more to the
)e% an! also pro"i!e an ele#troni# !ata %ase to keep the reports an! re#or!s
online&&
Portal ha"e mo!$les like a!ministrati"e mo!$le, st$!ents an! parent mo!$le,
a##o$nting mo!$le, reporting mo!$le, li%rary re#or! keeper, noti#e %oar!,
tea#hers an! a#a!emi# mo!$le, hr mo!$le et# )hi#h is "ery #are$lly !esigne!
to easy $sa%ility or any type o $ser&
&
[email protected] | P a g e
Mri!a+ Pathology
Mrida, /.nd Allo!ator
4C | P a g e
$.r Servi!es
Appli!ation %evelopment
Mri!a+ pro"i!es $ll ser"i#e o .e% >esign, Appli#ation >e"elopment an!
Sot)are sol$tions helping all an! me!i$m si+e! %$sinesses to la$n#h an!
prosper online& The #ompany pro"i!es #orporate i!entity !esign ser"i#es,
aor!a%le oshore )e%site !esign an! !e"elopment, e,#ommer#e )e% !esign
an! sot)are !e"elopment along )ith rien!ly #$stomer ser"i#e at %est rate&
The sot)are enterprise !oes )hat it !oes %est , i!entiy market nee!s an!
generate i!eas to !e"elop a ne) pro!$#t& '$r team is #apa%le o $n!erstan!ing
these i!eas an! translating them into the )orl!,#lass pro!$#ts that are rea!y or
market& .e also ha"e the e(pertise to sele#t the appropriate te#hnology or
%$il!ing ro%$st pro!$#ts %y $sing )ell,!eine! metho!ologies&
Mri!a+Ms )e% appli#ation !e"elopment !i"ision $ses the most appropriate
te#hnology to !e"elop yo$r sot)are so that yo$ ha"e less maintenan#e )ork
an! e(#ellent %$siness res$lts& Mri!a+ all %$il! an! spe#iali+e se#$re e,
#ommer#e appli#ations& .e make #$stom ma!e appli#ations to s$it yo$r nee!s&
.e also e(ten! o$r e,#ommer#e e(pertise %eyon! the %$siness,to #ons$mer
retail mo!el to meet the nee!s o %$siness,to,%$siness transa#tions an! other
#ommer#e,relate! appli#ations&
3e0 %evelopment Servi!es
Mri!a+ Sote#h shapes yo$r i!ea into reality )ith o$r proessional e(perts an!
inno"ati"e metho!ologies& 2eing a lea!ing %ran! in this iel!, Mri!a+ oers
80 | P a g e
optim$m ser"i#e along )ith online %$siness ser"i#e& '$r team in the iel! is
time teste!& .ith its $nmat#he! ser"i#es in "ario$s !omainsB pro"i!ing 1$ality
)e% !esign sol$tions in In!ia, Mri!a+ is all set to len! its ser"i#es or the
glo%al #lients&
• '$r Ser"i#es are
• .e% >esigning
• .e% >e"elopment
• >omain Registration
• Sear#h Engine 'ptimi+ation
• Sear#h Engine S$%mission
• .e% Promotion
• ASP&FET Gosting
• Uni( Gosting
• E,Commer#e Gosting
• .in!o)s Gosting
All )e kno) that sole kno)le!ge an! ri#h %$siness $n!erstan!ing along )ith a
n$m%er o metho!s that go %ehin! the )e%site %ringing in reality& Mri!a+
Sote#h )ith its pro"en tra#k re#or!s an! repeat %$siness esta%lishes itsel as a
lea!ing .e%site >esign Company in In!ia& .e stri"e to pro"i!e the %est an!
keep the %asi#s simple an! #risp&
80 | P a g e
*e) o '$r .ork
83 | P a g e
84 | P a g e
88 | P a g e
8; | P a g e
8< | P a g e
8? | P a g e
[email protected] | P a g e
8C | P a g e
;0 | P a g e
;0 | P a g e
;3 | P a g e
Ele!troni!s
In the iel! o ele#troni#s )e oer these st$s
• The home an! oi#e a$tomation an! saety installations
• The Mi#ro#ontroller6mi#ropro#essor6P/C %ase! in!$strial a$tomation
system
• Comp$ter %ase! system !esign an! !e"elopment or a$tomation an!
saety
• Programma%le logi# #ontrollers
• >esign an! !e"elop #$stomi+e! ele#troni# an! ele#tri#al e1$ipments an!
peripherals
*or implementing these to the #$stomer en! )e ha"e a #a!re o )ell skille!
engineers an! te#hni#ians& .e also pro"i!es training to this iel!s to the
st$!ents p$rs$ing their te#hni#al !egree in In!ia&
;4 | P a g e
%elcoe to &oftech Capus
Sote#h Camp$s , is the lagship Comp$ter Training program rom Mri!a+
Sote#h P"t& /t!& a )ell re#ogni+e! an! ser"i#e e(#ellen#e a)ar! )inner
sot)are #ompany in >elhi an! FCR region&
Mri!a+ is in"ol"e! in the #omp$ter training an! e!$#ation programs sin#e
3003 )ith the name o Mri!a+ E!$#ation Ser"i#es& The name o training
program )as #hange! in *e%r$ary 3000 to Sote#h Camp$s&
'$r #o$rses are "ery pro!$#ti"e a##or!an#e to the skille! an! traine! te#hni#al
staing in many )ell kno)n sot)are #ompanies& All the #o$rses are !esigne!
as per the re1$irement that not only the theoreti#al kno)le!ge is s$i#ient or
the te#hni#al training the real time en"ironmental training is also a main
ingre!ient to the %est traine! st$!ent )ho )ill ha"e a #oni!en#e o kno)le!ge
an! e(perien#e o real )orl! )ork en"ironment, an! )ill gi"e his %est to his
employer an! gro) )ith the organi+ation in )hi#h he )ill )ork )ith a
a!"antageo$s skills !e"elope! )ithin him&
;8 | P a g e
Chapter: 9
RESEARC< MET<$%;$=Y
;; | P a g e
RESEARCG METG'>/'DY
$0e!tive o' (roe!t
CTo St.d& on E''e!tive Media 'or
Advertisement o' IATA (rod.!ts in #orth
-ihar D
Resear!h %esign 7 >es#ripti"e
%ata So.r!e 7 Primary !ata
7 Se#on!ary !ata
Resear!h Instr.ment 7 L$estionnaire
Sample design 7 Simple ran!om !esign
Sample si,e 7 000
Sample lo!ation 7 Forth 2ihar 9Mithila:
Sample element 7 St$!ents
7 2$siness #lass
7 Go$se hol!
7 Ser"i#e #lass
SAM(;I#= U#IT
Sampling Unit is the total n$m%er o samples !iere! in !ierent lo#ality&
SlA #oA Classes #oA o' Classes
0& St$!ents 3;
3& 2$siness #lass 3;
4& Go$sehol! 3;
;< | P a g e
8& Ser"i#e #lass 3;
Total 1EE
>ata ha"e %een #olle#te! thro$gh the s$r"ey metho! )hile s$r"eys ha"e %een
#on!$#te! in 7
i: Fe) >elhi&
ii: 2ihar&
The !ata #olle#te! )as %oth rom the primary an! se#on!ary so$r#e& The
primary !ata )as #olle#te! thro$gh 1$estionnaires an! )as #olle#te!
personally&
The se#on!ary !ata )as #olle#te! thro$gh %ooks, maga+ines, #ompany )e%site
an! other )e%sites& All the area ha! segmente! a##or!ing the pop$lation o this
area& I ha"e #onsi!ere! 000 as sample si+e&
;IMITATI$#S
;imitations
The marketing resear#her has to a#e #ertain !ii#$lties )hile he #arries o$t
the resear#h )ork& Ge kno)s the limitation %eorehan!, $n#ontrolla%le an!
others are #ontrolla%le& Some important limitations, )hi#h are a#e! %y
resear#hers as ollo)s7 ,
 Sample si+e restri#te! to 000 only )hi#h )as "ery less a##or!ing
total pop$lation&
;? | P a g e
 The responses gi"en %y respon!ents )ere not al)ays a##$rate
%e#a$se the respon!ents ga"e the response a##or!ing to their
$n!erstan!ing&
 S$r"ey is a time #ons$ming pro#ess %$t the time to #olle#t the !ata
or resear#h )as "ery less&
 Sometimes the respon!ents are not )illing to ill the
1$estionnaire an! hen#e the res$ltant may not %e #orre#t&
 Marketing resear#hers st$!ies the %eha"ior that is rational& Very
oten, they !o not e(press their eeling #orre#tly )hat they think&
In s$#h #ases their ha%it$al, pra#ti#e, preeren#es #annot %e
assesse! #orre#tly&
;@ | P a g e
Chapter: :
%ATA A#A;YSIS
;C | P a g e
>ATA AFA/YSIS
1A /rom *here do &o. get in'ormation a0o.t the ne* prod.!t4
Ans*ers #oA o' respondents
Television 83
#e*spapers 3<
Maga,ines 00
Internet <
(eers 5/amil& F /riends6 0;
Interpretation:
A large si+e o pop$lation is inl$en#e! %y Tele"ision an! Fe)spapers&
<0 | P a g e
"A 3hi!h 'orm o' advertisement do &o. li2e more4
Ans*ers #oA o' respondents
Still image [email protected]
Moving image ?3
Interpretation:
People are more ae#te! %y a!"ertisement )ith mo"ing image&
<0 | P a g e
7A /or &o. advertisement is a so.r!e o' :
Ans*ers #oA o' respondents
Inormation <3
Entertainment [email protected]
Interpretation:
More n$m%er o people #onsi!er a!"ertisement as a so$r#e o
inormation rather than a so$r#e o entertainment&
<3 | P a g e
8A %oes entertaining advertisement a''e!t &o.r opinion a0o.t the
prod.!t4
Ans*ers #oA o' respondents
Yes 3<
Fo ?8
Interpretation:
Entertaining a!"ertisement !oes not ae#t the opinion o #$stomer a%o$t
the pro!$#t
<4 | P a g e
9A %oes in'ormation provided in advertisement a''e!ts &o.r opinion
a0o.t the prod.!t4
Ans*ers #oA o' respondents
Yes @?
#o 04
Interpretation:
Inormation pro"i!e! in the a!"ertisement ae#t "ery m$#h on the opinion o
#ons$mers a%o$t the pro!$#t&
<8 | P a g e
%oes lang.age .sed in advertisement a''e!ts &o.r opinion a0o.t the
prod.!t4
Ans*ers #oA o' respondents
Yes :7
#o 7G
Interpretation:
/ang$age $se! in the a!"ertisement ae#ts a lot on the opinion o
#ons$mers a%o$t the pro!$#t&
<; | P a g e
:A %oes presen!e o' an& !ele0rit& in the advertisement a''e!ts &o.r
opinion a0o.t the prod.!t4
Ans*ers #oA o' respondents
Yes <C
#o 40
Interpretation:
Presen#e o any #ele%rity ae#ts on the opinion o #ons$mers a%o$t the
pro!$#t&
<< | P a g e
GA %oes intensit& o' the advertisement a''e!ts &o.r opinion a0o.t the
prod.!t4
Ans*ers #oA o' respondents
Yes ;3
#o [email protected]
Interpretation:
The ee#t o intensity is "ery po)er$l on the opinion o #ons$mers
a%o$t the pro!$#t&
<? | P a g e
HA %oes presen!e o' so!ial iss.es in the advertisement a''e!ts &o.r
opinion a0o.t the prod.!t4
Ans*ers #oA o' respondents
Yes ;C
#o 80
Interpretation:
Presen#e o so#ial iss$es in a!"ertisements ae#ts "ery m$#h on the
opinion o #ons$mers a%o$t the pro!$#t&
<@ | P a g e
IA %o &o. thin2 advertisement helps in in!reasing sales o' an&
prod.!t4
Ans*ers #oA o' respondents
Yes @?
#o 04
Interpretation:
A!"ertisement helps "ery m$#h in in#reasing the sales o any pro!$#t&
<C | P a g e
1EA3hi!h t&pe o' advertisement in'l.en!es &o. more4
Ans*ers #oA o' respondents
#ational advertisement ?<
;o!al advertisement 38
Interpretation:
Fational a!"ertisements ae#t people5s opinion more than the lo#al
a!"ertisements&
?0 | P a g e
Chapter: G
RESU;TS J /I#%I#=S
?0 | P a g e
RESU;TS J /I#%I#=S
 A!"ertisements )ith mo"ing image are more ee#ti"e than
a!"ertisement )ith still image&
 Inormation pro"i!e! in the a!"ertisement has more inl$en#e on
#ons$mer5s per#eption a%o$t the pro!$#t&
 /ang$age $se! in the a!"ertisement also plays important role in
in#reasing ee#ti"eness o an a!"ertisement&
 Intensity o a!"ertisement ae#ts the per#eption o #ons$mers to)ar!s
the pro!$#t an! lea!s them or its p$r#hase&
 So#ial iss$es in#l$!e! in a!"ertisement ae#ts the per#eption o high
age gro$p people&
 Fational a!"ertisement has more inl$en#e on #ons$mer5s per#eption
a%o$t the pro!$#t instea! o lo#al a!"ertisement&
 A!"ertisement in#reases the sales o any pro!$#t
?3 | P a g e
Chapter: H
C$#C;USI$# J SU==ESTI$#S
?4 | P a g e
C$#C;USI$#
In to!ay5s )orl! )hi#h is ast mo"ing H !ynami#, people5s )ants, nee!
an! !esires are #hangingB it5s "ery important to kno) them an! gi"e them )hat
they )ant& This is the main o%-e#ti"e o a!"ertising )here a! agen#y plays
ma-or role in market resear#h, making o #reati"e, la$n#hing it in the market,
taking the ee!%a#k o #ons$mer an! making any pro!$#t amo$s an!
a##epta%le among #ons$mers& A! agen#ies are playing an important role in
shaping present an! $t$re o not -$st sele#te! %ran! %$t o entire #ompany&
There is no one ,, s$re,ire ,, %est )ay to a!"ertise yo$r pro!$#t or
ser"i#e& It is important to e(plore the "ario$s a!"ertising me!ia an! sele#t
those )hi#h )ill most ee#ti"ely #on"ey yo$r message to yo$r #$stomers in a
#ost,ei#ient manner& Al)ays remem%er, a!"ertising is an in"estment in the
$t$re o yo$r %$siness&
?8 | P a g e
SU==ESTI$#S
 A!"ertisement sho$l! %e ma!e )ith keeping the !eterminants o
ee#ti"eness in min!&
 A!"ertisement sho$l! %e a##or!ing to the pro!$#t an! its s$ita%ility )ith
!ierent age gro$ps&
 To make a!"ertisement more ee#ti"e all the !eterminants o
ee#ti"eness sho$l! %e taken #are o&
 In"estment in a!"ertisement sho$l! %e ma!e )ith great #are o me!ia o
a!"ertisement an! type o a!"ertisement&
 A!"ertisers sho$l! !e"elop ne) an! more ee#ti"e )ays o
a!"ertisement&
?; | P a g e
RE/ERE#CE
-oo2s
0& A!"ertising Management I #on#epts an! #ases Mahen!ra Mohan&
3& Marketing Management I Philip =otler
4& 2ran!ing I Deorey Ran!oll
8& Strategi# 2ran! Management I =aperer
;& A!"ertising an! Sales Promotion Management I S&/&D$pta, V&V&Ratra
<& A!"ertising an! Salesmanship I P&Sara"ana"el&
Internet
0& )))&%ooks&google&#om
3& )))&a!age&#om
4& )))&pa$l%eelen&#om
8& )))&!e#isionanalyst&#om
?< | P a g e
BUESTI$##AIRE
Fame7 OOOOOOOOOOOO&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
Se(7 a& Male P Q %& *emale P Q
Age7
a& 2elo) 30 P Q
%& 30 to 40 P Q
#& 40 to 80 P Q
!& A%o"e 80 P Q
'##$pation7
a& St$!ent P Q
%& 2$siness #lass P Q
#& Go$se hol! P Q
!& Ser"i#e #lass P Q
0& *rom )here !o yo$ get inormation a%o$t the ne) pro!$#tE
a& Tele"ision P Q
%& Fe)spapers P Q
#& Maga+ines P Q
!& Internet P Q
e& Peers 9rien!s6amily: P Q
3& .hi#h orm o a!"ertisement !o yo$ like moreE
a& Still image 9Maga+ines 6 Fe)spapers: P Q
%& Mo"ing image 9Tele"ision 6 Internet: P Q
4& *or yo$ a!"ertisement is a so$r#e o
a& Inormation P Q
%& Entertainment P Q
8& >oes an entertaining a!"ertisement inl$en#es yo$r opinion a%o$t the
pro!$#tE
a& Yes P Q
%& Fo P Q
?? | P a g e
;& >oes inormation pro"i!e! in a!"ertisement ae#ts yo$r opinion a%o$t
the pro!$#tE
a& Yes P Q
%& Fo P Q
<& >oes lang$age $se! in a!"ertisement ae#ts yo$r opinion a%o$t the
pro!$#tE
a& Yes P Q
%& Fo P Q
?& >oes presen#e o any #ele%rity in the a!"ertisement ae#ts yo$r opinion
a%o$t the pro!$#tE
a& Yes P Q
%& Fo P Q
@& >oes intensity o the a!"ertisement ae#ts yo$r opinion a%o$t the
pro!$#tE
a& Yes P Q
%& Fo P Q
C& >oes presen#e o so#ial iss$es in the a!"ertisement ae#ts yo$r opinion
a%o$t the pro!$#tE
a& Yes P Q
%& Fo P Q
00&>o yo$ think a!"ertisement helps in in#reasing sales o any pro!$#tE
a& Yes P Q
%& Fo P Q
00&.hi#h type o a!"ertisement inl$en#es yo$ moreE
a& Fational a!"ertisement P Q
%& /o#al a!"ertisement P Q

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