Electronic Voting Machine

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Final Year Project Report on Electronic Voting Machine.Contains the detailed description about the components used and their implementation also.

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Content

ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE
BS Electronic Engineering, Batch 2012

(Note: The front cover, declaration, acknowledgements are
excluded from the report and restricted to chapters references
only)
ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Declaration………………………………………………………………….iii
Acknowledgement ………………………………………………………….iv
Table of contents …………………………………………………………...v
Abstract ……………………………………………………………………..vii
List of Figures……………………………………………………………….ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction………………………………………………………………2
1.1 existing Electoral Procedure …………………………………………….2
1.2 Proposed Electoral Procedure …………………………………………..3
1.3 Project Planning…................................................................................4
1.4 Conclusion...........................................................................................4

CHAPTER TWO: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
2.0 Theoretical Background........................................................................6
2.1 List of flaws and limitation of current electoral procedure…………….7
2.2 Goals and Objectives………………………. …………………………...8
2.3 Conclusion………………………………………………………………..9
CHAPTER THREE: DETAIL OF DESIGN
3.0 Basic Block Diagram……………………………………………………11
3.1 Registration

through fingerprint ………………………………………...12

3.2 Operation of project…………………………………………………….12
3.3 Designing of the project……………………………………..................14
3.4 Conclusion……………………………………………………………....21
CHAPTER FOUR: SYSTEM HARDWARE
4.0 Block Diagram…………………………………………………………..23
iii

4.2 Male/Female Booth and Main server…………………………………..24
4.3 List of Components…………………………………………………….25
4.4 Conclusion……………………………………………………………...43
CHAPTER FIVE: SYSTEM SOFTWARE
5.0 System Flowchart………………………………………………………45
5.1 Software Used …………………………………………………………47
5.3 Conclusion………………………………………………….................55
CHAPTER SIX: SYSTEM ANALYSIS
6.0 Conclusion……………………………………………………………...57
6.1 Advantages……………………………………………………………..58
6.2 Application……………………………………………………………..59
6.3 Future Enhancement…………………………………………………...59
6.4 Cost Analysis…………………………………………………………..60
Reference ……………………………………………………………….…61
Appendices………………………………………………………………....62

iv

List of Tables
Table 4.1: Pin Configuration of Fingerprint Scanner……………………42

v

List of Figures

Page

Fig 1.1 Existing Electoral System………………………………………………….2
Fig 2.1 Pre-election (2013) survey result on Existing electoral System……….7
Fig 3.1 Basic block diagram of the project………………………………………11
Fig 3.2 First step of voting……………….………………………………………..13
Fig 3.3 Different symbols used for voting……………………………………..…13
Fig: 3.4 Vote casted successfully screen………………………………………….14
Fig 3.5: Logging screen of the main server on the LCD display……………….19
Fig 3.6: Loading the python code for Raspberry Pi B…………………………..20
Fig: 3.7 Screen displaying the results……………………………………………..20
Fig: 4.1 Hardware Block Diagram………………………………………………..23
Fig 4.2: Male and Female Booth…………………………………………………..24
Fig 4.3: Main Server………………………………………………………………..24
Fig: 4.4: Raspberry Pi Model B………………………………………………...…27
Fig 4.2: Raspberry Pi B Hardware [9]……………………………………………27
Fig 4.3: Schematic diagram of Raspberry Pi Model B.[11]…………………….28
Fig.4.4: Internal Structure of TFT Touch Screen LCD. [10]…………………...31
Fig: 4.5: Working of touch screen.[13]…………………………………………...31
Fig 4.6: Pin-outs of TFT Touch Screen LCD [14]……………………………….32
Fig: 4.7 Block Diagram of ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module. [7]…………………………33
Fig 4.8 ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module. [7]……………………………………………….34
Fig: 4.9 Schematic Diagram of ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module. [7]……………………34
Fig: 4.10 Arduino Mega 2560. [3]…………………………………………………36
vi

Fig 4.11 Schematic Diagram of Arduino Mega 2560[3]….................................37
Fig 4.12: Power supply……………………………………………………………..39
Fig 4.13 Schematic of Voltage Converter………………………………………..40
Fig 4.13: Fingerprint Scanner [7]………………………………………………..41
Fig: 4.14: Working of Fingerprint Scanner [7]………………………………….42
Fig: 4.15 Schematic Diagram of Fingerprint Scanner [7]………………………43
Fig 5.1: Fingerprint addition………………………………………………………45
Fig 5.2: Polling Process……………………………………………………………46
Fig 5.3: Bitmap Image conversion software…………………………………….48
Fig 5.4: Bitmap Image before conversion……………………………………….49
Fig 5.5: Bitmap Image before conversion……………………………………….50
Fig 5.6 Arduino CC software…………………………………………………….52
Fig 5.7 JetBrain Pycharm software……………………………………………..53
Fig 5.8 Installing OS on the SD card…………………………………………….53
Fig 5.9: Programming Raspberry Pi B………………………………………….54
Fig 6.1 User interfacing system section of the project…………………………57

vii

ABSTRACT
Electronic Voting Machine is a system which is designed in considering the current
electoral system of the country. Through this, a voter could vote easily through its
fingerprint. The machine includes one of the best electronics devices. In our project we
have two similar systems designated as male and female polling booth. The project
consist of two stand alone systems (male and female booth) using ARM processing that
were connected to the main server through secured wireless connection .Each system has
a TFT touch screen LCD, Arduino mega 2560, fingerprint scanner and a Wi-Fi module.
Both the systems are connected to raspberry Pi B device which will sort out the result
and show the results on LCD screen via HDMI to VGA converter. Most of the
communication is taking place through serial communication.
This system is designed in an attempt to make the electoral process faster and less
complex. Hence, the process of voting is very easy and one can comfortably vote within
a span of 2 minutes. The system is encrypted to eliminate the threat of hacking. Vote
would only be casted when the fingerprint of the voter is matched with any of the
fingerprint present in the database or present in the polling station.
This system is very dynamic and with some modification it can be turned into other
systems where identification of the person is necessary such as attendance management
system etc.

viii

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.0: Introduction
1.1: Existing Electoral Procedure
1.2: Proposed Electoral Procedure

1.3 Project Planning

1.4 Conclusion

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction
Our project, the Electronic Voting Machine is a user friendly, to be more precise, voter
friendly system. It would override all the demerits of current electoral process of
Pakistan. The electoral process which is adopted in our project is very simple and straight
that the general public will get the motivation out of this and it could result into increase
in the voting turn-out.

1.1 Existing Electoral Procedure
In the current electoral system, the voters are identified through the data which is
provided by the NADRA (National Database and Registration Authority) and on the
basis of their locality, their votes were placed to different polling stations of the area and
then on an election day voters will go to their respective polling station where different
polling agents as well as the representative of the election commission will confirm their
identity through the voters list provided by NADRA. After confirmation they’d then be
given a ballot paper on where they’d put the stamp on the symbol of the candidate to
whom he/she is going to vote and then they would fold the ballot paper and put the paper
in the ballot box. After the designated time of the polling the votes were have been casted
and were present in the ballot boxes go through the long lasting process of casting that
will take another 5-6 hours and in some situations the counting process could even go to
next day. This is due to the negligence, slow counting, and lack of communication
between presiding officer or the polling station and the returning officer of the
constitution. All these mishaps make the stakeholders of election to raise fingers on the
credibility of the electoral process.

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INTRODUCTION

Fig 1.1: Existing Electoral Procedure.[5]
1.2 Proposed Electoral Process
The process is designed by keeping in view of all the inabilities of the Pakistan’s current
electoral process. These inabilities include mismanagement, rigging, lack of
communication between the election staff, long lasting delay in announcing the delay due
to the counting each vote, low voting turnout. In this electoral scheme, each machine will
be allotted to every polling station as it contains both male and female polling booth. The
machine will be given the record of the people taken from NADRA database that would
be saved in its own database, the database contains the information about the name, and
NIC and finger print of the person that whose vote is registered in the polling station,
they were mainly the residents of the areas around the vicinity of the polling station. So
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INTRODUCTION

in a way, only those real voters whose data is saved in the data base of the system are
eligible to vote, no other person can vote as their fingerprint will not be matched. Apart
from that it will not allow those voters to vote who had already casted their votes.

There is no need of voters list from NADRA as well s no need of the polling agents, the
voter will just have to put his/her finger on the thumbprint scanner and if he/she is a
legitimate voter his/her fingerprint would be matched with the record and another screen
would come into display that includes different symbols of different candidates where
he/she can vote by just tapping the touch screen with their finger. Hence there is no need
of the ballot paper and ballot box and ink either.

1.3 Project Planning
Working the project requires some planning and approach that how it must be completed
within a given time period and how it will meet all the requirements that were proposed
by the Final Year Project committee. So working by considering a project as a whole was
very complex and difficult and that would consume more time also. It is always good to
break down the project into smaller milestones or breaking down the project in such a
way to achieve smaller goals and objectives which in return when summed up, results in
completion of the project. So in a way, project planning is the most vital part of any
project.

Following are the some main tasks that were assigned by dividing the main milestone
because it could be done in parallel that would directly save a lot of time.
1. Searching the best suitable electronic devices for the project. Devices those are not only
technologically advanced but also easy to work with.
2. Knowing the availability of the devices that are selected in the first step from different
markets.
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INTRODUCTION

3. Dividing work among different group personnel to search the study material of the
devices selected. These study materials includes tutorials about every devices that were
selected in the first step.
4. Working and programming of the devices. Interfacing the devices, developing a code to
run the devices.
5. Monitoring the progress of the project.
6. Compiling all the work done by the members of the group.
1.4 Conclusion
In chapter one, we have given the introduction and importance of the project The chapter
one aalso includes the overview of the existing electoral process of the Islamic Republic
of Pakistan and the overview of the proposed electoral system which we will try to
achieve in our project and tried to establish the difference between the above stated
systems. The chapter also includes the topic of project planning that represent’s that how
the project was subdivided into different tasks and importance of dividing the project into
different tasks.

4

CHAPTER TWO

THEOTRETICAL BACKGROUND

CHAPTER 2
THEORETICALBACKGROUND

2.0: Theoretical Background
2.1: List of Flaws and Limitations

2.2 Goals and Objectives
2.3 Conclusion

5

CHAPTER TWO

THEOTRETICAL BACKGROUND

CHAPTER TWO
THEORETICAL BACKGROUNDS

2.0 Theoretical Background
Islamic Republic Of Pakistan is a democratic state which runs on the following pillars,
executive, legislative and judiciary. Where legislative is the most important pillar of the
state which directly chooses the head of the government (Prime Minister) and head of the
state (President). There are mainly two forms of governments, the parliamentary form of
government and the presidential form of government and Pakistan is one of those states
that practice the most popular form of government i.e. the parliamentary form of
government. In parliamentary form of government the legislative enjoys as a most
supreme pillar of the state. The legislative consists of the people that are elected directly
by the people’s choices. So in a way one can say that Pakistan is a state where the most
fundamental right of the people is the right to vote. In a democratic state elections are
the most important element everything comes next, democratic countries will never ever
flourish without proper electoral system.
“I believe that voting is the first act of building a community as well as building a
country.” -John Ensign

Here in Pakistan, elections are the main process of the governing systems, people enjoys
their right to vote every five years as the tenure of every government consists of
maximum five years. But unfortunately the electoral process of the country is always on
the receiving end by the losing candidates because we are still practicing the same old
manual process. Not a single election in the history of Pakistan is termed as free and fair
and some serious allegations were made by the loosing parties or candidates due to nontransparency and zero credibility of the system. It has always been felt a need of
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THEOTRETICAL BACKGROUND

changing the system in order to make up all the flaws in the current electoral process and
also to make the people feel satisfied that their most important fundamental right i.e.
right to vote is not a wasted.

Fig 2.1: Pre-election (2013) survey on existing electoral system.

2.1 List of flaws and Limitation in Current Electoral System
1. Time consuming process. Checking the NIC card then confirming the eligibility
of the voters from the voters list to ensure that their vote is listed in the polling
station.
2. Non transparent process due to the involvement of the political parties during the
electoral process.
3. Allegations of rigging.
4. Unawareness among the people about the electoral process which results in the
rejection of the vote, mostly people do not know how to cast the vote due to the
complexity of the electoral process.
5. Untrained polling staff which is the cause of mismanagement, delay in polling
process.
6. Favoritism.
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THEOTRETICAL BACKGROUND

7. Results are compiled manually so it becomes a slow activity and chances of
mistake cannot be eliminated. Moreover, results are also announced very late.
Sometimes the results are announced`

2.2 Goals and Objectives
This project “Electronic Voting Machine” is an honest attempt of our group to give
direction to change the current electoral system of the country and making the electoral
process more transparent and credible. It will be a system that will eradicate all the
mishaps of the existing electoral process that were mentioned in the previous paragraph.
It would be accepted by all the stakeholders. It proposes a complete shift from manual
electoral system to automatic electoral system. It is tried to keep the system as simple as
possible in order to motivate the people to come out of their homes on Election Day.
Following are the main objectives of our project.
1. To ensure maximum transparency.
2. To make the procedure of voting less time consuming.
3. To make the procedure of voting less complex.
4. To make the system more credible and efficient.
5. To make the system faster.
6. To display the results in real time eradicating the long lasting manual process of
counting.

2.3 Conclusion
In chapter two, we have discussed the electoral history of the Islamic Republic of
Pakistan, the flaws and limitations of the current electoral system. The importance of the
people’s most important fundamental right i.e. right to vote especially in countries that
practices parliamentary form of government. Flaws and limitations in current electoral

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system are also mentioned. We have also discussed why there is a need to improve the
current electoral system by defining the goals and objectives of the proposed electoral
system.

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CHAPTER THREE

DETAIL OF DESIGN

CHAPTER 3
Detail of Design

3.0: Basic Block Diagram
3.1: Registration through fingerprint
3.2: Operation of Project

3.3 Designing of the Project
3.4 Conclusion

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DETAIL OF DESIGN

CHAPTER THREE
DETAIL OF DESIGN

3.0 System Block Diagram

Voter’s
thumbprint
registration

Voting

Electronic Voting Machine

Voters’
Verification

Result
Compilation

Fig 3.1: Basic Block Diagram

11

Result
Display

CHAPTER THREE

DETAIL OF DESIGN

3.1 Registration through fingerprint
Registration of voter’s fingerprint is carried out in a simple way. Fingerprints of the
voters are stored in a database of the thumbprint scanner along with their NIC number.
The thumbprint scanner will ask to put the thumb three times and then it stores the
fingerprint pattern by taking average of these fingerprints. This will ensure that no person
other than the voter whose vote is registered in that area can vote.

3.2 Operation of the Project
The project is designed in such a way to ensure maximum facilitation to the voter. So, in
a way it’s very user friendly project with easy user interface no training of how to vote is
required.
As mentioned earlier, only those whose fingerprints are stored in a database of the
fingerprint scanner can only vote so the data would either come from the NADRA
database or the residents living in a vicinity of that polling station can register their vote
individually. The process of fingerprint registration is explained previously the other
processes in as follows.

3.2.1 Voting Procedure
On an election day, people will cast their vote to their favorite candidate one by one. The
voting process is very simple when it’s the persons turn they will have to put the finger
on the fingerprint scanner when the “place finger” screen is displayed on the screen as
mentioned in the fig 3.2. This screen will display only if the voters fingerprint have been
matched, otherwise the fingerprint sensor will return an error.

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Fig: 3.2 First Step of Voting
Fingerprint scanner will usually take 3-5 seconds to match the fingerprint with the
fingerprints stored in a database. A new window on the TFT Touch Screen LCD would
open showing the successfully matching of the finger with the match present in the
database of the fingerprint scanner. Then another screen would appear where the
electoral symbols of the candidates are mentioned.

Fig : 3.3 Different Symbols Used for Voting

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The voter will then tap the screen on the symbol which he likes to vote. The system will
then take at least 5 seconds to cast the vote. After the vote is successfully casted the
result would start to compile and display on the LCD screen on a run time which
obviously no one can see the results before the end of the polling time. These all events
from putting the finger print till the successfully casting of the vote would take maximum
2 minutes.

Fig: 3.4 Vote casted successfully screen.

A person would unable to cast a vote in two conditions, if his/her vote is not registered in
the data base or if he/she has already casted their vote.

3.3 Designing of the project
Designing phase of the project can be subdivided into three sub phases. Dividing into
different phases not only made our work easier but it also enabled us to complete the
tasks within the given time period. These phases are.
1. Searching of the electronic devices and components.
2. Studying the user manuals of the devices selected in the first phase.
3. Interfacing and programming of the devices and modules.
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3.3.1Searching of the Devices
This is one of the main phases of our designing as there are many devices available in the
market but we would have to choose the devices considering the availability and
reliability of the devices. The cost effectiveness of the devices was also considered.
Following are the other main factors which we considered in selecting the electronic
devices.

1. Searching latest device that meets our needs completely or closely.
2. Availability of the devices in the market.
3. If the device is available then is it reliable or not?
4. What are the chances of failure?
5. Is it easily programmable and can be interfaced with ease?
6. Is it cost effective?
Many devices were available but there were reservations on the reliability of the devices.
Not many devices were as much reliable as compared to those we have selected through
thorough search. This search includes discussion with our internal teacher and also
searches from the internet. Following are the devices which were selected that were
feasible to our project. They are.
1. TFT Touch screen LCD
2. Arduino Mega 2560.
3. Raspberry Pi B.
4. ESP 8266 Wi-Fi module.
5. Fingerprint Scanner.
The work in the second and third phase was done simultaneously. Like, when we
completed the study of any of the devices then we directed the other members to do the
programming and interfacing (third phase) of the device.
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3.3.2Thorough Study of the user manuals
Once the first phase was completed, the second phase starts which includes the searching
of the user manuals and data sheets of the devices that are selected in the first phase. This
was done in order to get the knowledge about the working characteristics of the devices
selected. The manuals includes the guidelines about The second phase also includes the
thorough discussion with the internal that how to achieve the project’s goals. And with
the internal’s direction and studying the user manuals we’d get to know about how to
implement and put the project’s work into right direction.

3.3.3Programming and interfacing the devices
The most difficult and longer phase was the third phase, here we have to transform all the
knowledge gained through research and discussion with the internal into practical work
or we have to implement all the knowledge in this phase. Following are the steps
implemented in this phase.
1. Interfacing TFT Touch Screen LCD with Arduino Mega 2560.
2. Interfacing Fingerprint sensor and ESP8266 Wi-Fi module with with Arduino Mega
2560.
3. Interfacing thumbprint sensor with Arduino Mega 2560.
Above two steps were implemented for both male and female booths.
1. Connecting and configuring router with Raspberry Pi model B.
2. Connecting LCD with the Raspberry Pi model B through HDMI to DVI converter
cable.

3.3.4 Interfacing TFT Touch Screen LCD with Arduino Mega 2560
First step is the assembling of the TFT touch screen LCD with the LCD shield specially
designed for Arduino Mega 2560. The TFT LCD has 40 pins out which 20 pins were

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grounded when it is mounted on the TFT shield. The second step includes downloading
the libraries of TFT touch screen LCD that were added in the library folder of Arduino
CC software. These include the UTFT Library and Utouch Library. It is programmed
through serial communication so Connections were made by powering the LCD and
connecting the RX (serial port) of LCD with the TX (serial port) of ARduino Mega 2560
and vice versa. Before programming the LCD, calibration of the LCD is required, so
calibration is done by running the built in program. The instructions for calibrations were
mentioned on the TFT screen. Calibrating the LCD refers to setting the sensitivity level
of touch and also setting different parameters etc. After calibrating the LCD,
programming phase starts that include the following steps.

1. Loading the UTFT library and Utouch library.
2. Creating different buttons or options through GUI for the inputs as well as the
responses as per requirements. This step is done by carefully reading and
understanding the user manuals, the commands were easy to use and easily
understood.[1]
3. Loading the bitmap images of the election symbol of the candidates. These bitmap
images were first converted from large size to small size keeping the quality of the
images same and then they were called in the main code.

3.3.5 Interfacing Fingerprint sensor and ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module
Like TFT Touch LCD, fingerprint sensor and ESP 8266 Wi-Fi module are also
connected serially with two of the remaining three serial ports of Arduino Mega 2560.
Their programming is also done according to the steps mentioned in their user manuals.
We have used only three commands. Add user command, delete user and compare
commands. Firstly, the thumbprint sensor is checked that by sending a series of different
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commands and receiving the response on the serial monitor to make sure that it’s
working correctly. If the required response is not received then it means that it is not
working normal. Add user command is used to save the fingerprint of a person into the
data base of the fingerprint reader; the fingerprint sensor will take three readings of the
voter’s fingerprint back to back and take the average value of the pattern and save it in
the database of the fingerprint sensor. Delete user command is used to delete the specific
fingerprint that is stored in the database. And compare command is used to match the
fingerprint of the voter with the already saved fingerprints in the database of the
fingerprint sensor. Comparing is of two types, comparing with all the fingerprints stored
in all the locations in the fingerprint sensor and comparing by providing the location on
which that particular vote is registered.

3.3.6 Interfacing ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module with Raspberry Pi Model B
A computer was required to get all the results from the polling booths and display these
results in a real time on the LCD so instead of computer, a small, light weight, compact
in size device was used that works exactly the same as computer. Raspberry Pi Model B
is used that is fully functioned works exactly the same as the computers. An ESP8266
Wi-Fi module is also interfaced with Raspberry Pi Model B to receive all the data
coming in from both the male and female booths of the system wirelessly. That will
solve the issue of wiring and will reduce the complexity.

3.3.7 Display of the Results
An LCD is also connected to the Raspberry Pi Model B via HDMI to VGA converter
cable to display the result of voting. It is required to mention here that the result will be
compiling in the real time. The raspberry Pi is one of those devices which are not only

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easily available but also one can easy get guidelines from internet or from other fellows
as it is in use extensively now a days.

The raspberry Pi is used as a main server in the project. Its function is to receive the data
from both male and female booth, compile and arrange the results or data and then
display these results or data on the LCD screen on run time. A socket is created which
acts as the link between the two sections of the project. An IP is assigned to both the
male/female booth and the main server. Connection will not be established if they don’t
have the same IP. The main server is made host and the male and female booth has been
made client so that main server will listen from these clients. Apart from that, the IP is
assigned in order to make the raspberry Pi to listen or to receive data only from these two
clients and not from the other sources.

Fig3.5: Logging screen of the main server on the LCD display.

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Fig 3.6: Loading the python code for Raspberry Pi B.

Fig: 3.7 Screen displaying the results.
Whichever candidate wins, his/her result is shown on the top right corner of the LCD in
the red font.

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3.4 Conclusion
In this chapter we have mentioned the basic block diagram of the project, the registration
process of the voter’s fingerprint. The brief description about the operation of the project.
We have also covered all the aspects of designing phase, from selection of the devices to
the programming of the devices. All the devices are serially communicated. Female
booth and male booth contains TFT Touch screen LCD, Arduino Mega 2560, Fingerprin
sensor. ESP8266 Wi-Fi modules are connected to each Arduino Mega 2560.

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SYSTEM HARDWARE

CHAPTER
4
System Hardware

4.0: Block Diagram
4.1: Male/Female Booth and Server
4.2: Discription of Components

4.3: Conclusion

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SYSTEM HARDWARE

CHAPTER FOUR
SYSTEM HARDWARE
4.0 Block Diagram

Fig: 4.1 Hardware Block Diagram

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4.1 Male/Female booth and Main server

Fig 4.2: Male and Female Booth.

Fig 4.3: Main Server
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4.2 Description of Components
The components used in our project are not only technologically advanced, but easy to
interface and readily understabale to work with. They were easily available in the market.
They were very reliable and effective not only from cost point of view but also
performance wise.
4.2.1 LIST OF COMPONENTS


RASPBERRY PI B * 1.



TFT TOUCH LCD *2.



ESP268 WI-FI MODULE *2.



ARDUINO MEGA 2560 *2.



POWERSUPPLY



FINGER PRINT SENSOR *2.



HDMI CABLE.



LCD (WITH DVI TO HDMI CONVERTER).

4.2.2.1 Raspberry Pi Model B
The Raspberry Pi Model B board is a credit-card sized, low cost computer that just plugs
into a TV or computer monitor (with HDMI PORT) and it is capable to connect with a
standard mouse and keyboard. It is a little device that easily enables people to explore
computing, and to learn about the programs in languages like Python and Scratch. It’s a
very powerful tool that is capable of doing anything which you would expect a desktop
computer to do, from playing high-definition video, browsing the net and, to making of
spreadsheets, playing games and word-processing etc [8]. Like PCs, this also requires an
operating system; it has the Linux based raspbian free operating system to make the
operating system more user friendly. It has the capability to interface with the outer

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world, and it has been used in a wide range of digital projects, from parent detectors to
the music machines and to weather stations. And with infra-red cameras.

4.2.2.2 HISTORY OF BOARD
The Rasp Pi was developed in Feb 2012 by the Raspberry Pi Foundation, The
Foundation initially launched 2 Devices which are Model A and second one is Model B,
and these devices differ in specification and capabilities. Soon after the launching of
these computers a society was formed and many thousands of “Tech-Heads” were
bought at one and initialize to manufactured new and interesting projects related to that.
In Feb 2014 they had been realized that they had sold 4.5 million boards, soon after this
great achievement they launched the Model A+, B+ which facilitate more GPIO’s for our
convenience and used less power as compared to previous devices to run. Afterwards in
2015 the Raspberry PI 2 was released with increased MHz by 200MHZ to 900MHz and
twice the ram to make it 1GB.

4.2.2.3 Raspberry Pi B:
It is 2nd generation of Raspberry Pi. It is now replaced by the it next model which is B+
in February 2015. The Raspberry Pi 2 has an ARM processor through which it can run
the full range of ARM GUI0 / LINUX distributions. The Raspberry Pi is of about a
credit-card sized computer that can plugs into TV or any sort of LCD. And it also
capable to connect keyboard and mouse through the two available USB ports. It can do
almost everything that the normal PC could do like word-processing, spreadsheets, and
playing games. It also plays HD (high-definition) video. Its design is based on a
Broadcom BCM2835 SoC, which includes an ARM1176JZF-S 700 MHz processor. The
design does not consist of a built in hard disk or any other solid state drives, but it relies
on an SD card for booting & for storage. This board is designed to run Linux based

26

CHAPTER FOUR

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operating systems. This Raspberry Pi Model B has 512MB RAM and with 2 USB
(Universal Serial Bus) ports and an also with Ethernet controller port.

Fig: 4.4: Raspberry Pi Model B
The hardware of the Raspberry Pi can able divided into different parts that are mentioned
in the following figure. That includes RAM, I/O, CPU/GPU, USB Hub, Ethernet,
2xUSB.

Fig 4.2: Raspberry Pi B Hardware [9]

27

CHAPTER FOUR

SYSTEM HARDWARE

4.2.2.4 Specifications
 Standard Speed

700Mhz

 RAM `

512MB

 Storage

Full SD

 Ethernet

Yes

 HDMI output port

Yes

 Composite video output

Yes

 Number of USB2.0 ports

2

 Expansion header

26

 Number of available GPIO

17

 3.5mm audio jack

Yes

 Camera interface port

1

 LCD display interface ports

1

 Power source

5 V (DC) via Micro

 Power ratings

300 mA, (1.5 W)

 Operating System

Linux

4.2.2.5 Features:


The Raspberry Model B video output is via a HDMI (rev 1.3 & 1.4) port with 14
HDM0.I resolutions from 640×350 to 1920×1200 with digital audio.



The Raspberry Model B is one of the best, single board computers available and, given
the huge popularity of the Raspberry Pi family



The Pi is just like the “size of a credit card”. It is only 20mm thicker as compared to the
credit card.



The Raspberry Pi market is saturated because of these useful additional features -on
boards and several accessories.
28

CHAPTER FOUR



SYSTEM HARDWARE

Performance is just like 300 MHz Pentium 2.
4.2.2.6 Schematic Diagram

Fig 4.3: Schematic diagram of Raspberry Pi Model B. [11]

4.2.2.7 WHY CHOOSE THE RASPBERRY PI AND NOT SOMETHING ELSE?
The Raspberry Pi has some competitors, although the foundation appreciates people to
clone its idea, so competitor not is the correct word. They include Panda Board, Beagle

29

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Board (which are both the names of the companies and their main devices). Beagle
Board is geared toward adult hardware tinkerers and Panda Board missions is to create a
mobile software-programming platform which is easily available at a reasonable price.
Like Raspberry Pi, they are both having boards with ARM processors and are capable of
HD video. But Beagle and Panda Boards have more connection headers and connectors
which we do not have need of this because our project do requires more GPIO’s.
The Raspberry Pi has two main advantages over the others boards.
It was accept to be act as a complete working computer. We just require inserting an SD
card which contain the Operating System, then connect the peripherals and power supply,
and then it's ready to go. While Beagle and Panda Boards require hookup to a host
computer for initialization, and although they have almost similar processing capabilities.

4.2.2 TOUCH LCD:
Touch screen is a display which can detect the presence and location of touch with in the
displ0.ay area. The term generally refers to touch or contact of the display of the device
by a finger pr hand. Touch screen can also sense other passive objects, such as a stylus.
However if the object sense is active as with a light pen. The term touch screen is not
applicable. The ability to interact directly with a display typically indicates the
prese0.nce of a touch screen. [12]
Until the 1980’s most consumer touch screen could only sense one point of contact at a
time, and few had the capability to sense how hard one is touching. This is starting to
change with the commercialization of multi touch. [12]

4.2.2.1 TFT LCD:
UTFT LCD are Wide Screen Modules, 40pins interface, not just a LCD break but
include the Touch, SD card and Flash design. So it’s a powerful extension module for the
30

CHAPTER FOUR

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project[2]. Thin Film Transistor Touch Screen LCD is a powerful module that is like
plug and play. This display shield has a controller named ILI9486 that built into it with
RAM buffering, so that almost no work is done by the microcontroller. The LCD is
equipped with touch, SD and flash. It is almost compatible with many microcontrollers
specially AVR, STM32, 89C51 etc.

What is thin film transistor? It is due to TFT technology (Active matrix technology) that
these devices are now being used in every electronics devices as in smart phones, LCDs,
computer, tablets. It uses semiconductor material that is applied over glass plating. The
pixels of LCD are in the form of transistors including liquid crystals. That’d make the
LCD to switch on and off the pixels quickly. They have very small response time.

Fig.4.4: Internal Structure of TFT Touch Screen LCD. [10]

31

CHAPTER FOUR

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.
Fig: 4.5: Working of touch screen.[13]
4.2.2.3 TFT LCD Pin configuration:

Fig 4.6: Pin-outs of TFT Touch Screen LCD [14]

4.2.2.4Specifications:
Data pins and control pins.
32

CHAPTER FOUR

SYSTEM HARDWARE



Size:

3.5 inches.



Resolution:

High QVGA resolution.



Applicability:

Highly reliable and easy to use.



TFT screen with SD card reader.

4.2.2.5 Justification:
It’s more like plug and play, easy to handle, enhanced color scheme, requires less
power,The LCD has a wide viewing angle; the contrast is also very suitable. The main
reason to use touch LCD is due to its compatible features, it is compatible with Arduino
as we can easily star doing work with them. As there is no need to interface the LCD
with Arduino.

4.2.2 ESP8266 Wifi Module
4.2.3.1 Introduction:
ESP8266 is a complete self contained networking system that offers either hosting the
application or to offload functions from another processor. The module has an ultra low
power micro 32 bit CPU. The memory controller contains SRAM and ROM which is
accessed by the CPU through iBus, dBus and AHB interface.
Hosting The Application: When the device is in hosting mode, It can directlyboot up
from external flash.
As a wireless adaptor: Wireless internet access can be added to any microcontroller with
simple serial connectivity (UART interface).

33

CHAPTER FOUR

SYSTEM HARDWARE

Fig: 4.7 Block Diagram of ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module. [7]

4.2.3.2 Pin Configuration:

Fig 4.8 ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module. [7]
4.2.3.3 Specifications
1. Its RISC architecture (Reduced Instructions set computers) that increases the speed of
processing.
2. 64KBytes of instruction RAM
3. Connects with ESP8266 via hardware UART, 9600bps.
4. Compact in size.

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CHAPTER FOUR

SYSTEM HARDWARE

5. Covers large area.
6. VCC

5V.

4.2.3.4 Schematic Diagram:

Fig: 4.9 Schematic Diagram of ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module. [7]
4.2.3.5 Why ESP8266?
The most important factor is the availability of the device, it can be easily available
moreover its interfacing is not much complex. And it gets the accurate and fast result by
which we are complete this device. As it full fill our requirement.

4.2.4 ARDUINO MEGA 2560:
Arduino board is an open source computer hardware and software company, project and
user community that designs and manufactures microcontroller-based kits for building
digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control objects in the physical
world. Arduino can be utilized to create remain solitary intelligent protests or can be
associated with programming on your PC (e.g. Blaze, Processing, MaxMSP). The opensource IDE can be downloaded for nothing (right now for Mac OS X, Windows, and
Linux).

35

CHAPTER FOUR

SYSTEM HARDWARE

The Arduino Mega is a microcontroller board in light of the ATmega2560. It has 54
advanced info/yield pins (of which 14 can be utilized as PWM yields), 16 simple inputs,
4 UARTs (equipment serial ports), a 16 MHz gem oscillator, a USB association, a force
jack, an ICSP header, and a reset catch. It contains everything expected to bolster the
microcontroller; just associate it to a PC with a USB link or power it with an AC-to-DC
connector or battery to begin. The Mega is good with most shields intended for the
Arduino Duemilanove or Diecimila.
The Mega 2560 R3 additionally includes SDA and SCL pins alongside the AREF.
Furthermore, there are two new sticks put close to the RESET pin. One is the IOREF that
permit the shields to adjust to the voltage gave from the board. The other is a not
associated and is saved for future purposes. The Mega 2560 R3 works with every single
existing shield however can adjust to new shields which utilize these extra sticks.

Fig: 4.10 Arduino Mega 2560. [3]
4.2.4.2Technical specification:


Microcontroller



Operating Voltage.

ATmega2560
5v.
36

CHAPTER FOUR

SYSTEM HARDWARE



Input Voltage (recommended)

7-12V



Input Voltage (limit)

6-20V



Digital I/O Pins

54(of which provide PWM )



Analog Input Pins

16



DC Current per I/O Pin

20mA



DC Current for 3.3V Pin

50mA



Flash RAM

256KB



SRAM

8 KB



EEPROM

4KB



Length

101.52mm



Width

0.53.3mm



Weight

370.g



Serial ports

4



Clock Speed

16MHZ

37

CHAPTER FOUR

SYSTEM HARDWARE

4.2.4.3 Schematic Diagram:

Fig 4.11 Schematic Diagram of Arduino Mega 2560
4.2.4.4 Programming:
The Mega 2560 board can be programmed with the Arduino Software (IDE).
38

CHAPTER FOUR

SYSTEM HARDWARE

The ATmega2560 on the Mega 2560 comes preprogrammed with a bootloader that
allows you to upload new code to it without the use of an external hardware programmer.

4.2.4.5 Power
The Arduino Mega can be powered by means of the USB (Universal Serial Bus )
association or with an outside power supply through adapter. The board can work on an
outer supply of 6 to 20 volts. In the event that supplied with under 7V, in any case, the
5V pin may supply fewer than five volts and the board may be insecure. In the event that
utilizing more than 12V, the voltage controller may overheat and harm the board. The
prescribed extent is 7 to 12 volts.

4.2.4.6 Features:
The Arduino Mega 2560 is the 2nd most commonly used version of the Arduino family.
The Arduino Mega is just like the Arduino Uno's but its has some sort of increments like
GPO’s, RAM etc. The most important features of Arduino Mega is that it has four Serial
ports. By Using Arduino We do not have to buy its burner, development board by which
all of the added Functionality comes at the cost a larger circuit board. By using Arduino
all of these are packed in a single board which makes Arduino a power full tool.

4.2.4.7 Justification:
We are using Arduino Mega 2560 because it has 4 serial ports and we require 3 serial
ports for oour project that are fingerprint sensor, wifi, TFT touch LCD. It has large
memory and comparatively cheaper than other devices.
requirement by speed, cost and simplification.

4.2.5 POWER SUPPLY:

39

And it also fulfill oue

CHAPTER FOUR

SYSTEM HARDWARE

The power supply is designed to supply their respective voltages to each component.
This power supply can be able to provide two voltages levels that are


3.3V



5V

Fig 4.12 Schematic of Power Supply
Raspberry Pi and Arduinos were powered through this supply as their operating voltages
are 5V. Components used are LC303, 100microF capacitor, transistor, resistors and
connectors. Diode is also included to stop the reverse current to flow into the circuit.

4.2.5.1 Voltage Converter 5V to 3.3V
In our project, not all devices operates on 5V voltages, some components like Fingerprint
sensor and Wi-Fi module operates at 3.3V. If these devices were powered by 5V then it
could damage the devices, So before powering up these devices it is necessary to develop
a voltage converter that will convert 5V to 3.3V. Following figure will show you the
schematic diagram of voltage converter. This circuit is necessary is designed in such a
way that it converts TX and RX of from Arduino from 5V to 3.3 V and TX and RX of
the ESP8266 Wifi module and UART fingerprint reader from 3.3V to 5V.

40

CHAPTER FOUR

SYSTEM HARDWARE

Fig 4.13 Schematic of Voltage Converter

4.2.6 Finger Print Scanner
4.2.6.1 Introduction
Finger print scanner is used to scan the finger print, which we can use in recognition in
different projects. The scanner used with the Arduino is an optical scanner, which is
used for detection and for verification. When the finger is scanned, then it will go to
match with the already saved data for that finger. All the process of rendering of finger,
calculation, feature finding and searching the all ready saved data is done by the chip,
which is high powered, named as DSP chip (AS601). We can save the data of different
fingers into this finger print scanner, into a flash memory which is attached onto the
board of this finger print scanner. Near about 162 finger prints can be saved in to this
flash memory. A red led is placed into this scanned and this led will blink only when you

41

CHAPTER FOUR

SYSTEM HARDWARE

placed your finger on to the scanner, this blink of led show that the data is0. transferring
or the scanner is reading the data of your finger.

Fig 4.14: Fingerprint Scanner [7]
4.2.6.2 Specification of Finger prints Scanner
 Voltages 3.6 V to 6.0 V
 Current 120 mA
 Time for reading the data: 1.0 s
 Compare Mode 1:1
 Storage: 162 Fingers data
 Interface TTL Serial
 Work Temperature: 20 0C to 50 0C

42

CHAPTER FOUR

SYSTEM HARDWARE

4.2.6.3 Pins Configuration
Table 4.1: Pin Configuration of Fingerprint Scanner

Pin

Color

Name

Type

Function

Red

Vin

In

Input Terminal with positive power

Number
1

supply
2

Yellow

TD

Out

Serially data out

3

White

RD

In

Serially data in

4

Black

GND

-

Ground

4.2.6.4 Working

.
Fig: 4.14: Working of Fingerprint Scanner [7]
43

CHAPTER FOUR

SYSTEM HARDWARE

4.1.6.4 Schematic Diagram

Fig: 4.15 Schematic Diagram of Fingerprint Scanner
4.3 Conclusion:
In this chapter we have discussed the block diagram of our project. The components used
in the project as well as their detailed description including schematic diagrams and
working principles. The main characteristics or specifications of the devices used are also
discussed including their important features.

44

CHAPTER FIVE

SYSTEM SOFTWARE

CHAPTER
5
System Software
5.0: SYSTEM FLOWCHART

5.1: SOFTWARE USED

5.2: Conclusion

45

CHAPTER FIVE

SYSTEM SOFTWARE

CHAPTER FIVE
SYSTEM SOFTWARE
5.0 SYSTEM FLOWCHART
Our system has two process, one addition of the fingerprint in the databade of the sensor
and second, polling process.

Fig 5.1: Fingerprint addition.

46

CHAPTER FIVE

SYSTEM SOFTWARE

Polling:

Fig 5.2: Polling Process.

47

CHAPTER FIVE

SYSTEM SOFTWARE

5.1 Software Used
5.1.1 Arduino CC:
An Arduino software is a software on which we can write a code, and burn it in to the
Arduino board and perform a task. This software is so much favorable form us. Many of
the examples are already placed in this software. The codes of many of the examples are
in this software. So in this manner this software is very helpful for us.
Arduino software contain a text editor which is used to write the code for the specific
program, it also contain a message area, a text console its also contain toolbar which
contain buttons for common function, and a series of menus. The Arduino board is
connected to the computer so the codes of the program written in to the text area of the
Arduino software can be burned in to Arduino board and they communicate with them.

5.1.1.2 Writing and implementing the Sketches
The Program which is written into the Arduino software are called Sketches. These
sketches include all the programming.
The text console area of the Arduino Software displays the output text by the Arduino
Software. All the output text is shows on this area of the Arduino software. Which
include error messages and all the other information which are the output text?
5.1.1.3 Verify
It will verify your code that is it right or wrong, or what errors are in to this code.
5.1.1.4 Upload
It is compile your code written in to the text window of the Arduino Software, and
upload in to the board attached to your computer. Compiling is the process of converting
48

CHAPTER FIVE

SYSTEM SOFTWARE

your written code in to the binary code. Or to convert the source code into the object
code.
5.1.15 Serial Monitor
It is used to open the serial monitor.

Fig 5.5 Arduino CC software[1]

49

CHAPTER FIVE

SYSTEM SOFTWARE

5.1.1.6 Image Converter Software:
Image converter software is used to reduce the pixels of the bitmap image keeping the
quality of the bitmap image same. The name of the converter is Image Converter 365.
We used this software to reduce the bitmap images of the electoral symbol that will
easily be displayed on the TFT Touch LCD screen.
5.1.1.7 Put any photo any where:
This software is used to makes pixillion for the process of converting the images for used
in the programing into digital form.
5.1.1.7 Image Conversion Feature:
By using this software we can convert the thousands of the images to convert into
different formats and can also used to compress the images. It preserves the vector
graphics of the images when the images are converted between vector formats. Images
are resizes, test is also added as caption and watermarks and also images are converted
into different formats (jpeg, bmp, tiff, gif, png) by using Image Converter 365 Software.

Fig 5.2: Bitmap Image conversion software.
50

CHAPTER FIVE

SYSTEM SOFTWARE

Fig 5.3: Bitmap Image before conversion.

51

CHAPTER FIVE

SYSTEM SOFTWARE

Fig 5.4: Bitmap Image after conversion.

52

CHAPTER FIVE

SYSTEM SOFTWARE

Fig 5.5 Arduino CC software

53

CHAPTER FIVE

SYSTEM SOFTWARE

5.1.1.7 Raspberry Pi Software:
There are many softwares which can be used for programming the Raspberry Pi Model B
board. We used JetBrain PyCharm software for programming and correcting the syntax
of the code. Learning to operate the software is very easy as the tutorials are easily
available

on

the

Fig 5.6 JetBrain Pycharm software.

Fig 5.7 Installing OS on the SD card
54

internet.

CHAPTER FIVE

SYSTEM SOFTWARE

5.1.1.8 Programming Raspberry Pi
The progra

i g is do e o p tho . It’s er po erful la guage a d er eas to lear . It has

efficient high-le el data structures ith the s ta that is er co ple . P tho ’s elega t s ta
and dynamic typing, together with its interpreted nature, make it an ideal language for scripting
and rapid application development in many areas on most platforms. Almost all the libraries are
automatically built in with the programming software.

Fig 5.8: Programming Raspberry Pi B.

55

CHAPTER FIVE

SYSTEM SOFTWARE

4.2 Conclusion:
In this chapter we have discussed different softwares that were used to develop the
program. The software for arduino as well as for Raspberry Pi model B. C language is
used for programming the arduinos and python language is used for programming the
Raspberry Pi model B.

56

CHAPTER SIX

SYSTEM ANALYSIS

CHAPTER
6
System Analysis

6.0 CONCLUSION
6.1 ADVANTAGES
6.2 APPLICATIONS

6.3: FUTURE ENCHANCEMENT
6.4 COST ANALYSIS

57

CHAPTER SIX

SYSTEM ANALYSIS

CHAPTER SIX
SYSTEM ANALYSIS
In this last part, there are four areas. In first area, we depict the consequences of the
undertaking took after by different areas in which we portray conclusion, points of
interest, applications and future upgrades separately.

Fig 6.1 User interfacing system section of the project
6.0 Conclusion
This report reflects the whole system of our project i.e Electronic Voting Machine. In EVoting we have tried to replace paper balloting system by Electronic voting Machine. In
our system security is achieved to some level with the help of various verification and by

58

CHAPTER SIX

SYSTEM ANALYSIS

encrypted data. Which help the election commission to organize the Election in a secure
manner and generate result with complete transparency?
Our system provides many features that can make easier interaction among the voters,
elections, polling officer and Election commission. The feature included in our system is


Preparation of Voter List



Preparation of candidate List



Verification



Encryption



Our result generate according to the Party , candidate, seats



Maintenance of Data base of Last Election held.



User friendly environment for voters

The overall Analysis of our system proves to be a better and more enhanced system as
compared to the current one. i.e Manual paper balloting System .
Advantages


It ensures Transparency



It is environment friendly because there is no need of ballot papers which was used in
a previous system.



It involves very less time to cast a vote maximum 2 mins.



No possibility of any types of errors.



Run time display of results.



It is Reliable.



It can be upgraded easily.



Portable



Devices used are technologically advanced.

59

CHAPTER SIX

SYSTEM ANALYSIS

6.2 Applications


It also is used to conduct opinion polls during annual share holders meetings.



It could be used in different places where electricity is not available because the
things are operated with the help of a simple 5 Volt battery



It could also be used in Participation administration framework in diverse colleges
and different associations.



Gathering of people surveying in different rivalries on media and so on.

6.3: Future Enhancement:


A future version it would be possible to remove the thumb sensor. Because
sometimes there is some errors occur in matching with finger print of the voter with
data base due to the accuracy issue of thumb sensor, placement of thumb on a sensor
and age factor. So this would be done by adopting the method of face recognition,
Hand geometry recognition, & IRIS recognition.



A print function can also be embedded to satisfy the voters that their votes are casted.
For which allowing the user to print a receipt of their vote. Which do not include the
information about to whom he has casted a vote due to privacy matters.



It would also possible to convert this voting machine to different voting system like
collages school attendance system with some enhancement.



Database can be created in an encrypted form and have a secure Data Base.



A conservative configuration results in a much quicker movement and consequently
expands the exactness and productivity. Subsequently the machine can be upgraded
to be of much littler size with the end goal of a quicker and exact operation.

60

CHAPTER SIX

SYSTEM ANALYSIS

6.4 Cost Analysis:


Arduino Mega 2560 x2=

3400/=



TFT Touch LCD x2=

6000/=



ESP8860 Wi-Fi modules x2=

4500/=



Thumb Scanner x2=

5200/=



LCD Screen and other expenses =

5000/=



Raspberry pi =

4000/=



Total=

28,100/=

61

APPENDICES

APPENDICES
References
[1] “Library: UTOUCH”. http://www.rinkydinkelectronics.com/library.php?id=55.
[2] “UTFT LCD user guide” http://www.elecfreaks.com/7619.html.
[3] “Tutorial on Arduino Mega2560 “ https://www.arduino.cc/ en/Main/
ArduinoBoardMega2560.
[4] “Tutorial on using Python editor-Notepad++ “ .http://csc.ucdavis.edu/…/cour
…/nlp/Software/Windows/npp.html.
[5] “Existing Electoral Process”, www.pakistanhotline.com
[6] “Fig 4.3 Internal Structure of TFT touch screen LCD”
from http://pubs.rsc.org/…/co…/articlelanding/2012/jm/c2jm30635b…
[7] “File: UART-Fingerprint-Reader-UserManual.pdf”.
http://www.waveshare.com/wiki/File:UART-Fingerprint-Reader-UserManual.pdf
[8] “Setup Kali Linux In Raspberry Pi And Android Device As Screen & Input”.
http://www.picateshackz.com/2015/05/setup-kali-linux-in-raspberry-pi-and.html
[9] “Functional block schematic of the Raspberry-Pi”. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Raspberry_Pi#/media/File:Raspberrypi_block_function_v01.svg
[10] “Learn About LCD TV and TFT LCD Displays”. http://serdis.dis.ulpgc.es/~itisbyp/NotasDeClase/informacion/Material%20 Complementary
[11]” Raspberry Pi Model B revision 2.0 schematics #raspberrypi @Raspberry_Pi”.
https://blog.adafruit.com/2012/10/22/raspberry-pi-model-b-revision-2-0-schematicsraspberrypi-raspberry_pi/
[12]”Touchscreen”. https://www.tititudorancea.com/z/touchscreen.htm
[13] “File:Color TFT-LCD Cells-Schematic.png”. https://commons.wikimedia.org/
wiki/File:Color_TFT-LCD_Cells-Schematic.png

62

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