FAA Short Course Prelim

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Analysis of Air Transportation Systems The Aircraft and the System
Dr. Antonio A. Trani Associate Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Falls Church, Virginia Jan. 9-11, 2008

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1

Material Presented in this Section
• • •

The aircraft and the airport Aircraft classifications Aircraft characteristics and their relation to airport planning New large capacity aircraft (NLA) impacts



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Purpose of the Discussion


Introduces the reader to various types of aircraft and their classifications Importance of aircraft classifications in airport engineering design Discussion on possible impacts of Very Large Capacity Aircraft (VLCA, NLA, etc.) Preliminary issues on geometric design (apron standards) and terminal design







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Relevance of Aircraft Characteristics


Aircraft classifications are useful in airport engineering work (including terminal gate sizing, apron and taxiway planning, etc.) and in air traffic analyses Most of the airport design standards are intimately related to aircraft size (i.e., wingspan, aircraft length, aircraft wheelbase, aircraft seating capacity, etc.) Airport fleet compositions vary over time and thus is imperative that we learn how to forecast expected vehicle sizes over long periods of time The Next Generation transportation system will cater to a more diverse pool of aircraft







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Aircraft Classifications
Aircraft are generally classified according to three important criteria in airport engineering:


Geometric design characteristics (Aerodrome code in ICAO parlance) Air Traffic Control operational characteristics (approach speed criteria) Wake vortex generation characteristics Other relevant classifications are related to the type of operation (short, medium, long-haul; wide, narrow-body, and commuter, etc.)





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Geometric Design Classification (ICAO)
ICAO Aerodrome Reference Code Used in Airport Geometric Design

Design Group
A B

Wingspan (m)
< 15 15 to < 24

Outer Main Landing Gear Width (m)
< 4.5 4.5 to < 6

Example Aircraft
All single engine aircraft, Some business jets Commuter aircraft, large business jets (EMB-120, Saab 2000, Saab 340, etc.) Medium-range transports (B727, B737, MD-80, A320) Heavy transports (B757, B767, A300) Heavy transport aircraft (Boeing 747, A340, B777) A380, Antonov 225

C D E F

24 to < 36 36 to < 52 52 to < 65 >= 65

6 to < 9 9 to < 14 9 to < 14 > 14

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Geometric Design Classification (FAA in US)
FAA Aircraft Design Group Classification Used in Airport Geometric Design

Design Group
I II III IV V VI

Wingspan (ft)
< 49 49 - 78 79 - 117 118 - 170 171 - 213 214 - 262

Example Aircraft
Cessna 152-210, Beechcraft A36 Saab 2000, EMB-120, Saab 340, Canadair RJ-100 Boeing 737, MD-80, Airbus A-320 Boeing 757, Boeing 767, Airbus A-300 Boeing 747, Boeing 777, MD-11, Airbus A340 A380, Antonov 225

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ATC Operational Classification (US)
Airport Terminal Area Procedures Aircraft Classification (FAA Scheme)

Group A B

Approach Speed (knots)a < 91 91-120

Example Aircraftb All single engine aircraft, Beechcraft Baron 58, Business jets and commuter aircraft (Beech 1900, Saab 2000, Saab 340, Embraer 120, Canadair RJ, etc.) Medium and Short Range Transports (Boeing 727, B737, MD-80, A320, F100, B757, etc.) Heavy transports (Boeing 747, A340, B777, DC-10, A300) BAC Concorde and military aircraft

C

121-140

D

141-165

E
a. At maximum landing mass.

> 166

b. See FAA Advisory Circular 150/5300-13 for a complete listing of aircraft TERP groups and speeds

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Wake Vortex Aircraft Classification
Final Approach Aircraft Wake Vortex Classification

Group Small

Takeoff Gross Weight (lb) < 41,000

Example Aircraft All single engine aircraft, light twins, most business jets and commuter aircraft Large turboprop commuters, short and medium range transport aircraft (MD80, B737, B727, A320, F100, etc.) Boeing 757a, Boeing 747, Douglas DC-10, MD-11, Airbus A-300, A-340, Airbus A380 (pending reductions)

Large

41,000-255,000

Heavy A380

> 255,000 1,234,000

a. For purposes of terminal airspace separation procedures, the Boeing 757 is classifed by FAA in a category by itself. However, when considering the Boeing 757 separation criteria (close to the Heavy category) and considering the percent of Boeing 757 in the U.S. feet, the four categories does provide very similar results for most airport capacity analyes.

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IATA Aircraft Classification
IATA Aircraft Size Classification Scheme.

Category 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Number of Seats < 50 50-124 125-179 180-249 250-349 350-499 > 500

Example Aircraft Embraer 120, Saab 340 Fokker 100, Boeing 717 Boeing B727-200, Airbus A321 Boeing 767-200, Airbus A300-600 Airbus A340-300, Boeing 777-200 Boeing 747-400 Boeing 747-400 high density seating

Used in the forecast of aircraft movements at an airport based on the IATA forecast methodology.

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Aircraft Classification According to their Intended Use
A more general aircraft classification based on the aircraft use
• • • •

General aviation aircraft (GA) Corporate aircraft (CA) Commuter aircraft (COM) Transport aircraft (TA)
Short-range Medium-range Long-range

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General Aviation (GA)
Typically these aircraft can have one (single engine) or two engines (twin engine). Their maximum gross weight usually is always below 14,000 lb.
Single-Engine GA Twin-Engine GA

Cessna 172 (Skyhawk) Beechcraft 58TC (Baron)

Beechcraft A36 (Bonanza)

Cessna 421C (Golden Eagle)

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Corporate Aircraft (CA)
Typically these aircraft can have one or two turboprop driven or jet engines (sometimes three). Maximum gross mass is up to 40,910 kg (90,000 lb)
Raytheon-Beechcraft King Air B300

Cessna Citation II

Gulfstream G-V

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Commuter Aircraft (COM)
Usually twin engine aircraft with a few exceptions such as the DeHavilland DHC-7 which has four engines. Their maximum gross mass is below 31,818 kg (70,000 lb)
Fairchild Swearinger Metro 23

Bombardier DHC-8

Saab 340B

Embraer 145

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Short-Range Transports (SR-TA)
Certified under FAR/JAR 25. Their maximum gross mass usually is below 68,182 kg (150,000 lb).
Fokker F100

Airbus A-320

Boeing 737-300

McDonnellDouglas MD 82

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Medium-Range Transports (MR-TA)
These are transport aircraft employed to fly routes of less than 3,000 nm (typical).Their maximum gross mass usually is usually below 159,090 kg (350,000 lb)
Boeing B727-200

Boeing 757-200

Airbus A300-600R

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Long-Range Transports (LR-TA)
These are transport aircraft employed to fly routes of less than 3,000 nm (typical).Their maximum gross mass usually is above 159,090 kg (350,000 lb)
Airbus A340-200

Boeing 777-200

Boeing 747-400

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Future Aircraft Issues
The fleet composition at many airports is changing rapidly and airport terminals will have to adapt


Surge of commuter aircraft use for point-to-point services Possible introduction of Very Large Capacity Aircraft (VLCA)



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VLCA Aircraft Discussion
• • • • • • • •

Large capacity aircraft requirements Discussion of future high-capacity airport requirements Airside infrastructure impacts Airside capacity impacts Landside impacts Pavement design considerations Noise considerations Systems approach

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VLCA Design Trade-off Methodology
• Aircraft designed purely on aerodynamic principles would be costly to the airport operator yet have low DOC • Aircraft heavily constrained by current airport design standards might not be very efficient to operate • Adaptations of aircraft to fit airports can be costly • Some impact on aerodynamic performance • Weight considerations (i.e., landing gear design)

• A balance should be achieved

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VLCA Impact Framework (I)
Aircraft Design Module Mission Profile Definition Range, Speed, Payload Takeoff Roll, Gate Comp. Takeoff Weight Requirement VLCA Physical Dimensions Aircraft Wingspan Aircraft Length Airport Geometric Design Runway and Taxiway Geometric Modeling Gate Compatibility Modeling New Geometric Design Criteria

Aircraft Separation Analysis Aircraft Wake Vortex Model Aircraft Separation Standards

Airside Capacity Analysis
Runway , Taxiway and Gate Capacity Analysis New Capacity Figures of Merit

Airport Landside Capacity
Passenger Demand Flows Terminal Design Modeling Landside Simulations New Terminal Design Guidelines

Landing Gear Configurations Landing Gear Configuration Strut Configurations Wheel Track, Wheel Length

Pavement Design Analysis
Flexible and Rigid Pavements Identify Areas of Further Research

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VLCA Impact Methodology (II)
Airport Landside Capacity
Passenger Demand Flows Terminal Design Modeling Landside Sim ulations New Terminal Design Guidelines

Landing Gear Configurations Landing Gear Configuration Strut Configurations Wheel Track, Wheel Length

Pavement Design Analysis
Flexible and Rigid Pavements Identify Areas of Further Research

Thrust and EPNL/SEL Landing Gear Configuration Landing Analysis Takeoff Analysis

VLCA Noise Model
Noise Modeling of VLCA Operations (Ldn contours) Comparison with Current Limits

VLCA Economic Impact Trade-off Model
User Cost Impacts Community Impacts

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VLCA Specifications (Typical)
Parameter Range (km) Runway Length (m) Payload (kN) Passengers Max.TOW (kN) Wingspan (m) Length (m) Boeing 747-500X 13,000 3,000 800 500 4,200 75 74-76 VLCA (A380) 13,000 3,000 1,200 630-650 5,400 80-85 76-85

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VLCA Schematic


VLCA aircraft will have wingspans around 15-25% larger than current transports
Four 315 kN Turbofan Engines MTOW = 5,400 kN 2 S = 700 m AR = 9.5 Payload = 650 passengers Design Range = 13,000 km.

12 o 9-11o 8 1 .5 7 8 .57 m 81-87 m.

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VLCA Schematic (II)


Structural weight penalties of folding wings are likely to be unacceptable to most airlines The empennage height could be a problem for existing hangars at some airport facilities



VLCA

Boein g 7 47-400

24 .87 m

14 o 75.67 m

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Airbus A380 - First in a Family of VLCA

Source: Airbus
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Development of Subsonic Transport Wings
The graphic below offers some idea on the development of transport wings over three decades
Long Range Aircraft Data
11.0
A330/340

10.0 Wing Aspect Ratio

VLCA Aircraft
A310-300 B767-300 B747-400 IL-86

9.0
B767-200 L1011-500 DC-8-63 DC-8-50 B707-320

B777-A

8.0

7.0

A300-B4 DC-10-30 DC-10-10 L1011-200 B747-300 B747-100 B747-200

B707-121

6.0 1940.0

1960.0

1980.0 Year in Revenue Service

2000.0

2020.0

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VLCA Design Trade-off Studies
Future VLCA would weight 5,400 kN for a 13,000 km design range mission
Aircraft Maximum Takeoff Weight (kN) 7000 6500 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 3500 5000
(9,260) B747-400 MTOW 5,400 KN

VLCA Wing Aspect Ratio
AR = 9.0 AR = 9.5 AR =10.0

5500
(10,186)

6000
(11,112)

6500

7000

7500

8000
(14,816)

(12,038) (12,965) (13,890)

Design Range (Nautical Miles and Kilometers)
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VLCA Design Trade-off Studies (II)


It is possible that aircraft designers in the near future will exceed the FAA design group VI limits
90 VLCA Wing Aspect Ratio
AR =9.0

VLCA Aircraft Wingspan (Meters)

85 81.5 80

AR = 9.5 AR =10.0 FAA Design Group VI Limit

75

70

65 5000
(9,260)

5500
(10,186)

6000
(11,112)

6500

7000

7500

8000
(14,816)

(12,038) (12,965) (13,890)

Design Range (Nautical Miles and Kilometers)

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VLCA Impacts on Airside Infrastructure


Increase taxiway dimensional standards for design group VI to avoid possible foreign object damage to VLCA engines (increase taxiway and shoulder widths to 35 m and 15 m, respectively)

61 m

31 m

VLCA on DG VI Runway

VLCA on DG VI Taxiway

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Runway-Taxiway Separation Criteria


Increase the minimum runway to taxiway separation criteria to 228 m (750 ft.). This should increase the use of high-speed exits

183 m 230 m

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HS Runway Exits for VLCA
• •

Larger transition radii (due to large aircraft yaw inertia) Linear taper turnoff width from 61 m to 40 m (metric stations 250 to 650)
100

Latera l Distan ce (m)

HS Exit 35 m/s design speed
Boeing 727-200 Boeing 747-200

75

50

25

VLCA Aircraft

0 0 100 200 300 400 500

Downrange Distance (m)
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VLCA Taxiway Fillet Radius Requirements


The fillet radius design standards for design group VI should suffice for VLCA aircraft
31.00

Minimum Fillet Radius (m)

VLCA Design Region
30.00 29.00 28.00 27.00 26.00 25.00 27.00
Undercarriage Width (m.) Uw = 13.5 Uw = 15.0 Uw = 16.5

FAA Design Group VI

28.00

29.00

30.00

31.00

32.00

33.00

34.00

Distance Main Undercarriage to to Cockpit (m.) Distance from from Main Undercarriage Cockpit (m)

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Taxiway Length of Fillet Requirements


VLCA length of fillet requirements will probably be satisfied using current geometric design criteria
80.00 70.00

FAA Design Group VI
Undercarriage Width (m.)

Fillet Length (m)

60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 27.00
VLCA Design Region

Uw = 13.5 Uw = 15.0 Uw = 16.5

28.00

29.00

30.00

31.00

32.00

33.00

34.00

Distance Main Undercarriage to to Cockpit (m.) Distance from from Main UndercarriageCockpit (m)

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Impacts to Aircraft Separation
• Critical to estimate safe aircraft separation criteria • Induced rolling acceleration principle ( p quotient) • Tangential speed matching method • Derived formulation (using p quotient principle)
K4  δ ij = Max L 1 + L 2 W i , K 1 + K W i + K 3 { W j }  2  

is the separation distance between aircraft i and j in km K K , K , and K are regression constants found to be 6.1000, 0.00378, -0.24593 and 0.44145, respectively L and L are 4.7000 and 0.00172 and have been derived using empirical roll control flight simulation data
δ ij
1 2 3 4 1 2

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Aircraft Separation Analysis
• Recommended in-trail separation criteria for ˙ approaching aircraft using the P quotient criteria
24.0
Small (Learjet 23) Medium (DC9) Large (B757) Heavy (747)

Aircraft Separation (km.)

20.0

16.0

VLCA

12.0

8.0

4.0 0.0 750.0 1500.0 2250.0 3000.0 3750.0 4500.0 5250.0

Leading Aircraft Weight (kN)
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Wake Vortex Tangential Speed Estimation
• Predicted tangential speeds of wake vortex using Robinson and Larson semi-empirical vortex model
7 6

Tangential Speed (m/s)

5 4

Clean aircraft Speed = 160 knots Sea Level ISA 14 km behind aircraft
VLCA (4,400 KN)

3 2 1 0 20 30
Vortex Cores Lockheed C5A (2,060 KN)

40

50

60

70

80

9

Lateral Distance from Center of Fuselage (m.)

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Aircraft Separation Analysis (cont.) • In-trail separation criteria for approaching aircraft using the tangential speed matching method
16

Miminum In-trail Separation (km)

IMC Conditions 14

Trailing Aircraft Small MTOW < 267 kN Medium

12

267 KN < MTOW < 1,336 kN Heavy

10

MTOW > 1,336 kN

8 3500

4000

4500

5000

5500

6000

6500

Maximum Takeoff Weight (kN)
5500
(10,186)

6000
(11,112)

6500

7000

7500

8000
(14,816)

(12,038) (13,000) (13,890)

VLCA Design Range (Nautical Miles and Kilometers)

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Runway Saturation Capacity Impacts
• Small to moderate saturation capacity changes
60 50 40 (aircraft/hr) 30 20 10 0 0 25 50 75 Departure Saturation Capacity (aircraft/hr) 100
Percent VLCA
0% 10% 20%

Parallel Runway Configuration IMC Weather Conditions

Independent Parallel Approaches

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Airport Terminal Impacts (Landside)
VLCA will certainly impact the way passengers are processed at the terminal in various areas: • Gate interface (dual-level boarding gates) • Service areas (ticket counters, security counters, immigration cheking areas, corridors, etc.) • Apron area parking requirements

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Airport Landside Effects
• Use of simulation models to estimate landside LOS
5 VLCA A ircraf t (or 7 Boeing 7 47 -4 00 )

Te rm inal

4 9 0 m.

count

VLCA Deplaning Model

Heavy Acft Gate

ReadMe
Heavy Acft Gate
Exit #

c Circulation

Heavy Acft Gate

a

a

33

Immigration

Baggage Claim

CUSTOMS Customs

0
L W

F

? b select

# Exit

Heavy Acft Gate

Passengers exiting from the Terminal

0
Entrance to Landside facilities Transfer Passengers are seperated here Transfer Passengers Count

Heavy Acft Gate

Arriving Aircraft Gates

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Sample Landside Simulation Results
• Analysis using the Airport Terminal Simulation Model
30 immigration counters Normal service times (µ=1.0 and σ=0.25 minutes)
500

Total No. Passengers at Immigration Counters

7 Boeing 747-400 at 85% Load

400 300 200 100 0 0

5 VLCA at 85% Load

30

60 90 Time (minutes)

120

150

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Airport Gate Interface Challenges


VLCA aircraft could employ dual-level boarding gates to provide acceptable enplanement performance
VLCA Boei ng 7 47 - 40 0

Terminal

Dual-level Boarding Gates

24.87 m

1 4o 75.67 m

VLCA

Boei ng 7 47 - 40 0

Terminal

Dual-level Boarding Gates

24.87 m

1 4o 75.67 m

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Noise Impacts
• High by-pass ratio turbofan engines with maximum takeoff thrust of 315-350 kN will be necessary to power VLCA aircraft • The engine size will probably be determined by takeoff run and engine-out climb requirements
Sound Exposure Level (dBA)
125 VLCA Thrust Rating (kN)
44.55

100

103.20 115.43 174.35

75

229.31 246.98 311.76 315.60

50 100.00

1000.00

10000.00

Slant Range (m) (m) Slant Distance

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DNL Takeoff Contours
• Larger engines coupled with smaller initial climb rate capability (compared to twin and three-engine aircraft) could result in expanded noise contours at most airports
L dn = 5 5 Prof iles MD-1 1 ( GE) Prof ile VLCA Profile

Runway

0

20 00

40 00

6000

8000

10000

Scale in met ers

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Pavement Design Impacts
• Multiple triple-in-tandem landing gear configurations are likely to be used for VLCA applications
180

Pavement Thickness (cm)

160 140 120 100

DC9-50 B727-200 VLCA B747-400

Landing Gear Configuration

80 60 40

Quadruple + Triple-in-Tandem
20 1 2 4 6 8 10 CBR Value 20 30 40

Subgrade Strength, CBR

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Systems Engineering Model
Administration & Sales Cost Depreciation Ground Equipment Aircraft Life Cycle IOC Property and Equipment Cost ~ Fleet Purchases Annual IOC Servicing Flight OPS Fleet Size

Fleet Additions Maintenance Cost Average Utilization Aircraft Life Cycle DOC

Fleet Retirement

Depreciation Cost

Insurance Cost

Annual DOC

Annual Fuel Consumption

Flight Operations Cost

Crew Expenses

Fuel Oil Costs

Fuel Unit Cost

Average Utilization

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Sample Application of the Model
Desired Range in Km. and (n.m.) Aspect Ratio Cruise Mach Number VLCA Capacity (pass.) MTOW kN (lbs) Wingspan (m.) Airfield Pavement Section Improvement Noise Mitigation Runway Improvement Taxiway Improvement 90 Degree Exit Improv. Runway Blast Pad Area Improvement Terminal Apron Area Improvement Land Acquisition Cost 10,186 (5,500) 9.5 0.85 650 3,830 (860,000) 70 0 5,000,000 19,250,000 13,663,234 276,343 1,200,000 0 63,869 12,965 (7,000) 9.5 0.85 650 5,385 (1,210,000) 82 0 7,872,000 19,250,000 13,663,237 384,694 1,200,000 77,685 229,328 13,890 (7,500) 9.5 0.85 650 6,100 (1,370,000) 87 0 10,000,000 24,319,277 15,413,237 386,622 1,589,673 113,207 297,101

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Desired Range in Km. and (n.m.) Aspect Ratio Cruise Mach Number VLCA Capacity (pass.) MTOW kN (lbs) Wingspan (m.) Airfield Geometric Infrastructure Improvement Cost Terminal Curb Frontage Improvement Cost Parking Garage Improvement Cost Landside Improvement Cost International Terminal Infrastructure Improvement Cost Total Airport Infrastructure Improvement Cost

10,186 (5,500) 9.5 0.85 650 3,830 (860,000) 70 39,017,641 45,900 2,653,750 2,699,650 77,523,165 124,240,456

12,965 (7,000) 9.5 0.85 650 5,385 (1,210,000) 82 48,299,715 45,900 2,653,750 2,699,650 77,523,165 136,394,530

13,890 (7,500) 9.5 0.85 650 6,100 (1,370,000) 87 59,736,701 45,900 2,653,750 2,699,650 77,523,165 149,959,516

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Summary
• An integrated life-cycle approach is needed to estimate the impacts of VLCA aircraft • High-capacity aircraft operating at high-capacity airports will require some changes to current design standards • Some of the design standards for airside infrastructure should be revised to plan ahead for strategic VLCA aircraft • The effect of reduced airside capacity will not yield reduced passenger demand flow rates at airport terminals

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• High capacity airports could benefit from lower flight frequencies resulting from VLCA operations if the passenger demand flows are the same

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