commonly known as E-commerce or eCommerce, is trading in products or
services conducted via computer networks such as the Internet. Electronic commerce draws on technologies such as as mobile commerce, commerce, electronic funds transfer , supply chain management,, Internet marketing, management marketing, online transaction processing, processing, electronic data interchange (EDI) (EDI),,inventory management systems, systems, and automated automated data collection collection systems. Modern interchange electronic commerce typically uses the the World Wide Web Web at least at one point in the transaction's lifecycle, although it may encompass a wider range of technologies such as e-mail, mobile devices, devices, social media, and telephones as well. Electronic commerce is generally considered to be the sales aspect of e-business. It also consists of the exchange of data to facilitate the financing and payment aspects of business transactions. This is an effective and efficient way of communicating within an organization and one of the most effective and useful ways of conducting business. It is a a Market entry strategy strategy where the company may or may not have a physical presence. E-commerce can be divided into 7 subsections:
E-tailing or "virtual storefronts" on websites with online catalogs, sometimes gathered into a "virtual mall"
Buying or selling on websites and/or online marketplac m arketplaces es
The gathering and use of demographic data through web contacts and social media
Electronic data interchange, the business-to-business exchange of data
E-mail and fax and their use as media for reaching prospective and established customers (for
example, with newsletters)
Business-to-business buying and selling
The security of business transactions
1 Timeline Timeline
2 Business applications applications
3 Governmental regulation regulation
4 Forms Forms
5 Global trends trends
6 Impact on markets and retailers retailers
7 Distribution channels channels
8 See also also
9 References References
10 Further reading reading
11 External links links
Timeline[edit edit]] A timeline for the developmen developmentt of e-commerce: e-commerce:
1971 or 1972: The The ARPANET ARPANET is used to arrange a cannabis sale between students at the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory the Laboratory and the the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Technology, later described as "the seminal act of e-commerce" in in John Markoff 's book book What the Dormouse 
1979: Michael Aldrich 1979: Aldrich demonst demonstrates rates the first fi rst online shopping shopping system system..
1981: Thomson Holidays UK is first business-to-business online shopping system to be
1982: Minitel 1982: Minitel was introduced nationwide in France by by France Télécom Télécom and used for online
ordering. 1983: California State Assembly 1983: Assembly holds first hearing on "electronic commerce" in Volcano,
California.. Testifying are CPUC, MCI Mail, Prodigy, CompuServe, Volcano Telephone, and California Pacific Telesis. (Not permitted to testify is Quantum Technology, later to become AOL.)
1984: Gateshead 1984: Gateshead SIS SIS//Tesco Tesco is first B2C online shopping system system  and Mrs Snowball, 72, is the first online home shopper shopper 
1984: In April 1984, 1984, CompuServe CompuServe launches the Electronic Mall in the USA and Canada. It is the first comprehensive electronic commerce service. service.
1984: California becomes first US state to enact an Electronic Commerce Act defining basic consumer rights online.[citation needed ] 
1990: Tim Berners-L 1990: Berners-Lee ee writes the first web browser, browser, WorldWideWeb WorldWideWeb,, using a a NeXT NeXT computer . 1992: Book Stacks Unlimited 1992: Unlimited in Cleveland opens a commercial sales website (www.books.com) selling books online with credit card processing.
1992: St. Martin's Press publishes J.H. Snider and Terra Ziporyn's Ziporyn's Future Shop: How New Technologies Technolog ies Will Change the Way We W e Shop and What We Buy. Buy .
1992: Terry Brownell launches a fully graphical, iconic navigated navigated Bulletin board system system online shopping using usingRoboBOARD/FX RoboBOARD/FX..[citation needed ]
1993: Paget Press 1993: Press releases edition No. 3 of the first[citation needed ] AppStore, The Electronic AppWrappe AppWrap per r 
1994: Netscape 1994: Netscape releases the Navigator browser in October under the code name Mozilla Mozilla.. Netscape Netscape 1.0 is introduced in late 1994 with with SSL SSL encryption that made name transactions secure.
1995: The US US National Science Foundation Foundation lifts its former strict prohibition of commercial commercial enterprise on the Internet. Internet.
1995: Thursday 27 April 1995, the purchase of a book by Paul Stanfield, Product Manager for CompuServe CompuServe UK, from from W H Smith' Smith's shop within CompuServe's UK Shopping Centre is the UK's first national online shopping service secure transaction. The shopping service at launch featured W H Smith, featured Smith, Tesco Tesco,, Virgin Megastores/ Megastores/Our Price, Price, Great Universal Stores (GUS GUS)), Interflora Interflora,, Dixons Retail, Retail, Past Times, Times, PC World (retailer) (retailer) and Innovations.
1995: Jeff Bezos 1995: Bezos launches launches Amazon.com Amazon.com and the first commercial-free 24-hour, internet-only radio stations, Radio HK andNetRadio andNetRadio start broadcasting. broadcasting. Dell Dell and and Cisco Cisco begin to aggressively use Internet for commercial transactions.[citation needed ] eBay eBay is founded by computer programmer Pierre Omidyar as AuctionWeb.
1996: IndiaMART 1996: IndiaMART B2B marketplace established in India.
1996: ECPlaza 1996: ECPlaza B2B marketplace established in Korea.
1996: Sellerdeck 1996: Sellerdeck,, formerly Actinic, the UK's first PC/LAN e-commerce platform established. [citation
1998: Electronic postal stamps 1998: stamps can be purchased and downloaded for printing from the Web. Web .
1999: Alibaba 1999: Alibaba Group Group is established in China. China. Business.com Business.com sold for US $7.5 million to
eCompanies, which was purchased in 1997 for US $149,000. The peer-to-peer filesharing software Napster launches. software launches. ATG ATG Stores Stores launches to sell decorative items for the home online.