Electronic Commerce

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Electronic commerce,

commonly known as E-commerce  or eCommerce, is trading in products or

services conducted via computer networks such as the Internet. Electronic commerce draws on technologies such as  as mobile commerce, commerce, electronic funds transfer , supply chain management,, Internet marketing, management marketing, online transaction processing, processing, electronic data interchange  (EDI) (EDI),,inventory management systems, systems, and automated  automated data collection  collection systems. Modern interchange electronic commerce typically uses the  the World Wide Web  Web at least at one point in the transaction's lifecycle, although it may encompass a wider range of technologies such as e-mail,  mobile devices, devices,  social media, and telephones as well. Electronic commerce is generally considered to be the sales aspect of e-business. It also consists of the exchange of data to facilitate the financing and payment aspects of business transactions. This is an effective and efficient way of communicating within an organization and one of the most effective and useful ways of conducting business. It is a  a  Market entry strategy  strategy where the company may or may not have a physical presence. E-commerce can be divided into 7 subsections:  

E-tailing or "virtual storefronts" on websites with online catalogs, sometimes gathered into a "virtual mall"


Buying or selling on websites and/or  online marketplac m arketplaces es  


The gathering and use of demographic data through web contacts and social media


Electronic data interchange, the business-to-business exchange of data


E-mail and fax and their use as media for reaching prospective and established customers (for

example, with newsletters)  

Business-to-business  buying and selling


The security of business transactions


[hide hide]]   

1 Timeline  Timeline 


2 Business applications  applications  


3 Governmental regulation  regulation 


4 Forms  Forms 


5 Global trends  trends 


6 Impact on markets and retailers  retailers 


7 Distribution channels  channels  


8 See also  also 



9 References  References 


10 Further reading  reading 


11 External links  links 

Timeline[edit edit]]   A timeline for the developmen developmentt of e-commerce: e-commerce:  

1971 or 1972: The  The ARPANET   ARPANET is used to arrange a cannabis sale between students at the  Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory  the Laboratory and the  the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Technology,  later described as "the seminal act of e-commerce" in  in John Markoff 's book  book What the Dormouse [1]

Said .



1979:  Michael Aldrich  1979: Aldrich demonst demonstrates rates the first fi rst  online shopping  shopping system system..[2] 


1981: Thomson Holidays UK is first business-to-business online shopping system to be

installed.[3]  installed.  

1982:  Minitel 1982: Minitel  was introduced nationwide in France by  by France Télécom  Télécom and used for online


ordering. 1983:  California State Assembly  1983: Assembly holds first hearing on "electronic commerce" in Volcano,

California..[4] Testifying are CPUC, MCI Mail, Prodigy, CompuServe, Volcano Telephone, and California Pacific Telesis. (Not permitted to testify is Quantum Technology, later to become AOL.)  

1984:  Gateshead 1984: Gateshead  SIS SIS//Tesco Tesco  is first B2C online shopping system  system [5] and Mrs Snowball, 72, is the first online home shopper  shopper [6] 


1984: In April 1984,  1984, CompuServe CompuServe  launches the Electronic Mall in the USA and Canada. It is the first comprehensive electronic commerce service. service.[7] 


1984: California becomes first US state to enact an Electronic Commerce Act defining basic consumer rights online.[citation needed ]  [8]


1990: Tim Berners-L 1990:  Berners-Lee ee  writes the first web browser,  browser, WorldWideWeb WorldWideWeb,, using a  a NeXT NeXT  computer .   1992:  Book Stacks Unlimited  1992: Unlimited in Cleveland opens a commercial sales website (www.books.com) selling books online with credit card processing.


1992: St. Martin's Press publishes J.H. Snider and Terra Ziporyn's Ziporyn's  Future Shop: How New Technologies Technolog ies Will Change the Way We W e Shop and What We Buy. Buy .[9] 


1992: Terry Brownell launches a fully graphical, iconic navigated  navigated  Bulletin board system  system online shopping using usingRoboBOARD/FX RoboBOARD/FX..[citation needed ] 


1993:  Paget Press  1993: Press releases edition No. 3 of the first[citation needed ] AppStore, The Electronic  AppWrappe  AppWrap per  r [10] 



1994:  Netscape 1994: Netscape  releases the Navigator browser in October under the code name  Mozilla Mozilla.. Netscape Netscape  1.0 is introduced in late 1994 with  with SSL SSL  encryption that made name transactions secure.


1995: The US  US National Science Foundation  Foundation lifts its former strict prohibition of commercial commercial enterprise on the Internet. Internet.[11] 


1995: Thursday 27 April 1995, the purchase of a book by Paul Stanfield, Product Manager for  CompuServe CompuServe  UK, from  from W H Smith' Smith's shop within CompuServe's UK Shopping Centre is the UK's first national online shopping service secure transaction. The shopping service at launch featured  W H Smith, featured Smith, Tesco Tesco,, Virgin Megastores/ Megastores/Our Price, Price, Great Universal Stores (GUS GUS)), Interflora Interflora,, Dixons Retail, Retail, Past Times,  Times, PC World (retailer)  (retailer) and Innovations.


1995:  Jeff Bezos  1995: Bezos launches launches  Amazon.com   Amazon.com and the first commercial-free 24-hour, internet-only radio stations, Radio HK andNetRadio andNetRadio  start broadcasting.  broadcasting. Dell Dell  and and  Cisco Cisco  begin to aggressively use Internet for commercial transactions.[citation needed ] eBay eBay  is founded by computer programmer  Pierre Omidyar  as AuctionWeb.


1996:  IndiaMART 1996: IndiaMART  B2B marketplace established in India.


1996:  ECPlaza 1996: ECPlaza  B2B marketplace established in Korea.


1996:  Sellerdeck 1996: Sellerdeck,, formerly Actinic, the UK's first PC/LAN e-commerce platform established. [citation

needed ]



1998:  Electronic postal stamps  1998: stamps can be purchased and downloaded for printing from the Web. Web .[12] 


1999:  Alibaba 1999:  Alibaba Group Group  is established in China.  China. Business.com Business.com  sold for US $7.5 million to

eCompanies, which was purchased in 1997 for US $149,000. The peer-to-peer filesharing software  Napster  launches. software launches.  ATG  ATG Stores Stores launches to sell decorative items for the home online.

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