Examination Malpractice

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Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline
$ol.5% No.21% 2&1'

(&
Examination Malpractice: A Situational Analysis of Trends at
Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

Professor )aru* +li,u -algo
.epart/ent of Educational )oundations% )acult, of Education and E0tension Ser1ices
2s/anu .anfodi,o 2ni1ersit,% So*oto% P.3.4. 23'5% So*oto% Nigeria
E/ail6 proffaru**algo7,o8oo.co/

Astract
98e paper reported 1arious e0a/ination /isconducts co//itted :, t8e students of 2s/anu .anfodi,o
2ni1ersit,% So*oto% Nigeria. 98e reports of t8e E0a/ination 3onitoring ;o//ittee fro/ 2
nd
Se/ester
2&&7<2&&! session to 2
nd
Se/ester 2&1&<2&11 session for/ed t8e sources for t8e anal,sis. 98e anal,sis s8owed
t8at 153 out of 257 reported cases 8ad to do wit8 :ringing pieces of paper wit8 writing into t8e e0a/ination 8all%
and 2' cases were for writing on =uestion paper% pal/% lap% clot8es% etc% using 8andset 8as 22 cases% a/ong
ot8ers. >eco//endations were also proffered on 8ow to cur: t8e e0a/ination /isconduct% w8ic8 include
restructuring of our education s,ste/ to /a*e it functional and de-e/p8asi?e paper =ualification% se/ester
s,ste/ and t8e curriculu/ to :e restructured so t8at students can progress at t8eir own pace and not as a class or
co8ort% t8ere s8ould :e proper in1igilation and /ore lecture 8alls and t8eatres to :e pro1ided so t8at enoug8
space is gi1en to eac8 student to write 8is<8er e0a/.

Areviations used:
)EES - )acult, of Education and E0tension Ser1ices
)+IS - )acult, of +rts and Isla/ic Studies
S<Sc - )acult, of Social Sciences
Sc. - )acult, of Science
3Sc - )acult, of 3anage/ent Sciences
@aw - )acult, of @aw
+gric. - )acult, of +griculture
;ollege - ;ollege of Aealt8 Sciences
$et - )acult, of $eterinar, 3edicine
2.2;#NS - 2s/anu .anfodi,o 2ni1ersit, ;onsultanc, Ser1ices
BS9 - Beneral Studies

!" #ntroduction:
#ne of t8e 8opes and aspirations of an, nation is t8e o1erall de1elop/ent of its citi?ens w8ic8 co/es as a result
of t8e 8arnessing of all its resources :ot8 8u/an and non-8u/an. 98e :ac*:one for t8is de1elop/ent is a
functional and effecti1e educational s,ste/. 98e s,ste/ s8ould :e suc8 t8at t8e citi?ens can 8a1e access and
8a1e e=uit, to it and can lead towards t8e reali?ation of t8e national o:Cecti1es (-algo% 2&12. 98e educational
s,ste/ is an instru/ent a societ, or a nation uses to e=uip its people to lead producti1e pu:lic li1es and full
personal li1es according to t8eir talent and interest (Dila,at% 2&&(. 98is s,ste/ /ust :e suc8 t8at :ot8 t8e
gifted% t8e a1erage and t8e less a1erage 8a1e full opportunit, to de1elop t8eir s*ills and a:ilities needed for t8e
creation of a progressi1e and de/ocratic societ,. 98e s,ste/ /ust t8erefore :e e1aluated periodicall, to ensure
t8at rig8t attitudes and intellectual prowess are inculcated into t8e citi?ens.
E0a/ination is an integral part of for/al sc8ooling. It is used to ascertain 8ow /uc8 of t8e su:Cect /atter a
candidate 8as /astered in a particular field. E0a/ination refers to t8e use of for/al test to unra1el t8e
indi1idualEs a:ilit, in a di/ension of 8u/an endea1our. It could :e oral% written or perfor/ing certain acti1ities%
depending on t8e purpose of t8e e0a/ination. +ccording to Nnac8i (2&&5% e0a/ination constitutes a para/eter
upon w8ic8 t8e =ualit, of a countr,Es education and t8e standard of t8e curriculu/ are deter/ined. 98e
:astardi?ation of t8e e0a/inations and its s,ste/ significantl, represents t8e de:ase/ent and possi:le erosion of
t8e 1ia:le educational structure. E0a/ination% as a :ac*:one of an, educational s,ste/% /ust :e conducted free
of an, for/ of /isconduct. In a situation w8ere e0a/inations are not properl, conducted and<or closel,
/onitored at w8ate1er le1el% t8e, are lia:le to a:use and will not gi1e proper or desired assess/ent of t8e
:e8a1iour% *nowledge% perfor/ance and s*ills of t8e e0a/inee.
;andidates in Nigeria are ad/itted into for/al s,ste/ of education t8roug8 one for/ of e0a/ination or anot8er.
98e candidatesE acade/ic a/:itions or desires depend on t8eir a:ilit, to pass t8e e0a/ination. 98is is rig8t
fro/ pri/ar, sc8ool% t8roug8 secondar, sc8ool up to 2ni1ersit, le1el. 98e less a:le and a/:itious candidates
tr, to appl, all tactics to pass t8e e0a/ination% :ecause at t8e end of t8e da,% t8eir e/plo,/ent and pro/otions
are :ased on certificates. In reali?ation of t8is% candidates tr, to do w8at t8e, t8in* t8e, can to get t8e F/eal
Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline
$ol.5% No.21% 2&1'

(1
tic*etG. 98is could include e0a/ination /isconduct.
E0a/ination /alpractice is defined as a deli:erate act contrar, to official e0a/ination rules% designed to place a
candidate at an ad1antage o1er ot8ers. +ccording to Dila,at (2&&(% e0a/ination /isconduct is an, illegal act
co//itted :, a student single 8andedl, or in colla:oration wit8 ot8ers during or after e0a/ination in order to
o:tain undeser1ed /ar*s or grades.

$" Synopsis of t%e &auses of Examination Misconduct
98ere are /an, causes of e0a/ination /isconduct as t8ere are /an, wa,s :, w8ic8 cri/inals co//it t8eir
cri/es. 98e causes range fro/ t8e personal wea*nesses of t8e e0a/inee% to t8e social and en1iron/ental factors
as well as attitudinal inco/petence. 98e /ost influential factor to e0a/ination /isconduct is t8e c8anging
societal and co//unit, 1alues o1er t8e ,ears.
98e 1alues of 8ard wor*% steadfastness% dedication% 8ealt8, acade/ic co/petition% discipline% co//it/ent to
/oral standards and 8onest, 8a1e :een t8rown to t8e dogs. Parents in t8e past sent t8eir c8ildren to sc8ool not
:ecause t8e, were a/:itious :ut :ecause t8e, wanted c8ildren to :e educated. 98e interest and a:ilit, of t8e
c8ild was considered a:o1e parental interest. 9oda, parents pressuri?e t8eir c8ildren into ta*ing a/:itious
courses e1en if t8e, are not capa:le (I:ra8i/ H E,a/% 2&&5. So t8e desire to pass at all cost is responsi:le for
e0a/ination /isconduct. 98e 1alues 8a1e :een replaced wit8 uni/agina:le =uest for /aterialis/% indiscipline%
la?iness and undue e/p8asis placed on certificate. 3an, students and parents percei1ed education as a /eans of
getting a /eal tic*et (certificate t8roug8 getting a FgoodG Co: as e/p8asis is not on oneEs perfor/ance :ut on
t8e paper first. It s8ould :e reali?ed t8at certificate /entalit, is one of t8e root causes of e0a/ination
/isconduct and fraud in Nigeria.
#n ps,c8ological ground% a student /a, :e predisposed to e0a/ination /isconduct :ecause of 8is low self-
concept or self-estee/. Ae e1aluates 8i/self and concludes t8at 8e does not 8a1e *nowledge and s*ills
necessar, for 8is success. E0a/ination an0iet, and fear of failure /a, also :e seen as factors for e0a/ination
/alpractice. + student /a, :e uncertain of w8at will :e t8e result of t8e e0a/ination% rat8er t8an to stud,
8arder to succeed% 8e engages in /alpractice.
#t8er factors include o1er crowded e0a/ination 8alls% lac* of proper in1igilation% non-co/pletion of t8e
s,lla:us :, teac8ers% studentsE truanc, and a:senteeis/% inade=uate preparation for e0a/ination% inade=uate
sc8ool facilities% low le1el of aptitudinal co/petence% parents 8ig8 e0pectations on t8e acade/ic standard of t8eir
c8ildren% peer influence% /ild punis8/ent for offenders% teac8ers inco/petence% i//oralit, and econo/ic
downturn% =uota s,ste/ and 8ost of ot8ers.

'" Types of Examination Misconduct
Students adopt different strategies in an atte/pt to conduct notorious acti1ities. E0a/ination /isconduct 8as
assu/ed an alar/ing proportion wit8 culprits :eco/ing /ore sop8isticated e1er, da,. .ifferent t,pes of
e0a/ination /isconduct are :eing e08i:ited :, :ot8 staff and students. 98e following are so/e of t8e
e0a/ination /isconducts students engaged in.
(a Students :ring prepared /aterials into t8e e0a/ination 8all.
(: I/personation I student or indi1idual not registered for t8e course ta*e t8e place of one w8o is
registered.
(c Su:stitution of e0a/ination scripts I student su:stituting alread, wor*ed script for t8e original one
during e0a/ination.
(d Driting *e, points on 8and*erc8iefs% laps% pal/s% s8irts% trousers% currenc, notes% etc.
(e Biraffing I students peeping into oneEs wor* wit8 t8e intention to cop,.
(f Students cop, fro/ 8andset or listen to taped points t8roug8 earp8ones.
(g ;on1ersations a/ong students (e0a/inees
(8 98e use of signals or sign language a/ong students.
(i Students pretending to want to ease t8e/sel1es to read up answers.
(C Jotting and writing answers on t8e =uestion wit8 t8e intention of passing it to a friend.
Staff also engage in 1arious e0a/ination /isconducts% suc8 as disclosing content or part of e0a/ination
=uestions to Fli*edG students prior to ta*ing t8e e0a/ination% allowing students to re-write e0a/ination and
deli:erate alteration of /ar*s.
98e t,pes Cust /entioned are so/e of t8e 1arious /alpractices t8at are co//on a/ong students and staff.
Students continue to de1ise different strategies as aut8orities continue to find wa,s of cur:ing t8e /enace. 98e
for/s /entioned a:o1e are indicati1e of t8e enor/it, of t8e pro:le/s in ter/s of identification% /anage/ent%
control and possi:le eli/ination. 98e /as*ing of t8e different patterns of e0a/ination /alpractice /a*es its
/anage/ent an enor/ous tas* for t8e 2ni1ersit, and t8e entire societ, (E*oCa% #:e,a and Ja/es% 2&&5.
98e /anifestation or pro/inence of t8e t,pe of e0a/ination /isconduct 1aries fro/ t8e en1iron/ent% t,pe of
e0a/ination and e1en t8e opportunit, gi1en to t8e prospecti1e culprits :, t8e e0a/ination agenc,.
Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline
$ol.5% No.21% 2&1'

(2
(" Met%odology"
98e /et8odolog, used was descripti1e :ecause t8e anal,sis was :ased on t8e cases of different e0a/ination
/isconducts caug8t :, t8e E0a/ination /onitoring co//ittee /e/:ers during t8e end-of t8e se/ester
e0a/ination fro/ 2
nd
Se/ester 2&&7<2&&! to 2
nd
Se/ester 2&1&<2&11. 98e cases used were for 7 se/esters
cutting across different t,pes of /isconduct and faculties. ;ases fro/ Nine faculties and two di1isions were
used in t8e anal,sis.
)or eac8 se/ester% si/ple fre=uenc, distri:ution was used and cases were tallied :ased on t8e t,pe of t8e case
and t8e )acult, w8ere t8e students<culprit ca/e and also t8e do/icile )acult, of t8e course e0a/ination paper.
98ere were 257 cases of /isconduct during t8e period of 57 se/ester(s and were used for t8e anal,sis. 98e
sa/e nu/:er of students were in1ol1ed.

)" Analysis of t%e Trends
98e situation at 2s/anu .anfodi,o 2ni1ersit, So*oto in ter/s of t8e t,pes of e0a/ination /isconduct practiced
:, t8e students is 1i1idl, s8own in t8e following ta:les. 98e figures were fro/ 2
nd
Se/ester 2&&7<2&&! session
to 2
nd
Se/ester 2&1&<2&11 session as gat8ered :, E0a/ination 3onitoring ;o//ittee during t8e period. 98e
first report was for t8e 2
nd
Se/ester 2&&7<2&&! e0a/ination as s8own :elow -
Tale !: $
nd
Semester $**+,$**- Examination Misconduct cases"
S,N T./E 01
M#S&0NDU&T

1i
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1. Entering wit8 piece of
paper
21 5 3 7 5 1 ! 3 ' 5 1
2. ;o//unicating wit8
eac8 ot8er
2 1 1 1 1
3. No. e0a/ination
.ocu/ents
1 1 1
'. .ispla,ing wor* for
so/eone to cop,
1 1 1
5. E0c8ange of Scripts 1 1 1
5. Driting on t8e :ac* of
e0a/. ;ard.
2 2 2
7. I/personation 2 1 1 1 1
!. Aandset 1 1 1
(. Driting on t8e co1er
of suns8ade glasses
1 1 1

98e /ost co//on /isconduct co//itted :, t8e students during t8e 2
nd
se/ester 2&&7<2&&! e0a/ination was
entering e0a/ination wit8 piece of paper. #ut of t8e 32 cases recorded% 21 were of t8at nature% t8en followed :,
writing on e0a/ card% i/personation and co//unicating wit8 one anot8er. 3aCorit, of t8e cases in1ol1ed
courses fro/ )aculties of Social Sciences% Sciences and Education and E0tension Ser1ices. #f t8e students w8o
co//itted /isconduct% 12 were fro/ t8e )acult, of +rts and Isla/ic Studies% ( fro/ t8e )acult, of Education
and E0tension Ser1ices% 5 eac8 fro/ Social Sciences and Sciences and 1 fro/ 3anage/ent Sciences.
+l/ost t8e sa/e trend /anifested itself during t8e e0a/ination of 1
st
Se/ester 2&&!<2&&( session w8ere 77.5J
of t8e cases recorded were t8ose in1ol1ing students entering e0a/ination wit8 piece(s of paper(s. 9a:le 2
s8ows details of t8e cases reported.

Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline
$ol.5% No.21% 2&1'

(3
Tale $: !
st
Semester $**-,$**5 Examination Misconduct &ases"
S,N T./E 01
M#S&0NDU&T

1i
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1. Entered wit8
piece of paper
31 5 7 7 5 5 1 12 5 3 5 2 1 3
2. ;op,ing fro/
Aandset
2 1 1 1 1
3. ;op,ing fro/
eac8 ot8er
3 2 1 3
'. Driting answers
outside t8e e0a/
8all
1 1 1
5. Su:stitution of
Scripts
1 1 1
5. I/personation 1 1 1
7. ;o//unicating
wit8 eac8 ot8er
1 1 1

;op,ing fro/ eac8 ot8er in1ol1ed 3 students onl, w8ile cop,ing fro/ 8andset in1ol1ed 2 students. 98e rest
t,pes 8ad one student eac8. 98e courses w8ere t8e /isconducts were co//itted were e1enl, distri:uted a/ong
t8e )aculties wit8 )acult, of Education and E0tension Ser1ices 8a1ing (% )acult, of +rts and Isla/ic Studies
8ad also (% )aculties of Social Sciences and 3anage/ent Sciences 8ad ! and 7 respecti1el,. +:out 15 students
out of '& w8o co//itted e0a/ination /isconducts were fro/ t8e )acult, of Education and E0tension Ser1ices.
In t8e 2
nd
Se/ester% 2&&!<2&&( e0a/ination% a:out 37 cases were recorded% out of w8ic8 27 in1ol1ed entering
e0a/ination wit8 pieces of paper. 98is is s8own in ta:le 3.
Tale ': $
nd
Semester $**-,$**5 Examination Misconduct &ases"

S,N

T./E 01 M#S&0NDU&T

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1. Entered wit8 piece of paper 27 5 5 1& 2 2 2 13 ' 5 2 2
2. I/personation 5 2 1 3 3 2 1
3. ;op,ing fro/ eac8 ot8er 1 1 1
'. Driting on t8e =uestion
paper
1 1 1
5. ;o//unicating wit8 eac8
ot8er
1 1 1
5. E0c8ange of Script 1 1 1

Si0 students co//itted i/personation% 3 fro/ )acult, of Education and E0tension Ser1ices% 2 fro/ t8e )acult,
of +rts and Isla/ic Studies and 1 fro/ t8e )acult, of 3anage/ent Sciences. +:out 1! students fro/ t8e
)acult, of Education and E0tension Ser1ices were in1ol1ed in t8e e0a/ination /isconduct t8is se/ester.
.uring t8e 1
st
se/ester 2&&(<2&1& session e0a/ination% a total of 3( cases of e0a/ination /isconduct were
reported. #f t8is nu/:er% 27 students entered e0a/ination 8all wit8 piece(s of paper% 5 used /o:ile sets and 3
eac8 were caug8t wit8 i/personation and writings on pal/% s8irt or calculator case. 9a:le ' 1i1idl, e0plains
t8is.

Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline
$ol.5% No.21% 2&1'

('
Tale (: !
st
Semester $**5,$*!* Examination Misconduct &ases"

S,
N

T./E 01
M#S&0ND
U&T

1
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&0U2SE 1A&U3T.

STUDENT4S 1A&U3T.
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1. Entered wit8
piece of
paper
2
7
2 5 7 7 2 1 2 5 3 5 ( 1 1 1
2. I/personati
on.
3 1 1 1 2 1 1
3. 2sing
8andset
5 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1
'. Driting on
pal/% s8irt
or calculator
case
3 2 1 1 2

+:out 7 cases eac8 fro/ )aculties of Social Sciences and Sciences were recorded in1ol1ing courses fro/ t8e
)aculties. Si/ilarl,% ( students fro/ )acult, of Science% 5 eac8 fro/ )aculties of Education and E0tension
Ser1ices and Social Sciences were in1ol1ed in t8e /isconduct%
98e 2
nd
Se/ester 2&&(<2&1& e0a/ination witnessed an increase in t8e nu/:er of e0a/ination /isconducts
co//itted :, t8e students. + total of 5& /isconduct cases were recorded ranging fro/ entering e0a/ination
8all wit8 piece of paper to tal*ing to eac8 ot8er. 98is is s8own in 9a:le 5 :elow6
Tale ): $
nd
Semester $**5,$*!* Examination Misconduct &ases"

S,
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T./E 01
M#S&0NDU
&T

1
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1. Entered wit8
piece of paper
2
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( 1 ' 7 ' ' ( 1 ' ( 1 ' 1
2. Driting on
pal/% e0a/
card% co1er of
calculator%
=uestion
papers%
clot8es% laps.
1
&
2 2 2 2 1 1 ' 3 2 1
3. 2sing 8andset 1 1 1
'. ;op,ing fro/
eac8 ot8er
' 1 3 2 1 1
5. 9al*ing to
eac8 ot8er
1 1 1
5. I/personation 3 3 2 1
7 E0c8ange of
Scripts
1 1 1
!. Dent out wit8
script and later
returned it.
1 1 1

9went,-nine cases in1ol1ing entering e0a/ination 8all wit8 a piece of paper% 1& in1ol1ing writing rele1ant
infor/ation on pal/% e0a/ination card% co1er of calculator% =uestion paper% clot8es or lapsK and ' students were
found cop,ing fro/ eac8 ot8er. 9wel1e cases in1ol1ed courses fro/ )acult, of Education and E0tension
Ser1ices% 12 fro/ )acult, of Sciences and ( cases :elonging to courses fro/ .i1ision of Beneral Studies. +:out
1! students fro/ t8e )acult, of Education and E0tension Ser1ices and 13 fro/ )acult, of Science.
)or t8e 1
st
Se/ester% 2&1&<2&11% onl, 22 cases were recorded. #ut of t8is nu/:er% 13 cases in1ol1ed entering
Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline
$ol.5% No.21% 2&1'

(5
e0a/ination 8all wit8 piece of paper and 3 were using /o:ile sets. 9a:le 5 e0plains furt8er.
Tale 8: !
st
Semester $*!*,$*!! Examination Misconduct &ases"

S,N

T./E 01
M#S&0NDU&T

1i
&0U2SE 1A&U3T. STUDENT4S 1A&U3T.

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1. Entered wit8
piece of paper
13 2 2 3 5 2 2 1 ' '
2. E0c8ange of
scripts.
2 1 1 1 1
3. 2sing 8andset ' 2 1 1 3 1
'. I/personation 2 1 1 2
5. Driting on
;alculator ;ase
1 1 1

Eig8t students co//itted e0a/ination /isconduct in courses :elonging to t8e )acult, of Science% 5 for )acult,
of Social Sciences and onl, 1 for t8e )acult, of Education and E0tension Ser1ices. 98e description also s8owed
t8at% in t8is Se/ester% 7 and 5 students fro/ )aculties of Social Sciences and Science respecti1el,% co//itted
one for/ of e0a/ination /isconduct or t8e ot8er.
.uring t8e 2
nd
Se/ester of 2&1&<2&11 session% 37 /isconduct cases were recorded. )ifteen (15 out of 37 cases
in1ol1ed entering e0a/ination 8all wit8 pieces of paper% ! using /o:ile sets and 5 in1ol1ing writing on pal/%
=uestion paper or s8irts. +:out 1& students co//itted /isconduct during t8e e0a/ination of courses fro/
)acult, of +rts and Isla/ic Studies% ! in t8e )acult, of Sciences and ( in courses of .i1ision of Beneral Studies
as s8own in 9a:le 7.
Tale +: $
nd
Semester $*!*,$*!! Examination Misconduct &ases"

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wit8 eac8 ot8er
' 1 3 1 1 2
3. Driting on
=uestion paper%
Pal/% S8irt
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'. 2sing Aandset ! 1 2 1 3 1 3 3 1 1
5. E0c8ange of
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3 2 1 2 1
5. .ropping
+nswers to a
)riend
1 1 1

Ele1en% ( and 7 students fro/ t8e )aculties of Education and E0tension Ser1ices% +rts and Isla/ic Studies and
Social Sciences respecti1el,% were in1ol1ed in 1arious e0a/ination /isconducts. 98e ta:le also s8owed t8at%
during t8e papers e0a/ined :, t8e )acult, of +rts and Isla/ic Studies% ten (1& students were caug8t co//itting
e0a/ination /isconduct% ! students during t8e papers e0a/ined :, t8e )acult, of Social Sciences and ( students
during t8e papers of t8e .i1ision of Beneral Studies.
98e situational anal,sis 8as s8own a gloo/, and erring picture of e0a/ination /is:e8a1iours :eing perpetuated
in t8e 2ni1ersit,. In t8e last 3 L ,ears w8en t8e anal,sis was done a total of 257 cases of e0a/ination
/isconduct were reported and t8e sa/e nu/:er of students were in1ol1ed. )or t8e two sessions (' Se/esters% -
fro/ 1
st
Se/ester 2&&!<2&&( I 2
nd
Se/ester% 2&&(<2&1& t8e trend in /isconduct cases 8as :een fluctuating wit8
2
nd
Se/ester 2&&(<2&1& recording 5& cases. 9a:le ! :elow gi1es details I

Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline
$ol.5% No.21% 2&1'

(5
Tale -: Summary of Examination Misconduct &ases from $
nd
Semester $**+,$**- to $
nd
Semester
$*!*$*!!
S,N Semester 1re:uency
1. 2
nd
Se/ester 2&&7<2&&! 32
2. 1
st
Se/ester 2&&!<2&&( '&
3. 2
nd
Se/ester 2&&!<2&&( 37
'. 1
st
Se/ester 2&&(<2&1& 3(
5. 2
nd
Se/ester 2&&(<2&1& 5&
5. 1
st
Se/ester 2&1&<2&11 22
7. 2
nd
Se/ester 2&1&<2&11 37
Total: $)+

In t8e period under re1iew% )acult, of +rts and Isla/ic Studies 8ad 5' (21J of t8e total cases recorded during
t8e e0a/ination of t8eir courses% )acult, of Social Sciences 8ad 52 (2&J cases recorded% )acult, of Science 8ad
recorded 5& (1(.'5J and )acult, of Education and E0tension Ser1ices 8as 37 (1'.'J cases. )aculties of
+griculture and @aw wit8 2 and ' cases reported% respecti1el,. 98e least was ;ollege of Aealt8 Sciences wit8
one (1 case. 9a:le ( gi1es furt8er e0planations I
Tale 5: Summary of t%e Examination Misconduct &ases #nvolving &ourses in t%e 1aculties"
1A&U3T.,&033E6E,6ENE2A3 STUD#ES
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Se/ester 2&&7<2&&! 5 11 7 5 1 2
2. 1
st
Se/ester 2&&!<2&&( ( ( ! 5 7 1
3. 2
nd
Se/ester 2&&!<2&&( 5 ! 11 3 3 5
'. 1
st
Se/ester 2&&(<2&1& 3 ( 7 11 1 2 3 1 2
5. 2
nd
Se/ester 2&&(<2&1& 12 5 5 11 2 ( 5
5. 1
st
Se/ester 2&1&<2&11 1 2 5 ! ' 2
7. 2
nd
Se/ester 2&1&<2&11 1 1& ! 5 3 1 (
'+ )( )$ )* $! ( '! ) ! $

)urt8er anal,sis s8owed t8at !' (32.5!J students w8o were in1ol1ed in e0a/ination /isconduct during t8e
period ca/e fro/ t8e )acult, of Education and E0tension Ser1ices% 51 (1(.!'J fro/ )acult, of Science% '5
(17.5J fro/ )acult, of +rts and Isla/ic Studies and '2 (15.3'J students ca/e fro/ )acult, of Social Science.
;ollege of Aealt8 Sciences% $eterinar, 3edicine and 3edical @a:orator, Science 8ad one student eac8. 9a:le
1& gi1es details.

Tale !*: Summary of t%e Numer of Students #nvolved in Examination Misconduct y 1aculty
STUDENTS4 1A&U3T.

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Se/ester 2&&7<2&&! ( 12 5 5 1
2. 1
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Se/ester 2&&!<2&&( 15 7 ' 5 3 1 3
3. 2
nd
Se/ester 2&&!<2&&( 1! 5 5 3 3 1
'. 1
st
Se/ester 2&&(<2&1& ( 5 5 12 1 1 1 1 2
5. 2
nd
Se/ester 2&&(<2&1& 1! 3 7 13 2 5 1 1
5. 1
st
Se/ester 2&1&<2&11 3 2 7 5 '
7. 2
nd
Se/ester 2&1&<2&11 11 ( 7 5 3 1
S24-9#[email protected] -( () ($ )! !+ ( 5 ! $ ! !
T0TA3:


Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline
$ol.5% No.21% 2&1'

(7
98e e0a/ination /isconduct /ost fre=uentl, practiced :, t8e students of 2s/anu .anfodi,o 2ni1ersit,% So*oto
is entering e0a/ination 8all wit8 prepared /aterial% in w8ic8 a:out 153 out of 257 students were in1ol1ed. 98is
is followed :, students writing answers or rele1ant infor/ation on =uestion papers% pal/% lap% clot8es% e0a/
card% etc% w8ere 2' of t8e/ were in1ol1ed. 2sing /o:ile 8andset during e0a/ination was also anot8er
e0a/ination /isconduct practiced w8ere 22 cases were reported during t8e period. 98ese are e0plained :,
9a:le 11.
Tale !!: Types of Examination Misconduct in t%e University and t%eir 1re:uencies

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1. 4ringing pieces of paper wit8
writing into t8e e0a/ination
8all
21 31 27 27 2( 13 15 !8'
2. I/personation 2 1 5 3 3 2 !+
3. ;op,ing fro/ eac8 ot8er 3 1 ' -
'. 2sing Aandset 1 2 5 1 ' ! $$
5. E0c8ange of Scripts 1 1 1 1 2 3 5
5. Driting on =uestion paper%
pal/% lap% clot8es% etc
3 1 3 1& 1 5 $(
7. ;o//unicating wit8 eac8
ot8er
2 1 1 1 ' 5
!. Driting answers outside t8e
e0a/ 8all
1 1 $
(. No e0a/ination docu/ents 1 !
1&. .ispla,ing wor* for so/eone
to cop,
1 !
11. .ropping answers to a friend 1 !
T0TA3: $)+

98e anal,sis 8as s8own t8at courses in t8e )aculties of +rts and Isla/ic Studies% Social Sciences and Science
were /ore prone to e0a/ination /isconduct co//itted :, students t8an ot8er )aculties. 98is could not :e
unconnected wit8 t8e le1el of preparedness :, t8e .epart/ents in t8e )aculties and t8e seriousness attac8ed to
t8e in1igilation :, t8e e0a/ination in1igilators. ;ourses in t8ese )aculties% especiall, in t8e +rts and Isla/ic
Studies and Social Sciences% were p8ilosop8ical and t8eoretical% t8erefore students find it difficult to grasp t8e
infor/ation and e=uall, difficult to atte/pt e0a/ination wit8out indulging in one for/ of /isconduct or t8e
ot8er.
Students fro/ )acult, of Education and E0tension Ser1ices% /ore t8an an, ot8er students fro/ ot8er )aculties
co//it e0a/ination /isconduct. 98is was :ecause 32.5!J of t8e cases anal,?ed in1ol1ed students fro/ t8e
)acult,. 98e situation could :e seen fro/ t8e fact t8at a:out 5& I 7&J of t8e ad/itted students were gi1en
Education against t8eir wis8 and /aCorit, of t8e/ were acade/icall, wea*. So t8e, resort to e0a/ination
/isconduct to /eet up to e0pectation.
98e data anal,sed 8ad s8own t8e t,pes of e0a/ination /isconduct :eing co//itted :, t8e students of 2s/anu
.anfodi,o 2ni1ersit,. 98e first and t8e /ost fre=uentl, t,pe was co/ing into t8e e0a/ination 8all wit8 a piece
of paper containing writings rele1ant to t8e e0a/ination. 98e, put t8e paper in t8eir poc*ets or in t8eir answer
script and /a*e use of it w8en opportuned. 98is is a recurring p8eno/enon and its na::ing pro1ed difficult.
I/personation was also anot8er cancer w8ic8 8as recentl, featured in t8e arra, of e0a/ination /isconduct in
t8is 2ni1ersit,. Dea* students or students w8o 8a1e no confidence solicit t8e cooperation of t8eir friends to sit
e0a/ for t8e/. 98is was possi:le :ecause of t8e large nu/:er of students and lac* of proper scrutin, to *now
and identif, t8e genuine students.
;op,ing fro/ eac8 ot8er% entering e0a/ination 8all wit8 no proper docu/ents% displa,ing wor* for so/eone to
cop, and dropping answers to a friend 8ad reduced drasticall, o1er t8e ,ears. )or cop,ing fro/ eac8 ot8er% t8e
last case recorded was in 2
nd
Se/ester 2&&(<2&1& session. Entering e0a/ination 8all wit8 no proper docu/ents
was last witnessed in 2
nd
se/ester 2&&7<2&&! session. #nl, one case of dropping answers to a friend was
recorded in t8e 2
nd
Se/ester% 2&1&<2&11. 98e efforts /ade :, t8e 2ni1ersit, aut8orit, in sensiti?ing t8e students
and staff on t8e dangers of e0a/ination /isconduct 8ad contri:uted in t8e reduction of t8e /isconducts.
98e use of 8andsets (3o:ile P8ones was found to :e an increasing /isconduct a/ong t8e 2ni1ersit, students.
Students enter e0a/ination 8all wit8 t8eir 8andsets 8idden in t8eir poc*ets or under F8iCa:G (1eil for /usli/
Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline
$ol.5% No.21% 2&1'

(!
wo/en despite t8e :an. 98e, put rele1ant infor/ation in t8e p8one or friends te0t t8e/ answers and so/eti/es
t8e, 1oice taped infor/ation and listen to it using earp8one (particularl, wo/en. 98e 2ni1ersit, wanted to
start using p8one Ca//ing facilities during e0a/ination :ut it failed.
+not8er e0a/ination /isconduct w8ic8 was gaining ground was writing rele1ant infor/ation on =uestion paper%
pal/% lap and clot8es. 98e, write on t8e =uestion paper wit8 t8e intention of passing t8e paper to a friend during
e0a/ination. Dritings on t8e pal/s% laps and clot8es were difficult to detect% t8atEs w8, students find t8e/
/ore con1enient to use.
+not8er reported e0a/ination /isconduct a/ong t8e 2ni1ersit, students was tal*ing to eac8 ot8er during
e0a/ination. 98e, tell answers to t8eir friends w8o usuall, sit near eac8 ot8er. @ac* of proper in1igilation
could lead to students tal*ing to eac8 ot8er during e0a/ination. 98is was actuall, t8e situation in so/e
.epart/ents.
98ese were so/e of t8e e0a/ination /isconducts t8at were identified :eing practiced :, t8e students of t8e
2ni1ersit,. 98ere could :e ot8er practices :, t8e students w8ic8 did not co/e to t8e notice of t8e /onitoring
officials.

&onclusion
98is cancerous p8eno/enon is in t8e increase in t8is 2ni1ersit, and causing a lot of concern to t8e :elo1ed
students and tarnis8ing t8e long standing i/age of t8e 2ni1ersit,. D8at are t8e possi:le reasons or e0planation
for t8e /isconducts despite /easures put in place :, t8e 2ni1ersit, aut8orit, to cu: t8e /enaceM
98e first possi:le e0planation one can offer is t8e rela0ation of t8e punis8/ent for t8e culprits. It used to :e
outrig8t dis/issal if con1icted :ut t8e regulation was rela0ed and /isconduct was to attract /a0i/u/ of 2
se/estersE rustication and cancellation of t8e course(s for t8e se/ester(s. )urt8er concession was t8at t8e
period of rustication was not counted against t8e culprits. Aowe1er% t8is 8as recentl, :eing re1ersed and t8e
period of rustication was to count as part of studentsE stud, period.
Secondl,% /ost of t8e e0a/ination /isconduct cases were co//itted :, wea* students. 3ost of t8ese students
ca/e in wit8 /ini/u/ re=uire/ents and s8owed no co//it/ent and dedication to t8eir studies. 98e, gla/our
for /ini/u/ pass /ar* and w8en t8is pro1ed difficult t8e, resort to c8eating in t8e e0a/ination. 3ost of t8e/
1iewed t8e rustication as an opportunit, to i/pro1e on t8eir grades% especiall, w8en t8e period of rustication
was not counted against t8e/. 98is was :ecause w8en student was rusticated all 8is courses for t8e se/ester or
se/esters in w8ic8 t8e /isconduct was co//itted% were cancelled. Ae<s8e /ust repeat t8ose courses cancelled.
98irdl,% lac* of enoug8 space for writing e0a/ination and ade=uate in1igilation could also :e factors
encouraging e0a/ination /isconduct a/ong students. 98e space a1aila:le for e0a/ination did not
co//ensurate wit8 t8e increasing nu/:er of students. It was o:ser1ed t8at students were writing e0a/ination
as if t8e, were ta*ing lectures. In1igilation was also a pro:le/. 3ost of t8e e0a/ination 1enues 8ad no enoug8
in1igilators. In so/e cases in1igilators were not properl, in1igilating :ut rat8er gat8ered c8arting to t8e/sel1es
or so/eti/es /ar*ing e0a/ination scripts.
)ourt8l,% t8e students t8e/sel1es could :e a factor. Students t8ese da,s were not prepared to face t8e c8allenges
of students8ip. 98e, wanted to get t8e certificate wit8out /uc8 effect and dedication. 98e, read less and watc8
fil/s and sports /ore. +t t8e end of da, t8e, could not /eet t8e de/and of t8e e0a/ination% as suc8 t8e,
engage in e0a/ination /isconduct in order to /eet up to e0pectation.
)ift8l,% t8e wa, .epart/ents and t8e e0a/ination personnel 8andled e0a/ination /aterials pro1ided
opportunit, for co//itting e0a/ination /isconduct. 98e wa, t8e .epart/ents 8andled e0a/ination scripts
:efore% during and after e0a/ination lea1e /uc8 to :e desired. So/e of t8e personnel 8andling e0a/ination
=uestion papers and answer scripts were not sta*e8olders in t8e :usiness% as suc8 t8e, could co/pro/ise t8e
responsi:ilities assigned to t8e/. 98e students could get =uestion paper or e/pt, e0a/ination script :efore t8e
e0a/ination.

8" 2ecommendations on <o= to &ur Examination Misconduct in t%e University"
It is i/portant to /a*e or offer so/e reco//endations on 8ow to cur: e0a/ination /isconduct /enace in our
educational institutions.
(i NigeriaEs educational s,ste/ s8ould :e restructured to gi1e c8ildren functional education w8ere
paper =ualification would :e de-e/p8asi?ed. So t8e =uest for certificate using croo* wa,s would
:e /ini/al and progress would depend on w8at one can do% not on t8e :asis of class of degree.
(ii 98e se/ester s,ste/ and t8e curriculu/ s8ould :e restructured in suc8 a wa, t8at real se/ester
s,ste/ operates so t8at students progress at t8eir respecti1e paces and not as a class or co8ort. 98e
curriculu/ s8ould :e redesigned to allow students to register t8e nu/:er of credit units t8e, can
8andle per se/ester. 98is translates into increasing t8e nu/:er of ,ears one is allowed wit8in
w8ic8 to graduate. 98e pressure and stress is conse=uentl, reduced on students and t8us loo*ing
for e0traCudicial /eans to get degrees would :e reduced to t8e /ini/al% if not eradicated altoget8er.
Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org
ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper ISSN 2222-2!!" (#nline
$ol.5% No.21% 2&1'

((
(iii 98ere is need to increase t8e nu/:er of lecture roo/s and t8eatres so t8at enoug8 space is gi1en to
eac8 student to write 8is<8er e0a/ination. 98is will reduce t8e o1ercrowded classes we witnessed
o1er t8e ,ears and t8ere:, reduce t8e tendenc, for co//itting /isconduct during e0a/ination.
(i1 E0a/ination /aterials suc8 as =uestion papers% e0a/ination scripts and attendance records s8ould
:e properl, secured. #nl, sta*e8olders and people of pro1en integrit, s8ould :e allowed to 8andle
e0a/ination /aterials.
(1 98ere s8ould :e proper in1igilation of e0a/ination 1enues :, appropriate nu/:er of in1igilators
1is-N-1is t8e nu/:er of students. 98e in1igilators s8ould :e students friendl, and s8ould not :e
tal*ing or in1ol1ed in ot8er t8ings t8at could distract t8e attention of students.
(1i 9eac8ers s8ould do t8eir Co: effecti1el, :, teac8ing t8e students and :, co1ering t8e s,lla:us.
D8en t8e students felt t8e, 8a1e not co1ered a lot and 8a1e no confidence in tac*ling =uestions in
e0a/ination% t8e, resort to /isconduct.
(1ii 98ere is e1er, need to 8a1e a second loo* at our 1alue s,ste/. 98e need for t8e general pu:lic to
8a1e re-orientation in t8e 1alue s,ste/ t8at /ade us proud as Nigerians :eco/es necessar,. De
s8ould ai/ at up8olding t8e 1alues of trut8% persistence% co/petence% 8ard wor*% sincerit, and
8onest ac8ie1e/ent.
(1iii 98e 2ni1ersit, s8ould e/:ar* on strong /o:ili?ation and orientation of students on rules and
regulations of e0a/ination and t8e punis8/ent to :e gi1en w8en e0a/ination /isconduct is
co//itted. De s8ould go :e,ond t8e annual orientation gi1en to students at t8e :eginning of eac8
session.

2E1E2EN&ES
E*oCa% +.+.% #:e,a% >. H Ja/es% P. (2&&5% F+ Stud, of t8e Practices of )or/s<Patterns of E0a/ination
3alpractice a/ong Secondar, Sc8ool Students in 3a*urdi 3etropolis of 4enue StateG% The Nigerian
Educational Psychologist% Journal of t8e Nigerian Societ, for Educational Ps,c8ologists (NISEP $ol. '. (2%
#cto:er.
I:ra8i/% E.S. H E,a/% J.+. (2&&5. F+iding and +:etting E0a/ination 3alpractice in Nigerian Secondar,
Sc8ools6 98e >ole of Parents and 9eac8ersG% The Nigerian Educational Psychologists, Journal of t8e Nigerian
Societ, for Educational Ps,c8ologists (NISEP $ol. ' (1% +pril.
-algo% ).+. (2&12% FE=uipping Secondar, Sc8ools wit8 @earning 3aterials in Nort8-Destern Oone :, State
Bo1ern/ents6 >8etories or >ealitiesG% 4eing a paper presented at t8e 3andator, ;ontinuing Professional
9raining Dor*s8op (3P;9 organi?ed :, +ll Nigeria ;onfederation of Principals of Secondar, Sc8ools
(+N;#PSS% 4irnin -e::i% -e::i State% )e:ruar,.
Nnac8i% >.#. (2&&5% F;auses of and >e/edies for E0a/ination Irregularities +/ong E0ternal E0a/ination
;andidates in NigeriaG% The Nigerian Educational Psychologist, Journal of t8e Nigerian Societ, for
Educational Ps,c8ologists (NISEP $ol. ' (2% #cto:er.
Dila,at% 3. ( 13
t8
Jul,% 2&&(% F ;auses of E0a/ination 3alpractice<2nfair 3eans% Education +wareness and
>esearc8. 8ttp6<<researc8educationedu%:logspot.co/<2&&(<&7<e0a/ination-/alpractice.8t/l

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Archives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, Elektronische
Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe Digtial
Library , NewJour, Google Scholar


Business, Economics, Finance and Management Journals PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
European Journal of Business and Management [email protected]
Research Journal of Finance and Accounting [email protected]
Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development [email protected]
Information and Knowledge Management [email protected]
Journal of Developing Country Studies [email protected]
Industrial Engineering Letters [email protected]
Physical Sciences, Mathematics and Chemistry Journals PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Journal of Natural Sciences Research [email protected]
Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research [email protected]
Journal of Mathematical Theory and Modeling [email protected]
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications [email protected]
Chemical and Process Engineering Research [email protected]
Engineering, Technology and Systems Journals PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Computer Engineering and Intelligent Systems [email protected]
Innovative Systems Design and Engineering [email protected]
Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy [email protected]
Information and Knowledge Management [email protected]
Journal of Control Theory and Informatics [email protected]
Journal of Information Engineering and Applications [email protected]
Industrial Engineering Letters [email protected]
Journal of Network and Complex Systems [email protected]
Environment, Civil, Materials Sciences Journals PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Journal of Environment and Earth Science [email protected]
Journal of Civil and Environmental Research [email protected]
Journal of Natural Sciences Research [email protected]
Life Science, Food and Medical Sciences PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Advances in Life Science and Technology [email protected]
Journal of Natural Sciences Research [email protected]
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare [email protected]
Journal of Food Science and Quality Management [email protected]
Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research [email protected]
Education, and other Social Sciences PAPER SUBMISSION EMAIL
Journal of Education and Practice [email protected]
Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization [email protected]
Journal of New Media and Mass Communication [email protected]
Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy [email protected]
Historical Research Letter [email protected]
Public Policy and Administration Research [email protected]
International Affairs and Global Strategy [email protected]
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences [email protected]
Journal of Developing Country Studies [email protected]
Journal of Arts and Design Studies [email protected]

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