Electronic Commerce - developing countries

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Electronic Commerce: Some implications for firms and workers in developing countries
Dip Mgt., MIM (SL), MITD (SL), MBA (SGU), Dip B (BPUSL), AIB (SL) The potential of eCommerce is no more a matter of debate. From the world of hype and fantasy it has moved into that of digital reality. Electronic commerce looms large on the horizons of tomorrow, and it promises to transform trade and industry in ways not yet imagined or comprehended. Its impact of course is expected to go far beyond commerce to affect the lives of millions of Internet users, consumers, workers and producers. For several developing countries it continues to be perceived as a double-faced blessing one promising and the other threatening. Since eCommerce already does a nd will continue more and more to affect the eco nomic relations betw een and w ithin countr ies and com panies, it has to be seen as a matter of key policy consideration1. For the de veloping countries a nd their firms, the biggest issue and fear is not the lack of knowledge and expertise in introducing and engaging in it, but more so of not. To d o so it is important to have a basic understanding and appreciation of its potential, the framework for its operation and the possib le impac t it could have on the econ omy, in genera l and firms and w orkers in particular. The objectives and structure of this paper attempt to tackle these issues. Section one describes eCommerce to day and its potential as w ell as the pres ent status of its d evelopm ent in the South. Section two raises the questions of technology and standards in the context of the ‘info-structure’ that is the necessary ingredient for the growth of eCommerce. It discusses the need in developing countries to establish the required legal and financial framework and to promo te the building of the required human resources fo r the prom otion of eCommerce. This is followed in Sect ion three by an assessment of the impact that eCommerce is having on firms in developing countries and raises some potential benefits and challenges that governments and firms in the South should be aware of. In Section four, some policy issues for workers and employment are outl ined, which the lack of sufficient data and research prevent from being elaborated or analysed. The final part of the paper lists out the possible future research and policy agenda in this area, particularly for international agencies and especially for the ILO.

Compiled by Rohan Wickremasinghe

Understanding the Internet
All sorts of electronic trading technologies have been hailed as purveyors of econom ic transformation: credit cards , automa tic teller mac hines, teleph one bank ing, electron ic data interchange (EDI), etc. All these too are forms of electronic commerce, and all have changed their own markets in sometimes radical ways. However the Internet alone has the potentia l to deliver what the notion of electronic commerce had always implied. For the first time, in the history of trade and electronics, the Internet promises to give direct access and control over buying and selling transactions to just about everyone from the individual investor to the casual shopper. The Internet extends beyond the transaction itself to everything that comes before and after, from m arketing an d produc t display to order-tracking and sometimes even delivery. And unlike the comm ercial online services, which reserve their services for their subscrib ers and selected merchants, the Internet is open to everyone. The Internet is basically a vast and ever increasing network of computers across the globe that are interconne cted over e xisting telecommunication n etworks. S imply described , it is a, or the, network of networks. The Internet has changed much in the tw o decades since it cam e into existence. It was conceived in the era of tim e-sharing, b ut has surviv ed into the era of personal computers,

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client-server and peer-to-peer computing, and now the network computer. It started as the creation of a small band of dedicated researchers, and has grown to be a comm ercial success with billions of dollars of annual investment. It is still evolving and changing. Although a network in name and geography, it is a creature of the computer, not the traditional network of the telephone or television industry. It will, therefore continue to change and evolve at the speed of the computer industry. It is now changing to p rovide suc h new ser vices as rea l time trans port, in order to support, for exa mple, audio a nd vide o stream s. The av ailability of perv asive n etwor king (i.e . the Internet) along with powerful affordable comp uting and com munications in p ortable form (i.e., laptop computers, two-way pagers, PDAs, cellular phones), is making possible a new paradigm of restless computing and communications. This evolution will bring us more and more new applications among them, Internet telephony, Internet on mobile telephone and, also Internet television. New modes of access and new forms of service will spawn new applications, which in turn w ill drive further evolution of the net itself. Economic dimensions of the Internet The ability of the Internet to bring tog ether distant p arts of the w orld in a glob al electronic market place and information exchange has a far-reaching and potentially beneficial impact on both developing and industrialised economies. Today, there are an estimated 148 million Internet users, wi th recorded double-digi t growth rates in many emerging economies. It is estimated that the numbe r of persons connected to the Internet today well surpass 300 million, closing the gap on the 700 m illion or so connected to the telephone.3 It is calculated that there are some 4 3 million Internet ho sts4 world-wide, facilitating a dramatic increase in the volume of trade and econ omic inf ormatio n available online. The overall level of electronic commerce, or
where the ISPs or Portals providing information will begin to provide all services, too.

business transaction s conduc ted via the In ternet and p rivate com mercial n etworks, was estimated at US$ 8 to 9 billion in 1997. Researchers have forecasted that this figure co uld rise to as much as US$ 400 billion (or even over 1 trillion) by 2002, as businesses an d consum ers throughout the world expand their online commercial activities.5

And where is it all going?
This communication revolution is having a profound effect on the way the world will develop and the way it will do business in the future. Some of the areas where ch anges are most like ly to take place are: As networks grow, distance will no more be a major factor in costing comm unications.6 Companies will thus locate their digital productions wherever they access the best bargains of skills and find best financial or tax arrangements. Giant corporations will emerge but so will sm all enterprises, able to offer similar services at lower costs (for developin g countries this will mean great opportunities, on the one hand, and greater dange r from the transnation als on the other). Middlemen and ag ents will probably be replaced by the ‘infomediaries’7 on the Intern et. Large manufacturers will also transform into service providers, thereby cutting off local services on the one hand, as well as blurring the distinction between the goods and services sector on the othe r. Successf ul comp anies will be those that us e digital tools a nd the Inter net. As information proliferates, its access by the developing world will become easier-though its use may possibly becom e more d ependan t. All inform ation is ultim ately linked to some technology (or ideology). In making use of it, reliance on the developed world as well as greater control of intellectual property could lead to greater dependence but perhaps also to greater interdependence. Movements of natural persons could also decline, as eCommerce will provide local opportunities and networks in developing countries and themselves. English will (and already is) emerge as the language of the Internet and eCommerce.

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Understanding eCommerce
ECommerce has been simp ly defined a s conductin g business on-line. OE CD def ines electron iccommerce as a new way of conducting business qualifying it as business occurring over networks which use non-proprietary protocols that are established through an open standard setting process such as the Internet8. This definition distinguishes it from the earlier EDI type proprietary based netw orks or Intra nets that w ere not based on an open (and therefore not cost effective) inform ation in frastruc ture like the Inter net. In the World Trade Organisation (WTO) Work Programme on Electron ic Commerce, it is understood to mean the production, distribution, marketing, sale or delivery of goods and services by electronic m eans. A commercial transaction can be divided into three main stages: the advertising and searching stage, the ordering and payment stage and the delivery stage. Any or all of these may be carried out electronically and may therefore be covered by the concept of ‘electronic commerce’.
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DISSUSSION PAPERS NO 123

Broadly defined, electronic commerce encompasses all kinds of commercial transactions that are concluded over an electronic medium or network, essentially, the Internet. E-commerce is meant to cover three main areas of transaction, i.e. business-to-consumer (B2C), and businesstobusiness (B2B ) and business-to-gov ernment (B2 G).
This ranges from the use of email and instant chat on the Internet to EDI (Electronic Data Interchange)and automated supply chains. EDI has a role here both at the level of business to business as well as by governments in providing quicker and smoother trade transaction efficiencies for business by using EDI for customs clearance, trade procedures, etc. Business that is based on information technology and linked through a network for digital transmission and exchange. Network linked service centres that customers can access through the Internet for information, guidance, maintenance and services such as bookings, reservations, software support etc. Digital commerce is the term used to describe goods, services and digitised transactions that are completed and supplied on-line Term referring to transactions and communication on a network and in real-time (i.e. connected together with little or no loss of transaction time).

From a business point of view , eComm erce is not limited to the purch ase of a product. It includes, besides e-m ail and other com munic ation platform s, all inform ation or serv ices that a company may of fer to its custom ers over the Internet, from pre-purch ase inform ation to aftersale service and suppo rt9. There are e ssentially two major u ses of eCommerce. The firs t one is to use it to reduce transaction costs by increasing efficiency in the use of time and procedures.10 Secondly, to use it both as a marketing tool to increase sales (and customer services) as well as to create new business th rough it -- for example, IT enabled business11, call-centres12, software and maintenance services as well as ‘digital com merce’13. It is thus a tool for both existing businesses as well as an opportunity for new business, bo th for existing compa nies as we ll as for new entrants. Alth ough the f uture of eCommerce ma y still be unpr edictable, it is importa nt to note that possibly in a short span of time, all businesses will need to know how to make use of it -- much as most businesses had to learn to adapt to the phone and fax, only more so if trade transaction and supply chains become digital and on-line.14 Ecommerce, however, is more than just electronics and com merce adde d together. It represents an entirely new way of doing business over a medium that changes the very rules of doing business. It is therefore far more about strategy and business management than it is about technology. In orde r to und erstand eCom merc e and its implic ations fo r develo ping co untries it is important to see it from the perspective of the transactional aspects of eCommerce, those that represent the business betwee n the different players, as well as the framework aspects, those basic requirements that are needed in developing countries for it to develop.

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ECommerce and developing countries
There already exists a large development gap and differences between the North and South. Developing countries therefore fa ce a distinct c hallenge in order to realize the promises inherent in this new technological development. The task is two-fold: a. how to equip developing countries to benefit from and use the Internet as a tool for development; and b. secondly, how to ensure and manage the growth and development of the Internet as a public good and utility that would also promote development. The former is a developmental challenge and requires investmen ts in the infrastructure of telecommunications, in the Information Technology (IT) industry to ensure the easy and affordable availability of computers and software, and in training and Internet literacy. The latter is more of an international regime challenge which involves the growth and regulation of the Intern et and its facilitie s or at a globa l level.15
With Internet traffic having overtaken world telephone traffic, the world’s 13 biggest Internet access providers are all American, with British Telecom, Europe’s biggest, bringing up the rear in 14th place.(Data Communications, Paris, No. 1., October 1998, quoted in Riches on the Information Highway, Le Monde Diplomatique, May, 1999). 17 US domination of the world economy and its new technological revolution - that of communications, is now a predictable scenario. Several factors explain this advantage. They range from its long history of multi-channel television, low phone line costs, strong intellectual-property industry (movies, music, software), English language and the experience with long-distance mail-order business (Cairncross, 1997).

The Internet is a social and economic fabric, ostensibly created by people for the sake of human communication and interaction. It provides new areas for cultural expression and experimentation in a global socio-econom ic environmen t. Basically it allows for more interactive and innov ative way s for people to do wha t they do in ‘re al life’. Thus the Internet is but an extension of human ingenuity and creativity, “the most precise mirror of people as a whole that we’ve yet had (Lanier, 1998: 60). However, while the image of the Internet as a mirror is accurate, it is still no t a mirror o f people as a whole. Th e fact that on ly an estim ated 5-10% of the content o n the Intern et is of non-W estern origin while the d eveloping world population represents more than half of the world’s population indicates how far the Intern et is from true cultural and global diversity. This is a serious issue, in view of the potential importance of the Internet for all spheres of life everywhere, and because of the trend for the facility to be increasingly dominated by a few countries and private companies.16 ECommerce today rem ains mo stly a US17 and Western based activity, though connectiv ity has significantly improved in many parts of the developing world -- for example, nearly every capital city in Africa en joys some level of In ternet access today. Ho wever, there are still significant disparities in the level of Internet penetration across regions, which can have profound implications for an indiv idual coun try’s ability to p articipate in th e global ele ctronic market place. Between low and high-income regions is evident from the chart below.18
Access to telecommunication is often measured by "teledensity" which gives the number of main telephone lines per 100 inhabitants. About a quarter of the world's countries have a teledensity of less than one and another 47 countries only have between 1.4 to 8.6 main telephone lines per 100 inhabitants. This should be compared with a teledensity of between 27.8 and 68.3 for a group of 46 countries with the highest number of main telephone lines per 100 inhabitants

Developing countries (and their SMEs) lag far behind developed country markets in the availability of the technical pre-requisites for conducting electronic commerce. The gaps in the two main req uireme nts for Intern et, i.e. telephone and computer availability highlight the difference. For example, 65 per cent of households in the wor ld have no telephone, whereas 90 per cent of households in high income countries have a telephone19. The personal computer ratio per 100 inhabitants is 18 for high-income countries, 2.3 for medium-income and just 0.1 for low-income20. Developed countries today have 312 ISPs (Internet Service Providers) per 10,000 people compared to just six ISPs per 10,000 people in developing countries21. In the United States, roughly one in three p ersons uses the Internet, com pared to only one in e very 10,000 in South Asia. Teledensity (main lines per 100 inhabitants) is 48 for developed countries, 10 for middle income and 1.5 for the least developed countries (LDCs). Furthermore, in developing countries telecommunications services are often unreliable, high cost or both.

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There are also enormous differences in access to telecommunications both betw een and w ithin developing countries. Fo r instance, w hile in developing countries a considerable proportion and somet imes the majo rity of the po pulation live s in rural area s, over 80 pe r cent of the m ain telephone lines are located in urban areas. Statistics show that the number of websites developed by commercial enterprises has grown from just 30 at the end of 1993, to 325,000 at the end of 1996 and to 12 million today22. The overall level of electronic commerce, or business transactions conducted via the Internet and private commercial networks, could rise to as much as US$ 400 billion or even over US$ 1 trillion, by 2002, as businesses and consumers throughout the world expand their online commercial activities23. Grow th is not e xpecte d to be confined to the developed world alone and is predicted to be particula rly high for developing countries in Asia where the projections for 2001 are: for China - $850m ; for India - $160m; for Malaysia - $1000m; for Singapore $800m; for Philippines - $200m; and for Indonesia - $200m. Whether these figures are just hype or based on real data, and whether they consist of existing business and trade or are additional to it are key issues. Unfortunately, it is not possible to predict accurately the future growth and percent of world trade that will be conducted through eCom merce. It is, howev er, possible to say that it will be an important and growing component of trade and figures and estimates cited above, though speculative, illustrate the trend towards the growing importance and potential of eCommerce. Strategies in developing countries Attem pts in developing countries to develop eCommerce are underway in nearly every economy, but eCommerce is still not considered a significant market driving force. Those currently involved are either entrepreneurial risk-takers or larg er corpora te entities ded icated to a long-term investment. They are also mostly targeted at Western markets with little regard for regional harmonisation or interconnections between developing countries. They are mostly for business-to-business rather than b usiness-to-consumer transactions and have generated few success stories as yet wh ich have not been much pub licized better. For developing c ountry governments to address these issues, it is important to distinguish between IT policy a nd prom otion and eCommerce str ategies. M any state initiatives seem to blur and confuse this issue. Where as promotion o f the Information T echnology indu stry fundam entally refers to developing both the hardware and software IT industry, it is important to note that eCommerce is by no means limited to only that industry. EComm erce, besides IT and digital comm erce, in fact encomp asses all trade and com merce and the refore impacts the entire econom y. This is im portant to be ar in mind when fo rmulatin g plans for eCommerce in developing countries. As eCom merce grow s across the global econo my, it will becom e more and more necessary for existing ind ustry and tra de to switc h too and u se the poten tial of this medium to not just gro w but eve n to survive. Today this may not seem to be the case as it is still small compared to world-wide trade and commerce but the writing is clear for the future.

Some framework issues for developing countries
For several developing countries eCommerce remains a dream they would like to realise. But neither are they convinced of the need to div ert scare resources to its development nor are they sure of what the y need to d o to realize it. Th e answer to the first issue requires policy research and sharing of examples of success between developing countries. International agencies must help them in both regards24. But it is important to emphasize that developing countries cannot afford to wait for complete and definitive answers. Global compet it ion and the new economy are not going to wait for any economy or industry. The compulsions of today and the fears of tomorrow impel developing countries to address the second issue of engaging and promoting eCommerce. To do so, they will need to address some of the following key issues.

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Info-structure including technology and standards
The introduction and rapid spread of the Internet has established electronic commerce as an important means of carrying out commercial transactions. In this context, electronic commerce is a result of the large techn ological ad vances tha t have bee n made in the last dec ade or so in facilitating telecommunications and transmitting information. The electronic commerce revolution, however, is dependent on several key preconditions. The first one is the widespread availability of the Internet. For developing countries, access to modern telecommunication systems is perhap s the defining elem ent of electronic com merce. A w ell functioning, mod ern telecommunication infrastructure and a satisfactory distribution of electricity, along with access to comp uter hardw are, softwa re and serv ers are the ba sic technica l requirem ents for elec tronictransactions. For eCommerce to be successful and grow, the hardware and physical infrastructure are not enough. What is required is an ‘info-structure’ meaning the framework and environment for eCommerce that includes the appropriate legal and financial framework, the political and business environment conducive to its development and the capacity or human resource to deal in it.
Issues such as domain names, address management and certification authorities would affect trade and commerce.

Issues of technology and standards for eCommerce and developing countries
As far as the fast emerging tech nologies and standard s for the Internet and ECommerce are concerned, developin g countries have hard ly any say to day. Most of the de velopm ents in technology and standards are taking place essentially in the private sector l aboratories of the North. A truly global information infrastructure (GII) which makes possible the electronic exchange of information about products and services, buy and sell orders and financial transactions is another pre-requisite to the development of global electronic commerce. The International Telecommunications Union at Geneva is working towards this end. One of the ITU's strategic goa ls is to develop standards for the Global Information Infrastructure (GII). The ITU's current standardisation work program covers a vast array of subjects including: the overall a rchitecture o f the GII; multim edia com munic ation system s; comm unication s ystem se curity; privacy tec hniques fo r multim edia term inals; a technica l framew ork for elec tronic com merce; GII access is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the developme nt of electron ic commerce. It is essential to create a policy and regulatory environment that favours the development of ECommerce and harmonises national approaches in diverse areas including telecommunications, trade, com petition, intellec tual proper ty, privacy a nd security . The ITU is bringing various partners together to und ertake pilot p rojects in dev eloping co untries to demonstrate the benefits of electronic commerce to the user communities of these nations . It also seeks to serve as a forum (through workshops, conferences, and seminars) to address policy issues related to electronic commerce in developing countries. Such initiatives need to be replicated by several other internation al bodies tha t deal with tra de, industry and deve lopme nt. Involvement of the developing countries and assistance to them for improving their expertise and infrastructure are some of the key requirements of the future. As matters of technology and standards get hopefully resolved at the international level by organisations such as the ITU, developm ent of com munic ation infrastru cture interna lly will remain particularly important and a major issue for developing countrie s. The key to this is the telecom network of the coun tries concer ned. Proac tive and su pportive p olicies are ne cessary to reap the benefits of this emerging opportunity. Today the South is virtually excluded from standard setting and the technological developm ents in the ICT sector by virtue of not having the experience and expertise in hightech

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information and communication technology. Standards and technology are both growing and changing so rapidly that keeping pace with them is an issue in itself. Developing countries may benefit by the market and international bodies/associations (The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Num bers (ICCAN), for example) setting and formulating standards. But the obvious danger is that if they have no say on these matters (no develo ping coun try is represented in ICCANN), they will be unab le to avert the possible advers e implic ations of the resulting standards for their economies.

2.2 Legal and financial framework
Legal framework Electronic commerce has been in use for many years, under the auspices of many different technologies, including telegraph, telex, fax, interactiv e telephon e, e-mail, priv ate data exchanges (such as EDI, ATM transfers and wholesale funds transfers) and the Inte rnet. ECommerce embraces far more than just the Internet. When states consider le gislation to support eCommerce, they need to consider that they will affect trading practices in many diverse communities and practices, m any of w hich ma tured long before the In ternet. There could be many things that developing countries might want to regulate on the Internet. These could include content s uch as pornography and incitement to racial hatred, as well as consumer protection, the defence of intellectual-property rights and tax ation. These are all issues on w hich these c ountries leg islate already . The existing rules and law s would and should apply to the Internet and eCommerce. The problem is, however, how to regulate it. This is both a policy and research issue. So far as the development of eCommerce is concerned, the main issue that developing countries need to address is how to make their legal framework conducive to eCommerce transactions. The UNCITRAL26 Model Law on electronic commerce is one such standa rd framewo rk for resolving the contrac tual issues an d obstacles related to eCommerce. Several developing cou ntries are considerin g adopting it or legislating directly themselves while several already have done so. The basic principle be ing follow ed is that of “e quivalenc e of treatm ent between paper and electronic communication. This is easiest and quickest done by adapting the existing leg al system to an eCommerce enviro nment. Financial framework issues One of the main concerns of developing countries are the perceived dangers of foreign exchange outflow on account of eCommerce, i.e. through the purchase of goods abroad. A study in this regard indicated the following: This study app ears to indica te that the hig her the development of eCommerce within the region/country, the higher w ill be the purchases from within. In order therefore to encourage eCommerce develo pment, banking procedures within developing countries need also to be aligned and m ade com patible w ith digital trad e transactions, so that consumers and buyers can easily m ake purch ases locally through th e Internet.
A possible utilisation of the ‘bit tax’ concept could even be to levy a charge on all digital transactions for creating a global development fund. On-line transactions could of course be between different sites located in different countries, but since it would probably be the suppliers that would be targeted for taxation, they could locate their site in a tax haven.

Along with changes in contract and company law, eCommerce would also require a financial and bank ing fram ework th at allows fo r electronic paym ents and tra nsfers. This w ould include requirements for certification of documents, electronic signatures, confidentiality and privacy. Therefore developing countries will need to put in place both the electronic network (between financial institu tions) as w ell as the legal framework to allow for such transactions. Banking law s and re gulatio ns thus need to be adju sted to th e new form ats and requirements.

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Tariff and taxation
The most contentious problem with eCommerce arises when the transaction has taken place purely in a digitized format - i.e., where all parts of the transaction have been completed ‘online’ in digital or computerized format and no goods have directly passed through a recognized customs or domestic tax point. Where eCommerce has been used only to communicate and set up a transa ction and th e actual deliv ery is by reg ular mea ns, the existing tax and du ty regulations and procedures continue to apply and can be monitored. For digital supplies the problem for the authorities is to monitor or even be aware that a transaction has taken place. One possible response would be to introduce the so-called “bit tax (i.e., a tax on the “bits of information zoo ming aroun d compute r networks).27 The basic problem with a ‘bit tax ’ is that it is indiscriminate. It taxes not just on-line transactions but all digital communications, from email to information gathering. Also the question of valuation would be difficult to determine. More important, it is argued that such taxation will crush the development of eCommerce and stunt its growth. If implemented in some countries, it would simply drive business off-shore and on-line transactions would take place in a state or country where there is no such tax.28 So what other option is there for governments? The unpleasant alternative is that, in coming years, governm ents will pro bably be fo rced to shift fu rther their exis ting tax base or find wa ys to monitor and tax eComm erce transactions. Taxation issues have a bearing on the very foundations and growth potential of any econom ic idea. In th e case o f eCom merc e, the ramifications are global and affect the v ery concept and developm ent of eCom merce, as well as the p olicy that each develop ing country would need to adopt regarding its foreign trade and internal taxation. This is of importance as for most developing countries, domestic taxes and import and export duties continue to be a primary source of revenue.

Building the human resource
Electronic commerce is changing the way we do business. We have moved from an industrial economy where machines d ominated pro ductivity, to an information -based econom y where intellectual content is the domin ant source of value ad ded and w hich know s no geog raphic boundaries. In this new environment, education and continuous learning will be essential not only for mana gers and wor kers but for all. As industry, commerce, and services are transformed by technology, many skills need to be improved or acquired. If developing countries are to benefit from this new technological and economic boom that the growth of eCommerce represents, they will need to have the most important component - the human resource, in place. Today’s knowledge revolution largely depends on intellectual capital. Some developin g countries and som e sections of most de veloping countries h ave this in
Developing countries like India, Jamaica, Singapore etc. have been witnessing a ‘brain-drain’ of their English speaking engineering and other graduates to the West mostly the US. Today opportunities of eCommerce and the new digital economy are bringing back some of these now engineers-turned-entrepreneurs to their countries of birth to set up new eCommerce joint ventures. To integrate into the global economy, developing countries should not be wary of churning out more and more skilled personnel, even though dangers of losing them to other markets may exist.

abundance and opportunities of the new economy could provide them w ith excellen t results29. On the other hand, there are many that are far behind in this area and therefore need very proactive policies and investm ent in educ ation (espec ially technic al) to realise the potential. After all to be e-literate, citizens first need to be literate. As eCommerce develops and the more advan ced stag es of commercial ex chang e (i.e., contracting, paymen t reconciliatio n and aud iting.) are carried out electron ically, mo re specific skills are going to be required . Even for surfing the Internet for a product or service, basic familia rity with the computer and knowledge of the Internet is needed. Moreover, extensive language knowledge (especially English) may be an additional requirement if foreign Internet sites are to be browsed . From w ebsite desig n, to electronic credit management and software and hardware maintenance - all require skills that may not be so easily available in several developing countries. C apacity building in the field of information technology, in the knowledge of the existence of a global market for such skills, is therefore crucial. The

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development of electronic commerce puts a premium on the development of education and training policies, to ensure that training institutions' curricula meet with the needs of industry. The training needs should firstly focus on activities in the area of human resource development for electronic commerce, in particular through the training of trainers. Th ree main targets could be focused upon initially, namely: a. Policy makers and negotiators. b. Small and medium -sized enterprise managers and trade practitioners. c. Technicians and workers, including specialists in electronic data interchange and the Internet. The areas to be covered could be: Conceptual and quan titative analys es of the impact of electronic commerce on trade and d evelopm ent. Organization of regional seminars to raise the level of awareness of developing countries, trade and industry associations and labour unions about the possibilities and challenges of electronic commerce, as well as about the current state of specific debates (proposals for a global framework for electronic commerce, international negotiations and discussions being held in various institutions, especially the W TO). Production and dissemination of training packages for electronic commerce and The use of modern interactive techniques, including CD-ROM and Internet-based techniques, as well as of distance learning packages, should be encouraged, taking into account local cultural and language specificity. Human resource development is however far more than just training. It is a continuous learning process. For developing countries, the process shou ld begin w ith sensitisation as well as web design and development of commercial applications. Governments should take the initiative to then pass it on to the private sector. Here the state could pursue its efforts in building partnerships with civil society in order to offer proper training tools in the area of electronic commerce. Similarly international organisations such as UNCTAD, UNDP, WTO
The other being B2C (Business to Consumer) and B2G (Business to Government). B2C or retail eCommerce is the one where all the hype has come from as it is novel and touched people directly. Its success however has been rather marginal and even big and popular sites like amazon.com (books)and CDNOW.com (CD sales) are actually losing money. B2G is being considered a major possibility in the future once government procurement turns digital. And ILO also have a responsibility to assist developing countries in this crucial area of advocacy and

human resource development for this new technology. Several of these orga nisations are in fact working towards th is and there fore collabo ration and common programmes with developing countries would be beneficial for the world economy as a whole. Investment and short-term options A climate conducive to investment in general is considered the best way to attract investment into the ICT sector in developing countries. A country open to electronic commerce and new information technologies is likely to attract additio nal interest fro m foreig n investors . Despite the attraction of low production costs, com munications and distance ha ve previou sly discouraged foreign companies from establishing in developing countries. ECommerce may lessen these physical constraints. Active promotion of electronic commerce might, therefore, make foreign firm s more in terested in investing in a variety of sectors, including telecommunications, Internet service provision, professional services and various areas of industrial production. It is importa nt that deve loping cou ntries bear in m ind that massive investments and perfect technolo gical solu tions are not always necessary. Even existing networks can be reengineered and global services for the Internet and eCommerce web sites can be utilised for

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promoting focussed growth, especially in urban concentrations, where the maximum potential for trade and commerce presently exists. An example of one such intermediate strategy is the software export incubator model that India so successfully developed: Satellite earth stations were set up at strategic locations and infrastructure created for s oftware e xporting companies to access, not just space, but dedicated data communication links.

Impact on firms in developing countries
In the next few years the m ain sectors to gain from eCommerce are expected to be computer hardware and software, advertising and marketing, media, publishing and information services, finance, banking, insurance, bro kerage and Internet services, travel and tourism, and entertainment services. As with internation al trade in general, all these sectors are today dominated by multinationals and other enterpr ises from the North 30. However, there are several
emerging opportu nities that bu sinesses in the South ca n look a t and eve n create. A s it is estimated that 80 per cent of the growth in eCommerce will come from Business-to-Business (B2B)31 transactions, opportunities are emerging in global supply chains, which enterprises of the South can attempt to become part of.

Present perceptions in developing country firms
A study by the IFC, Washington in 1998 revealed some interesting facts about actual use of the Internet by developing country firms. The managers and staff in these firms gave the following responses: These responses are typical of the developing world where the present benefits are seen more as for information and e-mail rather than as new business opportunity, and the problem of conne ctivity a nd spe ed are s till issues , beside s access .

Potential benefits and challenges of eCommerce
ECommerce carries the promise of several possible benefits for firms in developing countries. However, along with this potential, also lurk several d angers that must be taken as challenge s to address in the policy and strategies that eac h firm and deve loping country must prepare for itself. Listed below are som e of the implications: An improved IT sector With eCom merce g rowth in developing countries one obvious sector to benefit is going to be the IT industry both hard ware and software. O n the one h and this co uld mean a faster transfer of technology but could also mean that the existing multinationals of IT may alone benefit if the local industry is weak. Some developing countries like India have followed a policy of in itially protecting the local IT industry by encouraging joint ventures with multinationals but keeping the duty on the import of components lower than on the import of computer equipment, thus encou raging local assemb ly and p roduc tion. Improved supply chain management The purchasing and supply chain is cru cial for SM Es becau se some 60 percen t (on averag e) is the cost of inputs and even a 10 percent reduction here through better processes, transform s into a 60 % increase in profits. For the firms in developing countries dealing in the global market some of the comm on problem s are lack of mark et knowledge, poor communication, cumbersome procedures, delays and uncertainties in supply, poor quality and excessive stocks. ECommerce can help so lve som e of these thro ugh better knowledge management, communication and automated supply procedures leading to higher profits and enhanced competitiveness, subject of course to these SMEs also being able to improve their own organisational structures and cultures through a re-engineering process to make themselves ecompatible. The downside is that those firms that do not link up digitally may in t ime be even thrown out of their existing supply chains. Also as global standards develop for such supply,

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entry into the major supply chains may become m ore difficult for newcomers. E-marketplaces and SMEs The past couple of years have shown that large industrial corporations are suddenly enamoured with creating e-marketplaces, or specialized websites dealing with the trading, both up-stream and down-stream, of their raw-materials and products. These are basically B 2B on-lin e marke ts that attempt to bring together the benefits of online trading to specialized commodities. Some of the recent examples that show the wide range of this trend are as follows: General Motors, Ford and DaimlerChrysler are creating the world’s largest emarketplace by linking up their procurement needs on a single online trade exchange. These three alread y accoun t for some $200b n wort h of yea rly purc hases. Renault of France and Nissan and Toyota of Japan have also announced plans to participate. This eexchange could involve literally tens of thousands of suppliers from across the globe. Fifty of the world’s largest consumer product groups have joined together in an emarketplace being co-ordinated by the Grocery Manufacturers of America that is going to bring together rivals such as Procter & Gamble and Unilever, Nestlé and Kraft Foods. Six of the biggest US health insurance companies are developing a health insurance website tentatively called MedUnite to directly enrol and interact with patients and doctors lest th ey be lost to th e new Inte rnet health-c are com panies app earing on th e net. For many of the new entrants, despite their excellent off-line creden tials, these are basically react ions to the new economy and for them to b e successf ul in this new game th ey will need to prepare for the new onl ine world by shunning several of their proprietary trading habits32. The comp anies in volved need to be ready and willing to bring suppliers and customers deep
into their business and purchase processes and to develop similar links with th ose of the ir partners33. Also the lack of appropriate software applications for the wide and new types of emerging e-markets keeps them in what one commentator refers to as an ‘e-commerce kindergarten’ which will mature only when there are new applications, architecture and a revamped vendor community supporting the full trading cycle.

Acquisitions Mergers and acquisitions will not remain in the realm of big-business and the North. Firms in developing countries too will be affected as new opportunities and relationships emerge in the digital economy , both local and across bord ers. The obvious dan ger for developing co untry firms is that the traffic may be one way with firms from the develop ed world taking them over. But this need not be so, as several Indian dot.coms (eCommerce comp anies) and entrepreneurs are showing, arriving in the US Silicon Valley to start joint ventures and start-ups.
ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IMPLICATIONS FOR FIRMS AND WORKERS IN DEVELOPING 19

Distribu tion and delivery benefits Studies show that in develo ping countries delivery and transportation costs are a greater share of total cost of production than in developed countries. ECommerce and EDI-type automated procedures can therefore bring in efficiencies and better distribution. Firms in developing countries need to use these processes as well as to enter the business of delivery services themse lves. If they do not, the danger is that they could be swamped by the international transport services an d courier co mpanies like Fede ral Expres s and UP S for who m busin ess is already expanding exponentially from eCommerce and the growing opportunities of small direct o rders ov er the In ternet. Personalised direct marketing The low costs o f direct ma rketing via th e Internet ha s created a h uge poten tial for person alised direct marketing. This allow s consume rs to order as per personal taste and requirements. In the US it is already a huge and growing industry. It does though lead to problems and issues that go against the norms of brand and mass production on which most existing industry is based. For developing countries’ SMEs, this is a very unique opportunity to gain from this emerging

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market both in exports and in their own local economies, as they would have the advantage of small and relatively cheaper production bases to cater to individual needs. Some eCommerce sites fro m Sin gapor e, Ma laysia a nd Ind ia are be ginnin g to offe r such s ervices . B2G opportunities B2G or busines s to government is an area of eCommerce that is expected to develop and expand in the future as governments begin to realise and utilise the efficiency, cost saving and transparency that the Internet can bring. Such openings would be of great opportunity, especially for SM Es, who a re mostly unawar e and una ble to enter these supply chains presently. There is a danger though that in some countries local political com pulsions an d bureau cratic procedures may prevent such possibi li ties for some time to come. There is also the threat that once this becomes the norm, those firms in developing countries (even if presently in such supply) that are unable to synchronise their procedur es and sup ply man ageme nt system s to eCommerce n orms se t by the proc ureme nt agencies , would los e out. Internet enabled services Firms in developing countries have a competitive advantage for providing eServices (backoffice, call centres, data processing, etc.) as labour costs are lower solving the problem of moving persons abroad. This area is booming in India where, for example, several airline companies such as B ritish Airw ays and S wissair have located their booking services and account reconciliation services there. Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong , Philippines and Jamaica are some of the other countries where similar IT-enabled services are being set up. Besides basic computing skills, the present status of eCommerce requires a good knowledge of English although s oon other Europea n languag es will also command a premium. Even though this is good business as such, for the IT industry and service sector, developing country firms should also have strategies to go up higher in the value chain of the software and eCommerce industry, i.e. by developing and running software, multi-media and IT services domestically as well as for the glo bal mark et. Firms in developin g countries must strategize for this and simultan eously upgrade the skills of their employees through specific HRD and training policies. Death of distance For firms in developing countries, ECommerce can be the bridge to overcoming the drawback of distance from developed markets. ECommerce has the potential for providing world-wide presence for SMEs as the ma rket entry b arriers are low ered enab ling supplie rs to address market segments that were previously uneconomical an d unreach able. They can use the Internet to advertise their products at a global scale an d also set up ‘virtual shops’ at much cheaper cost than actual stores abroad. Of co urse maintenan ce, upgrading and marketing costs are high and also there are issues of security, payments and assured supply w hich need to be add ressed. It needs also to be noted that the same technology can be used by transnationals for accessing local m arkets in develo ping co untries and thr eatenin g the firm s in their own d en. Setting up integ rated v irtual sho p-fronts Virtual shoppin g malls are now common and on several websites. But this is an idea that has also been very successfully tried by some developing country SM Es to great advantag e. It provides the opportu nity to sell toge ther and ga in from a comm on platform much like what a mall does, only much cheaper a nd certainly more ac cessible, pro viding an o pportunity that in fact would not exist in the brick and mortar world for several of these every small businesses. One example of this is the Asian Sources Media Group (ASM), a publishing company based in Hong Kong. The firm ’s Website serve s as a shop-front for m ore than 7,000 As ian suppliers, mostly small-to-medium-sized factories in Hong Kong, China, Taiwan and Korea, selling everything from cheap plastic toys to multimedia electronics. Before their inclusion in the ASM website many of these factories did not even have a personal computer, let alone an Internet connection. ASM provided what they needed, trained them in how to use it, and included them

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in its on-line cata logue of n early 200,0 00 produ cts. Within a year, the A SM sit e was generating more than 50,000 inquires a q uarter, and is n ow runn ing at a pace nearly dou ble that. Since the inquiries go straight to the suppliers, and subsequent negotiations take place directly between buyer and supplier, it is difficult to calculate the volume of business generated, but customers have suddenly emerged in South A merica o r Eastern E urope for A sian firms that previou sly had little or no m eans of sellin g to those m arkets35. Improving service provisioning Consum ers in developing countries may be able to get lower priced items or better services. The possibilities are enormous for firms and innovative new our alternative services can provide more business. As an example in the services area, Pak istan Telecommunications Ltd. the state run monopoly, solv ed the problem of inaccurate telephone number listings in hard-copy directories by setting u p a 24-ho ur on-line d irectory serv ice through the Internet. It is now planning to export this expertise. Services innovation and eComm erce Particularly in the services and expo rt sectors, those firms have be en known to b e more successful that innovate as a matter of competitive survival36. EComme rce provides the best platform for innovativeness. It combines the efficiencies of information technology and software with the glo bal advan tages of the digital econo my. Th ere are seve ral exam ples in developing countries of success stories on account of this. For example Trade Point Beijing, set
Term used for the all service providing large portals that are emerging on the Internet.

up in 1995 by the Chinese local government, besides providing trade data also conve rted to being a ‘one-stop shop’ on fo reign trade to streamline access to the many government departm ents required to be contac ted for the pu rpose. Sim ilar focal poin ts linked electronic ally are being set up in India, Malaysia and Sri Lanka amongst other places. Training and distance learning for firms and workers The Internet has provided a unique medium for firms in developing countries to provide for the upgrading of their worker’s skills. This can help adapt the firms to the new economy. The problem to be surm ounted of course w ill be reliable com munic ation netw orks and a ppropriate teaching and learning skills. Wither the middleman? One of the earliest expectations of eCommerce was that it would reduce the role of middlemen, intermediaries, agents, etc. who would gradually disappear. This was hailed as the process of ‘disintermediation’37 (produ cers selling d irectly to con sumers withou t the aid of in termed iaries). Time
has shown that in fact the old economy middlemen are being replaced by the new economy ‘infomediaries’ 38 who will em erge as the new power-bro kers. Some ‘old econom y’ intermediaries are also adapting to the ch anged env ironment an d may y et survive by offerin g on-line services.

Developing co untry eCommerce p ortals The all-knowing portals are the rage on the Internet. These are websites o r services that offer a broad array of resources and services, such as e-mail, forums, search engines and on-line shopping. In developing countries too several local portals have emerged. South America has examples such as Yupi, Rio-o n-line, Star M edia and The Caribbean Home Page, all providing several services and links. Indonesia has Indobiz.com for business links, Nepal and SriLanka have government run sites and India has several such as Satyam -on-line, Info line, Mall o f India etc. One ver y successf ul exam ple is Africa Online which started in 1994 in Boston, USA, and Nairobi, Kenya, to provide e xpatriate Africans with news of home. It current ly employs some 250 people and has spread to several African countries. It receives 10 million hits per month, and has approximately 150,000 subscribers, comprised mostly of businesses.

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Some policy issues for workers and employment
The new economy model
All businesses associated with communications, information tech nology and eCommerce are encompassed in what is commonly called the "new economy". The implications of this model of econom ic growth a re a matte r of heated d ebate. Rece nt reversals in the so-far rising stock prices of technological companies as opposed to the declining values of the old economy businesses prove that this model not only holds promise (at least for the west) for ushering in prosperity but could also bring about a period of uncharted and messy change. Sim ilarly, there
Defined in economic terms as an economy’s acceptance of a certain level of unemployment, usually between 5 and 6 per cent for a period of time. Euro-FIET, EuroCommerce and European Commission study quoted in International Labour Organization, 1999, Human resource implications of globalization and restructuring in commerce, ILO, Geneva

are several views amongst economists about the fundamentals of the new economy model and how it relates to established doctrines of economic theory. One such principle has been that inflation would rise if unemployment stayed below a 'natural level'39 . In the United States this is not holding good and therefore the conclusion being talked of is either that eCommerce has helped reduce prices or that workers have not yet realised the impact and are therefore not yet actively demandin g a piece of the productivity gains. Further empirical evidence is required for either view. What is clear is that the new “digital economy will have a major impact on the global economy. National markets, especially in developing countries, may not yet be feeling the changes but the waves of the new global competitive environment is likely to effect firms and workers throughout the world. The impact of eCommerce for developing countries toda y is mostly in the interna tional trade se ctor. But eCommerce could soon hav e a vital impact on the services sector, where the potential for offering digitized service and transactions is very high.

ECommerce and employment
In view of the fact that eCommerce itself is an emerging phenomenon and its full impact on the new and old economy remain s mostly in the realm of projections and estim ates, it is difficult to say what the long term effects of eCommerce will be on employment. A study of the European Commission40 published in 1998 co nfirmed that at that time there was no certainty as to what the impact would be. Empirical studies are presently not available and the effect could vary across sectors and regions. Sin ce supply chain management and opportunities in them for SMEs and developing countries are expected to be important, research to analyse the impact of eCommerce a t different stag es of the new chains wo uld be use ful.Some initial stu dies ap pear to i ndicate that wh ile, on the one hand, as the new economy expands new jo bs and new sk ills will b e requir ed and created , especia lly in the IT secto r, in the short-term eCommerce could have a negative impact on jobs as more and more services and skills go digital. On the whole eCommerce enterprises require lesser numbers of worke rs. For exam ple one of the m ost fam ous of eCommerc e enterp rises, Amazon.com had only 614 employees for sales of $148 million in 1998, as against the largest U S book store, Barnes a nd Nob le, which had a sales force of 27 ,200 for sale s of $2.8 billion (converting to sales per em ployee of $ 267,000 in the former compared to $103,000 for the latter). This impact can be negatively measured also in the sense where Federal Express, the world’s largest courier service, reported in 1999 that its on-line customer service system represented a savings of 20,000 new recruitments! Whether this is true for whole economies is not yet established as employment levels in the United States, the most successful country in eCommerce, are at the lowest level in decades. Also for developing countries, the emerging opportunities in the new web-enabled services such as call centres and data entry seem to be highly labour-intensive.

Some implications of the new economy and eCommerce on workers
Globalization is expected to bring more foreign direct investment in developing countries. ECommerce and software development activities in most developing countries initially begun

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through such investment in joint ventures and through collaborations. Such investments do not always mean start-up or greenfield enterprises. As eCommerce increase s in pace its compulsions could result in greater acquisitions of existing firm s in developing cou ntries. In fact the norm in the new economy companies seems to almost be to acquire good existing software and e-Commerce sta rt-ups (T he dot.c oms) rather th an start a fresh. S tudies show that acquired firms are more likely to lose jobs than non-acquired firm s are. Displaced wo rkers often end up with parttime jobs and lower earnings41. It is for this reason that several developing countries have placed conditions on
mergers and acq uisitions. For example, one of the main se ctors where mergers have been particularly volatile in the recent past has been telecommunications. Since telecommunications companies have changed from lumbering, lowgrowth giants into high-tech companies with exploding Internet and mobile businesses, they seem to have developed the urge to merge. In 1999, nine of the top 10 deals in the world have been in telecommunications. This trend is extending to the developing countries also. Can developing countries p revent this, or should they attempt to is the question. If they try to stop it, the danger of being passed-on by multin ational ente rprises is of co urse the risk . In reality, this perceived danger has rather promoted developing countries to enact favourable trade and foreign direct investment policies42 though , of course , with ma tching co mpetition laws.

Similarly for existing firms in developing countries, e Commerce and the new digital economy is bringing n ew com petition and standards o f perform ance that could resu lt in their having to face global pressures of cost and efficiency that may well demand restructuring and dow nsizing of staff. The Internet is also revolutionising relationships and interaction between employees. From e-mail to joint virtual training and global virtual conferences on the internet, sudd enly there is a medium of communication through which workers become collaborators no matter where they may physically be. All this can lead to a completely new form of employee participation and involv ement in manag ement a nd decisio n makin g, be it a SME or a large organization. ECommerce and the Internet is leading to more flexible working hours. Though many of the workers, such as home-based mothers and the young computer whiz-kids may favour such hours (offered to them as ‘f lexit ime’), trade unions tend to not favour such developm ents as they tend to erode labour agreements and existing legislation on working hou rs. Quite obviously the highest premium on skills is and will continue to be on computer engineers, system analysts and data entry operators. These jobs will continue to expand and comm and much higher salaries than other workers. As eCommerce and the new econom y grow, ne w jobs w ill be genera ted also in m ultimedia, network ing, telecom and new comm unication te chnolog ies and pro ducts, as w ell as the new professions of web management that are appearing. There will be a much greater need for in-house training of existing workers so that they become e-literate. This is something that enterprises and deve loping cou ntries need to focus on. Over-all there will be an impact on trade unionism also. Not only will several of the large enterprises see changes in size and performance in the new economy, the terms of employment may also need to be re-negotiated. Moreover, much of the benefits of eCommerce is expected to first be realised by the SMEs where traditionally trade union membership levels are m uch lower.

ECommerce and the informal sector in developing countries
The informal sector43, though mostly unregistered and not adequately monitored or researched, usually provides the largest employment in developing countries. According to the ILO44, there has been a steady growth of this sector in almost all developing countries. In several of these

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areas of employment, the Internet is already having an impact, such as on tourism and travel services, food and restaurants, ha ndicrafts an d souven irs. On the on e hand, it cou ld lead to greater popularity of these places and products for developing countries and therefore provide more employm ent, while, on the other it could divert som e of the trade and servic es to eCom merc e firm s on the Internet. ECommerce by its very nature is creating another type of informal sector out-sourced home-based computing and micro-enterprises offering web-enabled services. For multinational companies eCommerce has dramatica lly increased the possibilitie s of indirectly using skills in the developing countries. The whole gamut of call centre typ e out-sourced digital service s are based on this very concept of locating and utilising cheaper skills. Developing countries sta nd to gain in promoting such services. While it is difficult to say what is and what will ultimately be the relationship between the informal sector and eCommerce and the digital econom y, there is no doubt that an im pact there will be. For the ILO and fo r developing countries especially this is an important area of policy research and must be studied.

Towards a future research and policy agenda
The intent of this p aper is to esta blish a preliminary analysis of s ome of the issues inv olved in eCommerce and its impact on firms and workers in the developing world. Based on this it seeks to provide a fo undation on which further wo rk can be in itiated to develop a research and policy agenda. To do t his, it is necessary to outline some of the existing myths and dilemmas of eCommerce and the new eco nomy that ha ve a bearing on the growth of eCommerce for developing countr ies and their firm s and w orkers. First let us look at some of the myths about the ICT (Information and Communication Technology) industry.

. Some myths and dilemmas
The myth The reality 1. That one needs to have total country-wide internet access before the benefits can accrue in developing countries. In fact for most developing countries, resources will determine that intermediate partial and focused strategies would be required and such initiatives have proved successful. 2. That privatisation is the only key to telecom growth Competition not privatisation necessarily is the key to better service and growth. 3. That you need the latest of technology in your telecom systems. Technology changes so fast that in any case this may not be feasible so adapting existing infrastructure may be more practical. 4. That computer literacy is essential to use the Internet. It is useful but not essential. IT services on government networks, like land-records, licences, weather and agricultural information etc., can be utilised even by illiterate peoples in developing countries. 5. That you need software engineering graduates to start any web based services. For web-designing and network management yes, but not for web-enabled services like call centres, medical transcription, etc. 6. That you must be proficient in the local language to be able to offer eCommerce and IT services in that country. Whereas web-sites and other web-services may

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have their front-end designed in the local language, the back-end services like maintenance, software, technical support do not need to be and are in fact in computer language or English basedmedium. 7. That eCommerce will eventually lead to a ‘friction-free’ economy in which transaction costs disappear, as do the intermediaries of today. Though it is a fact that transition costs are reducing, value-chains and profit taking can assume different models and middle-men of today can be replaced or change to the ‘infomediaries’ of tomorrow. 8. That the choice is between either the market or a government controlled initiative, for promoting and spreading eCommerce in developing countries. In fact there is no choice between the two. For its success in developing countries, both the government and the private sector need pro-active involvement.

In the area of policy research on ICTs there can be dysfunction and issues of controversy and debate that could have a bearing on the strategies of governa nce. Some d ilemmas a re enumera ted here more as ex amples rather than a priority listing of the major issues. Fu ture research in the area of eCommerce and its imp act in deve loping cou ntries need to be seen in such perspective: The supply-chain dilemma Most organisatio ns and stud ies are of the v iew that the principle beneficiaries of eCommerce will be the small and medium enterprise s (SMEs). The reasons for this include the attractiveness of a relatively inexpensive medium (the Internet) for reducing transaction and inform ation costs which the larger firms have already been doing with IT and ED I: flexibility of the SME s in adapting to the new emerging business models of eCommerce; and most of a ll being able to join the global eCommerce based supply chains. As B2B already is and will be, expected to be the main area of growth for eCommerce, the last is probably the most significant of factors. The dilemma is that this very benefit could make the SMEs ever more dependants on larger firms and multinationals thus limiting the other benefits of the new opportunities for them. The cultural dilemma All firms and workers across the globe have a sense of their own societal and organisational culture. Individually, our cultural values provide an unconscious w orld view into wh ich we are socialized and which w e use to socialize others 45. Organisational culture determines impacts on how companies perform and behave in the market place. Most importantly, communication styles vary across the globe and have a bearing on successful trade relat ions between firms46. With eCommerce and the Web, a new global digital culture and new forms of communication are emerging. Firms, especially SMEs, will consequently need to suddenly adapt to this new culture and yet attem pt to retain the ir own spe cial styles and culture that m ake for their uniqueness and innovativeness. Dilemma of democracy: control vs. freedom on the net Democracies are founded on the principle of freedom of expression and choice. In fac t, it is this very special recognition of the individuals right to free expression, free choice of employment and business that is the basis of individual enterprise and entrepreneurship. This has been the backbone of free-market enterprise and innovations well as the hallmark of success of eCommerce. Yet the same Internet that provides the highw ay for the new economy can also be the high-road for new crime, new cyber terrorism and what are referred to as the ‘gigabyte guerrillas’. Where do governmen ts draw the line betwee n freedom and contro l on the Intern et?

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And if they try to, will it stifle the new economy? In the developing countries, for example, India stands ou t as a very successfu l exam ple in the digital economy. As the world’s largest democracy it does not attempt to police the Internet. China, some of the Middle East states, even Singapore and Malaysia still have very strict censorship law s in place. Will these effect future growth? The dilemma of the informal sector and labour codes For developing countries the informal sector is one of the main growth areas. For eCommerce, some of the expa nsion in developing countries will come in the informal sector. By definition these informal working arrangements encompass employment situations and labour relations, which not only differ but often infringe upon established rules. How could international agencies and governments react to this? The main difference of course between the existing informal sector and eCommerce based employment is going to be the level of skill and higher remuneration. Therefore the need to impose labour codes may not be so strong. Moreover since the awareness and e ducation le vels will also be high, sen sitising the new know ledge wo rker to his or her rights should be a relatively easier task. The spill-over effect of eCommerce to the rest of the informal sector could also lead to some improved situations there too.

Issues for a policy and research agenda
Good governance has been on the international development agenda ever since the early 90’s. International and bilateral donors have insisted that their deve loping cou ntry partne rs follow this standard which tho ugh not clearly defined, imp lies that there m ust be transp arency in government decision making, clear procedures and civic participation in the process. Policy on eCom merce s hould be th e results of broad and open national debates. Bodies like the ILO must open up the debate on eCommerce and its implications for labour and employment to further open discussion and research. Civil society , trade and industry associations, labour unions, NGOs all must be invited to participate in the debate. Related to this are the initiatives that have been taken up in severa l governm ents of the S outh for the promotion of Internet and eCommerce in their countries and the partnerships with trade and industry tha t are emerging. These need to be strengthened and here the International Agencies have a role in promoting such partnerships, providing studies and models and disseminating ‘be st practise’ examples for the developing cou ntries to emulate or con sider. Some suggestions for future action and research Governments and international organisations should collect and analyse data relevant to the study of electronic commerce in order to effectively measure its economic and social impa ct. Empirical data on the actual impact of eCommerce across sectors and regions is lacking and as suggested earlier, studies on the impact on employment at different stages of the new eCommerce g lobal supp ly chains w ould be m ost relevan t. Labour is an issue of both social and economic relevance therefore ILO has an important responsib ility here. For ex ample, it m ay be nece ssary to rev iew existin g labour law s to see if there are existing barriers for workers to be able to share in the new and different employment generated by electron ic commerce. It would also have to be seen how far the existing rules and laws would and should apply to the Internet and eCommerce. The problem is also how to regulate. This is both a policy and research issue. International development organisations should study the potentia l impact o f electronic commerce on eme rging econ omies a nd the least developed countries in an effort to assist in the economic development process in those nations. Involvement of the developing countries and assistance to them fo r improv ing their expertise and infrastructure are some

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of the key requirements of the future. International organisations such as UNCTAD, UNDP, W TO and ILO also have a responsib ility to assist the developing countries in the area of advocacy and human resource development for this new technology. Collaboration and common programm es with developing countries would be beneficial for the world economy as a whole. Govern ments and international agencies should continue to promote both formal and nonformal skills-development programs. For eCommerce this means both eWareness and eLiteracy programmes. There will be a mu ch greater need for in-house training of existing workers so that they become e-literate. This is something that enterprises and developing counties need to focus on The relationship between the informal sector and the digital economy needs to be further examin ed. For the IL O and fo r developin g countries especially th is could be an important area of policy research. The Interne t is a me dium of com munication th rough which workers can become collaborators. All this can lead to a completely new form of employee participation and involvement in management and decision making, be it an SMEs or a large organization. The ILO could further study such possibilities and promote it in developing countries.

Conclusion
The benefits of eCommerce should accrue to those trying to escape economic marginalization due to geographic, financial, technological or educational handicaps. A strong rationale for eCommerce development arises from the South’s desire to close the gap between tho se with abund ant info rmatio n at han d and th e "infor matio n poor ." As governments develop initiatives and policies in support of eCommerce, the effectiveness of specific actions should be measured by the extent of improvement in:
Both these points will have a bearing on the telecom policy and some state monopolies in it that continue to survive in some countries.

cost effectiveness and efficiency [in commerce] as measured by how quickly information, goods an d services c an be deliv ered to con sumers ; comm unications options for c onsum ers that offer in novative w ays of doin g business ; increased scope and reach of communication and hence service delivery.47 The premise here is that in promoting business on-line, governments will facilitate the delivery of information, goods and services. This will then deliver more traffic acros s data networks which, in turn, will serve to pro vide the rev enues an d investm ent rationale needed to encourage further infra structure development. In the new economy too the world is continuing to be divided. Only this time the haves and the have-nots are divided between those connected and those not. Just like with every other technological advancement, the benefits may go mostly to some parts of society. Developing country governments will need to address this issue in the context of their own development plans and programmes. Increasing access to the medium will obviously be an area of focus. Meanwhile the developin g world and espec ially the firm s and enter prises there m ust jump on to the eCom merce tra in to ensure that they too are pa rt of the journey. There app ears to be no harm in following focused strategies of growth to ensure that those sectors and areas that can maxim ise their return s and those that have th e comp etitive adva ntage - take it.

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References
Addy-Nayo, C., 1999, E-commerce and enterprise development in the developing countries, International Labour Organization, Geneva. Cairncross, F. (1997), The Death of Distance, Orion Business Books, London. Daly, John A., and Miller, Robert R., 1998, Corporations' Use of the Internet in Developing Countries, International Finance Corporation, Discussion Paper Number 35, The World Bank, Washington, D.C. Dufour, A, Que Sais-je, quoted in International Trade Forum, 1/99, ITC, Geneva. Economist, July 1997, Asian electronic commerce, Economist, London. Economist, June 1999, The net imperative: Business and the Internet, Economist, London. Economist Intelligence Unit, 1999, Competing in the digital age: How the Internet will transform global business, Economist Intelligence Unit and Booz, Allen & Hamilton, New York. International Herald Tribune, April 6, 2000, Theme for the White House Conference on the New Economy: What is it?, IHT, Paris. International Labour Organization, 1998, World labour Report 1997-98, ILO, Geneva. International Labour Organization, 1999, Human resource implications of globalization and restructuring in commerce, ILO, Geneva. International Trade Centre, 1999, Innovating for Success in the Export of Services – A handbook, International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO, Geneva. International Telecommunication Union, 1999, Challenges to the Network, Internet for Development, Executive Summary, at www.itu.int International Telecommunication Union, 1999, Internet for Development, www.itu.org. OECD, 1999, The economic and social impacts of Electronic Commerce: Preliminary findings and research agenda, OECD, Paris. Singh, A. D., 1999, Electronic Commerce: Issues for the South, South Centre, Geneva. Trompenaars, F., 1993, Riding the waves of culture – Understanding cultural diversity in business, Nicholas Brealy Publishing, London UNCTAD, 1998, Implications for trade and development of recent proposals to set up a global framework for electronic commerce, UNCTAD, Geneva. UNCTAD, Policy Issues relating to access to participation in Electronic Commerce, Nov. 1998, www.unctad.org UNCTAD, 2000, Building Confidence: Electronic Commerce and Development, UNCTAD, Geneva.

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