Facial Expression

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Search request: F TW FACIAL EXPRESSION Search result: 204 citations in the PsycINFO database Display: 1-204 LONG ABS 1. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Moland, Michael; Whissell, Cynthia M. Laurentian U of Sudbury, ON, Canada. Children's understanding of facial expression of emotion: III. Adults' categorical and dimensional responses to children's drawings. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 1993 Aug, v77 (n1):11-15. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Emotions. Drawing. Children. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Child. Adult. Recognition of emotions in children's drawings, adults.

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Abstract: 49 adult Subjects responded to 37 children's drawings of 6 emotions (happy, sad, angry, afraid, surprised, and disgusted) by naming the emotion depicted and by identifying the pleasantness and arousal status of each drawing. Analysis indicated that assignment to categories could be predicted on the basis of ratings of pleasantness and arousal (the 2 key dimensions of a bipolar affect space). Data support the contention that emotional responses should not be assessed solely on the basis of literal accuracy but should rather be described in terms of their location in affect space. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1994 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 2. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Hauser, Marc D. Harvard U, Program in Neuroscience, Cambridge, MA, US. Right hemisphere dominance for the production of facial expression in monkeys. Science, 1993 Jul, v261 (n5120):475-477. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Lateral Dominance. Facial Expressions. Monkeys. Population terms: Animal. Hemispheric asymmetries in production of facial expressions, rhesus monkeys.

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Abstract: Analyzed video recordings of free-ranging rhesus monkeys to assess hemispheric asymmetries in the production of facial expressions. Results reveal that in rhesus monkeys, as in humans, the left side of the face (right hemisphere of the brain) is dominant in emotional expression. Humans perceive rhesus chimeras created by pairing the left half of the face with

its mirror-reversed duplicate as more expressive than chimeras created by right-right pairings. That the right hemisphere determines facial expression and the left hemisphere processes species-typical vocal signals suggests that human and nonhuman primates exhibit the same pattern of brain asymmetry for communication. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1994 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 3. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Yamada, Hiroshi. Kawamura Junior Coll, Lab of Psychology, Tokyo, Japan. Visual information for categorizing facial expression of emotions. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 1993 Jun, v7 (n3):257-270. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Features. Facial Expressions. Emotions. Classification (Cognitive Process). Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Movement of facial features, recognition of facial expression of emotions, college students, Japan.

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Abstract: Two experiments involving a total of 128 college students studied the recognition of facial expression of emotions through the movement of facial features and the relationships between those movements. In Exp 1, Subjects were asked to produce schematic faces expressing basic emotions using a computer graphics system. Factor analysis was applied to derive the structure of correlational displacements of 8 feature points. In Exp 2, Subjects were asked to judge basic emotional categories for the schematic expressions produced in the 1st experiment. The dimensions of the structural changes in the face correspond to the dimensions of affective semantic meanings, such that "slantedness," "curvedness/openness," and the 3rd canonical variable used as supplemental information correspond to "pleasantness," "activation" (or "attention"), and potentially "control," respectively. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1994 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 4. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Wallbott, Harald G.; Ricci-Bitti, Pio. U Giessen, Germany. Decoders' processing of emotional facial expression: A top-down or bottom-up mechanism? European Journal of Social Psychology, 1993 Jul-Aug, v23 (n4):427-443. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Cross Cultural Differences. Emotions. Italy. Germany.

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Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Single vs combinations of facial muscle action movements, decoded emotional facial expression, college students, Germany vs Italy.

Abstract: 20 German and 20 Italian student decoders judged emotions from photographs of facial expressions. Stimuli represented a selection of 22 photographs depicting both single muscular movements (action units) in an otherwise neutral face, and 59 combinations of 2, 3, or 4 action units. Results indicate that the meaning of action units changes often with context; only a few single action units transmit specific emotional meaning, which they retain when presented in context. Results are replicated to a large degree across decoder samples in both nations, implying fundamental mechanisms of emotion decoding. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1994 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 5. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Russell, James A. U British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Forced-choice response format in the study of facial expression. Motivation & Emotion, 1993 Mar, v17 (n1):41-51. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Forced Choice (Testing Method). Facial Expressions. Anger. Face Perception. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Methodological problems with forced choice response scale format in judgment of facial expression of anger, adults.

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Abstract: Presents a methodological note on a potential problem with a forced-choice response scale in 3 studies of facial expressions of emotion. 480 randomly selected adults assigned to 1 of 6 conditions judged the feeling expressed in a photograph. A majority of Subjects categorized D. Matsumoto and P. Ekman's (1988) facial expression of anger as contempt when using one forced-choice format, as disgust with another, and as frustration with a 3rd. When shown the anger expression and given a choice among anger, frustration, and other labels, few Subjects selected anger. If contempt, disgust, and frustration are considered wrong answers, then forced choice can yield consensus on the wrong answer; if anger is the right answer, then forced choice can fail to yield consensus on the right answer. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1994 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 6. Author: Affiliation: Title: Borod, Joan C. City U New York, Queens Coll, Flushing, US. Cerebral mechanisms underlying facial, prosodic, and lexical emotional expression: A review of neuropsychological studies and methodological issues. Special Section: Neuropsychological perspectives on components of emotional processing. Neuropsychology, 1993 Oct, v7 (n4):445-463. References.

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English. Thesaurus terms: Lateral Dominance. Brain Damaged. Emotions. Facial Expressions. Verbal Communication. Prosody. Population terms: Human. Hemispheric mechanisms of facial vs prosodic vs lexical emotional expression, patients with unilateral brain damage, research review.

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Abstract: Cortical contributions to human emotional expression are examined with a focus on interhemispheric (right vs left) and intrahemispheric (anterior vs posterior) mechanisms. This article reviews behavioral studies of emotional expression in brain-damaged patients with unilateral lesions and in normal adults. Studies involving facial, prosodic, and lexical (verbal) communication channels are reviewed for patients; facial asymmetry studies are reviewed for normal Subjects. Data are presented separately for posed and spontaneous conditions and for positive and negative emotions. Findings support right-hemisphere dominance for emotional expression, especially for prosodic and lexical expression in brain-damaged patients and for facial expression in normal Subjects. Methodological factors are suggested to account for differences among facial expressions studies in brain-damaged patients. The data are discussed in terms of neuropsychological theories of emotion and directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1994 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 7. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Borod, Joan C.; Koff, Elissa. City U New York, Queens Coll, Flushing, US. Facial asymmetry during posed and spontaneous expression in stroke patients with unilateral lesions. Special Issue: Psychopharmacology, neuropsychology and psychiatry. Pharmacopsychoecologia, 1991, v4 (n1-2):15-21. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Lateral Dominance. Cerebrovascular Accidents. Facial Expressions. Brain Damaged. Emotional States. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Facial asymmetry during posed vs spontaneous expression of positive emotion, male stroke patients with unilateral right vs left hemisphere lesions.

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Abstract: Examined facial asymmetry during the posed and spontaneous expression of a positive emotion (a smile) in 12 male patients with unilateral right or 15 adult male patients with unilateral left hemisphere lesions. Subjects

were videotaped while producing facial expressions spontaneously and on command. Right brain-damaged Subjects were significantly right-faced (more movement on the right side of the face), and left brain-damaged Subjects were significantly left-faced. There were no differences in asymmetry as a function of elicitation condition. The left brain-damaged group produced facial expressions with greater intensity than the right brain-damaged group. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 8. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Humphreys, Glyn W.; Donnelly, Nick; Riddoch, M. Jane. U Birmingham School of Psychology, Cognitive Science Research Ctr, England. Expression is computed separately from facial identity, and it is computed separately for moving and static faces: Neuropsychological evidence. Neuropsychologia, 1993 Feb, v31 (n2):173-181. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Face Perception. Emotional States. Cerebrovascular Accidents. Brain Damaged. Human Sex Differences. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Static vs moving facial images, identity & gender & emotional expression judgment, male 47 & 61 yr olds with cerebrovascular accident induced brain lesions.

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Abstract: Two male patients (aged 61 and 47 yrs) with face-processing impairments showed different patterns of performance on tasks requiring judgments of facial identity and of emotional expression to static and moving images. Three experiments with the Subjects investigated identity and gender judgments, emotional expression from static faces, and moving light-dot faces. One patient was markedly impaired at perceiving facial identity and poor at discriminating facial expression and gender from static photographs of faces. In contrast, he performed normally when required to make judgments of facial expression and gender to faces depicted by sets of moving light dots. The 2nd patient was relatively good at perceiving facial identity but poor at judging emotional expression from both static and moving faces. Data suggest the separate encoding of expression from moving and static images. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 9. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Ekman, Paul. U California, Human Interaction Lab, San Francisco, US. Facial expression and emotion. American Psychologist, 1993 Apr, v48 (n4):384-392. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Cross Cultural Differences. Facial Expressions.

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Population terms: Human. General terms: Emotions. Cross cultural research on & measurement methods of facial expression of emotion.

Abstract: Cross-cultural research on facial expression and the developments of methods to measure facial expression are briefly summarized. What has been learned about emotion from this work on the face is then elucidated. Four questions about facial expression and emotion are discussed: What information does an expression typically convey? Can there be emotion without facial expression? Can there be a facial expression of emotion without emotion? How do individuals differ in their facial expressions of emotion? (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 10. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Miura, Masaki. Kyoto U, Faculty of Education, Japan. / Individual differences in the perception of facial expression: The relation to sex difference and cognitive mode. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 1993 Feb, v63 (n6):409-413. References. Japanese. Thesaurus terms: Human Sex Differences. Individual Differences. Face Perception. Cognitive Style. Facial Expressions. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Sex & individual differences & cognitive mode, perception of facial emotions, college students, Japan.

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Abstract: Studied the relationship among perception of 6 types of basic facial emotions, sex difference, and cognitive mode. Subjects were 81 undergraduate students. A facial recognition task and an intensity rating task were administered. Slides depicting facial emotions (P. Ekman and W. V. Friesen, 1975) were shown. Cognitive mode was measured with the Cognitive Mode Questionnaire--Revised. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 11. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Mandal, Manas K.; Asthana, Hari S.; Tandon, Shiv C. Banaras Hindu U, Varanasi, India. Judgment of facial expression of emotion in unilateral brain-damaged patients. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1993 Mar-Apr, v8 (n2):171-183. References. English.

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Thesaurus terms: Face Perception. Facial Expressions. Emotional Content. Brain Damaged. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Judgments of similarities & intensities of facial expressions of emotion, right handed male with right vs left brain damage, India.

Abstract: 30 right-handed male Subjects, 10 with right brain damage, 10 with left brain damage, and 10 normal controls, made (1) inter-emotion judgments concerning photographs of 6 facial emotions in terms of mutual similarities and (2) intra-emotion judgments concerning hemifacial composite photographs of an emotion in terms of intensity of expression. Right brain-damaged patients could differentiate between the emotion of happiness and all other emotions. Left brain-damaged patients differentiated between positive-negative as well as aroused-nonaroused emotions. Normal controls differentiated between positive-negative and aroused-nonaroused emotions. Left-left facial composites were judged by all groups to have expressed emotions more intensely than right-right facial composites or normal/mirror-reversed facial orientations (except fear). (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 12. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Berenbaum, Howard. U Illinois, Champaign, US. Posed facial expression of emotion in schizophrenia and depression. Psychological Medicine, 1992 Nov, v22 (n4):929-937. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Schizophrenia. Major Depression. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Depressive symptomatology, facial expression of emotion, adults with schizophrenia vs unipolar major depression.

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Abstract: Explored (1) whether 42 schizophrenic adults, 16 adults with unipolar major depression, and 20 normal adults differ in expressing different emotions and (2) whether the types of expressions they exhibit are associated with their level of reported depressive symptomatology. Subjects were asked to imagine (1) seeing, smelling, or tasting something disgusting and (2) having something wonderful happen to them. Depressives were less likely to show signs of happiness than the normals and were more likely to show signs of anger or contempt than both the normals and the schizophrenics. Among depressives, there was an association between severity of depressive symptomatology and the likelihood of expressing anger/contempt. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological

Assn, all rights reserved). 13. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Oyama, Makiko. Hiroshima U, Faculty of Education, Japan. / Face recognition in preschool children: Effects of familiarity, facial expression and angle of view. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 1992 Oct, v63 (n4):248-255. References. Japanese. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Face Perception. Familiarity. Visual Perception. Preschool Age Children. School Age Children. Childhood. Population terms: Human. Child. Facial expression & familiarity & viewing angle, face recognition, 5.3-6.6 yr olds, Japan.

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Abstract: Studied the effects on face recognition of (1) familiarity, facial expression, and viewing angle and (2) changes or no changes in facial expression and/or viewing angle occurring between the 1st presentation and the subsequent recognition test. Subjects were 188 Japanese preschool and school-age children (aged 5 yrs 4 mo to 6 yrs 7 mo). In Exp 1 and Exp 2, half of the faces were highly familiar to Subjects. In Exp 1, the facial expressions (smiling or serious) were changed or unchanged. In Exp 2, the facial expressions or viewing angles (full-face or 75% of the face) were changed or unchanged. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 14. Author: Affiliation: Title: Kolb, Bryan; Wilson, Barbara; Taylor, Laughlin. U Lethbridge, AB, Canada. Developmental changes in the recognition and comprehension of facial expression: Implications for frontal lobe function. Special Issue: The role of frontal lobe maturation in cognitive and social development. Brain & Cognition, 1992 Sep, v20 (n1):74-84. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Face Perception. Facial Expressions. Frontal Lobe. Age Differences. School Age Children. Childhood. Adolescence. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Child.

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Adolescent. Adult. Perception & comprehension of facial expression, 6-15 vs 18-30 yr olds, implications for frontal lobe involvement.

Abstract: Tested 170 children (aged 6-15 yrs) and 30 adults (aged 18-30 yrs) on perception and comprehension of facial expression. On the composite faces test, Subjects exhibited a preference for the left visual field composite, implying that all age groups were processing the faces in a similar manner. Results from 2 other tests show that there was an improvement in the perception of facial expression between the ages of 6 and 8 yrs, little change until about 13 yrs, and then a 2nd improvement to adult performance at about 14 yrs. Data suggest that the regions of the frontal lobe involved in the performance of these tasks may not be mature until about 14 yrs of age. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 15. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Gaebel, Wolfgang; Wolwer, Wolfgang. Free U of Berlin, Germany. Facial expression and emotional face recognition in schizophrenia and depression. European Archives of Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience, 1992 Sep, v242 (n1):46-52. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Acute Schizophrenia. Major Depression. Face Perception. Facial Expressions. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Facial expressions & emotional face recognition, patients with acute schizophrenia vs major depression.

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Abstract: 23 people with acute schizophrenia (SCZ), 21 people with acute major depression (MD), and 15 healthy controls participated in a study on facial expression (FE) and emotional face recognition (EFR). Under clinical conditions, spontaneous FE was assessed according to the affective flattening section of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms. Under experimental laboratory conditions involuntary and voluntary FEs were recorded on videotape, from which a rater-based analysis of intensity or correctness of facial activity was obtained. EFR was also assessed under experimental conditions using the same stimulus material. Subjects were assessed twice (within 4 wks), controlling for change of the psychopathological status in the patient groups. In Subjects with SCZ, neuroleptic drug influence was controlled. Subjects with SCZ and Subjects with MD seem to be characterized by different quantitative, qualitative, and temporal patterns of affect-related dysfunctions. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 16. Author: Affiliation: Schneider, F.; Koch, J.-D.; Mattes, R.; Heimann, H. U Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, US.

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Das Erkennen von Emotionen aus dem Gesichtsausdruck bei visuellen Halbfelddarbietungen durch schizophrene und depressive Patienten. (The recognition of emotion by schizophrenics and depressives from facial expression.). Nervenarzt, 1992 Sep, v63 (n9):545-550. References. German. Thesaurus terms: Visual Field. Facial Expressions. Schizophrenia. Major Depression. Visual Discrimination. Tachistoscopic Presentation. Emotional Content. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Tachistoscopic presentations to left &/vs right visual field, identification of positive & negative facial expressions, schizophrenic vs depressed patients.

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Abstract: 20 schizophrenics, 20 depressives, and 20 controls identified positive and negative emotional facial expressions tachistoscopically presented to left and/or right visual hemifields. Results replicated the frequently cited recognition advantage for emotional stimuli presented in the left visual hemifield. A decoding disadvantage was observed in both patient groups, which could be explained as an interhemispheric disconnection syndrome. Bilateral findings in particular tend to support this hypothesis, since both hemispheres processed contrary information simultaneously. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 17. DISSERTATION Author: Newton, Tamara L. Affiliation: Rutgers U, New Brunswick, NJ, US. Title: Facial expression and the cognitive and behavioral components of social support: Findings from a sample of men with AIDS. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1992 Aug, v53 (n2-B):1071. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Social Support Networks. Needs. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Emotional self presentation in facial expression & self reported perceived vs received social support & other's judgment of needed support, males with AIDS.

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Clark, Belinda M.; Siddle, David A.; Bond, Nigel W. Macquarie U, NSW, Australia. Effects of social anxiety and facial expression on habituation of the electrodermal orienting response. Biological Psychology, 1992 Jul, v33 (n2-3):211-223. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Social Anxiety. Electrical Stimulation. Galvanic Skin Response. Orienting Responses. Habituation. Threat. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Facial expression & threat of shock, habituation of electrodermal orienting response, 17-32 yr olds with social anxiety.

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Abstract: Examined electrodermal orienting to happy and angry faces as a function of social anxiety and threat of shock. Social anxiety was measured with a questionnaire pretested on 569 undergraduates. Electrodermal activity was measured in 85 high or low socially anxious undergraduates during exposure to 10 presentations of an angry face intermixed with 10 presentations of a happy face. Threat of shock (no-shock, shock work-up only, and shock work-up plus threat) was also manipulated. Although trials-to-habituation did not differ between angry and happy facial expressions, skin conductance responses (SCRs) were larger to the angry face than to the happy face in both high and low socially anxious Subjects. No differences in SCR magnitude were found as a function of threat of shock. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 19. DISSERTATION Author: Philipps, Laurie C. Affiliation: U Iowa, US. Title: Social interaction and facial expression of emotion: A comparison of dysthymics, major depressives, and nondepressed individuals. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1992 Jun, v52 (n12-B, Pt 1):6668. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Dysthymic Disorder. Major Depression. Social Interaction. Facial Expressions. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions.

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Social interaction & facial expression of emotion, adults with primary dysthymia vs major depression. Rubinow, David R.; Post, Robert M. NIMH Biological Psychiatry Branch, Section on Behavioral Endocrinology, Bethesda, MD, US. Impaired recognition of affect in facial expression in depressed patients. Biological Psychiatry, 1992 May, v31 (n9):947-953. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Face Perception. Facial Expressions. Written Communication. Emotional Content. Major Depression. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Recognition of affects in facial & verbal expressions, depressed outpatients.

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Abstract: Administered measures of recognition of 7 affects in facial and verbal expressions to 17 depressed patients and 31 controls. Depressed Subjects were significantly impaired in the recognition of affect in the facial, but not verbal, expressions. Among the 7 affects examined, depressed Subjects made significantly or near significantly fewer correct matches for sad, happy, and interested face items. The neurobiology of facial recognition is reviewed, and the relevance of the observed perceptual deficit in depressed patients to the pathophysiology and symptomatology of depression is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 21. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Kaplan, Peter S.; Fox, Karen B.; Huckeby, Elizabeth R. U Colorado, Denver, US. Faces as reinforcers: Effects of pairing condition and facial expression. Developmental Psychobiology, 1992 May, v25 (n4):299-312. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Stimulus Novelty. Eye Fixation. Auditory Stimulation. Visual Stimulation. Infants. Childhood. Population terms: Human. Child. Forward pairing of auditory stimulus with facial expression, potentiation of visual fixation of novel pattern, 4 mo olds.

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Abstract: Tones were paired with an adult female face and subsequently tested for their ability to potentiate visual fixation when compounded with a checkerboard pattern. In Exp 1, 4-mo-old infants ( N = 48) who had been presented with 6 pairings of a 65-dB, 1000-Hz tone with a smiling face, later fixated a checkerboard pattern significantly more when it was compounded with the tone than when it was tested alone. In Exp 2 ( N = 60 4-mo-olds), facial expression was varied across groups and the effects on conditioning of a 65-dB tone that immediately preceded the face were studied. On test trials, greater fixation in the presence of the tone than in its absence was observed when a smiling or surprised but not a neutral expression was presented. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 22. DISSERTATION Author: Warren, Vicki J. Affiliation: Ohio State U, US. Title: Recognition of facial expression of emotion by persons with mental retardation and symptoms of depression. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1992 May, v52 (n11-B):6110. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Depression (Emotion). Facial Expressions. Trainable Mentally Retarded. Educable Mentally Retarded. Recognition (Learning). Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Recognition of facial expression of emotion, mildly & moderately mentally retarded adults with vs without depressive symptoms. Hess, Ursula; Kappas, Arvid; McHugo, Gregory J.; Lanzetta, John T.; and others. U Geneva, Switzerland. The facilitative effect of facial expression on the self-generation of emotion. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 1992 May, v12 (n3):251-265. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Reaction Time. Physiological Correlates. Skin Resistance. Electromyography. Face (Anatomy). Heart Rate. Adulthood. Population terms:

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Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Facial expression, facilitation of self generation of emotions & associated facial EMG & skin conductance & heart rate & self report & RT, female college students.

Abstract: Examined the monotonicity and the sufficiency versions of the facial feedback hypothesis (FFH) and tested for both autonomic reactions and self-reports of emotion. 28 female undergraduates completed 3 tasks: (1) feel 4 emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, peacefulness), (2) express these emotions without trying to feel them, and (3) feel and express these 4 emotions. Facial EMG and patterns of autonomic arousal differentiated among the 4 emotions within each task. Shorter self-generation latency in the Feel-and-Show vs the Feel condition indicated the facilitative effect of facial expression on the self-generation of emotion. Data support the sufficiency version of the FFH. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 24. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Wagner, Hugh L.; Smith, Jayne. Victoria U of Manchester, England. Facial expression in the presence of friends and strangers. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 1991 Winter, v15 (n4):201-214. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Friendship. Facial Expressions. Stranger Reactions. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Physical presence of friend vs stranger, interpretation of facial expressions of emotions, female college students, England.

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Abstract: Investigated the effect of the physical presence of a friend or of a stranger on facial expressiveness. 28 female university students, in pairs of friends or pairs of strangers, were videotaped while they viewed together a number of emotional stimulus slides, and rated their individual emotional responses to them. Judges subsequently attempted to identify from the videotapes the emotions reported by each sender S. Generally, expressions were more readily identified for women videotaped with friends than for those recorded with strangers. These results support the suggestion that the degree to which emotions are expressed depends on the role of an accompanying person. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 25. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Russell, James A. U British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Negative results on a reported facial expression of contempt. Motivation & Emotion, 1991 Dec, v15 (n4):281-291. References.

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English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Face Perception. Professional Criticism. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Recognition of facial expression of contempt, adults, commentary.

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Abstract: P. Ekman and W. V. Friesen (see PA, Vol 74:27932) claimed to have discovered a facial expression, a unilateral lip curl, universally recognized as conveying contempt. Their conclusion was based on a series of labeling studies, all of which relied on 1 response measure: Subjects choosing 1 label from a small, preselected list. This article reports 2 studies on the question of whether their result can be replicated with other response measures. In 1 study, 160 adults were allowed to respond with any emotion label they wanted; in the 2nd, 64 adults were asked to make quantitative ratings on 6 emotion scales. Neither method suggested contempt as Subjects' interpretation of the unilateral lip curl. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 26. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Katsikitis, M.; Pilowsky, I. U Adelaide, SA, Australia. A controlled quantitative study of facial expression in Parkinson's disease and depression. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 1991 Nov, v179 (n11):683-688. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Smiles. Parkinsons Disease. Major Depression. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Smiling behavior assessed by microcomputer based model, patients with Parkinson's disease vs major depression, Australia.

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Abstract: A microcomputer-based approach to the quantification of facial expression was used to compare the smiling behavior of 21 Parkinson's disease sufferers, 20 patients with major depression, and 19 age-matched controls. Subjects were asked to view a series of amusing slides, and their expressions were recorded. The most animated smile for each Subject was chosen for analysis, and scores on 12 computer-generated measures were obtained. Depressed Subjects had higher scores on end-lip measure, mid-top lip measure, and mid-eyebrow measure. Subjects completed a depression questionnaire. Depressed Subjects had higher depression scores than the parkinsonian group, who in turn had significantly higher depression scores than the control group. Both the depressed and parkinsonian Subjects smiled

less often during the slide session than controls. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 27. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Wallbott, Harald G. Justus-Liebig-U Giessen, Fed Rep Germany. Recognition of emotion from facial expression via imitation? Some indirect evidence for an old theory. British Journal of Social Psychology, 1991 Sep, v30 (n3):207-219. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Imitation (Learning). Facial Expressions. Emotional States. Face Perception. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Imitation of target facial expression during affect judgment task, recognition & decoding of own & respective facial emotional expressions, college students.

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Abstract: Used P. Ekman and W. V. Friesen's (1976) Pictures of Facial Affect to conduct a study employing 20 Subjects. During the 1st part, Subjects had to judge the emotions expressed in the pictures of facial affect. During this task, Subjects were videotaped without their knowledge. About 2 wks later the same Subjects watched the video-recordings of their own expressions during the judgment task and had to judge which emotions they had decoded for the respective slides 2 wks previously. Results indicate that decoding of emotions from own facial expression and decoding of the respective emotions from pictures of facial affect correspond to a degree above chance. The degree of imitation and thus recognition rate of own-face judgments partly depended on the emotions expressed in the slides in the 1st place. The conclusion that imitation (T. Lipps, 1907) at least helped in decoding facial expression seems feasible. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 28. Author: Affiliation: Title: Ricci-Bitti, P. E.; Caterina, R.; Garotti, P. L.; Giberti, E. U degli Studi, Bologna, Italy. La reconnaissance de l'expression faciale des emotions: analyse des processus de decodification. (Recognition of facial expression of emotions: Analysis of the decodification process.). Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale, 1991 Sep (n11):51-57. References. French. Thesaurus terms: Recognition (Learning). Human Information Storage. Emotional States. Facial Expressions. Social Perception. Linguistics.

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Visual Stimulation. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Linguistic & visual factors, recognition & decoding of emotional facial expressions, college students, Italy.

Abstract: Studied the effects of linguistic and visual factors on recognition and decoding of facial expressions. Human Subjects: 90 male and female Italian adults (mean age 20.7 yrs) (university students). Subjects were presented with a standardized set of photographs and asked to categorize them according to emotions using a set of verbal labels or a set of similar photographs. The results were evaluated according to type of labels, each Subject's sex, and emotion. Statistical tests were used. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 29. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Iezzi, Anthony; Adams, Henry E.; Bugg, Franlynn; Stokes, Garnett S. Victoria Hosp, Dept of Psychology, London, ON, Canada. Facial expression of pain in muscle-contraction headache patients. Journal of Psychopathology & Behavioral Assessment, 1991 Sep, v13 (n3):269-283. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Pain Perception. Muscle Contraction Headache. Facial Expressions. Physiological Correlates. Reaction Time. Emotional States. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Facial expressions & RT & physiological activity & self reported pain & mood during headache vs nonheadache state, 19-52 yr olds with muscle contraction headache.

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Abstract: 14 muscle-contraction headache (MCH) patients (aged 19-52 yrs) were videotaped in headache and nonheadache states. In addition, patients were required to undergo a resting physiological assessment and complete a reaction time (RT) task and self-report measures of pain state and mood. Headache and nonheadache state of MCH patients were reliably identified by 20 graduate student observers. Characteristics of facial expressions that occurred most frequently in the headache state included furrowed eyebrows, closed eyes, slow eyeblinks, lip pursing, facial grimacing, and flat facial affect. Headache state was also associated with increased latency to respond to an auditory tone and mood disturbances, but no differences in baseline physiological activity were observed. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 30. Author: Affiliation: Profyt, Linda; Whissell, Cynthia. Laurentian U of Sudbury, ON, Canada.

Title: Source: Language: Subject:

Children's understanding of facial expression of emotion: I. Voluntary creation of emotion-faces. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 1991 Aug, v73 (n1):199-202. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Emotional States. Preschool Age Children. School Age Children. Childhood. Population terms: Human. Child. Creation & recognizability of emotional facial expressions, 4-6 yr olds.

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Abstract: Examined whether young children could intentionally make faces to communicate emotional information. 22 children (aged 4-6 yrs) from a day-care service were asked to make faces that would show the basic emotions of happiness, sadness, disgust, anger, and fear. Children decoded their own videotaped responses 1 wk later, and they also decoded the same expressions presented by a child whom they did not know. Groups of day-care teachers and university students were also employed in decoding the children's facial responses. Recognizability of all emotions by all decoders improved with the age of the child in a linear manner (9% gain per year). Happy and disgusted expressions were the most easily decoded. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 31. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Wallbott, Harald G.; Scherer, Klaus R. U Giessen, Fed Rep Germany. Stress specificities: Differential effects of coping style, gender, and type of stressor on autonomic arousal, facial expression, and subjective feeling. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1991 Jul, v61 (n1):147-156. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Stress. Physiological Arousal. Facial Expressions. Emotional Responses. Coping Behavior. Human Sex Differences. Autonomic Nervous System. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Coping style vs sex vs type of stressor, autonomic arousal & facial expression & subjective feeling in stressful situations, college students.

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Abstract: In this study several factors considered to be relevant in mediating

stress arousal were experimentally manipulated. Subjects selected for the coping styles anxiety denying, low anxiety, and high anxiety were confronted with both low- and high-arousal-inducing situations, using 2 different types of stressors (cognitive vs emotional) in each case. Arousal reactions were measured in 3 response modalities: verbal report of subjective experience; nonverbal, nonvocal behavior; and physiological reactions. The results reveal complex interactions between type and degree of stress, coping style, and gender of Subjects, confirming findings on vocal parameters of stress. These complex interactions are discussed with respect to the possibility that Subjects' evaluation of situation characteristics may be influenced by coping styles and gender, resulting in differential reaction patterns. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 32. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Fernandez-Dols, Jose-Miguel; Wallbott, Harald G.; Sanchez, Flor. U Autonoma de Madrid, Facultad de Psicologia, Spain. Emotion category accessibility and the decoding of emotion from facial expression and context. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 1991 Summer, v15 (n2):107-123. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Contextual Associations. Attribution. Classification (Cognitive Process). Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Accessibility of emotional categories & facial expression vs context information, ascription of emotion to target, college students, Spain.

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Abstract: Explored 3 possible causes for the higher influence of expressive information compared to context information on the ascription of emotions: lack of biographical experience in situations described by contextual information (Exp 1), lack of instruction on categorizing contexts in terms of words that describe emotions in facial expressions (Exp 2), and insufficient enhancement of the contextual source of information (Exp 3). Subjects were 216 undergraduates. Experiments followed H. G. Wallbott's (1988) version of F. L. Goodenough and M. A. Tinker's (1931) procedure. Results of Exps 1 and 3 suggest that the different weights of expression and context in the Goodenough and Tinker ascription task are not determined by inexperience or lack of differentiation of the contextual information with respect to the expression. Exp 2 indicates these differences might reside in the categories that people use for the ascription of emotional content of faces and situations. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 33. Author: Affiliation: Title: Skinner, Martin; Mullen, Brian. U Warwick, Coventry, England. Facial asymmetry in emotional expression: A meta-analysis of research.

Source: Language: Subject:

British Journal of Social Psychology, 1991 Jun, v30 (n2):113-124. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Meta Analysis. Lateral Dominance. Population terms: Human. General terms: Emotions. Facial asymmetry in emotional expression, meta analysis.

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Abstract: Reports meta-analysis of 65 hyopothesis tests in 14 published studies of asymmetry in the facial expression of emotion. The analysis examined which side of the face more strongly expresssed emotion as well as the effects of 3 moderator variables: (1) the type of expression; (2) the method of eliciting expression (posed or spontaneous); and (3) dimensions of emotional experience. The analysis reveals a highly significant but small effect for the left side of the face to be judged more expressive than the right. Additionally it reveals that asymmetry is (1) stronger for emotional than neutral expressions, (2) stronger for posed emotional expressions compared with spontaneous emotional expressions and (3) predicted by some dimensions of emotional experience, notably pleasantness. Results highlight theoretical and methodological issues in asymmetry of facial emotional expression. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 34. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Ekman, Paul; O'Sullivan, Maureen; Matsumoto, David. U California, Human Interaction Lab, San Francisco, US. Confusions about context in the judgment of facial expression: A reply to "The contempt expression and the relativity thesis.". Motivation & Emotion, 1991 Jun, v15 (n2):169-176. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Contextual Associations. Facial Expressions. Face Perception. Judgment. Visual Discrimination. Professional Criticism. Population terms: Human. General terms: Emotions. Context of judgment, perception of contempt in facial expression, adults, commentary.

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Abstract: Argues that the study of the effect of context in the judgment of contempt facial expression by J. A. Russell (see PA, Vol 79:30133) was flawed by several confusions about what constitutes context. It is suggested that the context used should have ecological validity through the use of many, rather than a few, facial expressions, which are spontaneous rather than posed, and which are judged by carefully selected judgment tasks using clearly defined or well-understood emotional terms. Confusion

in Russell's work between accuracy studies and agreement studies is also addressed. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 35. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Russell, James A. U British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. "Confusions about context in the judgment of facial expression: A reply to "The contempt expression and the relativity thesis"': Rejoinder. Motivation & Emotion, 1991 Jun, v15 (n2):177-184. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Contextual Associations. Facial Expressions. Face Perception. Judgment. Visual Discrimination. Professional Criticism Reply. Population terms: Human. General terms: Emotions. Context of judgment, perception of contempt in facial expression, adults, commentary reply.

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Abstract: Replies to P. Ekman et al (see PA, Vol 79:30129). It is suggested that the concept of ecological validity has been a neglected issue in research on the context of expression and judgment and in research on emotion generally. In the study of judgments of emotion from facial expression, the question of what occurs spontaneously in natural settings, rather than the question of the accuracy of those judgments, may lead to studies capable of resolving current debates. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 36. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Missaghi-Lakshman, Monica; Whissell, Cynthia M. Laurentian U of Sudbury, ON, Canada. Children's understanding of facial expression of emotion: II. Drawing of emotion-faces. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 1991 Jun, v72 (n3, Pt 2):1228-1230. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Face Perception. Facial Expressions. Emotional Content. Age Differences. Adulthood. Childhood. Drawing. School Age Children. Population terms: Human. Child. Adult.

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Understanding of facial expression of emotion in drawing & decoding task, 7-12 yr olds vs adults.

Abstract: 67 children from Grades 2, 4, and 7 (aged 7-12 yrs) drew faces representing 6 emotional states. The children themselves and 29 adults then decoded the drawings in an emotion-recognition task. Children were the more accurate decoders. The overall accuracy for all decoders was greatest for judgments of the 7th graders' drawings. The most accurately decoded emotions were happiness and sadness. Subjects seemed to use a symbol system based on a highlighting or exaggeration of features of the facial expressions of emotion. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 37. Author: Affiliation: Title: Berbalk, Heinrich; Kohlhaas, A.; Kempkensteffen, J.; Koch, H.; and others. U Hamburg, Psychologisches Inst III, Fed Rep Germany. Mimik, Stress und Blutdruck--Eine psychophysiologische Untersuchung mit Hypo-, Normo- und Grenzwerthypertonikern. (Facial expression, stress, and blood pressure: A psychophysiological study among hypotensives, normotensives, and borderline hypertensives.). Verhaltenstherapie, 1991 Jun, v1 (n2):120-129. References. German. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Stress. Blood Pressure. Hypotension. Hypertension. Military Personnel. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Facial behavior & stress & BP, hypotensive vs normotensive vs borderline hypertensive male soldiers, Germany.

Source: Language: Subject:

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Abstract: Studied interactions among facial behavior, stress, and blood pressure (BP). Subjects were 24 West German soldiers (mean age 21 yrs); 8 of the soldiers were hypotensive, 8 were normotensive, and 8 were borderline hypertensive. Subjects' BP and facial behaviors as well as their interaction partners' facial reactions were monitored continuously during a stress-inducing conversation. Situational BP elevation served as an indicator of stress and BP group membership served as an indicator of habitual style of coping with stress. Intergroup differences in Subjects' types and variety of facial expressions and in the interaction partners' facial reactions to Subjects during moments of low stress and high stress were analyzed. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 38. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Braun, C.; Bernier, S.; Proulx, R.; Cohen, H. U Quebec, Montreal, Canada. A deficit of primary affective facial expression independent of bucco-facial dyspraxia in chronic schizophrenics. Cognition & Emotion, 1991 Mar, v5 (n2):147-159. References.

Language: Subject:

English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Schizophrenia. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Performance on facial emotional expression vs emotionally neutral buccofacial task, schizophrenic patients.

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Abstract: Conducted a study to replicate the E. Gottheil et al (see PA, Vol 58:9645) study on expression of facial affect in schizophrenics; methodological shortcomings of the Gottheil et al study were corrected. 20 chronic hospitalized schizophrenics and 20 normal controls were tested on tasks of facial emotional expression (FEE) on verbal command, FEE imitation, and nonaffective bucco-facial praxic imitation. Chronic schizophrenics manifested a deficit of FEE that can best be explained by task parameters, such as verbal cuing of emotions, perceptual recognition, and bucco-facial dyspraxia. The deficit did not result from neuroleptic or anticholinergic medication nor length of hospitalization or disease. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 39. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Wallbott, Harald G. U Giessen, Germany. The robustness of communication of emotion via facial expression: Emotion recognition from photographs with deteriorated pictorial quality. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1991 Jan-Feb, v21 (n1):89-98. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Stimulus Parameters. Pictorial Stimuli. Face Perception. Facial Expressions. Spatial Distortion. Visual Contrast. Size. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Deterioration of spatial vs contrast resolution vs picture size, recognition of emotion from facial expressions, college students.

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Abstract: Investigated whether the recognition of emotion from facial expressions was impaired by deterioration of spatial resolution, contrast resolution, and picture size. 80 undergraduates rated 65 stimuli under conditions of undistorted reduced spatial resolution, reduced contrast

resolution, reduced picture size, and a combination of the severest spatial and contrast resolution. Recognition rate and intensity ratings were not significantly affected by variations in contrast resolution or picture size. The only significant reduction of recognition rate and intensity ratings resulted from reduction in spatial resolution when such resolution was reduced drastically and when it was combined with a highly reduced contrast resolution. Results are discussed with respect to the role of facial expressions in interaction and communication and with respect to applications such as teleconferencing systems. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 40. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Packer, Jeanette S.; Clark, Belinda M.; Bond, Nigel W.; Siddle, David A. Macquarie U School of Behavioural Sciences, North Ryde, NSW, Australia. Conditioning with facial expression of emotion: A comparison of aversive and non-aversive unconditioned stimuli. Journal of Psychophysiology, 1991, v5 (n1):79-88. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Conditioned Stimulus. Aversive Stimulation. Unconditioned Stimulus. Galvanic Skin Response. Classical Conditioning. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Angry vs happy facial expression as CS & aversive vs nonaversive UCS, electrodermal responses, college students, implications for prepared learning.

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Abstract: Determined among 48 undergraduates whether conditioning with an angry facial expression (CAFE) and an aversive unconditioned stimulus/stimuli (UCS) is an example of prepared learning. A differential conditioning paradigm was employed with Subjects receiving either pictures of an angry face as CS+ and CS-, or a happy face. The experiment consisted of 3 phases: habituation, acquisition, and extinction. The 1st-interval (FIR) and 2nd-interval (SIR) electrodermal responses were used as the dependent variables. Differential conditioning of the FIR and SIR was obtained with either a shock UCS or a reaction time (RT) UCS. There were no differences between the groups exposed to angry faces and the groups exposed to happy faces. Data do not support the notion that CAFE and an aversive UCS is an example of prepared learning. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 41. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Karraker, Katherine H.; Stern, Marilyn. West Virginia U, Morgantown, US. Infant physical attractiveness and facial expression: Effects on adult perceptions. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 1990 Dec, v11 (n4):371-385. References. English.

Subject:

Key phrase:

Thesaurus terms: Physical Attractiveness. Facial Expressions. Human Sex Differences. Adult Attitudes. Sex Role Attitudes. Infants. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Child. Adult. Physical attractiveness & facial expressions & sex stereotyping of target photographs, perceptions of infants, college students.

Abstract: Investigated the influence of physical appearance and sex stereotyping on adults' perceptions of infants. 120 college students rated photographs of infants who varied in physical attractiveness (cuteness), facial expression, and labeled sex. Subjects generally gave more favorable ratings to cute infants, to infants showing positive facial expressions, and to actual male infants. Labeled sex did not bias ratings. Discussion focuses on explanations for these findings and possible influences of infants' physical attractiveness and facial expression on social interactions with adults. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 42. CONFERENCE Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: PAPER Benton, Arthur. U Iowa Coll of Medicine, Iowa City, US. Facial recognition 1990. Symposium: Facial Recognition & Expression (1990, Rome, Italy). Cortex, 1990 Dec, v26 (n4):491-499. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Agnosia. Face Perception. Lateral Dominance. Professional Meetings and Symposia. Population terms: Human. Overview of lateral dominance & other issues in prosopagnosia, conference presentation.

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Abstract: A review of studies of prosopagnosia (PRO) suggests that it is a disability that can be produced by a right hemisphere lesion alone, even though bilateral disease remains the more frequent anatomical basis. PRO resulting from a right hemisphere lesion may occur only within the context of some atypical condition of the left hemisphere. PRO types continue to be postulated, and the hypothesis of identification of individuality continues to be advanced. Autonomic and covert recognition studies of prosopagnosic patients have described a new dimension in facial identification. Right hemisphere dominance for the discrimination of unfamiliar faces in nonaphasic patients has been confirmed. Developments include the study of developmental PRO and novel applications of a test of facial discrimination. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

43. DISSERTATION Author: Guenter, Brian K. Affiliation: Ohio State U, US. Title: A computer system for simulating human facial expression. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1990 Aug, v51 (n2-B):840. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Computer Simulation. Facial Expressions. Population terms: Human. Computer system, simulation of human facial expressions. Martin, Candace C.; Borod, Joan C.; Alpert, Murray; Brozgold, Alizah Z.; and others. New York U Medical Ctr, US. Spontaneous expression of facial emotion in schizophrenic and right-brain-damaged patients. Special Issue: Faces, voices, and feelings: Experimental techniques and clinical implications. Journal of Communication Disorders, 1990 Aug-Oct, v23 (n4-5):287-301. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Emotional States. Life Experiences. Schizophrenia. Brain Damaged. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Facial activity & intensity & amount of positive vs negative emotion while talking about pleasant vs unpleasant experience, patients with schizophrenia vs right brain damage.

Key phrase: 44. Author: Affiliation: Title:

Source: Language: Subject:

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Abstract: 20 schizophrenic (SZ) patients, 19 right-brain-damaged (RBD) patients, and 21 normal controls (NCs) were videotaped while talking about a pleasant and an unpleasant experience. Raters viewed the video recordings of facial activity with the audio portion turned off and assessed the intensity of emotion, the amount of positive emotion, and the amount of negative emotion. Compared with NCs, both patient groups were judged as less expressive and as displaying more negative than positive emotion. In particular, the patients seemed to have difficulty with the expression of positive feelings. For the SZ group, these findings may be related to anhedonia or to poor social functioning, which are often features of the illness. Findings for the RBD group are contrary to previous studies that have suggested the right hemisphere is specialized for negative emotion. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 45. Author: Buck, Ross.

Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

U Connecticut, Storrs, US. Using FACS vs. communication scores to measure spontaneous facial expression of emotion in brain-damaged patients: A reply to Mammucari et al. (1988). Cortex, 1990 Jun, v26 (n2):275-280. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Brain Damaged. Facial Expressions. Professional Criticism. Population terms: Human. Spontaneous facial expressions, right vs left brain damaged patients, commentary.

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Abstract: Comments on the failure of A. Mammucari et al (see PA, Vol 76:26572) to replicate results obtained by R. Buck and R. Duffy (1980). The insufficient sensitivity of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) for the measurement of spontaneous expressiveness is noted. The results of Mammucari et al regarding aversive eye movements to a negative film are compatible with the present findings. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 46. DISSERTATION Author: Potter, Douglas D. Affiliation: U Aberdeen, Scotland. Title: Behavioural and electrophysiological correlates of the processing of facial identity and expression. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1990 Apr, v50 (n10-B):4801. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Evoked Potentials. Face Perception. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Electrophysiological correlates, facial identity & expression processing, adults. Van Gelder, Ronald S.; Van Gelder, Leo. Free U, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Facial expression and speech: Neuroanatomical considerations. Special Issue: Facial asymmetry: Expression and paralysis. International Journal of Psychology, 1990 Apr, v25 (n2):141-155. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Neuroanatomy. Pathology. Facial Expressions. Oral Communication.

Key phrase: 47. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

Key phrase:

Population terms: Human. Neuroanatomy & pathology of facial expression & relationship to speech.

Abstract: Discusses the neuroanatomy and pathology of facial expression and findings on the neuroanatomical connections between expressions of the face and speech. The supranuclear innervation of volitional and emotional facial expression is reviewed, and supranuclear relations between facial movements and some speech organs are considered. Aspects of facial paralysis stemming from peripheral (e.g., stress) and central origins are also discussed. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 48. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Borod, Joan C.; Koff, Elissa. City U New York, Queens Coll, Flushing, US. Lateralization for facial emotional behavior: A methodological perspective. Special Issue: Facial asymmetry: Expression and paralysis. International Journal of Psychology, 1990 Apr, v25 (n2):157-177. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Lateral Dominance. Emotional States. Brain Damaged. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Facial asymmetry & emotional expression, brain damaged patients with unilateral lesions.

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Abstract: Reviews a series of studies on (1) facial asymmetry in normal Subjects, (2) facial emotional expression in brain-damaged Subjects with unilateral lesions, and (3) peripheral factors mediating facial expression findings. Neuropsychological mechanisms underlying emotional processing are also discussed. The finding of left-sided facial asymmetries in normals is underscored by the finding that right brain-damaged patients were impaired in the expression of facial emotion. Asymmetries in normals and the deficits in patient populations were not artifacts of hemiface size and mobility or facial paralysis and apraxia. Findings provide evidence that the right hemisphere is specialized for the expression of facial emotion. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 49. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Graves, Roger; Landis, Theodor. U Victoria, BC, Canada. Asymmetry in mouth opening during different speech tasks. Special Issue: Facial asymmetry: Expression and paralysis. International Journal of Psychology, 1990 Apr, v25 (n2):179-189. References. English.

Subject:

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Thesaurus terms: Mouth (Anatomy). Aphasia. Lateral Dominance. Oral Communication. Visual Perception. Imagery. Word Recognition. Emotional States. Recall (Learning). Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Mouth opening asymmetry in verbal word list generation & recall vs emotional expression vs visual imagery tasks, aphasic patients.

Abstract: A review of studies of mouth asymmetry (MAS) shows that this asymmetry is most consistent during purely verbal word-list generation and verbal recall tasks, less consistent when emotional expression and/or visual imagery is involved, and reversed during smiling. Aphasic patients also show the right bias during word lists, repetition, and conversing but not during serial speech, singing, and smiling. Since observable MAS is presumed to result from hemispheric asymmetry in motor control, these observations confirm the major role of a left-hemisphere control system for pure verbal expression and provide evidence for right-hemisphere involvement in mouth motor control during emotional and prosodic expression or visual imagery. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 50. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Van Gelder, Ronald S.; Philippart, Stefan M.; Bernard, Brigit G.; Devriese, Peiter P.; and others. Free U, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Effects of myofeedback and mime-therapy on peripheral facial paralysis. Special Issue: Facial asymmetry: Expression and paralysis. International Journal of Psychology, 1990 Apr, v25 (n2):191-211. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Paralysis. Smiles. Face (Anatomy). Lateral Dominance. Feedback. Mental Health. Adolescence. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adolescent. Adult. General terms: Treatment. Myofeedback vs mime therapy, smile symmetry & judgment & feelings of well being, 17-64 yr olds with peripheral facial

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paralysis. Abstract: Describes symptoms associated with peripheral facial paralysis and its sequelae. Data are presented from 2 experiments, with 26 facial-paralysis patients (aged 17-64 yrs), in which the effects of myofeedback-therapy or mime-therapy treatment were measured by examination of the symmetry of a smile, the judgment of the smile by others, and the feelings of well-being of the S. After 2 wks of myofeedback therapy, none of the variables showed a significant improvement. After 10 wks of mime therapy, there was no significant improvement in symmetry measures. A significant positive effect was seen in the judgment by others of not-handicapped/handicapped and normal/abnormal rating scales. Self-judgment also showed a trend toward improvement. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 51. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Van Gelder, Ronald S.; Philippart, Stefan M.; Hopkins, Brian. Free U, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Treatment of facial paralysis of CNS-origin: Initial studies. Special Issue: Facial asymmetry: Expression and paralysis. International Journal of Psychology, 1990 Apr, v25 (n2):213-228. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Brain Damaged. Paralysis. Face (Anatomy). Rehabilitation. Electromyography. Biofeedback. Neural Development. Central Nervous System. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. EMG biofeedback vs neurodevelopmental treatment as rehabilitation methods, brain damaged male 50 & 74 yr olds with hemifacial dysfunction of CNS origin.

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Abstract: Describes electromyograph (EMGH) biofeedback (myofeedback) and neurodevelopmental treatment (NT) as rehabilitation methods for patients with facial paralysis of central nervous system (CNS) origin. Findings from A. L. Huffman's (see PA, Vol 61:8946) study evaluating myofeedback show that a combination of myofeedback and mirror feedback led to more progress than mirror-feedback treatment alone. Findings from a study evaluating NT in 2 brain-damaged male patients (ages 50 and 74 yrs) with hemifacial dysfunction of CNS origin show that improvements in orofacial functioning were achieved with NT. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 52. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Wirsen, A.; af Klinteberg, B.; Levander, S.; Schalling, Daisy. Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden. Differences in asymmetric perception of facial expression in free-vision chimeric stimuli and reaction time. Brain & Cognition, 1990 Mar, v12 (n2):229-239. References.

Language: Subject:

English. Thesaurus terms: Lateral Dominance. Facial Expressions. Face Perception. Attribution. Emotional States. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Cerebral asymmetry for perceiving facial expression, 22-24 yr old males.

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Abstract: Administered 2 forms of a Chimeric Faces Free-Vision Task used to estimate cerebral asymmetry for perceiving facial expression to 60 young men (aged 22-24 yrs) in a 1st session and 40 of these Subjects in a retest session. Test-retest and split-half reliabilities were high. Faces with left-sided smiles were more frequently judged as looking happier than those with right-sided smiles in both forms. However, there were individual differences in direction and extent of bias, which were systematically related to reaction time (RT), right visual field-biased Subjects being slower. Differences in lateral bias as well as in RT are assumed to reflect individual patterns of hemispheric activation, whereas the average left bias in the Subjects may reflect right-hemisphere specialization for processing of facial expression. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 53. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Philippot, Pierre; Feldman, Robert S. U Catholique de Louvain, Faculte de Psychologie, Brussels, Belgium. Age and social competence in preschoolers' decoding of facial expression. British Journal of Social Psychology, 1990 Mar, v29 (n1):43-54. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Age Differences. Social Skills. Human Information Storage. Facial Expressions. Emotional Content. Preschool Age Children. Childhood. Population terms: Human. Child. Age & social competence, decoding facial expressions appropriate for emotional situations, 3-5 yr olds.

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Abstract: Examined the relationship between social competence and decoding of emotions in 38 3-5 yr old children. Subjects viewed videotaped scenarios depicting emotional situations and were asked to choose which of 3 facial expressions, representing happiness, sadness, and fear, would be most appropriate for the character in the situation. Subjects' level of social

competence was assessed using the Social Competence Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist. Subjects with relatively higher social skills were better decoders than Subjects with relatively lower social skills, and decoding performance improved with age. Results are discussed in terms of the role of nonverbal behavioral skills in general social competence. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 54. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Mandal, Manas K.; Singh, Shyam K. Banaras Hindu U, Varanasi, India. Lateral asymmetry in identification and expression of facial emotions. Special Issue: Evaluative conditioning. Cognition & Emotion, 1990 Mar, v4 (n1):61-69. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Visual Field. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Normal orientation vs left vs right visual field presentations, identification of facially expressed emotion, male college students.

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Abstract: Examined the pattern of asymmetry that may exist in the interaction of perceptual and expressive aspects of facial emotion. 90 male undergraduates viewed photographs of facial expressions representing 4 negative emotions: sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. Photos were prepared in 3 representations: normal right-left orientation (RL), left-side composites (LL), and right-side composites (RR). Subjects performed either a matching or labeling task to examine the role of the left vs right hemivisual field. Identification of negative emotion was superior with left visual field presentations, especially in the matching task. RL facial representations were judged more accurately than either the LL or RR facial composites on the matching task. Negative facial emotions differed in identifiability in both task conditions. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 55. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Camras, Linda A.; Ribordy, Sheila; Hill, Jean; Martino, Steve; and others. De Paul U, Chicago, IL, US. Maternal facial behavior and the recognition and production of emotional expression by maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Developmental Psychology, 1990 Mar, v26 (n2):304-312. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Emotional States. Facial Expressions. Recognition (Learning). Child Abuse.

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Mother Child Relations. Victimization. Preschool Age Children. School Age Children. Emotionality (Personality). Childhood. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Child. Adult. Facial behavior & recognition & production of emotional expression, mothers & their abused 3-7 yr olds.

Abstract: 20 maltreated and 20 nonmaltreated children (ages = 3-7 years) and their mothers were observed during a laboratory play session and 7 home observation visits. Subjects' facial behavior was video recorded in the lab and coded live by observers in the home. Children also participated in an emotional-expression recognition task. Data analysis showed that both maltreatment status and mothers' facial behavior were predictors of children's recognition scores. Positive relationships were also found between mothers' and children's expressive behavior. Although maltreated and nonmaltreated children differed significantly in their recognition of emotional facial expressions, group differences were not found for either mothers' or children's expressive behavior. Overall, this study's findings indicate that children's recognition and production of facial expressions depends in part on the expressive environment provided by their mothers. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 56. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Wagner, Hugh L. Victoria U of Manchester, England. The spontaneous facial expression of differential positive and negative emotions. Motivation & Emotion, 1990 Mar, v14 (n1):27-43. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Emotional States. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Spontaneous facial expression of positive vs negative emotions, adult encoders & decoders.

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Abstract: Examined the expression of positive and negative emotions by university students under minimally social conditions. 15 male and 15 female encoders were covertly videotaped while they viewed and made written ratings of their responses to a number of slides, using a list of emotion terms derived from members of the same subject pool. 11 male and 11 female decoders later interpreted the videotaped facial expressions. Even when the social nature of the situation was reduced to a minimum, the experience of some emotions was reflected on the Subjects' faces. The reduced social nature of the situation removed the usual female encoding advantage,

supporting the suggestion that this advantage reflects the operation of display rules. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 57. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: McDonald, Paul W.; Prkachin, Kenneth M. Sarnia-Lambton Health Unit, Sarnia, ON, Canada. The expression and perception of facial emotion in alexithymia: A pilot study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1990 Mar-Apr, v52 (n2):199-210. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Construct Validity. Facial Expressions. Alexithymia. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Perception. Expression & labeling of facially expressed emotion, assessment of construct validity of alexithymia, male college students.

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Abstract: Assessed the validity of the construct of alexithymia. 10 alexithymic (AXT) and 10 normal control (CTL) male undergraduates were videotaped during tasks designed to elicit spontaneous and posed facial expressions of emotion. They also rated the emotional impact of the tasks and prototypic displays of emotion. AXT Subjects were comparable to CTLs in judgments of the impact of provocative slides and in their ability to label posed expressions. With the exception of expressions of anger and happiness, they were also comparable in the ability to pose emotions. AXTs showed a deficit in spontaneous displays of negative affect. The validity of the concept is supported. Deficits in the spontaneous encoding of negative emotion and in nonverbal expression are central to the phenomenon. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 58. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Moreno, Caridad R.; Borod, Joan C.; Welkowitz, Joan; Alpert, Murray. Northside Ctr for Child Development, Dept of Psychology, New York, NY, US. Lateralization for the expression and perception of facial emotion as a function of age. Neuropsychologia, 1990, v28 (n2):199-209. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Age Differences. Lateral Dominance. Facial Expressions. Face Perception. Aged. Physiological Aging. Adulthood.

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Population terms: Human. Adult. Elderly. Age, lateralization of facial emotion expression vs perception, female 21-81 yr olds.

Abstract: Examined lateralization for facial emotion in 30 young (21-39 yrs), 30 middle-aged (40-59 yrs), and 30 old women (aged 60-81 yrs) to test right hemisphere changes with age. For expression, Subjects were photographed while posing positive and negative emotions. Composite photos were created and rated for intensity. For perception, Subjects made intensity judgments about emotional chimeric faces. Subjects demonstrated significant left-sided facial asymmetry for expression and significant left hemispace biases for perception. Findings support the notion that the right hemisphere mediates emotional processing across the adult life span. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 59. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Beck, Lisa; Feldman, Robert S. U Massachusetts, Amherst, US. Enhancing children's decoding of facial expression. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 1989 Winter, v13 (n4):269-278. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Feedback. Human Information Storage. Facial Expressions. Emotional States. School Age Children. Childhood. Adolescence. Population terms: Human. Child. Adolescent. Feedback, decoding skills for facial expressions of emotion, 5th & 7th graders.

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Abstract: Assessed the effects of a feedback (FB) procedure for improving children's skill in decoding facial expressions of emotion, using 36 5th-7th graders. Subjects watched video segments showing facial expressions of stimulus persons experiencing happiness, sadness, or fear and tried to identify each emotion. Some Subjects received FB as to the actual emotion, and others did not. In a 2nd (test) phase, all Subjects' decoding skills were assessed without feedback. Compared with Subjects who did not receive FB, those who did get FB in the 1st phase of the study performed better in the test phase. Furthermore, differences between Subjects in the FB and no FB conditions were affected by Subjects' sex and the specific emotion being decoded. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 60. DISSERTATION Author: Wilczenski, Felicia L. Affiliation: U Massachusetts, US. Title: Nonverbal communication and mental retardation: Comprehension

Source: Language: Subject:

and expression of facial affect among adults with developmental disabilities. Dissertation Abstracts International, 1989 Nov, v50 (n5-A):1261-1262. English. Thesaurus terms: Social Skills. Human Information Storage. Facial Expressions. Mentally Retarded. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Social competence & ability to encode & decode posed facial emotional expressions, mentally retarded adults.

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61. DISSERTATION Author: Martin, Candace C. Affiliation: New York U, US. Title: An examination of facial emotional expression and perception in schizophrenics and right brain damaged patients. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1989 May, v49 (n11-B):5025-5026. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Schizophrenia. Face Perception. Facial Expressions. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Facial emotional expression & perception, schizophrenics.

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62. DISSERTATION Author: Brozgold, Alizah Z. Affiliation: City U New York, US. Title: The objective measurement of facial expression in patients with right brain damage and Parkinson's disease. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1989 Feb, v49 (n8-B):3421. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Parkinsons Disease. Brain Damaged. Cerebral Dominance. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Spontaneous vs posed facial expressions, patients with Parkinson's disease vs right hemisphere damage.

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63. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

Fontana, Franca; Arcuri, Luciano. U degli Studi di Trieste, Istituto di Psicologia, Italy. Aspetti evolutivi nella discriminazione di volti esprimenti emozioni. / Discrimination of facial expression of emotions in very young children. Eta evolutiva, 1989 Feb (n32):5-15. References. Italian. Thesaurus terms: Face Perception. Social Perception. Facial Expressions. Preschool Age Children. Infants. Childhood. Population terms: Human. Child. General terms: Emotions. Familiarity of helper, discrimination of facial expressions of emotion, male vs female 1.3-3.3 yr olds, Italy.

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Abstract: Studied the manner in which preschool children discriminate facial expressions of emotion, and assessed the roles of sex of the encoder and familiarity with the decoder in preferential looking at opposite expressions of emotion. L. B. Cohen and E. R. Gelber's preferential looking paradigm (1975) and perceptual and functional models of facial emotion discrimination are also discussed. Human subjects: 21 male and female Italian infants and preschool children (aged 16-40 mo). Eight male and female Italian infants and preschool children (aged 18-35 mo). In an initial experiment, Subjects were shown 17 pairs of slides, representing 6 different expressions of pure emotions (fear, anger, surprise, happiness, disgust, and sadness). The fixation time for each slide was determined. In a 2nd experiment, Subjects were shown 24 pairs of slides representing happiness vs sadness. The fixation time for each slide was analyzed with respect to sex of the encoder and familiarity of a person helping the Subjects (parent or stranger). The results were analyzed statistically using an analysis of variance (ANOVA). (English abstract) Developmental. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 64. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Krause, Rainer; Steimer, Evelyne; Sanger-Alt, Cornelia; Wagner, Gunter. U des Saarlandes, Saarbrucken, Fed Rep Germany. Facial expression of schizophrenic patients and their interaction partners. Psychiatry, 1989 Feb, v52 (n1):1-12. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Schizophrenia. Facial Expressions. Interpersonal Interaction. Adulthood. Population terms:

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Human. Adult. Facial expressions during political discussion with healthy partner, schizophrenic males.

Abstract: Examined whether there would be less frequency of facial activity among 10 male outpatient schizophrenics (SCs) compared with 10 healthy males matched for age, sex, and education level. A dyad (an SC and a healthy Subject) were instructed to hold a political discussion for 20 min, which was videotaped. Findings indicate that SCs and healthy Subjects did not differ in the sum of all their facial expressions; however, SCs' expressiveness was concentrated on the lower face. The variability of the facial innervations among the SCs was also lower in terms of the repertoire of facial activity and as concerns the diversity of the facial events. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 65. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Iglesias, Jaime; Loeches, Angela; Serrano, Juan. U Autonoma de Madrid, Facultad de Psicologia, Spain. Expresion facial y reconocimiento de emociones en lactantes. (Facial expression and recognition of emotions in infants.). Infancia y Aprendizaje, 1989 (n48):93-113. References. Spanish. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Face Perception. Infant Development. Infants. Psychobiology. Population terms: Human. Child. General terms: Emotions. Psychobiological perspective on facial expression & recognition of emotions, infants.

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Abstract: Researched the expression of basic emotions through facial expressions in infants from a psychobiological perspective. It is assumed that the so-called "basic emotions" are discrete organismic states, phylogenetically shaped and subcortically mediated, that facilitate individuals' adaptation under specific stimulating conditions. Reviewing the empirical evidence for the universality of facial expressions, it can be concluded that infants at the age of 3 mo are already capable of expressing and recognizing the emotions of happiness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and sadness. Despite these empirical data, the evolutionary mechanisms that originate emotional expressions are still unknown. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 66. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Rothbart, Mary K.; Taylor, Susan B.; Tucker, Don M. U Oregon, US. Right-sided facial asymmetry in infant emotional expression. Neuropsychologia, 1989, v27 (n5):675-687. References. English.

Subject:

Key phrase:

Thesaurus terms: Emotional States. Facial Expressions. Infant Development. Lateral Dominance. Infants. Longitudinal Studies. Distress. Childhood. Population terms: Human. Child. Smiling & distress, facial asymmetries, infants studied at 6.5 & 10 & 13.5 mo.

Abstract: Examined facial asymmetries during smiling and distress in 59 infants studied longitudinally at ages 6.5, 10, and 13.5 mo. Asymmetric expressions showed a bias toward greater intensity on the right side of the face. It is suggested that the study of infant facial expressions may provide clues to the maturation of the cortical control of emotional responses. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 67. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Krause, Rainer; Lutolf, Peter. U des Saarlandes, Saarbrucken, Fed Rep Germany. Mimische Indikatoren von Ubertragungsvorgangen--Erste Untersuchungen. (Facial expression as an indicator of transference processes: Preliminary investigations.). Zeitschrift fur Klinische Psychologie. Forschung und Praxis, 1989, v18 (n1):55-67. References. German. Thesaurus terms: Psychotherapeutic Transference. Facial Expressions. Psychotherapy. Anxiety. Compulsive Repetition. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Facial expressions as correlation of transference in psychotherapy, 35 yr old male with anxiety disorder & repetition compulsion, West Germany.

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Abstract: Studied the correlation between facial expression and transference processes in psychotherapy. The main hypothesis tested was that the incidence of facial expressions indicating the patient's ambivalence (e.g., masking anger or contempt with a momentary smile) will decrease during therapy. Human subjects: One male West German adult (35 yrs) (anxiety disorder/repetition compulsion). The 12 therapy and follow-up sessions of a psychoanalytically oriented focal therapy were videotaped in a way that allowed complete registration of the Subject's and therapist's facial expressions. Three time samples from every session were coded with the Facial-Action-Coding System of P. Ekman and W. Friesen (1978) and analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with repeated measures to assess changes in the percentage of masking incidents and in the

synchronization of affect in the therapeutic dyad. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 68. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Sanger-Alt, Cornelia; Steimer-Krause, Evelyne; Wagner, Gunter; Krause, Rainer. Universitat des Saarlandes, Saarbrucken, Fed Rep Germany. Mimisches Verhalten psychosomatischer Patienten. (Facial expression of psychosomatic patients.). Zeitschrift fur Klinische Psychologie. Forschung und Praxis, 1989, v18 (n3):243-256. References. German. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Emotional States. Ulcerative Colitis. Spinal Cord Injuries. Psychosomatic Disorders. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Facial activity & reflected emotions, male adults with ulcerative colitis vs functional spinal cord problems, West Germany.

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Abstract: Studied facial activity of patients with psychosomatic disorders. Focus was on determining whether the lack of affect associated with psychosomatic disorders is accompanied by facial inexpressiveness. Human subjects: Six male West German adults (ulcerative colitis). Four male West German adults (functional spinal-cord problems). 30 normal male West German adults (aged 27 yrs). All Subjects were videotaped during a conversation with a naive, healthy partner; and their facial activities and reflected emotions were analyzed. Intergroup differences were determined. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 69. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Motley, Michael T.; Camden, Carl T. U California, Davis, US. Facial expression of emotion: A comparison of posed expressions versus spontaneous expressions in an interpersonal communication setting. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 1988 Winter, v52 (n1):1-22. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Emotional Content. Social Perception. Conversation. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult.

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Identification of posed vs spontaneous facial expressions of emotion during conversation, college students.

Abstract: Compared the identifiability of posed vs spontaneous facial expressions of emotion elicited during ostensibly natural conversation. 20 undergraduates rated photographs for the emotions of anger, confusion, disgust, happiness, sadness, and surprise. While posed expressions, as in earlier studies, were quite unambiguous, spontaneous expressions of emotion were difficult to identify. Implications are discussed for the generalizability of certain nonverbal research results to interpersonal communication settings, for related methodological considerations, for revised conceptualizations of the function of facial expression, and for the more general issue of communicative intention. It is noted that each photograph was reliably labeled with all 6 emotions, depending on the communication scenario purported for it. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 70. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Wallbott, Harald G. Justus-Liebig-U Giessen, Fed Rep Germany. In and out of context: Influences of facial expression and context information on emotion attributions. British Journal of Social Psychology, 1988 Dec, v27 (n4):357-369. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Attribution. Contextual Associations. Emotional Content. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Viewing video of emotion arousing situation &/vs facial reaction of actor, emotional attributions, college students.

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Abstract: 60 undergraduates viewed 60 video clips depicting an emotional situation followed by an emotional facial expression of an actor/actress in reaction to this situation. These clips were selected from films and TV shows. Three groups of 20 Subjects each watched (1) only the first takes of the clips depicting an emotion-arousing situation, or (2) only the second takes of the clips presenting the emotional facial expressions, or (3) combinations of both takes depicting the emotion-arousing situation followed by the facial expression. Their task was to judge the emotion(s) expressed by the person in the given situation. Results indicate that context information dominated person information in determining emotion attributions. Furthermore, differences were found with respect to the relative discrepancy or consonance of clips and differences due to gender of the actors. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 71. Author: Affiliation: Title: Mammucari, A.; Caltagirone, C.; Ekman, P.; Friesen, W.; and others. U degli Studi "La Sapienza," Rome, Italy. Spontaneous facial expression of emotions in brain-damaged patients.

Source: Language: Subject:

Cortex, 1988 Dec, v24 (n4):521-533. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Brain Damaged. Facial Expressions. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Spontaneous facial expressions, right vs left brain damaged patients.

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Abstract: Studied spontaneous facial expression of emotion in 23 right and 39 left brain-damaged patients and in a control group of 28 normal Subjects. Four short movies, constructed to produce positive, negative, or neutral emotional responses, were used to elicit emotion. Subjects were evaluated using the Facial Action Coding System. Brain-damaged Subjects showed less facial responses to emotional stimuli than controls. No difference was observed between Subjects with right- and left-sided lesions with either global or disaggregated data analyses; this finding is inconsistent with the hypothesis of a specialization of the right hemisphere for facial emotional expressions. Both controls and left brain-damaged Subjects often averted their gaze from the screen when unpleasant material was displayed; right brain-damaged Subjects rarely showed gaze aversion. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 72. DISSERTATION Author: Hoag, David N. Affiliation: U North Texas, US. Title: Facial expression decoding deficits among psychiatric patients: Attention, encoding, and processing. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1988 Dec, v49 (n6-B):2379-2380. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Schizophrenia. Human Information Storage. Face Perception. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Encoding of facial expressions, schizophrenic patients. Wallbott, Harald G. Justus-Liebig-U Giessen, Fed Rep Germany. Big girls don't frown, big boys don't cry--Gender differences of professional actors in communicating emotion via facial expression. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 1988 Summer, v12 (n2):98-106. References. English. Thesaurus terms:

Key phrase: 73. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

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Human Sex Differences. Facial Expressions. Emotional States. School Age Children. Childhood. Population terms: Human. Child. Male vs female actors communicating emotion via facial expression, recognition of joy vs sadness vs fear vs anger, primary school students.

Abstract: Examined whether professional actors would be able to communicate emotional meaning via facial expression to judges without context information. 40 takes depicting a female or a male actor in close-up showing facial expression were selected to represent the basic emotions of joy, sadness, fear, and anger. 52 female and 62 male German primary school students judged the emotions expressed in the takes on 9 5-point-emotion scales. Results indicate that female actors were not significantly better in communicating emotion via facial expression without context than male actors were. Furthermore, significant interactions between portrayed emotion and gender of actors were found: While recognition rate for joy is very high and identical for both genders, female actors seem to be superior in communicating fear and sadness via facial expression, while male actors were more successful in communicating anger. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 74. DISSERTATION Author: Kingsley, Karen K. Affiliation: U Delaware, US. Title: Depression and the perception of facial emotion expression: Is what you feel what you see? Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1988 May, v48 (n11-B):3418. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Depression (Emotion). Face Perception. Facial Expressions. Emotional States. Social Perception. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Depressive schemata, perception of facial emotion expression, adults. Tranel, Daniel; Damasio, Antonio R.; Damasio, Hanna. U Iowa Hosps & Clinics, Dept of Neurology, Iowa City, US. Intact recognition of facial expression, gender, and age in patients with impaired recognition of face identity. Neurology, 1988 May, v38 (n5):690-696. References. English. Thesaurus terms:

Key phrase: 75. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

Key phrase:

Face Perception. Facial Expressions. Human Sex Differences. Age Differences. Agnosia. Brain Damaged. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Recognition of facial expression vs gender vs age, 20-62 yr old patients with impaired recognition of face identity.

Abstract: Conducted a series of experiments to assess the ability to recognize the meaning of facial expressions, gender, and age, using 4 patients (aged 20, 27, 58, and 62 yrs) with severe impairments of the recognition of facial identity. In 3 patients the recognition of face identity could be dissociated from that of facial expression, age, and gender. In one, all forms of face recognition were impaired. Thus, a given lesion may preclude one type of recognition but not another. It is concluded that (1) the cognitive demands posed by different forms of recognition are met at different processing levels and (2) different levels depend on different neural substrates. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 76. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Ekman, Paul; O'Sullivan, Maureen. U California, Human Interaction Lab, San Francisco, US. The role of context in interpreting facial expression: Comment on Russell and Fehr (1987). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1988 Mar, v117 (n1):86-88. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Contextual Associations. Facial Expressions. Face Perception. Emotional Content. Professional Criticism. Population terms: Human. Context, perception of facial expressions of emotions, commentary.

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Abstract: In their article, "Relativity in the Perception of Emotion in Facial Expressions," Russell and Fehr (1987) argued that context is the principle determinant in interpreting facial expressions of emotion. They questioned the biological bases for emotion suggested by Darwin and supported by many cross-cultural studies. We suggest that their results occurred because the target faces they used were emotionally neutral or ambiguous. We also argue that their findings can be interpreted as supporting the communicative importance of the face. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1988 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 77. Author: Affiliation: Title: Russell, James A.; Fehr, Beverley. U British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. "The role of context in interpreting facial expression:" Reply

Source: Language: Subject:

to Ekman and O'Sullivan. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1988 Mar, v117 (n1):89-90. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Emotional Content. Facial Expressions. Face Perception. Professional Criticism Reply. Contextual Associations. Population terms: Human. Information content & context of facial expressions, interpretation of emotion expressed, commentary reply.

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Abstract: We are not the extremists Ekman and O'Sullivan (1988) assume. Much, but not all, of the apparent disagreement evaporates once misunderstandings are cleared up. They offer no alternative explanation for our findings, which thus remain a challenge to those who think of the perception of emotion in facial expressions as accurate and absolute rather than as relative to the perceptual context. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1988 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 78. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Deffner, Gerhard. U Hamburg, Fachbereich Psychologie, Fed Rep Germany. Looking at self or others: Differences in facial expression. British Journal of Social Psychology, 1987 Dec, v26 (n4):341-343. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Self Perception. Social Perception. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Facial expression in mirror vs camera image, ratings of self vs other likeness, college students.

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Abstract: Hypothesized that discrepancies between people's self-image and other people's image of them are related to the 2 conditions of (a) looking in a mirror (a basis of self-image) vs (b) looking at another person. Photographs from 17 Subjects adopting a neutral or friendly expression were judged for likeness by 20 psychology students. There was a significant interaction between condition (mirror vs camera) and rater (self vs other) in the case of friendly facial expressions. Subsequent ratings revealed that faces were less expressive in the mirror condition. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 79. Author: Affiliation: Title: Forgas, Joseph P. U New South Wales, School of Psychology, Kensington, Australia. The role of physical attractiveness in the interpretation of facial expression cues.

Source: Language: Subject:

Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 1987 Dec, v13 (n4):478-489. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Impression Formation. Facial Expressions. Physical Attractiveness. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Physical attractiveness & facial expression of female target, impression formation, adults.

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Abstract: Investigated the way positive or neutral facial expression cues by attractive or unattractive female communicators are interpreted. 175 undergraduates and 248 other adults read detailed descriptions of a female target character accompanied by realistic pictures showing her as physically attractive or unattractive and displaying either a positive (smiling) or a neutral facial expression. Results show that both physical attractiveness and facial expression had a positive main effect on judgments, and there was a significant and nonobvious interaction on judgments of self-confidence and responsibility. Smiling made attractive targets appear more self-confident and also more responsible for transgressions, but the same expression had exactly the opposite effect when displayed by unattractive individuals. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 80. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Pub type: Subject: Rusalova, M. N. USSR Academy of Sciences, Inst of Higher Nervous Activity & Neurophysiology, Moscow, USSR. Lateralization of voluntary control of facial expression. Human Physiology, 1987 Jul-Aug, v13 (n4):263-268. References. English. Translation. Thesaurus terms: Emotional States. Lateral Dominance. Facial Expressions. Handedness. Adolescence. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adolescent. Adult. Voluntary control of unilateral vs bilateral emotional facial expressions measuring lateral dominance, left vs right handed 14-52 yr olds.

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Abstract: Studied voluntary control of emotional facial expression in 114 Subjects ((90 right-handed) aged 14-52 yrs). Subjects completed 8 tasks involving creation of facial expressions. Findings indicate that most right-handed Subjects preferred the right side of the face in unilateral smiling tasks and preferred the left side when grimacing. Results suggest

that there is a relatively stable positive emotional background for the left hemisphere and a negative emotional background for the right hemisphere. It is suggested that this difference leads to a strengthening of the sign of emotional expression performed by each half of the face in isolation. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 81. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Borod, Joan C.; Koff, Elissa. City U New York, Queens Coll, US. De neuropsychologie van emotionele gelaatsexpressie. (The neuropsychology of emotional facial expression.). Nederlands Tijdschrift voor de Psychologie en haar Grensgebieden, 1987 Apr, v42 (n3):153-155. References. Dutch. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Emotional States. Neuropsychology. Population terms: Human. General terms: Experimentation. Research on neuropsychology of emotional facial expression.

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Abstract: Reviews the authors' research on the neuropsychology of facial emotion. Based on the findings, it is suggested that (1) The right hemisphere plays a dominant role in expressing facial emotion, (2) Deficits in emotional facial expression are not associated with deficits in nonemotional facial movements, (3) emotional facial expression is independent of and separate from emotional facial perception, and (4) facial and vocal emotional expressions are associated. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 82. DISSERTATION Author: Smith, Craig A. Affiliation: Stanford U. Title: The informational structure of the facial expression of emotion. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1987 Mar, v47 (n9-B):4002. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Emotional Responses. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Facial expression & emotional appraisal. Grunau, Ruth V.; Craig, Kenneth D. British Columbia Children's Hosp, Dept of Psychology, Vancouver, Canada. Pain expression in neonates: Facial action and cry. Pain, 1987 Mar, v28 (n3):395-410. References.

Key phrase: 83. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source:

Language: Subject:

English. Thesaurus terms: Pain Perception. Facial Expressions. Infant Vocalization. Activity Level. Sleep. Feet (Anatomy). Childhood. Neonates. Population terms: Human. Child. Heel rub discomfort vs heel lance pain, facial movement & vocalization, quiet vs active sleeping vs awake male vs female neonates, implications for learned responses.

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Abstract: Studied the facial expressions and cries of 77 male and 63 female neonates (with a mean age of 43.05 hrs) during episodes of pain induced by heel-lance for blood sampling purposes. Infant expressions were video- and audiotaped and assessed via the observational rating system developed by H. F. Prechtl (1974) and the Facial Action Coding System developed by P. Ekman and W. V. Freisen (1978). Comparisons were made across sleeping and waking states and across sexes. Results indicate that the biological and behavioral context of pain events affects behavioral expression, even at the earliest developmental stages, before the opportunity for learned response pattern occurs. Implications concerning the importance of using measurement techniques that are independent of preconceived categories of affective response are noted. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1988 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 84. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Weeks, S. Jane; Hobson, R. Peter. Warneford Hosp, Dept of Clinical Psychology, Oxford, England. The salience of facial expression for autistic children. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 1987 Jan, v28 (n1):137-151. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Autistic Children. Mentally Retarded. Social Perception. School Age Children. Emotional States. Childhood. Adolescence. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Child. Adolescent. Adult. Attentiveness & sensitivity to facial expressions of emotion, autistic vs nonautistic retarded 8.4-22 yr olds.

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Abstract: Tested the hypothesis that autistic children are inattentive and insensitive to facial expression of emotion in others, using 15 autistic and 15 nonautistic retarded Subjects (aged 8 yrs 5 mo to 22 yrs) individually matched for chronological age, sex, and verbal ability. Subjects were shown pairs of photographs of people who differed in 3, 2, or 1 of the following respects: sex, age, facial expression of emotion, and the type of hat they were wearing. When given similar photographs to sort, the majority of nonautistic Subjects sorted according to people's facial expressions before they sorted according to type of hat, but most autistic Subjects gave priority to sorting by type of hat, and many neglected the facial expressions altogether. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1987 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 85. Author: Affiliation: Title: Zagorska, Wanda. U Warszawski, Warsaw, Poland. Badania nad rozpoznawaniem emocji na podstawie ekspresji mimicznej i kontekstu sytuacyjnego. / Studies on emotion recognition based on facial expression and situational context. Psychologia Wychowawcza, 1987 Jan-Feb, v30 (n1):32-39. References. Polish. Thesaurus terms: Perceptual Development. Face Perception. Emotional States. Childhood Development. Children. Contextual Associations. Facial Expressions. Population terms: Human. Child. Facial expression & situational context, development of emotion recognition, children.

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Abstract: Discusses the results of studies using a developmental approach to the problem of emotion recognition. The main findings show that: (1) contextual information yields more accurate emotion recognition than familiarity with facial expression; (2) social factors are responsible for a difference in development rate between the emotion recognition process and facial display of emotion; and (3) there is a bidirectional dependence between children's accuracy in emotion recognition and their capacity for empathy. (English & Russian abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 86. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Cole, Pamela M. U Houston-University Park. Children's spontaneous control of facial expression. Child Development, 1986 Dec, v57 (n6):1309-1321. 21 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Emotional Content. Age Differences.

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Disappointment. Facial Expressions. Self Control. Human Sex Differences. Childhood. Preschool Age Children. School Age Children. Population terms: Human. Child. Age & neutral vs positive vs disappointing mood segments, control of facial expressions & verbalizations & spontaneous references to emotional expression, male vs female 3-9 yr olds.

Abstract: Examined children's spontaneous expressive control of negative emotion, using an experimental disappointing situation. In Study 1, facial expressions, verbalizations, and spontaneous references to emotional expression control of 20 4-9 yr olds were examined in terms of the Subject's age and sex and the experimental manipulation (neutral, positive, and disappointing mood segments). Results suggest that Subjects attempted to control the display of negative emotion with positive displays and that females did so more than males. Age differences were found for Subjects' spontaneous reference to expressive control, with such references increasing with age. Study 2 examined the expressive behavior of 20 3-4 yr old girls in the disappointing situation in 2 conditions, alone or with the examiner present. Data indicate that Subjects inhibited negative displays when in the presence of the examiner. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1987 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 87. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Manning, Lilianne. U Autonoma de Madrid, Facultad de Psicologia, Spain. Interhemispheric asymmetry in facial expression recognition: Relationship to field-dependence. Cortex, 1986 Dec, v22 (n4):601-610. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Cerebral Dominance. Recognition (Learning). Facial Expressions. Face Perception. Field Dependence. Visual Field. Tachistoscopic Presentation. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Cognitive style, recognition for unilaterally tachistoscopically presented unambiguous facial expressions, right handed college students.

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Abstract: 60 right-handed college students, with a well-defined cognitive style (measured by 3 tests), carried out a recognition task of 6 unambiguous facial expressions that were unilaterally presented in a tachistoscopic condition. A significant left visual field superiority was present for the field independent Subjects; a low but significant right visual field

superiority was present for the field dependent Subjects. No differences were found between the sexes, which confirms previous studies. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1988 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 88. DISSERTATION Author: Rabinowitz, Jesse A. Affiliation: Virginia Commonwealth U. Title: The role of facial expression in the maintenance of emotion. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1986 Sep, v47 (n3-B):1283. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Emotional Control. Emotional Responses. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Exaggeration or suppression of facial expresssions, emotional responses to neutral slides, male college students.

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89. DISSERTATION Author: Kollar, Ellen K. Affiliation: Catholic U of America. Title: Physiological, sex and personality variables related to facial expression of emotions. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1986 Sep, v47 (n3-B):1317-1318. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Emotional States. Human Sex Differences. Physiological Correlates. Skin Resistance. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Personality. Facial expressions & skin conductance in response to humorous vs negative movie, males vs females, implications for facial feedback vs discharge vs disposition models of emotional expression.

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90. DISSERTATION Author: Pearse, Patricia A. Affiliation: U Rochester. Title: The effects of teacher facial expression and touch on student self-disclosure. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1986 Aug, v47 (n2-A):509. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms:

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Facial Expressions. Teacher Characteristics. Physical Contact. Human Sex Differences. Teacher Student Interaction. Interpersonal Communication. Self Disclosure. High School Students. Adolescence. Population terms: Human. Adolescent. Warmth of teacher's facial expressions & touch & teacher's gender & student's perceptions of positiveness, self disclosure in communication with teacher, 9th graders. D'Imperio, Giuseppe; Travaglia, Guido. U degli Studi, Rome, Italy. Relazione tra la "vulnerabilita emotiva" e l'espressione mimica facciale di tipo "disgusto." (The relation between "emotional vulnerability" and the facial expression of "disgust."). Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, 1986 Jul-Dec (n179-180):21-27. References. Italian. Thesaurus terms: Emotionality (Personality). Facial Expressions. Human Sex Differences. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Emotional vulnerability, facial response of disgust, 20-30 yr old males vs females, Italy.

91. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

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Abstract: Tested the hypotheses that emotional vulnerability (EV) and the facial response of disgust are positively related and that emotional communication is more prevalent in females than males. Human subjects: 100 normal male and female Italian adults (aged 20-30 yrs). The Subjects were randomly assigned to 2 experimental situations: a stressful film was shown in 1 situation, and a nonstressful film was shown in the other condition. The Subjects' reactions were videotaped. Facial movements were scored using the Facial Action Coding System by P. Ekman and W. V. Friesen (1978). Tests used: A scale designed to measure EV by G. V. Caprara et al (1985). (English abstract) Developmental. Educational level(s) of subjects: University. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 92. DISSERTATION Author: Pines, Catherine D. Affiliation: Emory U. Title: Facial expression of emotion decoding and encoding in emotionally disturbed and normal children and their mothers. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1986 Jul, v47 (n1-B):386.

Language: Subject:

English. Thesaurus terms: Emotionally Disturbed. Facial Expressions. Mothers. Human Information Storage. School Age Children. Childhood. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Child. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Emotion decoding & encoding of facial expressions, emotionally disturbed 6.4-9.4 yr olds vs their mothers. Jaeger, Judith; Borod, Joan C.; Peselow, Eric. Manhattan Psychiatric Ctr, Research Dept, NY. Facial expression of positive and negative emotions in patients with unipolar depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 1986 Jul-Aug, v11 (n1):43-50. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Major Depression. Facial Expressions. Neuropsychology. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Emotional intensity & accuracy ratings for positive & negative emotional facial expressions, patients with major depression.

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Abstract: Examined emotional facial expression in light of its presumed right cerebral hemisphere mediation and evidence for right hemisphere disorganization in major depression. Posed facial emotional expressions of 4 emotions were elicited and dynamically photographed in 30 unipolar male depressives (mean age 51.8 yrs) and 30 matched controls. Accuracy and emotional intensity of the expressions were rated by 3 blind raters. The depressives reported greater embarrassment and difficulty in posing the expressions than did controls and were significantly impaired in the production of emotional facial expressions, particularly positive ones. The deficits observed are discussed in terms of a cortical asymmetry in the mediation of emotional perception and expression and the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the pathophysiology of depression. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1988 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 94. Author: Affiliation: Title: Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V. U California, Human Interaction Lab, San Francisco. A new pan-cultural facial expression of emotion.

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Motivation & Emotion, 1986 Jun, v10 (n2):159-168. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Cross Cultural Differences. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Pan-cultural recognition for facial expression of contempt, adults in 10 countries.

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Abstract: Obtained evidence of a facial expression unique to contempt. Contrary to prediction, this contempt expression was not culture-specific but was recognized by people in Estonia, West Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, Scotland, Turkey, US, and West Sumatra. Pancultural agreement about the contempt expression was as high as has been found previously for other emotions. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1987 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 95. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Cunningham, Joseph G.; Odom, Richard D. Brandeis U, Brown Social Science Ctr. Differential salience of facial features in children's perception of affective expression. Child Development, 1986 Feb, v57 (n1):136-142. 28 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Features. Emotional States. Stimulus Salience. Social Perception. Facial Expressions. Face Perception. Perceptual Development. Childhood. School Age Children. Preschool Age Children. Population terms: Human. Child. Salience of facial features, perception of affective facial expression, kindergartners vs 5th graders.

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Abstract: Examined the perception of affective facial expression by 40 kindergartners and 40 5th graders in a problem-solving task to determine the relative salience of specific facial features. In the 1st of 2 tasks, Subjects recalled the array location of facial photographs of an unfamiliar adult expressing anger, disgust, fear, joy, and shame. Within each age level, Subjects' recall was cued by 1 of 5 sets of probe photographs that varied in terms of either the features presented (eyes, nose, or mouth) or the expressor's identity (same or different). In the 2nd task, Subjects were probed for their incidental recall of those features that were not isolated in the initial task. Results in both tasks indicated that both

younger and older Subjects were more likely to evaluate and remember information from the mouth region 1st, the eyes region 2nd, and the nose region last. This relative salience pattern, which differs from the eye-mouth-nose hierarchy reported in earlier studies of identity perception, is discussed in terms of models of perceptual development and social interaction that highlight the role of perceived stimulus structure. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1986 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 96. Author: Affiliation: Title: Wallbott, Harald G. Justus-Liebig-U Giessen, Fachbereich 06 Psychologie, Fed Rep Germany. Person und Kontext: Zur relativen Bedeutung von mimischem Verhalten und Situationsinformationen im Erkennen von Emotionen. (Person and context: The relative importance of facial expression and situational information in the recognition of emotions.). Archiv fur Psychologie, 1986, v138 (n4):211-231. References. German. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Contextual Associations. Judgment. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Facial expression & context, emotion recognition, college students, West Germany.

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Abstract: Conducted 2 experiments to study the relative importance of person-related information (i.e., facial expression) and context-related information in the recognition of emotions. The study is based on a theoretical framework that considers emotion recognition as a process of information integration. Human subjects: 30 male and female German adults (university students) (Exp I). 30 male and female German adults (university students) (Exp II). In Exp I, the Subjects were presented with 11 combinations of photos of a person and verbal scenarios, and asked to judge the affect represented in each situation and to describe their decision-making strategies. In Exp II, the Subjects were presented with slides depicting a person with an emotional expression, the emotion-precipitating situation, or both person and context; and were asked to judge the affect represented. In both experiments, the person-context combinations were varied with regard to their congruency/discrepancy. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare results for congruent and discrepant combinations. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 97. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Marshall, Marion J.; Peck, David F. U London, Royal Free Hosp School of Medicine, England. Facial expression training in blind adolescents using EMG feedback: A multiple-baseline study. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 1986, v24 (n4):429-435. 15 references.

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English. Thesaurus terms: Blind. Facial Expressions. Feedback. Electromyography. Social Skills Training. Adolescence. Population terms: Human. Adolescent. Training to produce smiles & frowns, 13-15 yr olds who were blind from birth, implications for social skills training.

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Abstract: Five adolescents, aged 13-15 yrs, with visual impairment from birth, were trained using electromyogram (EMG) feedback to produce smiles and frowns in 3 half-hour sessions. A multiple-baseline across-S design was used. All sessions were recorded on videotape and were subsequently rated by independent observers for appropriate muscular movements and naturalness of facial expressions. Interrated reliability for the ratings was acceptable. Significant overall improvements were obtained for the smile but not for the frown, with large individual differences across Subjects. It is concluded that EMG feedback may be a useful component of a social skills program designed to reduce social deficits in blind young people. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1986 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 98. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Borod, Joan C.; Koff, Elissa; Lorch, Marjorie P.; Nicholas, Marjorie. City U New York, Queens Coll. The expression and perception of facial emotion in brain-damaged patients. Neuropsychologia, 1986, v24 (n2):169-180. English. Thesaurus terms: Face Perception. Facial Expressions. Brain Damaged. Aphasia. Cerebral Dominance. Emotional States. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Expression & perception of facial emotion, right vs left brain damaged aphasic right handed 35-71 yr old males.

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Abstract: Examined the expression and perception of facial emotion in unilateral cerebrovascular pathology, using 12 right-brain-damaged (RBD), 15 left-brain-damaged (LBD) aphasic, and 16 normal control (NC) right-handed males (Subjects' mean age 57 yrs). Expressions were elicited during posed and spontaneous conditions. RBDs were significantly impaired, relative to LBDs and NCs, in expressing and perceiving facial emotion. There were no group differences as a function of condition, but there were

differences as a function of emotional valence. Qualitative performance differences also were observed. Overall, findings support the notion that the right cerebral hemisphere is dominant for expressing and perceiving facial emotion. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1987 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 99. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Saez Sanz, Piedad. U Complutense de Madrid, Spain. Expresion facial de la emocion de felicidad. (Facial expression of happiness.). Revista de Psicologia General y Aplicada, 1986, v41 (n3):527-538. References. Spanish. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Happiness. Contextual Associations. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Contextual knowledge, recognition of facial expressions of happiness, college students, Spain.

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Abstract: Studied observers' recognition of the facial expression of happiness with and without knowledge of the context that caused the model's facial expression. Human subjects: 45 male and female Spanish adults (university students) (models). 288 male and female Spanish adults (university students) (observers). Observers viewed 32 videotapes of models expressing various emotions with or without information concerning the conditions that caused the models' emotional expressions. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 100. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Damhorst, Mary L.; Reed, Ann P. Iowa State U, Ames. Clothing color value and facial expression: Effects on evaluations of female job applicants. Social Behavior & Personality, 1986, v14 (n1):89-98. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Clothing Fashions. Color. Facial Expressions. Personnel Selection. Business and Industrial Personnel. Social Perception. Job Applicants. Human Sex Differences. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Light vs dark colored clothing & smiling vs serious facial expression of female job applicant, character & sociability &

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potency ratings, male vs female 20-65 yr old businesspersons. Abstract: Color value (light vs dark) of clothing and facial expression (smiling vs serious) were varied in photographs of 6 female job applicants. 107 male and 101 female businesspersons judged the photographs on 14 semantic differential scales. Facial expression significantly affected evaluations of Character-Sociability characteristics; clothing color value was more important in influencing perceptions of Potency, but only for male interviewers. Results indicate that clothing color may have a significant impact on hiring decisions made by male businesspersons. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1988 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 101. Author: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Stanners, Robert F.; Byrd, Diana M.; Gabriel, Rita. The time it takes to identify facial expressions: Effects of age, gender of subject, sex of sender, and type of expression. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 1985 Winter, v9 (n4):201-213. 38 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Human Sex Differences. Age Differences. Reaction Time. Face Perception. Social Perception. Facial Expressions. Adulthood. Adolescence. Adolescents. Young Adults. Population terms: Human. Adolescent. Adult. Sex & type of expression, RT in facial expression identification, female vs male 7th graders vs college students.

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Abstract: Examined the effects of age, gender of Subject, sex of sender, and type of expression on the speed of facial expression identification. 20 White female and 20 White male 7th-graders and 20 White female and 20 White male undergraduates were presented with 35 mm slides of faces and required to indicate the type of expression (pleasant or unpleasant) by a switch movement. Latency and accuracy were recorded. The variables of the study were age (early or late adolescence), gender of Subject, sex of sender, and type of expression. The most important results were as follows: There was no age effect when the latencies were adjusted by a covariate to take account of age-related differences in general perceptual-motor skills. There was a strong interaction in which the female pleasant slides produced substantially lower latencies than the other 3 combinations of sex of sender and type of expression. A weaker interaction indicated faster identification for the female sender-female Subject condition than the other 3 combinations of sex of sender and gender of S. Overall, the facial identification process was found to be rapid and accurate. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1987 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 102. CONFERENCE PAPER Author: Bloch, Susana.

Affiliation: Title:

Source: Language: Subject:

CNRS Inst des Neurosciences, U Paris VI, France. Modeles effecteurs des emotions fondamentales: relation entre rythme respiratoire, posture, expression faciale et experience subjective. (Expressions models of the basic emotions: Correlation between respiratory rhythm, posture, facial expression, and subjective experience.) Clinical Psychology VIII Colloquium of the Clinical Psychology Laboratory of the University of Paris VIII: II. Approaches to emotions; interferences, articulations, reduction (1986, Saint-Denis, France). Bulletin de Psychologie, 1985-86 Sep-Oct, v39 (n16-18, (377)):843-846. References. French. Thesaurus terms: Emotional States. Physiological Correlates. Posture. Facial Expressions. Respiration. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Emotional state correlations with respiration & posture & facial expressions & subjective experience, adults.

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Abstract: Discusses the bodily configurations of the basic emotions of fear, anger, sadness, joy, eroticism, and tenderness and defines the subjective and objective-behavioral connotations of the psychological concept of emotion and expressive models of emotions. Experimental observations of the interactions of these elements in actors and in persons under hypnosis are described. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 103. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Thompson, J. Kevin. Clemson U. Right brain, left brain; left face, right face: Hemisphericity and the expression of facial emotion. Cortex, 1985 Jun, v21 (n2):281-299. 47 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Literature Review. Lateral Dominance. Facial Expressions. Emotional States. Population terms: Human. Hemisphericity & asymmetry of facial emotions, literature review.

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Abstract: The present author reviews research on the asymmetry of facial expressions in terms of neuroanatomy; qualitative and quantitative measures of asymmetrical expression; method of expression elicitation (spontaneous, posed, imagery-based); type of expression (e.g., happy, sad); and expression rating procedures. Neuroanatomical evidence indicates that

contralateral control of facial musculature exists only for the lower face and that different motor pathways are responsible for spontaneous vs posed expressions. Empirical research on the differential assignment of qualitative trait attributes to facial regions is judged to be meager, and data on quantitative differences in the asymmetry of facial expressions are inconclusive because of the wide variability in methodology. Alternative conceptualizations of hemisphericity and facial asymmetry are proposed. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1986 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 104. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Heise, David R. Indiana State U, Bloomington. Facial expression of emotion as a means of socialization. Electronic Social Psychology, 1985 Jun, v1 (n1, Article #8501013). 21 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Socialization. Computer Software. Computer Assisted Instruction. Population terms: Human. General terms: Emotions. Facial expression of emotion as means of socialization & computer program that reproduces facial expressions for use in education.

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Abstract: Argues that emotional displays--on the face especially--are a primary means of socialization, allowing a neophyte to attain knowledge of the sociocultural system rapidly and efficiently. Research on the face as an affective signaling system and on the dimensions of facial expressions is reviewed. Emotional expressions are the core of socialization, and reading others' facial expressions is a key aspect of learning the cultural definitions of roles, relationships, and social institutions. A computer program developed by the present author (1982) is discussed that draws sketch-like renditions of a female face on a microcomputer screen and produces facial expressions. It is suggested that this program can be used in conjunction with teaching programs to teach students how to feel about different concepts and to humanize computer-assisted education. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1987 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 105. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Craig, Kenneth D.; Patrick, Christopher J. U British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Facial expression during induced pain. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1985 Apr, v48 (n4):1089-1091. 36 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Pain. Adulthood. Population terms:

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Human. Adult. Induced pain, facial reactions, female college students.

Abstract: Obtained a detailed description of 72 undergraduate female volunteers' facial reactions to the cold pressor experience, using P. Ekman and W. V. Friesan's (1978) objective, anatomically based facial action coding system. The impact of exposure to social models tolerant or intolerant to pain was also examined. The facial actions systematically provoked by cold pressor exposure comprised a narrowing of the eye aperture from below, raising the upper lip, pulling the lip corners, parting of the lips, or dropping the jaw, and eyes closing or frequently blinking; however, there was much individual variation in the facial displays. The reactions were most salient at onset, indicating blends of startle, adaptive reaction, emotional expression, and pain, but they declined in vigor over time, although self-report of pain continued to mount. The relation between subjective distress and facial expression was greatest at the beginning of noxious stimulation. The social models had a potent impact on verbal report and pain tolerance but not on facial expression, indicating relative independence of components within the wide range of expressive reactions of painful experience. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 106. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Mandal, M. K.; Palchoudhury, S. Banaras Hindu U, Faculty of Social Science, Varanasi, India. Responses to facial expression of emotion in depression. Psychological Reports, 1985 Apr, v56 (n2):653-654. 5 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Depression (Emotion). Facial Expressions. Oral Communication. Face Perception. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Verbal responses to facial affect, depressed patients.

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Abstract: An estimate of verbosity derived from a 2-min free response to photographs depicting facial affect was examined in a 2 (depressed-control) * 3 (happy-sad-fear) * 2 (red-blue) factorial design. 30 depressed patients (mean age 30.4 yrs) uttered fewer significant comments than the 30 control Subjects (mean age 32.0 yrs). The sad faces triggered significantly larger vocabularies than other facial emotions; exposure to faces in red or blue had no significant effect. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1986 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 107. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Kirouac, Gilles; Dore, Francois Y. U Laval, School of Psychology, Quebec, Canada. Accuracy of the judgment of facial expression of emotions as a function of sex and level of education. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 1985 Spring, v9 (n1):3-7. References.

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English. Thesaurus terms: Human Sex Differences. Educational Background. Facial Expressions. Social Perception. Adolescence. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adolescent. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Sex & educational level, recognition of facial expressions of emotions, French-speaking high school vs college vs university students, Canada.

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Abstract: Responses of 300 15-56 yr old French Canadians educated at the high school, college, or university levels to 96 pictures of facial affect showed that generally Subjects' recognition of emotions was very good. Subjects best recognized expressions of happiness; followed by surprise and disgust; and then by anger, sadness, and fear. Females were slightly better than males at recognizing emotions, and level of education significantly interacted with Subjects' sex and the emotion being tested. Results confirm the generality of the ability to decode emotion-related information on the basis of facial stimuli. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1988 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 108. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Toner, H. L.; Gates, G. R. Stratheden Hosp, Psychology Dept, Cupar, Scotland. Emotional traits and recognition of facial expression of emotion. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 1985 Spring, v9 (n1):48-66. References. English. Thesaurus terms: Personality Traits. Facial Expressions. Social Perception. Emotional States. Adulthood. Human Sex Differences. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Personality traits & habitual emotional dispositions, recognition of facially expressed emotions, male vs female college students, Australia.

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Abstract: 32 male and 32 female university students responded to pictures of facial affect (P. Ekman, 1976); 2 measures of emotional traits and the State form of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Females with an inhibited,

nonassertive personality style tended to have poorer emotion recognition scores than more socially oriented females. For males, the relationship between traits and recognition scores was more emotion-specific; males appeared to be more likely to perceive what they felt. Findings are discussed in terms of perceptual set and other mechanisms. The consistency of the present findings with those of A. Schiffenbauer (1974) is also considered. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1988 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 109. DISSERTATION Author: Monserrat, Laura. Affiliation: New York U. Title: Facial asymmetry in the spontaneous expression of emotion: An index of the role of functional brain asymmetry in the regulation of emotional expression. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1985 Feb, v45 (n8-B):2696. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Emotional States. Lateral Dominance. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Facial asymmetry in spontaneous expression of emotion, adults. Chiba, Hirohiko. Waseda U, Tokyo, Japan. Analysis of controlling facial expression when experiencing negative affect on an anatomical basis. Journal of Human Development, 1985 Jan, v21:22-29. 19 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Self Control. Aversive Stimulation. Deception. Pictorial Stimuli. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Neutral vs inhibition of vs deceptive expression vs communication through expression only, responses to negative vs neutral stimuli, male college students.

Key phrase: 110. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

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Abstract: Measured the facial expressions of 16 male students to neutral and negative stimuli under 4 conditions using a simplified facial action coding system that scores facial movement with respect to 41 action units on an anatomical basis. The 4 conditions were (1) neutral expression, (2) inhibition of expression, (3) deceptive expression, and (4) communication

through facial expression only. Responses to negative stimuli in the 1st condition were a decrease in blinks and an increasing tendency toward chin raising relative to neutral stimuli. In the dishonest communication conditions (the 2nd and 3rd), an increase in blinks, a decrease in chin raising, and an increasing tendency toward actions in the mouth area and contracting actions with tension were found. These results suggest that there are plural ways of controlling facial expression. Further analysis, in which Subjects were classified into high and low communication groups on the basis of their responses in the 1st and 4th conditions, revealed that, contrary to expectation, Subjects in the high communication group were unsuccessful at dishonest communication and Subjects in the low communication group were successful at dishonest communication. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1986 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 111. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Meng, Zhaolan; Yan, Jun; Meng, Xiandong. Beijing U, China. (A preliminary study on facial expression patterns of infants.). Acta Psychologica Sinica, 1985, v17 (n1):55-61. 15 references. Chinese. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Emotional States. Cross Cultural Differences. Peoples Republic of China. Pictorial Stimuli. Childhood. Infants. Population terms: Human. Child. Discrimination & labeling of pictures of facial expressions of happiness & surprise & sadness & anger & disgust & fear, 1 yr olds, China.

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Abstract: Studied the discrimination and labeling of pictures of 1-yr-old Chinese babies depicting the facial expressions of 6 emotions: happiness, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, and fear. A comparison of present results with those obtained in a study (C. E. Izard, 1979) of the facial expressions of non-Chinese babies supports the notion that there are basic facial expression patterns in human infants that are common to all cultures. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1986 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 112. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Peng, Danling; Yang, Min; Yang, Lizhu. Beijing U, China. / Role of situational and facial clues in expression judgement. Information on Psychological Sciences, 1985 (n2):26-32. Chinese. Thesaurus terms: Face Perception. Age Differences. Facial Expressions. Cues. Adulthood.

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Adolescence. Childhood. Adolescents. School Age Children. Young Adults. Population terms: Human. Child. Adolescent. Adult. Situational & facial cues, perception of simple vs complex facial expressions, 10 vs 14 vs 20 yr olds.

Abstract: Studied (1) differences in the perception of simple and complex expressions, (2) the role of situational and facial clues in emotional perception, and (3) age differences in the ability to judge emotions in 3 groups of Subjects with an average age of 10 yrs, 14 yrs, and 20 yrs, respectively. Subjects were shown 10 pictures of facial expressions representing simple (love, anger, sadness, joy, worry, surprise, and fear) and complex emotions (flattery, embarrassment, and wryness), and were asked to (a) describe each emotion, (b) match the picture with a situational description, and (c) define the emotion by pointing to the picture and giving a situational description simultaneously. The results indicate that it is easier to judge simple than complex emotions. Test scores were higher for (b) than (a) and higher for (c) than (a) or (b). The ability to judge emotions did not differ between 14-yr-olds and 20-yr-olds, but significant differences were found between 10-yr-olds and 14-yr-olds. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1987 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 113. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Ellgring, H. Max-Planck-Inst fur Psychiatrie, Munich, West Germany. Zum Einfluss von Vorstellung und Mitteilung auf die Mimik. / On the influence of imagery and communication on facial expression. Psychologische Beitrage, 1985, v27 (n3):360-369. 19 references. German. Thesaurus terms: Imagery. Verbal Communication. Interpersonal Communication. Facial Expressions. Social Behavior. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Guided imagery &/vs communications about images, facial expression, 19-41 yr olds.

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Abstract: Conducted 2 experiments to investigate the effects of guided imagery and communication on facial expression. In Exp I, 10 women (aged 19-39 yrs) were instructed to picture a variety of sad, happy, and neutral situations described by the experimenter and to react with sad, happy, and neutral facial expressions. In Exp II, 10 Subjects (5 male and 5 female, aged 19-41 yrs) were asked to imagine or remember a variety of acoustic, visual, and kinesthetic experiences and to talk about their imaging to the experimenter. Video recordings revealed that only a few facial reactions

occurred during imaging periods compared to periods when Subjects communicated about their images to the experimenter. This close association between facial expression and communication supports the social function of facial expressions. Results are discussed in relation to the appropriateness of imaging in investigations of emotional expression and the role of social triggers in facial expression and affective experience. (English & French abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1987 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 114. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Klinnert, Mary D. National Jewish Hosp, Denver, CO. The regulation of infant behavior by maternal facial expression. Infant Behavior & Development, 1984 Oct-Dec, v7 (n4):447-465. 27 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Mothers. Emotional Content. Childhood. Adulthood. Toys. Age Differences. Infants. Population terms: Human. Child. Adult. Mothers' facial expressions, instrumental behavior when presented with unusual toys, 12 vs 18 mo olds.

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Abstract: Explored the age at which infants' ability to utilize the information communicated by facial expression in regulating their instrumental behavior becomes evident. 36 12-mo-old and 36 18-mo-old infants were each presented with 3 unusual toys designed to elicit uncertainty. When Subjects visually referenced their mothers' faces, mothers posed smiling, fearful, or neutral expressions. At both ages, Subjects moved closest to the mother when she posed fear, moved farthest from her when she posed joy, and maintained an intermediate distance when she appeared neutral. For all variables, the effect was most clear on the 3rd trial. It is concluded that, by 12 mo of age, infants seek out facial expression information and use it to regulate their own behavior. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 115. Author: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Saha, G. B.; Mandal, M. K.; Palchoudhury, S. Perception of facial expression of emotions and personality. Journal of Psychological Researches, 1984 Sep, v28 (n3):183-187. 12 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Introversion. Extraversion. Face Perception.

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Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Perception of facial expression of emotions, 20-45 yr old extraverts vs introverts.

Abstract: 100 20-45 yr old Bengali Subjects, consisting of 50 extraverts and 50 introverts (as determined by a diagnostic test) were asked to rate each of 13 facial emotion photographs on a 9-point pleasant-unpleasant scale. Results show that introverts and extraverts differed significantly only in the judgment of a photograph labeled "anxiety." It is suggested that introverts put overemphasis on anxiety as an unpleasant experience and that this tendency distinguished them from extraverts. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 116. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Schilder, Matthijs B.; Van Hooff, Jan A.; Van Geer-Plesman, Ciska J.; Wensing, Joep B. State U of Utrecht, Lab of Comparative Physiology, Netherlands. A quantitative analysis of facial expression in the plains zebra. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 1984 Sep, v66 (n1):11-32. 23 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Mammals. Population terms: Animal. Quantitative analysis of facial expressions, plains zebras.

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Abstract: A quantitative analysis based on observations of the major facial expressions among 13 plains zebras in 2 harem groups yielded 20 facial expressions, which were classified into 6 groups. These facial-expression groups were labeled as submission, play, threat, herding threat, greeting, and a 2nd submissive expression. The limited extent to which the present findings can be generalized, due to the fact that only 1 zebra herd with a particular composition was observed, is discussed. (German abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 117. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Dopson, Warren G.; Beckwith, Bill E.; Tucker, Don M.; Bullard-Bates, P. Carol. U North Dakota. Asymmetry of facial expression in spontaneous emotion. Cortex, 1984 Jun, v20 (n2):243-251. 21 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Lateral Dominance. Emotional Responses. Adulthood.

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Population terms: Human. Adult. Facial asymmetry during spontaneous emotional expression, college students.

Abstract: Notes that the observation that emotional expressions are more intense on the left side of the face is consistent with other evidence of the importance of the right hemisphere in emotional communication. However, the question has been raised whether it is truly spontaneous emotional expressions or only posed facial displays that show a left-sided asymmetry. In the present study, the authors surreptitiously examined facial asymmetry during spontaneous emotional expressions as 23 right-handed undergraduates remembered happy or sad experiences. These were contrasted with the Subjects' posed expressions of happy or sad emotions. Both of these procedures resulted in more intense expressions on the left side of the face. The left-sided advantage was stronger during the spontaneous than the posed displays and was observed for both happy and sad emotions. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 118. DISSERTATION Author: Weber, Sara L. Affiliation: New York U. Title: Facial asymmetry in the expression of emotion in infants. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1984 Jun, v44 (n12-B):3948. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Emotional Responses. Cerebral Dominance. Childhood. Infants. Neonates. Population terms: Human. Child. Facial asymmetry in emotional expressions, infants at birth vs 4 mo of age. Purvis, James Georgia State The "opener": pattern. Personality & (n1):61-66. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Conversation. Communication Skills. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. A.; Dabbs, James M.; Hopper, Charles H. U, Atlanta. Skilled user of facial expression and speech Social Psychology Bulletin, 1984 Mar, v10 11 references.

Key phrase: 119. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

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Expressed interest & attentiveness & facial expression, reinforcement of partners' participation in conversation, college students.

Abstract: Studied the conversations of 20 high-, 20 middle-, and 20 low-opener undergraduates (30 males and 30 females), as determined by a self-report inventory assessing their ability to get others to talk about themselves. Conversations were videotaped as 5 pairs of Subjects gathered into 1 of 6 groups; moment-by-moment patterning of speech and gaze was examined by computer. Interest and attentiveness expressed in Subjects' faces were also judged. Results show that high-opener Subjects used a set of behaviors that served to reinforce their partners' participation. An attentive facial expression and the appearance of comfort and enjoyment were part of their visual display during conversation. Brief utterances of simultaneous speech were emitted by high-opener males while their partners were speaking. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 120. DISSERTATION Author: Rinn, William E. Affiliation: State U New York, Stony Brook. Title: The neuropsychology of facial expression in the congenitally blind. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1984 Feb, v44 (n8-B):2584-2585. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Blind. Neuropsychology. Facial Expressions. Smiles. Emotionality (Personality). Congenital Disorders. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Neuropsychology & cortical & subcortical substrates, facial expressions, congenitally blind Subjects. Mueser, Kim T.; Grau, Barry W.; Sussman, Steve; Rosen, Alexander J. U Illinois, Chicago. You're only as pretty as you feel: Facial expression as a determinant of physical attractiveness. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1984 Feb, v46 (n2):469-478. 54 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Physical Attractiveness. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult.

Key phrase: 121. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

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Happy vs sad vs neutral facial expressions, perception of physical attractiveness, college students.

Abstract: In Exp I, photos of 15 female target persons posing happy, neutral, and sad facial expressions were rated by 257 undergraduates for facial attractiveness using paired comparisons and Likert scales. Half of the raters were instructed to compensate for the effects of facial expression. Paired comparisons and Likert ratings were highly correlated. Target persons were less attractive when posing sad expressions than when posing neutral or happy expressions, which did not differ. In addition, independent ratings of 4 dimensions of the target persons' facial expression were obtained: pleasantness, surprise, intensity, and naturalness. Changes in these dimensions from the neutral to the happy and sad expressions and the corresponding changes in attractiveness were consistently related only to pleasantness, supporting the reinforcement-affect theory of attraction. Exp II, with 21 male undergraduates, related overall attractiveness to facial and bodily attractiveness. Both facial and bodily attractiveness were predictive of overall attractiveness, but the face was a slightly more powerful predictor. Results are discussed with respect to the stability of physical attractiveness, and alternative explanations of the mental-illness/physical-unattractiveness relation are proposed. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 122. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Pub type: Subject: Rinn, William E. Henry Ford Hosp, Div of Neuropsychology, Detroit, MI. The neuropsychology of facial expression: A review of the neurological and psychological mechanisms for producing facial expressions. Psychological Bulletin, 1984 Jan, v95 (n1):52-77. 117 references. English. Literature Review; Review. Thesaurus terms: Neuropsychology. Facial Expressions. Literature Review. Population terms: Human. Neurological & psychological mechanisms, control of facial expressions, literature review.

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Abstract: Describes the facial musculature and its lower motor neuron innervation. Upper motor neuron innervation from pyramidal and extrapyramidal circuits is explored, with special attention to the respective roles of these systems in voluntary vs emotional facial movements. Also discussed are the evolution of volitional and emotional motor systems, the behavioral and neurological differences between the upper and lower face, the mechanisms of proprioceptive feedback from the face, and asymmetry in facial expression. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 123. Author: Affiliation: Title: LeResche, Linda; Dworkin, Samuel F. U Washington, Seattle. Facial expression accompanying pain. Special Issue: Chronic pain.

Source: Language: Pub type: Subject:

Social Science & Medicine, 1984, v19 (n12):1325-1330. 53 references. English. Literature Review; Review. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Pain. Literature Review. Population terms: Human. Facial expression accompanying pain, literature review.

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Abstract: Contends that the study of facial expression accompanying pain is of both practical and theoretical importance. It has been suggested that nonverbal behavior may provide accurate information on pain states to supplement self-report and that facial expressions could serve as accurate measures of pain in the absence of verbal report. Recent studies of specific facial expressions accompanying pain have benefited greatly from the techniques and findings of earlier research on facial expressions of emotion. These research findings also raise a number of questions concerning relationships between pain and emotion expressions and provide some tools (e.g., direct facial measurement systems) for answering them. A review of empirical research indicates that there are distinct facial expressions that accompany acute painful experiences with some regularity and that these expressions occur in both infants and adults, at least in Western cultures. Important areas for future research include cross-cultural studies, investigations of the circumstances under which these facial expressions occur and the possibilities for masking or falsifying them, and research into facial behaviors related to chronic pain. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1986 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 124. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Forgas, Joseph P.; O'Connor, Kathleen V.; Morris, Susan L. Justus Liebig-U Giessen, West Germany. Smile and punishment: The effects of facial expression on responsibility attribution by groups and individuals. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 1983 Dec, v9 (n4):587-596. 26 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Human Sex Differences. Attribution. Decision Making. Group Decision Making. Responsibility. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Positive vs neutral facial expression & seriousness of transgression & sex of offender & individual vs group decision making, responsibility attribution, college students.

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Abstract: 217 undergraduates evaluated the effects of facial expression

(positive vs neutral), seriousness of transgression (serious vs nonserious), sex of offender, and the decision-making unit (individuals vs groups) on decisions about guilt, punishment, and the overall impressions formed of a target offender to investigate whether offenders displaying a positive nonverbal expression would be rated more leniently by Subjects. Subjects read descriptions of a severe or nonsevere transgression and were shown a photograph of the offender (male or female) displaying positive (smiling) or neutral nonverbal expression. They rated the target on 13 scales, and later they were asked to discuss the case as a group and to arrive at consensus judgments. Results show that smiling targets were treated more leniently, particularly when the transgression was a minor one. Following a group discussion to consensus, judgments became more extreme than the initial individual judgments. Findings are discussed in terms of nonverbal communication in life situations, and their relevance to current work on responsibility attribution and group-induced opinion shifts is considered. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 125. DISSERTATION Author: Anderson, Judith A. Affiliation: Northern Illinois U. Title: The effects of enhancement and suppression of facial expression on reported emotions. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1983 Oct, v44 (n4-B):1225. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Biofeedback Training. Self Report. Emotional Responses. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Enhancement & suppression of facial expression through biofeedback training, reported emotions, females. Borod, Joan C.; Koff, Elissa. New York U Medical Ctr. Hemiface mobility and facial expression asymmetry. Cortex, 1983 Sep, v19 (n3):327-332. 22 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Lateral Dominance. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Facial asymmetry during emotional expression & nonemotional hemiface mobility, college students.

Key phrase: 126. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

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Abstract: 37 college students were assessed for facial asymmetry during

emotional expression and for nonemotional hemiface mobility. Objective, subjective, and undirected measures of facial mobility were obtained, separately for the upper and lower face. While judges rated mobility of the lower face as left-sided, Subjects declared themselves to be as facile on the right as on the left side of the face. When asked to move 1 side of the lower face, Subjects moved the right side more frequently than the left. For the upper face, none of the measures of mobility were significantly left- or right-sided. Facial expression asymmmetries (which were observed to be left-sided) were not significantly related to any measures of hemiface mobility. Data suggest that investigators should be cautious in selecting measures of asymmetry and should not, for ease of analysis, group data obtained from different measures. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 127. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Gray, John M.; Fraser, William L.; Leudar, Ivan. U St Andrews, Scotland. Recognition of emotion from facial expression in mental handicap. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1983 Jun, v142:566-571. 15 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Recognition (Learning). Facial Expressions. Severely Mentally Retarded. Educable Mentally Retarded. Emotional States. Photographs. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Recognition of emotion from facial expressions in photographs, mildly & severely mentally retarded adults.

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Abstract: When 26 mildly and severely mentally retarded adults (IQs 41-87) saw photographs showing expressions of basic emotions their overall performance was found to be correlated with intelligence. Certain specific patterns of confusion were determined, the most significant being an inability to cope with high intensity emotions. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 128. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Littlepage, Glenn E.; Whiteside, Harold D. Middle Tennessee State U. The "peripheral cue shift" phenomenon: Influence of facial expression and level of commission on attribution of responsibility. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 1983 Jun, v9 (n2):261-265. 9 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Attribution. Cues.

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Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Facial expression & level of commission, attribution of responsibility, college students.

Abstract: 54 undergraduates read scenarios of a behavioral act and observed pictures of actors. The scenarios differed in levels of commission--the degree to which an act was considered purposive, careless, or justified. Pictures showed actors expressing emotions of anger, happiness, or sadness. Facial expressions were paired with scenarios to form a 3 * 3 Latin square design with replications. Results reveal that both facial expression and level of commission affected attributions only on justified and careless commission, suggesting that when ambiguity exists concerning an actor's feelings about his/her actions, facial expression can provide clues guiding attributions. Findings reflect a tendency to use directly relevant cues when available but to use more peripheral cues when such cues are lacking. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 129. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Hildebrandt, Katherine A. State U New York, Buffalo. Effect of facial expression variations on ratings of infants' physical attractiveness. Developmental Psychology, 1983 May, v19 (n3):414-417. 6 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Features. Facial Expressions. Physical Attractiveness. Social Perception. Infants. Population terms: Human. Child. Infant facial expression vs configuration, ratings of physical attractiveness, college students.

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Abstract: A potentially important influence on how an adult responds to an infant is the infant's physical attractiveness. To assess whether an infant's physical attractiveness can reliably be judged despite variations in an infant's facial expression, 115 college students rated the "cuteness" of a set of photographs of infants. The set contained 3 photographs varying in facial expression of each of 24 infants. Results indicate that although photographs depicting more positive facial expressions received higher cuteness ratings, cuteness ratings varied less within individual infants than across infants. General facial configuration was more important than facial expression in determining adults' perceptions of infants' cuteness. It is concluded that physical attractiveness appears to be a reliably measurable variable of individual difference as early as infancy. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1983 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 130. Author: Affiliation: Pizzamiglio, L.; Zoccolotti, P.; Mammucari, A.; Cesaroni, R. Istituto di Psicologia, Rome, Italy.

Title: Source: Language: Subject:

The independence of face identity and facial expression recognition mechanisms: Relationship to sex and cognitive style. Brain & Cognition, 1983 Apr, v2 (n2):176-188. 38 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Human Sex Differences. Field Dependence. Lateral Dominance. Visual Discrimination. Visual Field. Facial Expressions. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Sex & field dependence, independence of lateralization mechanisms underlying face identity & facial expression recognition, 18-30 yr olds.

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Abstract: Two tasks, one mapping the recognition of unfamiliar face identity and the other the identification of 6 facial expressions, were unilaterally presented to 32 field-dependent and field-independent (as determined by the rod-and-frame test and Embedded Figures test) 18-30 yr olds. Regardless of sex, field-independent Subjects showed faster response times (RTs) in the left visual field (LVF) for face identity and for identification of disgust and fear and faster RTs in the right VF for the identification of anger. A trend toward LVF superiority was found over the whole sample for the facial expression task; this effect was still present when the face identity task was partialled out, indicating the independence of the underlying mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 131. DISSERTATION Author: Golper, Lee C. Affiliation: U Oregon. Title: Facial expression in a conversational context: A study of brain injured adults. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1983 Mar, v43 (n9-B):2865. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Conversation. Aphasia. Brain Damage. Rehabilitation. Cerebral Cortex. Population terms: Human. Adult. Side of cortical injury, facial expression in conversations about emotional topics, brain injured & aphasic 45-75 yr olds, rehabilitation implications. Otta, Emma.

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132. Author:

Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

U Sao Paulo, Brazil. Expressao facial e tamanho da pupila. (Facial expression and pupil size.). Psicologia, 1983 Mar, v9 (n1):19-33. 20 references. Portuguese. Thesaurus terms: Pupil (Eye). Facial Expressions. Attribution. Childhood. Adolescence. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Child. Adolescent. Adult. Pupil size vs direction of gaze, attribution of facial emotional expression, college students vs 8-13 yr olds.

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Abstract: 146 university students and 60 8-13 yr olds were presented with schematic representations of faces showing different emotional expressions, which they were required to complete by drawing the pupil on the iris. Results suggest that Subjects were more likely to attribute different meanings to the direction of gaze than to pupil size, although under some conditions they drew larger pupils in happy than angry faces. Findings concerning pupil size are not as clear as would be expected on the basis of research by E. H. Hess (1965, 1975). (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1986 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 133. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Stenberg, Craig R.; Campos, Joseph J.; Emde, Robert N. U Denver. The facial expression of anger in seven-month-old infants. Child Development, 1983 Feb, v54 (n1):178-184. 30 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Anger. Familiarity. Frustration. Infants. Population terms: Human. Child. Familiarity with frustrator & repetition of trials & sex, facial expression of anger, 7 mo olds.

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Abstract: Investigated whether anger could be observed reliably in facial expressions as early as 7 mo of age in 15 male and 15 female infants. The influence of several variables--infant's familiarity with the frustrator (mother vs stranger), repetition of trials, and sex of the child--on anger responses was also assessed. Correlations were obtained between the expression of anger and cognitive developmental level, maternal perceptions of irascibility (temperament), time since eating or sleeping, and facial flushing. Dependent variables included facial expression components as well

as ratings of facial flushing. Results show that the capacity to express anger was well developed by 7 mo of age: Facial patterning was detected reliably in the absence of contextual information, and repeated frustrations increased the amount of anger shown. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1983 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 134. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Ortega, Jose E.; Iglesias, Jaime; Fernandez, Jose M.; Corraliza, Jose A. U Autonoma de Madrid, Spain. La expresion facial en los ciegos congenitos. (Facial expression among the congenitally blind.). Infancia y Aprendizaje, 1983, v21 (n1):83-96. 63 references. Spanish. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Blind. Congenitally Handicapped. Emotional States. School Age Children. Childhood. Adolescence. Population terms: Human. Child. Adolescent. Spontaneous vs voluntary facial expressions, congenitally blind vs normally sighted 7.6-13.8 yr olds.

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Abstract: Investigated the facial expression of emotion in congenitally blind Subjects via muscular codification of facial movements. Audiovisual films of 22 congenitally blind persons (aged 7 yrs 7 mo to 13 yrs 10 mo) were analyzed using the Facial Action Coding System developed by P. Ekman and W. V. Friesen. Both spontaneous and voluntary expressions were recorded for congenitally blind and normally sighted Subjects. The spontaneous expressiveness (more involuntary) appeared to be basically similar among blind and normally sighted Subjects, whereas blind Subjects had less differentiated expressiveness in voluntary displays. Results support the hypothetical existence of 2 sources of input in development of facial emotional expressivity: (a) a genetic nature, which accounts for similarities in involuntary facial expression; and (b) an environmental factor, which accounts for dissimilarities in voluntary expression of emotion. Implications of these data for various areas of psychology are discussed. (English & French abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1987 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 135. DISSERTATION Author: Warga, Claire L. Affiliation: New York U. Title: Ratings of facial asymmetry in children as a function of posed emotions, spontaneous emotions and a neutral expression. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1982 Dec, v43 (n6-B):2025. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Lateral Dominance.

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Pictorial Stimuli. School Age Children. Population terms: Human. Child. General terms: Emotions. Photographs of left vs right side of 8 yr old's face with posed vs spontaneous negative vs positive emotions, ratings of lateral facial asymmetry, adults. Saha, G. B.; Palchoudhury, Sanjukta; Mandal, Manas K. U Calcutta, India. A study of facial expression of emotion. Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient, 1982 Dec, v25 (n4):255-259. 9 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Attribution. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Attribution of facial expression of emotion, 20-40 yr old college students vs nurses vs dancers vs photographers vs artists, India.

136. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

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Abstract: In Study 1, 43 Indian college students were asked to choose the appropriate statement from among the statements given in a prearranged form for each of the 13 photographs in the Lightfoot series. Results show variations in agreement for some of the photographs in comparison to those given in the Lightfoot series. In Study 2, 150 nurses, dancers, photographers, artists, and college students (ages 20-40 yrs) rated the 13 photographs. No significant differences were found in ratings among these 5 groups. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1983 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 137. DISSERTATION Author: Etzi, Ruth. Affiliation: Yeshiva U. Title: Salience of facial expression and sex cues in a reversal shift task. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1982 Oct, v43 (n4-B):1301. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Reversal Shift Learning. Facial Expressions. Cues. Nonreversal Shift Learning. Stimulus Salience. Preschool Age Children. Population terms: Human.

Key phrase: 138. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

Child. Salience of facial expression & sex cues, reversal vs nonreversal shift learning, 4-5 yr olds. LeResche, Linda. Johns Hopkins U, School of Hygiene & Public Health. Facial expression in pain: A study of candid photographs. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 1982 Fall, v7 (n1):46-56. 16 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Pain. Facial Expressions. Social Perception. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. Pain, facial expression, photographs of faces during experience of acute & intense pain.

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Abstract: Studied the consistencies that might exist in facial behavior shown during pain. 16 candid photographs showing faces of individuals in situations associated with acute and intense pain (e.g., childbirth, various injuries, and surgery without anesthesia) were coded using an anatomically based Facial Action Coding System developed by P. Ekman and W. Friesen (1978). A characteristic pain expression--brow lowering with skin drawn in tightly around closed eyes, accompanied by a horizontally-stretched open mouth, often with deepening of the nasolabial furrow--occurred consistently in this series. Results suggest that the unpleasant emotional component of pain per se differs behaviorally from that of anger, fear, or sadness, and it may differ on the experiential and physiological levels as well. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 139. DISSERTATION Author: Spieker, Susan J. Affiliation: Cornell U. Title: Infant recognition of invariant categories of faces: Person identity and facial expression. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1982 Jun, v42 (n12-B, Pt 1):4951. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Features. Facial Expressions. Classification (Cognitive Process). Generalization (Learning). Age Differences. Infants. Population terms: Human. Child. Age differences, recognition of facial expressions vs features, 4 & 7 mo olds.

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140. DISSERTATION Author: Klinnert, Mary D. Affiliation: U Denver. Title: The regulation of infant behavior by maternal facial expression. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1982 May, v42 (n11-B):4595. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Mother Child Relations. Infants. Population terms: Human. Child. Maternal facial expressions, behavior regulation, 12 vs 18 mo olds. Power, Thomas G.; Hildebrandt, Katherine A.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E. U Illinois, Champaign. Adults' responses to infants varying in facial expression and perceived attractiveness. Infant Behavior & Development, 1982 Jan, v5 (n1):33-44. 24 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Physical Attractiveness. Heart Rate. Interpersonal Attraction. Adults. Infants. Population terms: Human. Child. Adult. Exposure to photographs of smiling vs crying attractive vs unattractive infants, looking time & heart rate & smiling, college students.

Key phrase: 141. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

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Abstract: 32 undergraduates were shown photographs of smiling and crying infants while looking-time, smiling, and heart period (HP) were monitored. Smiling infants were looked at longer than crying infants, and infants preceived as cute were looked at longer than those perceived as less cute. Subjects' smiling increased when the photographs were shown, but the amount of smiling was not related to the infants' facial expressions or to perceived attractiveness. Analyses of HP changes during the 1st 4 sec of photograph presentations indicated that females showed cardiac acceleration in response to both smiling and crying infants, whereas males showed cardiac acceleration in response to smiling infants, and deceleration in response to crying infants. Results are compared with those of other studies of adults' attraction to infants (e.g., K. A. Hildebrandt and H. E. Fitzgerald; see PA, Vols 60:7464 and 63:2594). (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1982 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

142. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

Forsyth, G. Alfred; Kushner, Richard I.; Forsyth, Peggy D. Bloomsburg State Coll. Human facial expression judgment in a conversational context. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 1981 Winter, v6 (n2):115-130. 15 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Nonverbal Communication. Judgment. Individual Differences. Facial Features. Photographs. Conversation. Adulthood. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Individual differences, human facial expression judgment in conversational context, college students.

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Abstract: 280 college students scaled 35 human face photographs for the degree of annoyance, interest, understanding, and spontaneity expressed. An individual differences analysis of the scaling data indicated independence of these expression dimensions and resulted in 11 like-perceiving subgroups of Subjects. These homogeneous subgroups were characterized on the basis of their differential use of facial features within as well as between expression dimensions and on their differences in a test of figural creativity. Results strongly support a multidimensional psychophysical approach to the study of facial communication of emotion. However, the identification of physical dimensions used in making facial expression or emotion judgments demands an individual-differences approach. Large individual differences exist on the facial cues used within as well as between emotion dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 143. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Borod, Joan C.; Caron, Herbert S.; Koff, Elissa. VA Medical Ctr, Psychology Service, Boston, MA. Asymmetry of facial expression related to handedness, footedness, and eyedness: A quantitative study. Cortex, 1981 Oct, v17 (n3):381-390. 34 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Lateral Dominance. Facial Expressions. Ocular Dominance. Population terms: Human. Adult. Lateral dominance scores for hand & foot & eye, asymmetry of facial expressions, left- vs right-handed 22-53 yr olds.

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Abstract: Investigated the relationship between traditional measures of lateral dominance and the relative intensity of expression and muscular involvement on the sides of the face. Subjects were 19 left-handed and 29 right-handed adults (aged 22-53 yrs) coached to produce 8 facial expressions of emotion and 1 expression involving unilateral facial movement. Videotapes of each Subject were reliably rated for facedness. A lateral dominance battery (including the Harris Tests of Lateral Dominance) yielded preference scores for hand, foot, and eye, and performance scores for accuracy, speed, and strength. Facedness and lateral dominance scores were intercorrelated. For all Subjects, facedness for the 8 emotional expressions was positively related to eyedness, but unrelated to handedness or footedness. Facial asymmetry during emotional expression was more intense on the left side of the lower face and may be a right hemisphere function, regardless of handedness. The expression requiring deliberate unilateral facial movement was significantly and inversely related to handedness and footedness. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1982 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 144. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Keating, Caroline F.; and others. Syracuse U. Culture and the perception of social dominance from facial expression. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1981 Apr, v40 (n4):615-626. 47 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Cross Cultural Differences. Social Perception. Facial Expressions. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Dominance. Cross cultural differences, perception of social dominance from facial expressions, human O's.

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Abstract: Eyebrow and mouth gestures were tested in a series of cross-cultural experiments involving 1,797 Subjects. Pairs of human portrait photographs were shown to Subjects in 11 national/cultural settings, and Subjects were asked to make judgments of dominance or happiness. Results strongly support a universal association between smiles and happiness and weakly support a universal nonsmiling/dominance association, but restrict a lowered-brow/dominance association to relatively more Westernized samples. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1982 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 145. DISSERTATION Author: Haynes, Thomas H. Affiliation: Florida State U. Title: An investigation of the recognition of facial expression of emotion after training of deaf students at a residential school. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1981 Mar, v41 (n9-A):3883. Language: English.

Subject:

Key phrase:

Thesaurus terms: Deaf. Social Perception. Facial Expressions. Population terms: Human. Adult. Training in recognition of emotion in facial expressions, deaf high school students.

146. DISSERTATION Author: Whittington, Kathryn D. Affiliation: Ball State U. Title: Immediate effects of a relaxation treatment upon subject perception of facial expression of emotion. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1981 Feb, v41 (n8-A):3432. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Relaxation Therapy. Social Perception. Facial Expressions. Emotional Content. Population terms: Human. Adult. Relaxation training, perception of facial expression of emotion, graduate students. Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul. U California, San Francisco. Methodological problems in Tourangeau and Ellsworth's study of facial expression and experience of emotion. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1981 Feb, v40 (n2):358-362. 12 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Professional Criticism. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Theories. Emotions. Methodology. Methodological flaws in theory of facial expressions & experience of emotion, criticism of methodology used by R. Tourangeau & P. C. Ellsworth.

Key phrase: 147. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

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Abstract: Argues that flaws in the method of R. Tourangeau and P. C. Ellsworth's study (see PA, Vol 65:499) undermined their test of hypotheses derived from theories of emotion. Tourangeau and Ellsworth did not manipulate facial movements into valid analogs of emotional expressions, so failure to confirm the sufficiency hypothesis is uninformative. (PsycINFO

Database Copyright 1981 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 148. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Kolb, Bryan; Milner, Brenda. U Lethbridge, Canada. Observations on spontaneous facial expression after focal cerebral excisions and after intracarotid injection of sodium amytal. Neuropsychologia, 1981, v19 (n4):505-514. 30 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Brain Damage. Amobarbital. Facial Expressions. Emotional States. Population terms: Human. Adult. Site of cerebral excisions & injections of sodium amytal, spontaneous facial expressions & mood, 16-53 & 15-38 yr old patients.

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Abstract: Used ethological recording techniques to demonstrate that 14 patients (aged 17-53 yrs) with frontal-lobe lesions exhibited a reduction in spontaneous facial expressions, compared to 7 patients (aged 19-40 yrs) with unilateral parietal lesions and 13 patients (aged 16-36 yrs) with temporal-lobe lesions. There was no evidence of hemispheric asymmetry on these measures. Observations of 26 15-38 yr old Subjects during preoperative speech testing after a left or right intracarotid injection of amobarbital sodium (175 mg) showed a significant reduction in spontaneous expressions that outlasted any contralateral facial weakness. This finding was independent of side of injection, probable lesions site, and the hemisphere mediating speech. Subjective assessments of mood by both Subjects and examiners following amobarbital sodium testing showed no consistent relationship between side of injection and direction of mood change. (French & German abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1981 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 149. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Alford, Richard; Alford, K. Finnegan. Earlham Coll. Sex differences in asymmetry in the facial expression of emotion. Neuropsychologia, 1981, v19 (n4):605-608. 24 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Human Sex Differences. Facial Expressions. Lateral Dominance. Emotional Responses. Population terms: Human. Adult. Sex differences, asymmetry in facial expressions, college students, implications for hemispheric asymmetry in control of emotional expression.

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Abstract: Recorded 2 measures of facial asymmetry--preferred eye winking and eyebrow raising facility--using 126 female and 129 male undergraduates. As predicted, males displayed significantly greater left-side facial asymmetry than did females, although the sex differences were not great. Findings support prior research suggesting hemispheric asymmetry in the control of emotional expression. (French & German abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1981 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 150. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Bruyer, Raymond. St Luc Hosp, Dept of Neurology, Brussels, Belgium. Asymmetry of facial expression in brain damaged subjects. Neuropsychologia, 1981, v19 (n4):615-624. 49 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Brain Damage. Social Perception. Cerebral Dominance. Population terms: Human. Adult. Side of brain damage & type of expression, choosing most expressive of chimerical symmetrical faces, patients with mean age of 55.2 yrs, implications for central asymmetrical processor.

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Abstract: Constructed chimerical symmetrical faces from 93 photographs of 31 unilaterally brain-damaged patients (mean age 55.2 yrs). Pairs of complementary chimeras were presented to 30 normals (mean age 28.08 yrs) who were requested to choose the most expressive face of each pair. Results indicate that the left half of the face was judged as more expressive than the right if the patient was left-injured and when the expression was not a smile. This asymmetry was thus under the control of a central asymmetrical processor, and it seems that positive emotions depend upon a particular central mechanism, as suggested in previous studies. (French & German abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1981 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 151. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Thayer, Stephen. City U New York, City Coll. The effect of expression sequence and expressor identity on judgments of the intensity of facial expression. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 1980 Winter, v5 (n2):71-79. 6 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Social Perception. Population terms: Human. Adult. Expression sequence & expressor identity, judgments of intensity of facial expressions, college students.

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Abstract: 300 White female college students were exposed to a sequence of facial expression photographs to determine whether viewing earlier expressions in a sequence would alter intensity judgments of a final expression in the sequence. Results show that whether the preceding expressions were shown by the same person who displayed the final expression, or by different people, intensity ratings of both sad and happy final expressions were enhanced when preceded by a sequence of contrasting as opposed to similar or identical facial expressions. Results are discussed from the perspective of adaptation-level theory. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1982 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 152. DISSERTATION Author: Rappeport, Martin S. Affiliation: York U, Downsview, Canada. Title: Putting your best face forward: Facial asymmetry in the expression of emotion. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1980 Dec, v41 (n6-B):2302. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Emotional States. Lateral Dominance. Population terms: Human. Adult. Lateral asymmetry in facial expression of emotion.

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153. DISSERTATION Author: Popkin, Michael H. Affiliation: Georgia State U, Coll of Education. Title: The construction and initial validation of the Facial Expression Recognition Test. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1980 Oct, v41 (n4-B):1522. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Test Construction. Recognition (Learning). Test Validity. Individual Differences. Personality Measures. Population terms: Human. Adult. Construction & validation of Facial Expression Recognition Test, assessment of individual differences & role of hemispheric specialization. Boucher, Jerry D.; Carlson, Gary E. Culture Learning Inst, East-West Ctr, Honolulu, HI. Recognition of facial expression in three cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1980 Sep, v11 (n3):263-280. 13 references.

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154. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source:

Language: Subject:

English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Social Learning. Cross Cultural Differences. United States. Southeast Asia. Ethnic Groups. Recognition (Learning). Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Recognition of American vs Malay facial expressions, American vs Temuan adults vs Malay male secondary students.

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Abstract: Conducted 3 experiments with 53 American adults, 30 male Malay secondary school students, and 31 adult Temuans. Results show that emotions were accurately identified from facial expressions when (1) American and Malay observers judged expressions of Americans and Malaysians, (2) Malay observers used either a free-response task or a limited-response task, and (3) Temuan aborigine observers judged American expressions. It is concluded that these results (a) are not readily explained in terms of social learning and (b) support a theory of universal facial expressions of emotion. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1981 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 155. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Walker-Smith, Gail J. U Oxford, England. Memorizing facial identity, expression and orientation. British Journal of Psychology, 1980 Aug, v71 (n3):415-424. 19 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Features. Facial Expressions. Recognition (Learning). Stimulus Intervals. Memory. Population terms: Human. Adult. Retention interval, recognition for facial identity & expression & orientation, 18-31 yr old females.

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Abstract: Investigated recognition for facial identity, expression, and orientation in a successive face comparison task. 10 females (aged 18-31 yrs) made same-different judgments about pairs of face photographs that could differ in any one of these respects. Overall recognition performance for identity alterations was superior to that for expression and orientation changes. After a 1-sec retention interval, there was no difference between recognition accuracy for different responses to identity, expression, and orientation alterations. After a 20-sec delay, some expression and orientation information was forgotten while accuracy for identity judgments remained unchanged. Subjects could remember some

expression and orientation information over a 20-sec period, but memory for these dynamic attributes was less durable than identity memory. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1981 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 156. DISSERTATION Author: Cooley, Nancy B. Affiliation: Georgia State U. Title: Gender as a factor in laterality differences in processing facial expression of emotion. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1980 Aug, v41 (n2-B):717. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Human Sex Differences. Lateral Dominance. Social Perception. Facial Expressions. Sadness. Happiness. Perceptual Motor Processes. Response Latency. Population terms: Human. Adult. Sex, lateralized perception & motor response latencies for happy vs sad facial expressions. Thayer, Stephen. City U New York, City Coll. The effect of facial expression sequence upon judgments of emotion. Journal of Social Psychology, 1980 Aug, v111 (n2):305-306. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Social Perception. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Facial expression sequence, judgments of emotion, female college students.

Key phrase: 157. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

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Abstract: Results from 140 female college students show that the sequence of facial expressions preceding a critically different expression may function to create an adaptation level that operates as the current standard against which new expressions are judged. Judgments of the intensity of new and qualitatively different expressions are then made in comparison to the adaptation level that has been induced by the preceding series of expressions. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1981 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 158. Author: Affiliation: Ekman, Paul; and others. U California, San Francisco.

Title: Source: Language: Subject:

Asymmetry in facial expression. Science, 1980 Aug, v209 (n4458):833-836. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Cerebral Dominance. Experiment Controls. Professional Criticism Reply. Photographs. Emotional States. Social Perception. Motor Processes. Population terms: Human. Adult. Cerebral asymmetry in facial expression & emotional attribution, reply to P. Ekman's & C. A. Nelson's & F. D. Horowitz's & S. I. Spinrad's comments on study by H. A. Sackheim et al.

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Abstract: In 3 separate comments, P. Ekman, C. A. Nelson and F. D. Horowitz, and S. I. Spinrad all suggest that the conclusion of H. A. Sackheim et al (see PA, Vol 63:6814)--that there is more right-hemispheric than left-hemispheric involvement in the production of emotional expression--may be due to artifact (e.g., whether the facial movements of the persons in the photographs were requested or produced spontaneously was not clear, the photographs used were not uniformly illuminated, and the left side of the face was narrower in 25 of 34 photos). Sackheim and Gur present additional data that support their original conclusion. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1981 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 159. DISSERTATION Author: Nordin, Kenneth H. Affiliation: U Nevada, Reno. Title: Posed facial expression and emotional experience in response to cartoons. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1980 Jun, v40 (n12-B, Pt 1):5872. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Emotional Responses. Population terms: Human. Adult. Posed facial expressions, emotional response to cartoons.

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160. DISSERTATION Author: Jorgensen, Julie A. Affiliation: U Nebraska, Lincoln. Title: Facial expression, emotion attribution and self-reported experience of cartoon humor. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1980 Apr, v40 (n10-B, )):5075-5076. Language: English.

Subject:

Key phrase:

Thesaurus terms: Attribution. Facial Expressions. Cartoons (Humor). Expectations. Smiles. Population terms: Human. Adult. Facial expression & emotion expectations, self reported appreciation of humorous cartoons.

161. DISSERTATION Author: Mayberry, Rachel I. Affiliation: McGill U, Montreal, Canada. Title: Facial expression and redundancy in American sign language. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1980 Mar, v40 (n9-B):4537-4538. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Sign Language. Comprehension. Partially Hearing Impaired. Stimulus Presentation Methods. Population terms: Human. Adult. Use of American Sign Language with vs without facial expressions in good & poor viewing conditions, comprehension with shadowing task, native & non-native signers. Hiatt, Susan W.; Campos, Joseph J.; Emde, Robert N. U Denver. Facial patterning and infant emotional expression: Happiness, surprise, and fear. Annual Progress in Child Psychiatry & Child Development, 1980:95-121. 39 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Emotional Responses. Facial Expressions. Fear. Happiness. Childhood. Infants. Population terms: Human. Child. Reactive facial patterning, expression of happiness & surprise & fear, 10-12 mo olds.

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162. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

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Abstract: ( The following abstract of this reprinted article originally appeared in PA, Vol 63:7382 .) 27 infants between 10 and 12 mo of age (when emotion masking is not likely to confound results) were tested in 2

situations designed to elicit happiness (peek-a-boo game and a collapsing toy), 2 to elicit surprise (a toy-switch and a vanishing-object task), and 2 to elicit fear (the visual cliff and the approach of a stranger). Dependent variables included changes in 28 facial response components taken from previous work using actor poses, as well as judgments of the presence of 6 discrete emotions. In addition, instrumental behaviors were used to verify with other than facial expression responses whether the predicted emotion was elicited. In contrast to previous conclusions, judges in the present study were able to make all facial expression judgments reliably, even in the absence of contextual information. Support was also obtained for at least some degree of specificity of facial component response patterns, especially for happiness and surprise. Emotion judgments by raters were found to be a function of the presence of discrete facial components predicted to be linked to those emotions. Finally, almost all situations elicited blends, rather than discrete emotions. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 163. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Rubin, Deborah A.; Rubin, Robert T. University High School, Los Angeles, CA. Differences in asymmetry of facial expression between left- and right-handed children. Neuropsychologia, 1980, v18 (n3):373-377. 4 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Cerebral Dominance. Facial Expressions. School Age Children. Population terms: Human. Child. Asymmetry of facial expressions, left vs right handed 8-10 yr olds.

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Abstract: 10 left-handed children unselected for cerebral dominance and 10 right-handed children, 8-10 yrs old, posed for facial photographs while mimicking several emotional expressions. Left and right side facial composites were prepared and shown to 30 raters. The majority of right-handed children were left facial dominant, while the left-handers were mainly indeterminate and right facial dominant. Findings indicate a difference in hemifacial emotional expression between left- and right-handed children. (French & German abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1981 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 164. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Hiatt, Susan W.; Campos, Joseph J.; Emde, Robert N. U Denver. Facial patterning and infant emotional expression: Happiness, surprise, and fear. Child Development, 1979 Dec, v50 (n4):1020-1035. 39 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Fear. Happiness. Emotional Responses.

Key phrase:

Infants. Population terms: Human. Child. Reactive facial patterning, expression of happiness & surprise & fear, 10-12 mo olds.

Abstract: 27 infants between 10 and 12 mo of age (when emotion masking is not likely to confound results) were tested in 2 situations designed to elicit happiness (peek-a-boo game and a collapsing toy), 2 to elicit surprise (a toy-switch and a vanishing-object task), and 2 to elicit fear (the visual cliff and the approach of a stranger). Dependent variables included changes in 28 facial response components taken from previous work using actor poses, as well as judgments of the presence of 6 discrete emotions. In addition, instrumental behaviors were used to verify with other than facial expression responses whether the predicted emotion was elicited. In contrast to previous conclusions, judges in the present study were able to make all facial expression judgments reliably, even in the absence of contextual information. Support was also obtained for at least some degree of specificity of facial component response patterns, especially for happiness and surprise. Emotion judgments by raters were found to be a function of the presence of discrete facial components predicted to be linked to those emotions. Finally, almost all situations elicited blends, rather than discrete emotions. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1980 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 165. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: DeBoer, M. M.; Boxer, Andrew M. U Chicago. Signal functions of infant facial expression and gaze direction during mother-infant face-to-face play. Child Development, 1979 Dec, v50 (n4):1215-1218. 11 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Mothers. Parent Child Communication. Mother Child Relations. Facial Expressions. Infants. Population terms: Human. Child. Infant facial expression, mother's behavior, mothers & 4-8 mo olds.

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Abstract: Recent studies of adult-infant interaction suggest that adults modify their behavior in order to change or maintain the infant's state of arousal. This question was pursued by asking whether mothers modify their actions in response to infant facial expression or gaze direction. Subjects were 7 mother-infant (4-8 mo old) pairs in which mothers were instructed to get their babies to smile. From these filmed interactions the infant's mouth, gaze, and head direction were coded, and the mother's movements were coded as single acts or bouts. Results of an exploratory analysis indicate that, when trying to get a baby to smile using tactile and kinesthetic stimulation, mothers tend to respond to negative changes of affect and attention by changing the content of their actions, taking a long pause, or decreasing the number of acts in a bout. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1980 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

166. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

Brunori, Patrizia; Ladavas, Elisabetta; Ricci Bitti, Pio E. U Bologna, Inst di Psicologia, Italy. Differential aspects in the recognition of facial expression of emotions. Italian Journal of Psychology, 1979 Dec, v6 (n3):265-272. 31 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Human Sex Differences. Facial Expressions. Emotional States. Cross Cultural Differences. Italy. Population terms: Human. Adult. Sex & cultural factors, recognition of facial expression of emotion, Subjects from northern vs southern Italy.

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Abstract: Examined some of the differential aspects in the identification of the facial expression of 7 emotions (sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust, happiness, and contempt) obtained from 40 Subjects (20 males and 20 females), half from northern Italy and half from southern Italy. Subjects judged 28 slides (4 images for every emotion) to identify the emotions expressed. It was hypothesized that (a) the facial expression of contempt would be harder to identify than the others, (b) females would be better at recognizing the emotions than males, and (c) Subjects from southern Italy would perform better than Subjects from the northern regions. Results confirm hypotheses (a) and (b). (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1981 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 167. DISSERTATION Author: Landvoy, Roger D. Affiliation: Michigan State U. Title: The effects of uncontrollable task outcomes on electromyographically measured transient facial expression. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1979 Oct, v40 (n4-A):1963-1964. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Learned Helplessness. Facial Expressions. Electromyography. Population terms: Human. Adult. Learned helplessness, EMG-measured transient changes of facial expression. Graves, Cynthia A.; Franklin & Marshall The relationship of conjugate lateral Natale, Michael. Coll. hemispheric preference, as measured by eye movements, to accuracy of emotional

Key phrase: 168. Author: Affiliation: Title:

Source: Language: Subject:

facial expression. Motivation & Emotion, 1979 Sep, v3 (n3):219-234. 25 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Cerebral Dominance. Eye Movements. Facial Expressions. Preferences. Social Perception. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Hemisphere preference measured by conjugate lateral eye movement, communication accuracy of facial affect, right handed female college students.

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Abstract: Investigated the relationship between hemispheric preference and communication accuracy of facial affect. Hemispheric preference was determined by rating conjugate lateral eye movements. 40 right-handed female undergraduates were classified: 10 right-movers (left hemispheric preference), 15 left-movers (right hemispheric preference), and 15 bidirectionals (no hemispheric preference). Subjects were shown emotionally "loaded" slides portraying happiness, fear, and disgust, and their videotaped facial expressions were independently rated for accuracy. It was predicted that negative emotions involved right hemisphere activity and negative affect involved left hemisphere activity. As expected, it was found that left-movers were significantly better than right-movers at nonverbally communicating disgust and fear; hemispheric preference was unrelated to expression of happiness. The accuracy scores of the bidirectionals generally fell in between those of the left-movers and those of the right-movers. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1981 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 169. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Yarczower, Matthew; Kilbride, Janet E.; Hill, Linda A. Bryn Mawr Coll. Imitation and inhibition of facial expression. Developmental Psychology, 1979 Jul, v15 (n4):453-454. 3 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Socialization. Age Differences. Interpersonal Influences. Facial Expressions. Imitation (Learning). Inhibition (Personality). School Age Children. Adolescents. Population terms: Human. Child. Adolescent. Age & presence of E, inhibition in imitating facial expressions,

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1st & 6th graders & college students. Abstract: Seven 1st graders, 8 6th graders, and 8 college students were asked to imitate facial expressions depicted in photographs when they were alone and when someone else was present. Accuracy of imitation and intensity of facial expressions in the older children but not in the younger children were suppressed when someone was present. Also, the more intense facial expressions were suppressed more than the less intense expressions. Data are consistent with the proposition that socialization training yields a susceptibility to social inhibition of imitated facial expressions. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1979 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 170. DISSERTATION Author: Brown, Serena-Lynn. Affiliation: Yale U. Title: Relationships between facial expression and subjective experience of emotion in depressed and normal subjects. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1979 Jul, v40 (n1-B):441-442. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Depression (Emotion). Imagery. Facial Expressions. Electromyography. Borderline States. Population terms: Human. Adult. Imagery designed to evoke happiness, facial EMG, borderline depressives vs normals vs normals with low levels of depression.

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171. DISSERTATION Author: MacKenzie, James A. Affiliation: State U New York, Buffalo. Title: A study of brief training in facial expression decoding skill. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1979 Jun, v39 (n12-B):6130-6131. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Photographs. Recognition (Learning). Counselor Education. Population terms: Human. Adult. Facial expression decoding training & photographic material, identification of expressions, graduate students in counseling.

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172. DISSERTATION Author: Kennedy, William A. Affiliation: Wayne State U.

Title: Source: Language: Subject:

The communication of affect via facial expression: The presence or absence of a potential decoder and sex of decoder as variables in the production and decoding of facial behavior. Dissertation Abstracts International, 1979 Apr, v39 (n10-A):5803. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Human Sex Differences. Interpersonal Influences. Social Perception. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Potential decoder presence or absence & sex, production & decoding of affect information in facial expressions. Harizuka, Susumu. Yamagata U, Japan. Developmental traits in classifying behavior of facial expression-pictures. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 1979 Feb, v49 (n6):333-340. 14 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Classification (Cognitive Process). Pictorial Stimuli. Experimental Instructions. Facial Expressions. Developmental Differences. Emotional Content. Preschool Age Children. School Age Children. Population terms: Human. Child. Free vs restricted conditions & emotional vs nonemotional content & facial vs nonfacial stimuli & age, classification of pictorial stimuli, 3-6 & 8 yr old children.

Key phrase: 173. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

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Abstract: 20 children at each of 5 age levels (3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 yrs) were asked to classify pictures of facial expressions showing 3 emotional expressions into whatever categories they liked (free condition) and to classify them into 3 categories (restricted condition). Most 3- and 5-yr-olds placed the pictures in nonemotional categories. Many 6- and 8-yr-olds placed them in emotional categories. Classification accuracy in the free condition was higher than that in the restricted condition. In a 2nd experiment, Subjects were asked to classify pictures of nonfacial expressions into whatever categories they liked, and then to classify facial expression pictures into whatever categories they liked. Results showed trends similar to the results of the free condition. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1980 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

174. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

Campbell, Ruth. U London, Birbeck Coll, England. Asymmetries in interpreting and expressing a posed facial expression. Cortex, 1978 Sep, v14 (n3):327-342. 34 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Visual Field. Lateral Dominance. Pictorial Stimuli. Facial Expressions. Visual Perception. Handedness. Population terms: Human. Adult. Chimeric face paradigm & cerebral lateralization of O, perception of feature distortion in facial expressions, right handed 17-35 yr olds.

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Abstract: Used a chimeric face paradigm in 2 experiments to investigate the effects of observer lateralization on perception of feature distortion. In Exp I, 24 17-35 yr old right-handed Subjects viewed pairs of (a) chimeric faces with a half-smile on either the left (c-left) or right (c-right) side and (b) mirror images of the same photos and were asked to note which faces looked happier. Results show that Subjects significantly preferred c-left faces in both conditions; the effect was significantly greater for pictures of men than of women, and the preference was greater for pictures of both men and women under the mirror condition. In Exp II, 24 17-40 yr olds (handedness not determined) viewed 9 pairs of smiling and nonsmiling faces constructed from symmetric chimeras of the sitter's left or right sides and were asked which member of each pair showed the most emotion (happy or sad). Subjects showed a significant preference for composite faces constructed from the left half of the face. Results indicate that the increased preference for c-left in the mirror condition of Exp I was due to expressor asymmetries; Subjects judged the expression on a face as more extreme when it derived from the left half. Results of both studies suggest that the impression of a smile on a "chimeric" half-smiling face is dominated by the viewer's left visual field. Lateralization of both interpretation and expression of a smile are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1980 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 175. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Forsyth, G. Alfred. U New Hampshire. Cue utilization in judging facial expression related to school performance. Journal of Social Psychology, 1978 Apr, v104 (n2):253-261. 32 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Elementary School Students. Cues. Academic Achievement. Social Adjustment.

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Facial Expressions. Social Perception. Population terms: Human. Child. Cue utilization & academic achievement & social adjustment, judgments of facial expressions, 1st graders.

Abstract: 42 North American male and female 1st grade children judged expression dissimilarity between pairs of schematic faces varying on 1, 4, 7, or 10 binary attributes. An individual differences analysis of the scaling data resulted in 5 like-perceiving subgroups of children. The subgroups were differentiated on the basis of their differential use of cues and their differential levels of academic achievement and social adjustment. Results are discussed in terms of the implications of perceptual skills in cognitive and social development. The study illustrates the usefulness of an individual differences approach for studying children's information processing. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1979 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 176. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Hughes, Jeff; Goldman, Morton. U Missouri, Kansas City. Eye contact, facial expression, sex, and the violation of personal space. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 1978 Apr, v46 (n2):579-584. English. Thesaurus terms: Human Sex Differences. Facial Expressions. Eye Contact. Personal Space. Population terms: Human. Adult. Sex & facial expression & eye contact of confederate, violation of personal space, males vs females.

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Abstract: Two experiments carried out in a public elevator examined how variations in eye contact, facial expression, and sex of Subject and confederate affected the violation of personal space. Exp I "forced" Subjects (79 females and 105 males) to violate the personal space of male or female confederates who were either directing their gazes at Subjects or were avoiding eye contact by having their backs to entering passengers. In the 1st condition, confederates were both male, while in the 2nd condition both confederates were female. For male Subjects, as eye contact increased from male and female confederates, violations of personal space decreased. Male Subjects preferred to violate the personal space of the confederates who had their backs to them, regardless of the sex of confederates. Female and male Subjects responded similarly when confederates were males. However, when confederates were females, female Subjects preferred to violate the space of the female confederate who gazed at them rather than the female confederate who had her back to them. In Exp II, Subjects (86 females and 90 males) were again "forced" to violate the personal space of 2 confederates of the same sex. In each of 2 conditions one of the confederates avoided gazing at entering Subjects, but the 2nd confederate smiled while gazing directly at entering Subjects. Male Subjects again preferred to violate the personal space of the confederate whose back was

to them, regardless of the confederate's sex. Female Subjects, however, preferred to violate the personal space of confederates who smiled while gazing directly at entering Subjects. This occurred for both male and female confederates. 177. DISSERTATION Author: Blythe, Paul W. Affiliation: York U, Toronto, Canada. Title: Spontaneous facial expression of anxiety in psychotherapy. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1978 Jan, v38 (n7-B):3381. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Anxiety. Psychotherapy. Client Characteristics. Population terms: Human. Adult. Spontaneous facial expression of anxiety, psychotherapy clients. Bassili, John N. U Toronto, Scarborough Coll, Canada. Facial motion in the perception of faces and of emotional expression. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 1978, v4 (n3):373-379. 19 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Grimaces. Face (Anatomy). Perceptual Discrimination. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Facial motion, perception of faces & emotional expression, adult Subjects.

Key phrase: 178. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

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Abstract: Investigated the role of movement of the surface of the face in the perception of faces using a technique adapted from G. Johansson (1973). Faces that were covered with black makeup and numerous white spots were video recorded while expressing emotions and while grimacing. These recordings were played back to 160 adult observers so that only the white spots were visible. The results demonstrate that faces were easily recognized in conditions in which motion of the face was visible. In a 2nd experiment, accuracy in the recognition of 6 fundamental emotions on the basis of facial motion alone and of full faces was compared using 192 observers. Those seeing only facial movement were more accurate than expected by chance, although less accurate than when viewing the full face. The errors they made in judging from facial movement alone were similar to those they made when viewing the whole face. Results support the proposition that movement of the surface of the face provides sufficient

information for the perception of faces and for the discrimination of some emotions. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1980 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 179. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Bauerle, Siegfried; Kury, Helmut. Albert-Ludwigs-U Freiburg, Psychologische Inst, West Germany. The influence of facial expression on the popularity of 13- to 15-year old students. Psychologie - Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Psychologie und ihre Anwendungen, 1978, v37 (n3):202-215. 41 references. German. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Social Approval. Social Perception. Adolescents. Population terms: Human. Adolescent. Facial expressions, judgment of student's popularity, 8th & 9th graders.

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Abstract: 350 student observers (Os) from the 8th and 9th grades of a general school were presented with 94 slides of students of the same age (Subjects) who were unknown to them and half of whom were of high popularity in their own classes, the other half of low popularity. Os had to judge the presumable degree of popularity of Subjects. Results demonstrate that Os could predict the popularity of an Subject better than chance on the basis of nothing but a picture of the face in a neutral expression. The predictions of Os were better who themselves were highly popular and were above average in intelligence and introversion. (French summary) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1980 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 180. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Elman, Donald; Schulte, Duane C.; Bukoff, Allen. Kent State U. Effects of facial expression and stare duration on walking speed: Two field experiments. Environmental Psychology & Nonverbal Behavior, 1977 Winter, v2 (n2):93-99. English. Thesaurus terms: Pedestrians. Facial Expressions. Smiles. Eye Contact. Walking. Avoidance. Velocity. Population terms: Human. Adult. Facial expression & stare duration, walking speed, pedestrians.

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Abstract: Conducted 2 field experiments to investigate the generality of the

stare-escape phenomenon for pedestrians. Exp I (64 Subjects), conducted at a traffic intersection, failed to replicate the finding of P. C. Ellsworth et al (see PA, Vol 48:2925) that being stared at leads to faster walking speed. One hypothesis that could explain this failure is that the relatively short staring times used in Exp I were insufficient for Subjects to attribute a threatening meaning to the stare. In Exp II (129 Subjects), conducted at a library elevator, duration of staring was systematically varied--either 2 sec or more than 15 sec. Consistent with the attribution time hypothesis, Subjects increased walking speed after a long stare but decreased it after a short stare. In both experiments a smile coupled with a stare appeared to neutralize the effects of a stare alone. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1979 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 181. DISSERTATION Author: Fujita, Byron N. Affiliation: U Washington. Title: Encoding and decoding of spontaneous and enacted facial expression of emotion. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1977 Dec, v38 (n6-B):2858-2859. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Emotional Responses. Cognitive Processes. Human Sex Differences. Population terms: Human. Adult. Spontaneous & enacted facial expression of emotion, encoding & decoding, male vs female college students. Harizuka, Susumu. Kyushu U, Fukuoka, Japan. Perception of schizophrenic patients in classifying pictures of facial expression. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 1977 Oct, v48 (n4):231-238. 16 references. Japanese. Thesaurus terms: Pictorial Stimuli. Facial Expressions. Classification (Cognitive Process). Psychiatric Hospitalization. Schizophrenia. Population terms: Human. Adult. Hospitalization length, classification of pictures of facial expressions, schizophrenics.

Key phrase: 182. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

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Abstract: Schizophrenics were divided into 5 groups according to the duration of their hospitalization. In Exp I, Subjects were instructed to look at the pictures of 3 different kinds of facial expressions (anger, delight, and sadness) and classify them into any categories they chose. In comparison

with normals, schizophrenics had difficulty recognizing the differences in the various facial expressions. The longer the term of hospitalization, the greater the difficulty Subjects had. In Exp II, Subjects were instructed to look at the same pictures and classify them into 3 groups of different facial expressions. In this case, schizophrenics were able to classify almost as well as normals. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1979 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 183. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Abramovitch, Rona. U Toronto, Canada. Children's recognition of situational aspects of facial expression. Child Development, 1977 Jun, v48 (n2):459-463. English. Thesaurus terms: Mothers. Social Interaction. Familiarity. Recognition (Learning). Facial Expressions. Social Perception. Mother Child Relations. Preschool Age Children. Population terms: Human. Child. Videotapes of own vs unknown mother interacting with strange vs familiar people, recognition of situational aspects of facial expression, preschoolers.

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Abstract: Conducted 2 experiments in which a total of 36 preschoolers were presented with videotapes of their own and unknown mothers interacting with strange and familiar people. They saw only the mother's face and upper torso, with no sound. The children were able to guess correctly whether their own mother was interacting with a friend or a stranger (of the same or opposite sex). However, they were not successful with respect to videotapes of unknown mothers. Adults (20 in the 1st experiment and 14 in the 2nd) were presented with the same videotapes and were successful in discriminating interactions with friends vs strangers. Results are discussed in terms of ability to recognize situational as well as affective or emotional aspects of facial expressions. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1978 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 184. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Schwartz, Gary E.; and others. Harvard U. Facial expression and imagery in depression: An electromyographic study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1976 Sep-Oct, v38 (n5):337-347. 23 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Electromyography. Depression (Emotion). Imagery.

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Facial Expressions. Anger. Happiness. Sadness. Population terms: Human. Adult. Happy vs sad vs angry imagery, facial expression EMG patterns, depressed vs normal Subjects.

Abstract: When Subjects are instructed to generate happy, sad, and angry imagery, discrete patterns of facial muscle activity can be detected using EMG procedures. Prior research suggests that depressed Subjects show attenuated facial EMG patterns during imagery conditions, particularly during happy imagery. In the present experiment, 12 depressed Subjects (mean age 37.5 yrs) and 12 matched normals were requested to generate happy and sad imagery, first with the instruction to simply "think" about the imagery, and then to regulate the affective state by "reexperiencing the feelings" associated with the imagery. Continuous recordings of facial EMG were obtained from the corrugator, zygomatic major, depressor anguli oris, and mentalis muscle regions. It was hypothesized that (a) these muscle sites would reliably differentiate between happy and sad imagery, (b) the instruction to generate the affective feeling state would produce greater EMG differences than the "think" instructions, and (c) the "think" instructions would be a more sensitive indicator of the difference between depressed and nondepressed Subjects, especially for happy imagery. All 3 hypotheses were confirmed. The application of facial EMG to the assessment of normal and clinical mood states and the role of facial muscle patterning in the subjective experience of emotion are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1977 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 185. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Shor, Ronald E. U New Hampshire. Skillfulness in the judgment of facial expression in relation to a panel of judges. Journal of General Psychology, 1976 Jul, v95 (n1):47-69. 29 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Judgment. Social Perception. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Subject's consistency with judges' consensus, skillfulness in judging facial expressions in snapshots, college students, development & application of taxonomic model of emotions.

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Abstract: Evaluated the skillfulness of individual Subjects in judging facial expressions in terms of each Subject's consistency with the consensus of a panel of judges including the author and 3 graduate students. A theoretical model was advanced interrelating distinctions in emotion category (pleasure, annoyance, surprise, misery, and repulsion), degree of confidence in these category distinctions, and dimensional scaling of

emotion intensity and subjective energeticness (activation level) within and combined across already-distinguished monopolar emotion categories. A bipolar pleasure-displeasure emotion intensity dimension was also included. Data extensive enough for individual analysis of each Subject's performance were gathered from 4 male and 4 female undergraduates on 100 newsmagazine facial snapshots. Nine hypotheses were tested and confirmed. Findings are interpreted as a synthesis and extension of previous approaches which dealt with Subjects' facility at distinguishing between theoretically specified sets of primary emotion categories. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1976 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 186. DISSERTATION Author: Sokoloff, Mark J. Affiliation: State U New York, Buffalo. Title: Production and recognition of facial expression of emotion in fourth grade children. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1976 Jan, v36 (n7-B):3585-3586. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Sex Roles. Human Sex Differences. Social Desirability. Recognition (Learning). Perceptual Development. School Age Children. Population terms: Human. Child. General terms: Emotions. Sex role & egocentrism & social desirability & sex, production & recognition of facial expression of emotion, 4th graders. Waldron, Joseph. Ohio State U. Judgment of like-dislike from facial expression and body posture. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 1975 Dec, v41 (n3):799-804. English. Thesaurus terms: Nonverbal Communication. Facial Expressions. Posture. Social Perception. Affection. Interpersonal Attraction. Population terms: Human. Adult. Facial expression & body posture, nonverbal communication of liking & disliking, female college students.

Key phrase: 187. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

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Abstract: Studied the nonverbal communication of like-dislike information by

superimposing all possible combinations of 3 facial expressions which communicated liking, neutrality, or disliking onto 2 body-posture pictures of a female which communicated liking or disliking. Analysis of variance indicated significant effects for Facial Expression and Posture and a significant Facial Expression * Posture interaction for 30 female undergraduates. Postexperimental t tests indicated a complex relationship between facial expression and body posture. It is concluded that body posture can communicate information in the presence of facial expression and that body posture probably moderates the information communicated by the face. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1976 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 188. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Thayer, Stephen; Schiff, William. City Coll, City U New York. Eye-contact, facial expression, and the experience of time. Journal of Social Psychology, 1975 Feb, v95 (n1):117-124. 29 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Eye Contact. Interpersonal Interaction. Time Perception. Facial Expressions. Population terms: Human. Adult. Eye contact & facial expression, experience of time in social encounters, female college students.

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Abstract: Conducted a study of 48 female undergraduates to examine the relationship between interpersonal processes and the experience of time in the context of qualitatively different social interactions. Previous research indicates that time spent in unpleasant as opposed to pleasant encounters is often experienced as passing slowly or "dragging." In the present study, positive or negative facial expressions were combined with shorter (12 sec) or longer (36 sec) periods of eye-contact between female Subjects and same or opposite-sex confederates. Subjects also served as their own controls by estimating 12- and 36-sec nonsocial intervals. Reproduction of time periods during which eye-contact was maintained indicate that time was experienced as passing more slowly (greater overestimation relative to clock time) when combined with a negative-unpleasant (scowling-angry) rather than a positive-pleasant (smiling-friendly) facial expression. This effect was most pronounced for female-female encounters. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1975 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 189. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Buck, Ross; Miller, Robert E.; Caul, William F. U Connecticut. Sex, personality, and physiological variables in the communication of affect via facial expression. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 1974 Oct, v30 (n4):587-596. 18 references. English. Thesaurus terms:

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Human Sex Differences. Nonverbal Communication. Facial Expressions. Personality Traits. Heart Rate. Skin Resistance. Emotional Responses. Population terms: Human. Adult. Sex & personality traits & physiological variables, communication of affect via facial expression, college students.

Abstract: "Senders" viewed 25 emotionally loaded color slides. Their facial expressions were observed via a hidden television camera by "observers" who made judgments about the nature of each slide and the sender's reaction to it. A total of 64 undergraduates were arranged in 8 pairings each of females sending to male observers, females sending to females, males sending to males, and males sending to females. Statistically significant communication was demonstrated, with females being more accurate senders than males. More accurate senders tended to show a smaller skin conductance and heart rate response to the slides and a more "personal" verbal report of their emotional reaction to the slides. Several personality measures were related to communication accuracy and physiological responding (Byrne's Repression-Sensitization scale, Eysenck Personality Inventory Extraversion-Introversion Introversion scale, and the Janis and Field self-esteem scale). (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1975 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 190. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Hackney, Harold. Purdue U. Facial gestures and subject expression of feelings. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1974 May, v21 (n3):173-178. 16 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Nonverbal Communication. Facial Expressions. Verbal Communication. Interviews. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Counseling. Nonverbal facial gestures, client verbal behavior in quasi-interview setting, female college students, implications for counseling process.

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Abstract: Examined the effects of 4 levels of nonverbal facial gestures on client verbal behavior in a quasi-interview setting. Nonverbal behaviors included no expression, head nod, smile, and head nod/smile combination. Each level of treatment was presented by a male and female E. Treatments were videorecorded for standardized presentation to 72 female undergraduates. Subjects produced progressively and significantly greater amounts of feeling and self-reference feeling statements for head nod,

smile, and head nod/smile combination when stimuli were presented by the female E. The opposite effect was realized when stimuli were presented by the male E. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1974 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 191. Author: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Webb, Nancy C. The use of myoelectric feedback in teaching facial expression to the blind. American Foundation for the Blind, Research Bulletin, 1974 Apr, v27:231-262. 93 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Biofeedback. Facial Muscles. Facial Expressions. Blind. Electromyography. Population terms: Human. Adult. Myoelectric feedback, facial expression learning, blind Subjects.

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Abstract: Employed biofeedback to help 5 blind Subjects gain skill in controlling facial muscles, thus producing facial expressions at will. Subjects were provided with an auditory "mirror" of their facial activity by transducing myoelectric signals from facial muscles into sound. Expressions of happiness, surprise, and anger were defined by involvement of the zygomaticus, the frontalis, and the corrugator muscles, respectively. These muscles were connected through separate voltage-controlled oscillators to loudspeakers, each muscle activating a different speaker. Motion pictures of each Subject producing the 3 expressions before and after training were assembled in random order and were shown to preselected judges who attempted to identify the expressions. The judges were correct significantly more often on the posttraining expressions. Appropriateness and adequacy of expressions, as rated by the judges, also improved significantly as a result of training. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1975 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 192. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Savitsky, Jeffrey C.; Izard, Carroll E.; Kotsch, William E.; Christy, Lo. Purdue U. Aggressor's response to the victim's facial expression of emotion. Journal of Research in Personality, 1974 Mar, v7 (n4):346-357. 22 references. English. Thesaurus terms: Attitude Similarity. Aggressive Behavior. Facial Expressions. Population terms: Human. Adult.

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General terms: Emotions. Victim's facial expression of emotion & agreement vs disagreement with aggressor's opinion, amount of shock delivered to victim, male college students.

Abstract: 96 male college students were met by an experimental confederate who either agreed or disagreed with their opinion. Subjects were then given an opportunity to deliver electric shock to the confederate (victim), who responded with a facial expression of anger, fear, joy, or neutrality. The opinion condition had no effect, but the victim's facial expressions were clearly perceived by the Subjects and 2 of them significantly influenced the amount of shock delivered to the victim by the S. The expression of enjoyment (smile) increased aggression while that of anger decreased aggression. The effects of the fear and neutral expressions did not differ from each other, and neither had a consistent significant effect on the amount of shock administered by the Subjects. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1976 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 193. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Schiffenbauer, Allen. Virginia Polytechnic Inst. & State U. When will people use facial information to attribute emotion? The effect of judge's emotional state and intensity of facial expression on attribution of emotion. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 1974 Jan, v5 (n1):47-53. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Emotional States. Attribution. Population terms: Human. Adult. Intensity of facial expression & judge's emotional state, attribution of emotion, college students.

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Abstract: 45 female undergraduates listened to 1 of 3 emotional manipulation tapes (disgust, comedy, and low volume white noise) and judged 18 slides of common objects and 18 slides of female faces varying in the intensity (high or low) of the affect expressed. Subjects were instructed to describe the slides in some way with 1 word or a short phrase and then completed a questionnaire assessing emotional arousal. 13 additional undergraduates (judges) indicated whether the Subjects' responses indicated an emotional attribution to the slides. Results show that some Subjects used facial expression information to make emotional attributions about others when not explicitly asked to do so; however, even under conditions most advantageous for evoking emotional responses (high intensity/disgust), only 44.8% of the attributions were emotional. Mechanisms of this process are discussed in relation to attribution theory. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1974 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 194. DISSERTATION Author: Zimmerman, Sephanie M. Affiliation: Ohio U. Title: Emotional responsiveness to the facial expression of emotion. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, 1973 Aug, v34

(n2-B):886-887. Language: Subject: English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Emotional Responses. Nonverbal Communication. Adolescents. Population terms: Human. Adolescent. Facial expression of emotion, emotional responsiveness, high school juniors & seniors. Hamilton, Marshall L. U. Guelph, Ontario, Canada. Imitative behavior and expressive ability in facial expression of emotion. Developmental Psychology, 1973 Jan, v8 (n1):138. English. Thesaurus terms: Facial Expressions. Recognition (Learning). Imitation (Learning). Age Differences. Sex Linked Developmental Differences. School Age Children. Preschool Age Children. Population terms: Human. Child. Age & sex & expressive ability, recognition & imitation & spontaneous facial expression, nursery school & 2nd & 5th graders.

Key phrase: 195. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

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Abstract: Examined the recognition, imitation, and spontaneous emission of facial expression as a function of age, sex, and expressive ability. Subjects in nursery school, 2nd grade, and 5th grade (N = 36 males and 36 females) were shown photographs representing 6 facial expressions, and were asked to identify and then imitate the expression depicted. Imitation scores were used to divide Subjects into high-and low-expressive ability groups. Spontaneous facial expression to 2 films in which a model portrayed happiness and sadness was also rated. Results show a significant grade level effect for both recognition and imitation, with 5th graders obtaining the highest scores. A significant Films * Level of Expression Ability interaction was also found, with high-expressive Subjects giving the most differentiated spontaneous responses to the 2 films. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1973 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 196. BOOK Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Ekman, Paul. U. California, Lab. for the Study of Human Interaction & Conflict, San Francisco. Darwin and facial expression: A century of research in review. New York, N.Y.: Academic Press, 1973. xi, 273 p. $17.

Language: Subject:

English. Thesaurus terms: Book. Cross Cultural Differences. Facial Expressions. Theory of Evolution. Primates (Nonhuman). Population terms: Animal. Darwin's theory of evolution, facial expression, nonhuman primates & children & cross-cultural analyses, book.

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Abstract: Integrates Darwin's theory that emotional expression is determined by evolution and is universal with recent research on facial expressions among nonhuman primates, human infants and children, and various cultures. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1974 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 197. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Cohen, Bertram D.; Rau, John H. Rutgers State U., Medical School. Nonverbal technique for measuring affect using facial expression photographs as stimuli. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 1972 Jun, v38 (n3):449-451. English. Thesaurus terms: Personality Measures. Psychodiagnosis. Drawing. Social Perception. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Affect measurement, nonverbal technique using facial expression photographs as stimuli, depressed inpatients vs. normals.

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Abstract: 50 depressed inpatient and 50 normal females matched on age (M = 39 yr.), education, and socioeconomic status were each given a deck of facial expression photographs and asked to choose 1 that "best looks like you feel right now." Affective values of the pictures were based on normative tabulation of adjectives most frequently applied to individual pictures, and on judges' ratings of them on an elation-depression scale. Findings indicate not only that different pictures were picked by the normal and depressive groups but also that the technique discriminated appropriately within the depressive group. The more depressed the patient's affect, based on interview ratings, the more depressive was the picture chosen. The method appeared to be independent of education and social-class effects. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1972 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 198. Author: Affiliation: Title: Hamilton, Marshall L. Washington State U. Imitation of facial expression of emotion.

Source: Language: Subject:

Journal of Psychology, 1972 Mar, v80 (n2):345-350. English. Thesaurus terms: Nonverbal Communication. Imitation (Learning). Social Behavior. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Imitation of facial expression of emotion, 50-67 mo. olds.

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Abstract: Exposed 54 50-67 mo. olds to a series of slides in which a model posed 9 different facial expressions. Conditions of directing attention to the model's expressions or prior interaction with the model were varied. An O sought to identify what emotion Subject was seeing by judging Subject's facial reaction to each slide. While the conditions of presentation did not yield significant differences, Subjects imitated facial expressions at above chance levels. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1972 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 199. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Mordkoff, Arnold M. New York U. The judgment of emotion from facial expression: A replication. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1971 Mar, v5 (n1):74-78. English. Thesaurus terms: Social Perception. Nonverbal Communication. Semantic Differential. Professional Contribution. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Judgment of emotion from facial expression, semantic differential, discussion of A. Mordkoff & N. Frijda & E. Phillipszoon.

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Abstract: Attempts to understand different results obtained by 2 similar studies of the judgment of emotion from facial expression using the semantic differential. The 1st and major factor obtained by A. M. Mordkoff (see PA, Vol. 41:9615) was labeled forceful-submissive and differed from the evaluative factor obtained by N. J. Frijda and E. Phillipszoon (see PA, Vol. 37:4291). The hypothesis investigated and supported in the present study with 25 Subjects who were not medical students, was that the results previously obtained by Mordkoff were due to special characteristics of the Subjects, 1st-yr medical students, who would tend to emphasize in their ratings considerations of power, i.e., a forceful-submissive dimension. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1971 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

200. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject:

Watson, Charles G.; Laliberte, Michael; Sellers, Howard. Veterans Administration Hosp., St. Cloud, Minn. Personality correlates of DAP facial expression. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1971 Jan, v27 (n1):115-117. English. Thesaurus terms: Projective Techniques. Symptoms. Psychodiagnosis. Psychodiagnosis. Population terms: Human. Adult. Draw-a-Person facial expression ratings & correlation with symptom ratings, diagnostic utility.

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Abstract: Draw-a-Person (DAP) facial expression ratings and symptom ratings were correlated to test the diagnostic utility of the DAP facial expression. The results were negative with only 3 of 80 r's significant at the .05 level. Interjudge agreement on the facial expression ratings was poor. It is suggested that facial expression ratings may be sufficiently lacking in objectivity as to render very questionable their utility in personality appraisal. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1971 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 201. Author: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Toth, Maria E. Data on facial expression reading in prepuberty-age children. Magyar Psichologiai Szemle, 1971, v28 (n2):184-195. 23 references. Hungarian. Thesaurus terms: Verbal Communication. Nonverbal Communication. Perceptual Motor Processes. Childhood Development. Motor Processes. Population terms: Human. Child. Verbal interpretation of facial expression, sensorimotor apparatus intactness & age-specific thought process, prepuberty-age children.

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Abstract: Exchange of information does not necessarily require verbal formulation. It is based on a mechanism of primary, complex emotional reactions. Being rooted in earlier evolutionary phases, it reaches a more elaborated form in preadolescent Subjects. Abstract ideas signifying information appearing in facial expression become in the course of evolution coordinated with unintentional motor acts. In this way their meaning becomes more differentiated. Verbal approach promotes the intentional metacommunicative activity, and also makes it possible for this activity to get under control. Direct and indirect communication differing in quality and degree of differentiation coexist at varying developmental levels in the course of evolution. In the present procedure, verbal

interpretation of facial expression in portraits was required at a level where part of the vocabulary is still latent. Data derived from the analysis of errors led to the conclusion that intactness of the sensorimotor apparatus and age-specific thought processes play an important role in the interpretation of facial expression and thus indirectly in the establishment of interpersonal contact. (Russian summary) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1972 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 202. Author: Affiliation: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Thayer, Stephen; Schiff, William. City Coll., City U. New York. Stimulus factors in observer judgment of social interaction: Facial expression and motion pattern. American Journal of Psychology, 1969, v82 (n1):73-85. English. Thesaurus terms: College Students. Observation Methods. Judgment. Social Interaction. Social Perception. Population terms: Human. Adult. Observer judgment of social interaction, facial expression & motion pattern, college students.

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Abstract: Presented 340 undergraduates with motion pictures of facial expression and "movements of pairs of interacting figures" to study their effects on O's judgment of the friendliness or hostility of the interaction. It was found that both facial expression and motion pattern were important and that congruent combinations produced extreme judgments. Results conflicted with those predicted by the averaging and summation models of stimulus-pooling. It was concluded that animated films are a valuable technique for examining O judgment of social behavior. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1969 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved). 203. Author: Title: Source: Language: Subject: Tone, T. The understanding of facial expression and interpersonal need. Japanese Journal of Educational & Social Psychology, 1968, v8 (n1):143-145. English. Thesaurus terms: Social Perception. Interpersonal Interaction. Needs. Population terms: Human. Adult. Facial expression & interpersonal need, understanding.

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204. DISSERTATION Author: Laird, James D. Affiliation: U. Rochester. Title: The Effect of Facial Expression on Emotional Experience.

Source: Language: Subject:

Dissertation Abstracts, 1967, v28 (n1-B):340-341. English. Thesaurus terms: Practice. Film Strips. Drawing. Photographs. Population terms: Human. Adult. General terms: Emotions. Experience + Facial Expression.

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