EMERGENCY RESPONSE

Published on January 2017 | Categories: Documents | Downloads: 68 | Comments: 0 | Views: 542
of 54
Download PDF   Embed   Report

Comments

Content

Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)

EMERGENCY
RESPONSE
Presented by:
Abdul Latif Khan
Disaster Response Management Specialist
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Disaster Management & Relief Bhaban (6th Floor)
92-93 Mohakhali C/A, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

CYCLONE
Damage
Potential

Society

Poorer than before

Elements at Risk

Huge Losses/Damages
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

Disruption of Normal life &
Development Suffers

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

HAZARD
Damage
Potential
Awareness- Effect
on Elements

Society

Quicker Recovery than before

Elements at Risk
More Resilient Communities

Action
Plans

Huge Losses/Damages
Reduced Losses

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

More Stable Society

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

HAZARD

Damage
Potential

Elements at Risk
Natural Features

River/Stream Banks
Low-lying Areas
Sea & Sea-coast
Slopes of hills

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

Societal Elements

People & Live-stock
Huts & Semi-permanent Houses
Weak Buildings
Agri. & Horticultural crops
Livelihood tools / Equipment
Unsecured personal assets
Public Infrastructure

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

SCALE OF DISASTER
Is dependent on:








Lead Time Available.
Intensity of Hazard.
Duration.
Spatial Extent.
Density of Population & Assets.
Time of Occurrence.
Vulnerabilities existing in the Elements at Risk.

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

ELEMENTS AT RISK










People
Livestock
Rural Housing Stock
Houses Vulnerable
Crops, Trees,Telephone, Electric poles
Boats, Looms, Working Implements
Personal Property
Electricity, Water and Food Supplies
Infrastructure Support

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE
PRE-DISASTER

DURING DISASTER

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

DISASTER PREPAREDNESS
 Disaster preparedness aims at minimizing the adverse effects
of a hazard  Through effective precautionary actions
 Ensure timely, appropriate and efficient organisation and
delivery of emergency response following the impact of a
disaster.

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

PREPAREDNESS
Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping to include Resources.
Assess strengthening requirements and execute.
Funding for preparedness must be arranged.
Peoples’ cooperation through Political leaders, elders, Volunteers
and NGOs
 Create lead time by interpreting Warnings
 Plan to include movement of resources with time frame.
 Aim to reduce the destructive potential of cyclones, timely &
appropriate relief to victims and quick & durable recovery





Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

DISASTER PREPAREDNESS FRAMEWORK

COMPONENTS OF PREPAREDNESS
Vulnerability
Assessment

Planning

Institutional
Framework

Information System

Resource Base

Warning Systems

Response
Mechanisms

Public Education and
Training

Rehearsals

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

DISASTER RESPONSE ACTIVITIES








Warning
Evacuation/Mitigation
Search and Rescue
Assessment
Emergency Relief
Logistics and Supply
Communication and information
Management

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief






Survivor Response and coping
Security
EOC & coordination
Expedite rehabilitation and
reconstruction

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT
An organized analysis, planning, decision making and assignment of
available resources to prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to and
recover from the effects of all hazards

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

FOUR GOALS OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT
1. Save Lives
2. Prevent Injuries
3. Protect Property

4. Protect the Environment

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

GOALS OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

SAVE LIVES

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

GOALS OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

PREVENT INJURIES

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

GOALS OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT

PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

FIVE PHASES OF EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT
Mitigate

Prevention

Recover

Prepare

Respond
Graphic: Brandon Hoechst
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

DISASTERS HAPPEN

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

DISASTERS HAPPEN

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

DISASTERS HAPPEN

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

DISASTERS HAPPEN

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

SOME POSSIBLE PROBLEMS


Loss of electricity



Loss of potable water



Disruption of transportation routes



Broken natural gas lines



Loss of telephone communication, including cellular service

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

GOVERNMENT RESPONSIBILITY IN EMERGENCY

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

PARTNERSHIP
National

Divisional

Local

District
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

LOCAL GOVERNMENT
At the local level whether
county, city, town or other
designation – it is
the first line of official public
responsibility for emergency
management activity.

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

ROLE OF THE EMERGENCY MANAGER


Coordinate the planning process



Identify and analyze hazards



Coordinate all components of the program, including fire and law
enforcement services, emergency medical programs, social services,
volunteers and other groups involved in emergency activities



Coordinate resources from all sectors before, during and after a disaster



Manage activities relating to prevention, mitigation, preparedness,
response and recovery from a disaster



Ensure that all stakeholders are aware of potential threats to the
community

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

ROLE OF EXTENSION STAFF


Emergency Operations



Mitigation Planning and Projects



Awareness



Support to local emergency
operations plans and functional
areas
i. Damage assessment
ii. Health and medical
iii. Individual and family assistance

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

ROLE OF EXTENSION STAFF


Damage assessment


A system for assessing private and public property damage
resulting from emergency or disaster situations







Agricultural losses
Private farm structures
Agricultural industry
USDA Flash Fax

Health and medical annex


Support vector and pest control through education and
chemical applications

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

ROLE OF EXTENSION STAFF




Provide assistance for animal health, environmental and medial
response and recovery
Monitor changes in food supply

Individual and family assistance




Support for emergency feeding
Information dissemination on disaster and emergency
agricultural programs
Identify rural residents in need of services

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

ROLE OF EXTENSION STAFF


Disaster planning and projects


Provide practical, research-based information and educational
programs to address critical issues facing individuals, families,
agricultural producers, business operators and communities



Provide programming for county
citizens in the areas of family financial management,
environmental concerns, housing, health and wellness, aging,
foods and nutrition, parenting, and human development

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

ROLE OF EXTENSION STAFF


Possible project areas
• Livestock
• Water quality
• Waste
management
• Financial
planning
• Mental health

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

EMERGENCY OPERATIONS PLAN
The key to disaster
management is an
organized plan.

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

DISASTER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
 Systematic processes and practices under a legal basis
 Administrative decisions to implement policies and strategies, and
 Coping capacities of the society and communities

Disaster
management
system

Legal arrangement
Policy and Planning
Institutional framework

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

Services towards
vision, mission and
objectives

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

DM MODEL FOR BANGLADESH

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

DISASTER MANAGEMENT SERVICE SYSTEM
The system mainly constituted of
1. Early warning system and information communication system
2. Prevention and Mitigation system
3. Preparedness system
4. Emergency management system
4.1 Emergency relief
4.2 Rehabilitation
4.3 reconstruction and development

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

DISASTER MANAGEMENT LEGAL SYSTEM
1. Disaster Management Act (MoFDM)
2. National Disaster Management Policy
3. A framework of action (PLAN OF ACTION of MoFDM)- Corporate
Plan, National Plan for Disaster Management (NPDM 2007-2015):
District, upazila, sector wise and corporate plan needed.
4. Revision of Standing Orders on Disaster (SOD)
5. Revising Allocation of Business (Part of Rules of Business)
6. Learning and Development Strategy (Learning and development
policy, procedures and rules)
7. Institutional reform, development and coordination
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

DISASTER MANAGEMENT LEGAL SYSTEM-GUIDELINES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Disaster Impact and Risk Assessment Guideline
Local Disaster Risk Reduction Fund Management Guidelines
Emergency Fund Management Guidelines
Indigenous Coping Mechanism Guidebook
Community Risk Assessment Guidelines
Damage and Needs Assessment Methodology
Hazard Specific Risk Assessment Guidelines
Emergency Response and Information Management Guideline
Contingency Planning Template
Sectoral Disaster Risk Reduction Planning Template

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

DISASTER MANAGEMENT LEGAL SYSTEM-GUIDELINES
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

Local Level Planning Template
National Risk Reduction Fund Management Guideline
National Disaster Reduction & Emergency Fund Management Guideline
Local Disaster Management Fund Guideline
Guideline for road and water safety
Guideline for industrial safety
Guideline for Disaster Shelter Management
Monitoring and Evaluation Guideline for the Implementation of the Plan
Guideline for international Assistance in disaster emergency

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

EARLY WARNING AND INFORMATION
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Data and Information Generation System (DIGS)
Data Distribution System (DDS)
Data Management System (DMS)
Data Processing & Application Development (DPAD)
Decision Support System (DSS)

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

DISASTER MANAGEMENT DRIVERS
1. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)1994
2. Recommendations of the National Workshop on Options for Flood Risks
and Damage Reduction in Bangladesh, 2004
3. Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015
4. SAARC Framework for Action (SFA) 2006-2015:

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

DISASTER MANAGEMENT REGULATIVE FRAMEWORK
Disaster
Management Act

National Plan for DM

DM Policy

Sectoral Policies
(DRR
incorporated)

Sectoral Plans
(DRR
incorporated)

► Local Plans
► Hazard
Plans

Programming for implementation

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

SOD

►Guideline
►Templates

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

MAJOR INSTITUTIONS FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Technical Monitoring
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Bangladesh Met Department
(BMD)
Disaster Management Bureau
(DMB)
Bangladesh Water Development
Board (BWDB), Flood
Forecasting and Warning Center
(FFWC), Institute of Water
Modeling (IWM)
SPARRSO,
GSB
CEGIS
Soil Resource Development
Institute (SRDI)
BUET and other universities
River Research Institute

Preparedness &
Response

Capacity Building
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Disaster Management
Bureau (DMB)
Comprehensive Disaster
Management Programme
(CDMP)
School/colleges/Universities
Water Resources Planning
Organizations
BUET (Sp. Institutes)
Public training/ academic
Institutes (e.g. BARD, IUB,
RDA, APD, BPATC, IUBAT,
BRAC, JU, RU, DU, KU,
PSTU)

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

1.

Ministry of Food and Disaster
Management (MoFDM)
2. Armed Forces Division
3. Disaster Management Bureau (DMB)
4. Directorate of Relief and
Rehabilitation (DoRR)
5. Fire Services and Civil Defense
6. Bangladesh Ansar and village
defense force
7. Bangladesh Red Crescent Society
(BDRCS)
8. Cyclone Preparedness Programme
9. Specialized NGOs
10. Youth, women and religious leaders
11. All BCS training academies

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
(Contingency Planning)
Steps in contingency planning:
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

Hazard & risk analysis: list hazards/events that threaten food security and/or implementation of ongoing assistance operations.
Contingency priontization: assess probability & likely outcome of each hazard & select
those for which specific plans should be prepared (e.g. the most probable and the worstcase).
Scenario building: for each contingency, describe (use assumptions ) likely outcomes &
situation that would be faced.
Contingency plan preparation: define what agencies need to do to respond to each
scenario and how the response would be organized (see elements)
Preparedness actions & updating the plan: take specific actions to enhance
preparedness; review analysis & plan(s) regularly, & update when necessary.

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

NPDM ACTION AGENDA FOR 2010-2015
Develop and establish emergency response plans
1. Develop & review emergency response plans at all levels
2. Develop and implement a standard relief management procedure
3. Strengthen the District and Upazila DMCs to prepare their respective
response plans
4. Administration, coordination and monitoring of emergency relief and
rehabilitation programmes
5. Promote planning and practicing of emergency evacuation routes for
persons with disability

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

OBJECTIVES OF EARLY WARNING
To be better prepared to face challenges of the risk of long term or sudden
disasters by:
1. Avoiding and reducing damages and loss
2. Saving human lives, health , economic development and cultural
heritage
3. Upgrading quality of life, public and international image

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

INTERVENTION PHASES
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Prevention
Preparedness
Mitigation
Response
Recovery

Disasters
Disaster Cycle
Underdevelopment

Flood Forecasting & Warning Activities
Data Collection
Field Observation
Water Level
Rainfall

Field Office

Feed to
computer

FFWC
Office

Other Sources
BMD
Satellite image
Web-site
Indian data

Analysis &
Quality
check

06:00 to 09:00
hrs

Preparation

08:30 to 10:30 hrs

Output

Dissemination

Flood
Bulletin
Preparation

Dissemination
Through
Hard copy
E-mail
Fax
Phone
Web-site
SMS

Error
check

Model
Run

Result
consistency
check
10:30 to 11:00 hrs

Rainfall
Surface Map

Flood
Inundation
Map

11:00 to 12:00 hrs

Distributed to
Policy makers
Disaster
managers (GO
& NGO)
Media
Others

11:30 to --------

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

FORECAST & WARNING MESSAGE DISSEMINATION
SYSTEM OF BMD
To be better prepared to face challenges of the risk of long term or sudden
disasters by:
1. Avoiding and reducing damages and loss
2. Saving human lives, health , economic development and cultural
heritage
3. Upgrading quality of life, public and international image

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

FORECAST & WARNING MESSAGE DISSEMINATION SYSTEM OF BMD
WORLD WEATHER WATCH (WWW)
U.N ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME (UNEP)

CLIMATE CHANGE MONITORINGSYSTEM

GLOBAL TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM (GTS)
NATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL COMMONICATION CENTRE (NMCC)
STORM WARNING CENTRE (SWC)
HON’BLE PRIME MINISTER’S OFFICE
BANGLADESH BETAR (RADIO)
BANGLADESH TELEVISION (BTV)
MINISTRY OF FOOD AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT
CYCLONE PREPAREDNESS PROGRAMME (CPP)
COASTAL VOLUNTEERS
NEWS PAPERS
GENERAL MASS
BANGLADESH ARMY
BANGLADESH NAVY
BANGLADESH AIR FORCE
MARITIME AND RIVERINE PORTS
FLOOD CONTROL AND FORECASTING CENTRE

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

GIS FOR EWS





GIS maps for local level
disaster risk mapping and
response preparedness
Spatial GIS platform for house
building data sharing
GIS for visual presentation of
achievements
GIS software and databases
for risk assessments and data
archive
Conceptual Framework – Spatial GIS for DM

Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

DATA MANAGED BY CDMP : DMIC INFORMATION FLOW
BMD

FFWC

CEGIS

Disaster
management
statistics

National level water
level predictions
Met alerts

Met observations

Erosion and
local level
water level
predictions

MoFDM

IWM

DMB

Reports

Water-related
analytical data

DRR

Directives, reports

Reports

BBS

Reports

Socio-economic data
Directives, reports

District Relief
and
Rehabiliation
Officer

Reports,

BMD field
observation stations

Met observations

Directives, reports

DMIC

Reports
Assessment support
information

Directives

Upazila Project
Implementation
Officer

Risk reduction,
early warning,
emergency response
information

Union
Parishad
Chairman

Reports,
action plans

CRA Contractors
Risk reduction,
early warning,
emergency response
information

NGO and GoB disaster information users

early warnings

SOD outputs

Community SMS subscribers

Other GoB agencies with SOD roles

DMIN LINKS
Serve user notification

Mail acknowledgement

USER

Request

Serve user notification

Problem Reporting and
Corrective Action
Tracking

Request

Registration

Chec
rt

m

po

le

re

ob

re

ity

pr

Storm Warning
Dissemination

C

he

ck

Pr
e

ta

ilabil

te da

k a va

Upda

Response

Submit document

Response

Request

Response

D o cu

Document Management

me n

t entr

y

FAX Server

Update data
Data collect

GIS Service

DMIN

Update data

SMS Server

Request

Contact Directory
Search documents

Map Server

Request
Pass Search results

Report

a
at

da

te

E-Mail Server
da

ta

pa

Photo Gallery

Up

D

Request

Update data

Request

Data entry

pa

re

re

po

rt

Search

Pr
e

Response

Response

Response

Response

Serve user notification

User Forum

Alert Subscription

pa

nks

Check
availability

Response

ss

Request

Request

General and Customized
Information

Information Exchange with
GoB agencies (BMD &
FFWC)

IVR
CELL
BROADCASTING

DMIC
SMS

FAX

NGO, INGO AND
GOB AGENCIES

DMIC Physical Network

DIAL 10941 FROM
MOBILE

CDMP Portal

Searching
Disaster
Information

DMIN
Portal

1

WEATHER

2

SEA PORT

3

FLOOD WARNING

SITUATI
ON
REPORT

Process &
Report
Prepared

BMD

CPP

FFWC

HF/VHF

≠ 64 DISTRICTS AND
310 UPAZILLA
≠ 13 GOVERNMENT
AGENCIES
≠ NGO

PRESS BUTTON

Volunteers

Community

Email

DMIC
(Disaster
Management
Information
Center)

≠ INGO

CDM
P II

www.cdmp.o
rg.bd

Thank you very much
Abdul Latif Khan
Disaster Response Management Specialist
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP II)
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Disaster Management & Relief Bhaban (6th Floor) I 92-93 Mohakhali C/A, Dhaka-1212, Bangladesh
Cell: 88 01199854540, 88 01713063302 I E-mail [email protected]
Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme Phase (CDMP II)
Ministry of Disaster Management & Relief

Sponsor Documents

Or use your account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Forgot your password?

Or register your new account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password.

Back to log-in

Close