False Friends

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False friends in English vs Spanish




ac·com·mo·date v. ac·com·mo·dat·ed, ac·com·mo·dat·ing, ac·com·mo·dates v.tr. 1. To do a favor or service for; oblige. 2. To provide for; supply with. 3. To hold comfortably without crowding. 4. To make suitable; adapt. 5. To allow for; consider: an economic proposal that accommodates the interests of senior citizens. 6. To settle; reconcile. v.intr. 1. To adapt oneself; become adjusted: It is never easy to accommodate to social change. 2. Physiology To become adjusted, as the eye to focusing on objects at a distance. Verb [-dating, -dated] 1. to provide with lodgings 2. to have room for 3. to do a favour for 4. to adjust or become adjusted; to adapt Translations accommodate [əˈkɔmədeɪt] vt → alojar, hospedar (= oblige, help); complacer; this car accommodates 4 people comfortably → en este coche caben 4 personas cómodamente accommodate v accommodate [əˈkomədeit] 1 to find or be a place for The house could accommodate two families. alojar 2 to oblige They did their best to accommodate him by carrying out his wishes. complacer adj ac,commodating obliging; helpful. complaciente n ac,commo’dation 1 room(s) in a house or hotel in which to live, especially for a short time It is difficult to find accommodation in London in August. alojamiento 2 space for something There is accommodation for your car behind the hotel. espacio


ac·tu·al adj. 1. Existing and not merely potential or possible. 2. Being, existing, or acting at the present moment; current. 3. Based on fact: an actual account of the accident. Adjective existing in reality or as a matter of fact [Latin actus act] USAGE: The excessive use of actual and actually should be avoided. They are unnecessary in sentences such as in actual fact, he is forty-two, and he did actually go to the play but did not enjoy it. Translations actual [ˈæktjuəl] adj → verdadero, real actual adj actual [ˈӕktʃuəl] real; existing; not imaginary In actual fact he is not as stupid as you think he is. real n actu’ality [-ˈӕ-] (a) reality the actuality of the situation. realidad adv actually 1 really She actually saw the accident happen. en realidad, realmente 2 in fact Actually, I'm doing something else this evening. de hecho



ag·i·tate v. ag·i·tat·ed, ag·i·tat·ing, ag·i·tates v.tr. 1. To cause to move with violence or sudden force. 2. To upset; disturb: was agitated by the alarming news. 3. To arouse interest in (a cause, for example) by use of the written or spoken word; debate. v.intr. To stir up public interest in a cause: agitate for a tax reduction. ag i·tat ed·ly (-t t d-l ) adv. ag i·ta tive adj. Synonyms: agitate, churn, convulse, rock2, shake These verbs mean to cause to move to and fro violently: land agitated by tremors; a storm churning the waves; buildings and streets convulsed by an explosion; a hurricane rocking trees and houses; an earthquake that shook the ground. Verb [-tating, -tated] 1. to excite, disturb, or trouble 2. to shake or stir (a liquid) 3. to attempt to stir up public opinion for or against something [Latin agitare] agitated adj agitatedly adv agitation n agitator n Translations agitate [ˈædʒɪteɪt] vt (= shake) → agitar (= trouble); inquietar; to agitate for → hacer campaña en pro de or en favor de agitate v agitate [ˈӕdʒiteit] 1 to make (someone) excited and anxious The news agitated her. agitar 2 to try to arouse public feeling and action That group is agitating for prison reform. hacer una campaña a favor de/en contra de 3 to shake The tree was agitated by the wind. agitar adj agitated agitado n agi’tation agitación n agitator a person who tries constantly to stir up public feeling a political agitator. agitador


ag·gra·vate tr.v. ag·gra·vat·ed, ag·gra·vat·ing, ag·gra·vates 1. To make worse or more troublesome. 2. To rouse to exasperation or anger; provoke. ag gra·vat ing·ly adv. ag gra·va tive adj. ag gra·va tor n. Usage Note: Aggravate comes from the Latin verb aggrav re, which meant "to make heavier," that is, "to add to the weight of." It also had the extended senses "to annoy" and "to oppress." Some people claim that aggravate can only mean "to make worse," and not "to irritate," on the basis of the word's etymology. But in doing so, they ignore not only an English sense in use since the 17th century, but also one of the original Latin ones. Sixtyeight percent of the Usage Panel approves of its use in It's the endless wait for luggage that aggravates me the most about air travel. Verb


[-vating, -vated] 1. to make (a disease, situation or problem) worse 2. Informal to annoy [Latin aggravare to make heavier] aggravating adj aggravation n Translations aggravate [ˈægrəveɪt] vt → agravar (= annoy); irritar, exasperar v aggravate [ˈӕgrəveit] 1 to make worse His bad temper aggravated the situation. agravar 2 to make (someone) angry or impatient She was aggravated by the constant questions. irritar n aggra’vation agravamiento; exasperación


ag·o·ny n. pl. ag·o·nies 1. The suffering of intense physical or mental pain. 2. The struggle that precedes death. 3. A sudden or intense emotion: an agony of doubt. 4. A violent, intense struggle. Noun pl -nies acute physical or mental pain Translations agony [ˈægənɪ] n (= pain) → dolor m atroz (= distress); angustia; to be in agony → retorcerse de dolor n agony [ˈӕgəni] great pain or suffering The dying man was in agony; agonies of regret. agonía adj agonized, ‘agonised showing agony He had an agonized expression on his face as he lost the match. agónico adj agonizing, ‘agonising causing agony an agonizing pain. angustioso adv agonizingly, agonisingly angustiosamente


al·ma·nac n. 1. An annual publication including calendars with weather forecasts, astronomical information, tide tables, and other related tabular information. 2. A usually annual reference book composed of various lists, tables, and often brief articles relating to a particular field or many general fields. Noun a yearly calendar with detailed information on matters like anniversaries and phases of the moon Translations almanac [ˈɔːlmənæk] n → almanaque m n almanac [ˈoːlmənӕk] a calendar usually with information about the phases of the moon etc. almanaque


a·lum·nus n. pl. a·lum·ni (-n ) A male graduate or former student of a school, college, or university.


Usage Note: Alumnus and alumna both come from Latin and preserve Latin plurals. Alumnus is a masculine noun whose plural is alumni, and alumna is a feminine noun whose plural is alumnae. Coeducational institutions usually use alumni for graduates of both sexes. But those who object to masculine forms in such cases may prefer the phrase alumni and alumnae or the form alumnae/i, which is the choice of many women's colleges that have begun to admit men. Noun pl -ni -nae Chiefly US & Canad a graduate of a school or college Translations Antiguos alumnus


an·nounc·er n. One that announces, especially a person who introduces programs, reads announcements, or provides commentary on television or radio. Noun a person who introduces programmes on radio or television Translations announcer [əˈnaunsəʳ] n (RADIO, TV) → locutor(a) m/f


–verb (used without object) to make an application or request; ask: to apply for a job; to apply for a raise. apply - ask (for something); "He applied for a leave of absence"; "She applied for college"; "apply for a job" Translations to apply for [+ permit, grant, job] → solicitar; withfor) to ask for (something) formally You could apply (to the manager) for a job. solicitar n applicant [ˈӕpli-] a person who applies (for a job etc) There were two hundred applicants for the job. solicitante, candidato, aspirante n appli’cation [ӕpli-] 1 a formal request; an act of applying several applications for the new job; The syllabus can be obtained on application to the headmaster. solicitud, candidatura, petición 2 hard work He has got a good job through sheer application. aplicación 3 an ointment etc applied to a cut, wound etc. aplicación


ap·praise tr.v. ap·praised, ap·prais·ing, ap·prais·es 1. To evaluate, especially in an official capacity. 2. To estimate the quality, amount, size, and other features of; judge. ap·prais ing·ly adv. ap·prais a·ble adj. ap·praise ment n. ap·prais er n. ap·prais ing·ly adv. Verb [-praising, -praised] to assess the worth, value, or quality of USAGE: Appraise is sometimes wrongly used where apprise is meant: they had been apprised (not appraised) of my arrival.


Translations appraise [əˈpreɪz] vt (= value) → tasar, valorar [+ situation etc]; evaluar

ap·pre·ci·a·tion n. 1. Recognition of the quality, value, significance, or magnitude of people and things. 2. A judgment or opinion, especially a favorable one. 3. An expression of gratitude. 4. Awareness or delicate perception, especially of aesthetic qualities or values. 5. A rise in value or price, especially over time. Noun 1. gratitude 2. awareness and understanding of a problem or difficulty 3. sensitive recognition of good qualities, as in art 4. an increase in value Translations appreciation [əpriːʃɪˈeɪʃən] n → aprecio; reconocimiento, agradecimiento; aumento en valor


n. A computer language designed for programming numerically controlled machine tools. [A(utomatically) P(rogrammed) T(ool).] apt ly adv. apt ness n. Adjective 1. having a specified tendency: they are apt to bend the rules 2. suitable or appropriate 3. quick to learn: she was turning out to be a more apt pupil than he had expected [Latin aptus fitting] aptly adv aptness n APT Brit Advanced Passenger Train Translations apt [æpt] adj (= to the point) → acertado, oportuno (= appropriate); apropiado; apt to do (= likely) → propenso a hacer adj apt [ӕpt] 1 (withto) likely He is apt to get angry if you ask a lot of questions. susceptible de, propenso a 2 suitable an apt remark. apropiado, oportuno 3 clever; quick to learn an apt student. listo; talentoso adv aptly pertinentemente, adecuadamente n aptness propiedad, pertinencia


ar·tic·u·late adj. 1. Endowed with the power of speech. 2. Composed of distinct, meaningful syllables or words, as human speech. 3. Expressing oneself easily in clear and effective language: an articulate speaker. 4. Characterized by the use of clear, expressive language: an articulate essay. 5. Anatomy Consisting of sections united by joints; jointed.


v. (-l t ) ar·tic·u·lat·ed, ar·tic·u·lat·ing, ar·tic·u·lates v.tr. 1. To pronounce distinctly and carefully; enunciate. 2. To utter (a speech sound) by making the necessary movements of the speech organs. 3. To express in coherent verbal form; give words to: couldn't articulate my fears. 4. To fit together into a coherent whole; unify: a plan to articulate nursing programs throughout the state. 5. Anatomy To unite by forming a joint or joints. 6. Architecture To give visible or concrete expression to (the composition of structural elements): a spare design in which windows and doors are barely articulated. v.intr. 1. To speak clearly and distinctly. 2. To utter a speech sound. 3. Anatomy To form a joint; be jointed: The thighbone articulates with the bones of the hip. ar·tic u·late·ly adv. ar·tic u·late·ness, ar·tic u·la·cy (-l -s ) n. Adjective 1. able to express oneself fluently and coherently 2. distinct, clear, or definite: his amiable and articulate campaign attracted support 3. Zool possessing joints Verb [-lating, -lated] 1. to speak clearly and distinctly 2. to express coherently in words [Latin articulare to divide into joints] articulately adv Translations articulate adj [ɑːˈtɪkjulɪt] [speech] → claro; [person] → que se expresa bien vi [ɑːˈtɪkjuleɪt] → articular v articulate [aːˈtikjuleit] to speak or pronounce The teacher articulated (his words) very carefully. articular [-lət] adj able to express one's thoughts clearly He's unusually articulate for a three-year-old child. que se expresa bien adv ar’ticulately [-lət-] fluidamente, con claridad n ar’ticulateness [-lət-] fluidez, facilidad de elocución n ar,ticu’lation articulación


as·cer·tain tr.v. as·cer·tained, as·cer·tain·ing, as·cer·tains 1. To discover with certainty, as through examination or experimentation. 2. Archaic To make certain, definite, and precise. as cer·tain a·ble adj. as cer·tain a·ble·ness n. as cer·tain a·bly adv. as cer·tain ment n. Verb to find out definitely [Old French acertener to make certain] ascertainment n Translations ascertain [æsəˈteɪn] vt → averiguar v ascertain [ӕsəˈtein]


to find out We shall never ascertain the truth. esclarecer, descubrir adj ascerˈtainable averiguable


as·sist v. as·sist·ed, as·sist·ing, as·sists v.tr. To give help or support to, especially as a subordinate or supplement; aid: The clerk assisted the judge by looking up related precedents. Her breathing was assisted by a respirator. v.intr. 1. To give aid or support.. 2. To be present, as at a conference. n. 1. An act of giving aid; help. 2. Sports a. A fielding and throwing of a baseball in such a way that enables a teammate to put out a runner. b. A pass, as in basketball or ice hockey, that enables the receiver to score a goal. c. Official credit that is given for such a pass. 3. A mechanical device providing aid. as·sist er n. Verb to give help or support Noun Sport a pass by a player which enables another player to score a goal Translations assist [əˈsɪst] vt → ayudar v assist [əˈsist] to help The junior doctor assisted the surgeon at the operation. ayudar n as’sistance help Do you need assistance? ayuda, asistencia n as’sistant 1 a person who assists; a helper a laboratory assistant; (also adjective ) an assistant headmaster. ayudante 2 a person who serves in a shop. depediente


as·sume tr.v. as·sumed, as·sum·ing, as·sumes 1. To take upon oneself: assume responsibility; assume another's debts. 2. To undertake the duties of (an office): assumed the presidency. 3. To take on; adopt: "The god assumes a human form" (John Ruskin). 4. To put on; don: The queen assumed a velvet robe. 5. To affect the appearance or possession of; feign. 6. To take for granted; suppose: assumed that prices would rise. 7. To take over without justification; seize: assume control. 8. To take up or receive into heaven. as·sum a·bil i·ty n. as·sum a·ble adj. as·sum a·bly adv. as·sum er n. Verb [-suming, -sumed] 1. to take to be true without proof 2. to undertake or take on: every general staff officer was able to assume control of the army 3. to make a pretence of: the man had assumed a debonair attitude 4. to take on: her eyes assumed a scared haunted look


Translations assume [əˈsjuːm] vt (= suppose) → suponer [+ responsibilities etc]; asumir [+ attitude, name]; adoptar, tomar v assume [əˈsjuːm] 1 to take or accept as true I assume (that) you'd like time to decide. suponer 2 to take upon oneself or accept (authority, responsibility etc) He assumed the rôle of leader in the emergency. asumir 3 to put on (a particular appearance etc) He assumed a look of horror. adquirir, adoptar adj as’sumed pretended; not genuine assumed astonishment; He wrote under an assumed name (= not using his real name). presunto; falso n as’sumption [-ˈsamp-] something assumed On the assumption that we can produce four pages an hour, the work will be finished tomorrow. supuesto

ATTEND TO attend to someone or something to take care of the needs of someone or something; to respond to a request or demand from someone or something. Please attend to your wounded friend. Would you please attend to the action points of this memo? attend to someone to listen to someone. Please attend to your teacher's instructions. Attend to the announcement of the new flight departure time. attend to somebody to give care to someone who is ill Malone flew home to attend to his wife, who was in the hospital. attend to something to deal with something Firefighters attended to a smoking car outside the building. CAMP

n. 1. a. A place where tents, huts, or other temporary shelters are set up, as by soldiers, nomads, or travelers. b. A cabin or shelter or group of such buildings: gathered branches and grasses for a makeshift camp; had a fishing camp in Vermont. c. The people using such shelters: a howl that awakened the whole camp. 2. a. A place in the country that offers simple group accommodations and organized recreation or instruction, as for vacationing children: a girls' summer camp; a tennis camp. b. Sports A place where athletes engage in intensive training, especially preseason training. c. The people attending the programs at such a place. 3. Military service; army life. 4. A group of people who think alike or share a cause; side: The council members disagreed, falling into liberal and conservative camps. v. camped, camp·ing, camps v.intr. 1. To make or set up a camp. 2. To live in or as if in a camp; settle: We camped in the apartment until the furniture arrived. v.tr. To shelter or lodge in a camp; encamp: They camped themselves by a river n. 1. An affectation or appreciation of manners and tastes commonly thought to be artificial, vulgar, or banal. 2. Banality, vulgarity, or artificiality when deliberately affected or when appreciated for its humor: "Camp is popularity plus vulgarity plus innocence" (Indra Jahalani). adj. Having deliberately artificial, vulgar, banal, or affectedly humorous qualities or style: played up the silliness of their roles for camp effect.


v. camped, camp·ing, camps v.intr. To act in a deliberately artificial, vulgar, or banal way. v.tr. To give a deliberately artificial, vulgar, or banal quality to: camped up their cowboy costumes with chaps, tin stars, and ten-gallon hats. camp y adj. Noun 1. a place where people stay in tents 2. a collection of huts and other buildings used as temporary lodgings for military troops or for prisoners of war 3. a group that supports a particular doctrine: the socialist camp Verb to stay in a camp [Latin campus field] camper n camping n Adjective 1. effeminate or homosexual 2. consciously artificial, vulgar, or affected Verb camp it up to behave in a camp manner Translations camp [kæmp] n → campo, campamento vi → acampar adj → afectado, afeminado; to go camping → ir de or hacer camping n camp [kӕmp] 1 a piece of ground with tents pitched on it. campamento 2 a collection of buildings, huts or tents in which people stay temporarily for a certain purpose a holiday camp. campamento, campamento de verano 3 a military station, barracks etc. campamento militar 4 a party or side They belong to different political camps. bando v (alsogo camping) to set up, and live in, a tent / tents We camped on the beach; We go camping every year. acampar n camper 1 a person who goes camping. campista 2 (especially American) a motor-caravan. caravana n camping camping camp bed a light folding bed (not only for camping) The visitor will have to sleep on a camp bed. cama plegable n camp-fire the fire on which campers cook, and round which they sit in the evening etc. hoguera n campsite a piece of land on which tents may be pitched. camping, campamento


ca·su·al·ty n. pl. ca·su·al·ties 1. An accident, especially one involving serious injury or loss of life. 2. One injured or killed in an accident: a train wreck with many casualties. 3. One injured, killed, captured, or missing in action through engagement with an enemy. Often used in the plural: Battlefield casualties were high. 4. One that is harmed or eliminated as a result of an action or a circumstance: The corner grocery was a casualty of the expanding supermarkets. Noun pl -ties 1. a person who is killed or injured in an accident or war 2. the hospital department where victims of accidents are given emergency treatment


3. a person or thing that has suffered as the result of a particular event or circumstance: 583 job losses with significant casualties among public-sector employees Casualty: a chance happening. Translations casualty [ˈkæʒjultɪ] n → víctima, herido; (dead) → muerto; (MIL) → baja; heavy casualties → numerosas bajas fpl n casualty [ˈkӕʒuəlti] a person who is wounded or killed in a battle, accident etc There were hundreds of casualties when the factory went on fire. baja, víctima casualty department a hospital department for treating accidental injuries. urgencias


char·ac·ter n. 1. The combination of qualities or features that distinguishes one person, group, or thing from another.. 2. A distinguishing feature or attribute, as of an individual, group, or category. 3. Genetics A structure, function, or attribute determined by a gene or group of genes. 4. Moral or ethical strength. 5. A description of a person's attributes, traits, or abilities. 6. A formal written statement as to competency and dependability, given by an employer to a former employee; a recommendation. 7. Public estimation of someone; reputation: personal attacks that damaged her character. 8. Status or role; capacity: in his character as the father. 9. a. A notable or well-known person; a personage. b. A person, especially one who is peculiar or eccentric: a shady character; catcalls from some character in the back row. 10. a. A person portrayed in an artistic piece, such as a drama or novel. b. Characterization in fiction or drama: a script that is weak in plot but strong in character. 11. A mark or symbol used in a writing system. 12. Computer Science a. One of a set of symbols, such as letters or numbers, that are arranged to express information. b. The numerical code representing such a character. 13. A style of printing or writing. 14. A symbol used in secret writing; a cipher or code. adj. 1. Of or relating to one's character. 2. a. Specializing in the interpretation of often minor roles that emphasize fixed personality traits or specific physical characteristics: a character actor. b. Of or relating to the interpretation of such roles by an actor: the character part of the hero's devoted mother. 3. Dedicated to the portrayal of a person with regard to distinguishing psychological or physical features: a character sketch. 4. Law Of or relating to a person who gives testimony as to the moral and ethical reputation or behavior of one engaged in a lawsuit: a character witness. tr.v. charac·tered, charac·ter·ing, charac·ters Archaic 1. To write, print, engrave, or inscribe. 2. To portray or describe. Idioms: in character Consistent with someone's general character or behavior: behavior that was totally in character. out of character Inconsistent with someone's general character or behavior: a response so much out of character that it amazed me. char ac·ter·less adj.


Noun 1. the combination of qualities distinguishing an individual person, group of people, or place: the unique charm and character of this historic town 2. a distinguishing quality or characteristic: bodily movements of a deliberate character 3. reputation, esp. good reputation: a man of my Dad's character and standing in the community 4. an attractively unusual or interesting quality: the little town was full of life and character 5. a person represented in a play, film, or story 6. an unusual or amusing person: quite a character 7. Informal a person: a flamboyant character 8. a single letter, numeral, or symbol used in writing or printing 9. in or out of character typical or not typical of the apparent character of a person characterless adj 1. Genetics A structure, function, or attribute determined by a gene or a group of genes. 2. Computer Science A symbol, such as a letter, number, or punctuation mark, that occupies one byte of memory. Translations character [ˈkærɪktəʳ] n → carácter m; naturaleza, índole f; (in novel, film) → personaje m (= role); papel m (= individuality), (COMPUT) → carácter m; a person of good character → una persona de buena reputación n character [ˈkӕrəktə] 1 the set of qualities that make someone or something different from others; type You can tell a man's character from his handwriting; Publicity of this character is not good for the firm. carácter 2 a set of qualities that are considered admirable in some way He showed great character in dealing with the danger. carácter 3 reputation They tried to damage his character. reputación 4 a person in a play, novel etc Rosencrantz is a minor character in Shakespeare's `Hamlet'. personaje 5 an odd or amusing person This fellow's quite a character! tipo, figura 6 a letter used in typing etc Some characters on this typewriter are broken. carácter adj character’istic (negativeuncharacteristic) typical (of a person etc) He spoke with characteristic shyness; That kind of behaviour is characteristic of him. característico n a typical quality It is one of his characteristics to be obstinate. característica adv characte’ristically típicamente v characterize, ‘characterise 1 to be the obvious feature of The giraffe is characterized by its long neck. caracterizar 2 to describe (as) She characterized him as weak and indecisive. describir n characteri’zation, ,characteri’sation caracterización


com·fort tr.v. com·fort·ed, com·fort·ing, com·forts 1. To soothe in time of affliction or distress. 2. To ease physically; relieve. n. 1. A condition or feeling of pleasurable ease, well-being, and contentment. 2. Solace in time of grief or fear. 3. Help; assistance: gave comfort to the enemy. 4. One that brings or provides comfort. 5. The capacity to give physical ease and well-being: enjoying the comfort of my favorite chair. 6. Chiefly Southern & Lower Northern U.S. A quilted bedcover; a comforter. com fort·ing·ly adv. Synonyms: comfort, console1, solace These verbs mean to give hope or help to in time of grief or pain: comforted the distressed child; consoling a recent widow; solaced myself with a hot cup of coffee Noun


1. a state of physical ease or well-being 2. relief from suffering or grief 3. a person or thing that brings ease 4. comforts things that make life easier or more pleasant: the comforts of home Verb 1. to soothe or console 2. to bring physical ease to comforting adj Translations comfort [ˈkʌmfət] n → comodidad f; confort m (= well-being); bienestar m (= solace); consuelo (= relief); alivio vt → consolar see also comforts n comfort [ˈkamfət] 1 a pleasant condition of being physically or mentally relaxed, happy, warm etc They now live in comfort. comodidad, confort, bienestar 2 anything that provides a little luxury, or makes one feel happier, or better able to bear misfortune He enjoyed the comforts of the hotel; Her presence was a comfort to him in his grief; words of comfort. comodidad adj comfortable 1 in comfort; pleasantly relaxed He looked very comfortable in his chair. tranquilo, relajado 2 producing a good physical feeling a comfortable chair. cómodo 3 financially secure without being rich a comfortable standard of living. acomodado, desahogado adv comfortably cómodamente adj comforting producing a pleasant or relaxed feeling a comforting thought. reconfortante be comfortably off to have enough money to live in comfort. vivir cómodamente


com·mod·i·ty n. pl. com·mod·i·ties 1. Something useful that can be turned to commercial or other advantage: "Left-handed, power-hitting third basemen are a rare commodity in the big leagues" (Steve Guiremand). 2. An article of trade or commerce, especially an agricultural or mining product that can be processed and resold. 3. Advantage; benefit. 4. Obsolete A quantity of goods. Noun pl -ties something that can be bought or sold Translations commodity [kəˈmɔdɪtɪ] n → mercancía n commodity [kəˈmodəti] an article which is bought or sold soap, toothpaste and other household commodities. producto, artículo


com·mut·er n. 1. One that travels regularly from one place to another, as from suburb to city and back. 2. An airplane or airline that carries passengers relatively short distances and often serves remote communities and small airports. Noun a person who regularly travels a considerable distance to work Translations commuter [kəˈmjuːtəʳ] n → persona que viaja a diario de casa al trabajo



com·pass n. 1. a. A device used to determine geographic direction, usually consisting of a magnetic needle or needles horizontally mounted or suspended and free to pivot until aligned with the earth's magnetic field. b. Another device, such as a radio compass or a gyrocompass, used for determining geographic direction. 2. A V-shaped device for describing circles or circular arcs and for taking measurements, consisting of a pair of rigid, end-hinged legs, one of which is equipped with a pen, pencil, or other marker and the other with a sharp point providing a pivot about which the drawing leg is turned. Also called pair of compasses. 3. a. An enclosing line or boundary; a circumference: outside the compass of the fence. b. A restricted space or area: four huge crates within the compass of the elevator. c. Range or scope, as of understanding, perception, or authority: "Lacking a coherent intellectual and moral commitment, [he] was forced to find his compass in personal experience" (Doris Kearns Goodwin). 4. Music See range. tr.v. com·passed, com·pass·ing, com·pass·es 1. To make a circuit of; circle: The sailboat compassed the island. 2. To surround; encircle. 3. To understand; comprehend. 4. To succeed in carrying out; accomplish. 5. To scheme; plot. adj. 1. Forming a curved configuration. 2. Semicircular. Used of bow windows. com pass·a·ble adj. Noun 1. an instrument for finding direction, with a magnetized needle which points to magnetic north 2. limits or range: within the compass of a normal sized book such a comprehensive survey is not possible 3. compasses an instrument used for drawing circles or measuring distances, that consists of two arms, joined at one end [Latin com- together + passus step] 1. A device used to determine geographical direction, usually consisting of a magnetic needle mounted on a pivot, aligning itself naturally with the Earth's magnetic field so that it points to the Earth's geomagnetic north or south pole. 2. A device used for drawing circles and arcs and for measuring distances on maps, consisting of two legs hinged together at one end. Translations compass [ˈkʌmpəs] n → brújula; compasses npl → compás m; within the compass of → al alcance de noun 1 an instrument with a magnetized needle, used to find directions If he had carried a compass he would not have lost his way on the hills. brújula 2 (in plural) an instrument with two movable legs, for drawing circles etc. compás 3 scope or range. alcance compass rose the circular drawing showing directions on a plan or map. rosa de los vientos


com·pre·hen·sive adj. 1. So large in scope or content as to include much: a comprehensive history of the revolution. 2. Marked by or showing extensive understanding: comprehensive knowledge. n.


1. An examination or series of examinations covering the entire field of major study, given in the final undergraduate or graduate year of college. Often used in the plural. 2. A preliminary layout showing all the elements planned for an advertisement. com pre·hen sive·ly adv. com pre·hen sive·ness n. Adjective 1. of broad scope or content 2. (of car insurance) providing protection against most risks, including third-party liability, fire, theft, and damage 3. Brit of the comprehensive school system Noun Brit a comprehensive school Translations comprehensive [kɔmprɪˈhɛnsɪv] adj (= broad) → extenso (= general); de conjunto; comprehensive (school) n → centro estatal de enseñanza secundaria, Instituto Nacional de Bachillerato (SP) comprehensive school En los años 60 se creó un nuevo tipo de centro educativo de enseñanza secundaria (aproximadamente de los once años en adelante) denominado comprehensive school, abierto a todos los alumnos independientemente de sus capacidades, con el que se intentó poner fin a la división tradicional entre centros de enseñanzas teóricas para acceder a la educación superior ("grammar schools") y otros de enseñanzas básicamente profesionales ("secondary modern schools").


com·pro·mise n. 1. a. A settlement of differences in which each side makes concessions. b. The result of such a settlement. 2. Something that combines qualities or elements of different things: The incongruous design is a compromise between high tech and early American. 3. A concession to something detrimental or pejorative: a compromise of morality. v. com·pro·mised, com·pro·mis·ing, com·pro·mis·es v.intr. 1. To arrive at a settlement by making concessions. 2. To reduce the quality, value, or degree of something. v.tr. 1. a. To expose or make liable to danger, suspicion, or disrepute: a secret mission that was compromised and had to be abandoned; compromise one's standing in the community. b. To reduce in quality, value, or degree; weaken or lower. 2. To impair by disease or injury: an immune system that was compromised by a virus. 3. To settle by mutual concessions: a dispute that was compromised. com pro·mis er n. Noun 1. settlement of a dispute by concessions on each side: everyone pleaded for compromise, the compromise was only reached after hours of hard bargaining 2. the terms of such a settlement 3. something midway between different things Verb [-mising, -mised] 1. to settle (a dispute) by making concessions 2. to put (oneself or another person) in a dishonourable position Adjective being, or having the nature or, a compromise: a compromise solution compromising adj Translations compromise [ˈkɔmprəmaɪz] n → solución f intermedia (= agreement); arreglo


vt → comprometer vi → transigir, transar (LAM) cpd [decision, solution] → de término medio n compromise [ˈkomprəmaiz] (a) settlement of differences in which each side gives up something it has previously demanded We argued for a long time but finally arrived at a compromise. acuerdo mutuo, término medio


con·duc·tor n. 1. One who conducts, especially: a. One who is in charge of a railroad train, bus, or streetcar. b. Music One who directs an orchestra or other such group. 2. Physics A substance or medium that conducts heat, light, sound, or especially an electric charge. 3. A lightning rod, as on a house or barn. con duc·to ri·al (k n d k-tôr - l, -t r -) adj. con·duc tor·ship n. Noun 1. a person who conducts an orchestra or choir 2. an official on a bus who collects fares 3. US, Canad & NZ a railway official in charge of a train 4. something that conducts electricity or heat conductress fem n conductor A material or an object that conducts heat, electricity, light, or sound. Electrical conductors contain electric charges (usually electrons) that are relatively free to move through the material; a voltage applied across the conductor therefore creates an electric current. Insulators (electrical nonconductors) contain no charges that move when subject to a voltage. Translations conductor [kənˈdʌktəʳ] n [of orchestra] → director(a) m/f; (US) (on train) → revisor(a) m/f; (on bus) → cobrador m; (ELEC) → conductor m

con·sole tr.v. con·soled, con·sol·ing, con·soles To allay the sorrow or grief of. con·sol a·ble adj. con·so la·to ry (-s l -tôr , -t r , -s l -) adj. con·sol er n. con·sol ing·ly adv. n. 1. a. A cabinet for a radio, television set, or phonograph, designed to stand on the floor. b. A small freestanding storage cabinet. 2. Music The desklike part of an organ that contains the keyboard, stops, and pedals. 3. a. A central control panel for a mechanical, electrical, or electronic system. b. An instrument panel. 4. The portion of a computer or peripheral that houses the apparatus used to operate the machine manually and provides a means of communication between the computer operator and the central processing unit, often in the form of a keyboard. 5. A small storage compartment mounted between bucket seats in an automobile. 6. An often scroll-shaped bracket used for decoration or for supporting a projecting member, such as a cornice or shelf.


7. A console table. Verb [-soling, -soled] to comfort (someone) in sadness or distress consolable adj Noun 1. a panel of controls for electronic equipment 2. a cabinet for a television or audio equipment 3. an ornamental bracket used to support a wall fixture 4. the desklike case of an organ, containing the pedals, stops, and keys Translations console [kənˈsəul] vt → consolar n [ˈkɔnsəul] (= control panel) → consola v console [kənˈsəul] to comfort She could not console the weeping child. consolar n conso’lation [kon-] 1 the act of consoling. consolación 2 something that consoles His great wealth was no consolation for the loss of his reputation; (also adjective ) a consolation prize (for someone who just failed to win). consuelo


de·ceased adj. No longer living; dead. See Synonyms at dead. n. pl. deceased A dead person. Adjective Formal dead Noun a dead person: the deceased Translations deceased [dɪˈsiːst] adj → difunto adj deceased [diˈsiːst] dead His parents, now deceased, were very wealthy. difunto the deceased in law, the dead person already mentioned, especially one who has recently died Were you a friend of the deceased? el difunto


v.intr. To vary, as from a regular course; deviate: depart from custom. Verb to differ or deviate: to depart from the original concept exit, get out, go out, leave - move out of or depart from; "leave the room"; "the fugitive has left the country" lift off, take off - depart from the ground; "The plane took off two hours late" Translations Depart to depart from (fig) (= differ from); apartarse de (withfrom) to cease to follow (a course of action) We departed from our original plan. apartarse, alejarse de

dep·u·ty n. pl. dep·u·ties 1. A person appointed or empowered to act for another.


2. An assistant exercising full authority in the absence of his or her superior and equal authority in emergencies: a deputy to the sheriff. 3. A representative in a legislative body in certain countries. Noun pl -ties a person appointed to act on behalf of another Translations deputy [ˈdɛpjutɪ] adj deputy head → subdirector/a m/f n → sustituto/a, suplente m/f; (POL) → diputado/a (= agent); representante m/f


dis·cuss tr.v. dis·cussed, dis·cuss·ing, dis·cuss·es 1. To speak with another or others about; talk over. 2. To examine or consider (a subject) in speech or writing. dis·cuss a·ble, dis·cuss i·ble adj. dis·cuss er n. Synonyms: discuss, argue, debate, dispute, contend These verbs mean to talk with others in an effort to reach agreement, to ascertain truth, or to convince. Discuss involves close examination of a subject with interchange of opinions: My therapist discussed my concerns with my parents. Argue emphasizes the presentation of facts and reasons in support of a position opposed by others: The lawyer argued the plaintiff's case. Debate involves formal, often public argument: The candidates debated the campaign issues. Dispute implies differences of opinion and usually sharp argument: The senators disputed over increases in the proposed budget. To contend is to strive in debate or controversy: She contended that her theory was easily proven. Verb 1. to consider (something) by talking it over 2. to treat (a subject) in speech or writing discussion n Translations discuss [dɪˈskʌs] vt (gen) → discutir [+ a theme]; tratar v discuss [diˈskas] to talk about We had a meeting to discuss our plans for the future. discutir n diˈscussion [-ʃən] (an act of) talking about something I think there has been too much discussion of this subject; Discussions between the heads of state took place in strict security. discusión to discuss (not discuss about ) a problem.

des·ti·tute adj. 1. Utterly lacking; devoid: Young recruits destitute of any experience. 2. Lacking resources or the means of subsistence; completely impoverished. des ti·tute ness n. Adjective lacking the means to live; totally impoverished destitution n Translations destitute [ˈdɛstɪtjuːt] adj → desamparado, indigente adj destitute [ˈdestitjuːt] in great need of food, shelter etc They were left destitute when he died. indigente



di·lap·i·dat·ed adj. Having fallen into a state of disrepair or deterioration, as through neglect; broken-down and shabby. Adjective (of a building) having fallen into ruin dilapidation n Translations dilapidated [dɪˈlæpɪdeɪtɪd] adj → desmoronado, ruinoso


dis·gust·ed adj. Filled with disgust or irritated impatience. dis·gust ed·ly adv. –verb (used with object) 1. to cause loathing or nausea in. 2. to offend the good taste, moral sense, etc., of; cause extreme dislike or revulsion in: Your vulgar remarks disgust me. –noun 3. a strong distaste; nausea; loathing. 4. repugnance caused by something offensive; strong aversion: He left the room in disgust. Translations disgusted [EE.UU.] [dɪs’gʌstɪd]

adjetivo 1. 2. 3. 4. asqueado repugnado inspirado aversión a disgustado


dis·pense v. dis·pensed, dis·pens·ing, dis·pens·es v.tr. 1. To deal out in parts or portions; distribute. 2. To prepare and give out (medicines). 3. To administer (laws, for example). 4. To exempt or release, as from a duty or religious obligation. v.intr. To grant a dispensation or exemption. Phrasal Verb: dispense with 1. To manage without; forgo: Let's dispense with the formalities. 2. To get rid of; do away with: a country that has dispensed with tariff barriers Verb [-pensing, -pensed] 1. to distribute in portions 2. to prepare and distribute (medicine) 3. to administer (the law, etc.) 4. dispense with to do away with or manage without dispenser n


USAGE: Dispense with is sometimes wrongly used where dispose of is meant: this task can be disposed of (not dispensed with) quickly and easily. Translations dispense [dɪsˈpɛns] vt → dispensar, repartir [+ medicine]; preparar dispense with vt fus (= make unnecessary) → prescindir de v dispense [diˈspens] 1 to give or deal out. repartir, dispensar 2 to prepare (medicines, especially prescriptions) for giving out. preparar n diˈspensary a place especially in a hospital where medicines are given out. dispensario n diˈspenser farmacéutico; maquina expendedora dispense with to get rid of or do without We could economize by dispensing with two assistants. prescindir de, pasar sin


v.tr. 1. To place or set in a particular order; arrange. 2. To put (business affairs, for example) into correct, definitive, or conclusive form. 3. To put into a willing or receptive frame of mind; incline. Phrasal Verb: dispose of 1. To attend to; settle: disposed of the problem quickly. 2. To transfer or part with, as by giving or selling. 3. To get rid of; throw out. 4. To kill or destroy: a despot who disposed of all his enemies, real or imagined. dispose of - deal with or settle; "He disposed of these cases quickly" handle, manage, care, deal - be in charge of, act on, or dispose of; "I can deal with this crew of workers"; "This blender can't handle nuts"; "She managed her parents' affairs after they got too old" Translations dispose of [dɪsˈpəuz] vt fus [+ time, money] → disponer de [+ unwanted goods]; deshacerse de; (COMM) (= sell); traspasar, vender (= throw away); tirar


dis·pose v. dis·posed, dis·pos·ing, dis·pos·es v.tr. 1. To place or set in a particular order; arrange. 2. To put (business affairs, for example) into correct, definitive, or conclusive form. 3. To put into a willing or receptive frame of mind; incline. v.intr. To settle or decide a matter. n. Obsolete 1. Disposal. 2. Disposition; demeanor. dis·pos er n. Adjective 1. willing or eager (to do something): few would feel disposed to fault his judgment 2. having an inclination as specified (towards someone or something): my people aren't too well disposed towards defectors Translations disposed [dɪsˈpəuzd] adj disposed to do → dispuesto a hacer



dis·tract·ed adj. 1. Having the attention diverted. 2. Suffering conflicting emotions; distraught dis·tract ed·ly adv. Adjective unable to concentrate because one's mind is on other things Translations distracted [dɪsˈtræktɪd] adj → distraído


di·ver·sion n. 1. The act or an instance of diverting or turning aside; deviation. 2. Something that distracts the mind and relaxes or entertains. 3. A maneuver that draws the attention of an opponent away from a planned point of action, especially as part of military strategy. di·ver sion·ar y adj. Noun 1. Chiefly Brit an official detour used by traffic when a main route is closed 2. something that distracts someone's attention or concentration 3. the act of diverting from a specified course 4. a pleasant or amusing pastime or activity diversionary adj 1.The act of drawing the attention and forces of an enemy from the point of the principal operation; an attack, alarm, or feint that diverts attention. 2. A change made in a prescribed route for operational or tactical reasons. A diversion order will not constitute a change of destination. 3. A rerouting of cargo or passengers to a new transshipment point or destination or on a different mode of transportation prior to arrival at ultimate destination. 4. In naval mine warfare, a route or channel bypassing a dangerous area. A diversion may connect one channel to another or it may branch from a channel and rejoin it on the other side of the danger. See also demonstration. Translations diversion [daɪˈvəːʃən] n (BRIT) (AUT) → desviación f (= distraction), (MIL) → diversión f n diversion [daiˈvəːʃən, (American ) -ʒən] 1 an alteration to a traffic route There's a diversion at the end of the road. desviación, desvío 2 (an act of) diverting attention. distracción 3 (an) amusement. diversión


Drag v. dragged, drag·ging, drags v.tr. 1. To pull along with difficulty or effort; haul: dragged the heavy box out of the way 2. To cause to trail along a surface, especially the ground. 3. Computer Science a. To move (a pointing device, such as a mouse) while pressing down on one of its buttons. b. To move (an element of a graphical display) on a computer screen using a pointing device. 4. To move or bring by force or with great effort: had to drag him to the dentist; dragged the truth out of the reluctant witness. 5. a. To search or sweep the bottom of (a body of water), as with a grappling hook or dragnet. b. To bring up or catch by such means. 6. To prolong tediously: dragged the story out. 7. Baseball To hit (a bunt) while taking the first steps toward first base.


8. To break up, rake, or smooth out (land or dirt), especially by pulling a drag or heavy mesh: dragged the infield between innings. v.intr. 1. To trail along the ground: The dog's leash dragged on the sidewalk. 2. To move slowly or with effort. 3. To lag behind. 4. To pass or proceed slowly, tediously, or laboriously: The time dragged as we waited. 5. Computer Science To move a pointing device while pressing down on one of its buttons. 6. To search or dredge the bottom of a body of water: dragging for the sunken craft. 7. To take part in or as if in a drag race. 8. To draw on a cigarette, pipe, or cigar. n. 1. The act of dragging. 2. Something, such as a harrow or an implement for spreading manure, that is dragged along the ground. 3. A device, such as a grappling hook, that is used for dragging under water. 4. A heavy sledge or cart for hauling loads. 5. A large four-horse coach with seats inside and on top. 6. Something, such as a sea anchor or a brake on a fishing reel, that retards motion. 7. One that impedes or slows progress; a drawback or burden: the drag of taxation on economic growth. 8. The degree of resistance involved in dragging or hauling. 9. The retarding force exerted on a moving body by a fluid medium such as air or water. 10. A slow, laborious motion or movement. 11. a. The scent or trail of a fox or another animal. b. Something that provides an artificial scent. 12. Slang One that is obnoxiously tiresome: The evening was a real drag. 13. A puff on a cigarette, pipe, or cigar. 14. Slang A street or road: the town's main drag. 15. The clothing characteristic of one sex when worn by a member of the opposite sex: an actor in drag. adj. Of, relating to, or being a person wearing clothing characteristic of the opposite sex: a drag performer; a drag show. Idiom: drag (one's) feet/heels To act or work with intentional slowness; delay. Verb [dragging, dragged] 1. to pull with force along the ground 2. to trail on the ground 3. to persuade (someone) to go somewhere: he didn't want to come so I had to drag him along 4. to move (oneself) slowly and with difficulty: I had to drag myself out of bed this morning 5. to linger behind: she dragged along behind her mother 6. to search (a river) with a dragnet or hook 7. to draw (on a cigarette) 8. Computers to move (a graphics image) from one place to another on the screen by manipulating a mouse with its button held down 9. drag away or from to force (oneself) to come away from something interesting: I was completely spellbound and couldn't drag myself away from the film 10. drag on or out to last or be prolonged tediously: winter dragged on 11. drag one's feet Informal to act with deliberate slowness Noun 1. a person or thing that slows up progress 2. Informal a tedious or boring thing: it was a drag having to walk two miles to the station every day 3. Informal a draw on a cigarette 4. an implement, such as a dragnet, used for dragging 5. Aeronautics the resistance to the motion of a body passing through air 6. in drag (of a man) wearing women's clothes, usually as a form of entertainment Drag A force acting on a moving body, opposite in direction to the movement of the body, caused by the interaction of the body and the medium it moves through. The strength of drag usually depends on the velocity of the body. Drag caused by buildup of pressure in front of the


moving body and a decrease in pressure behind the body is called pressure drag. It is an important factor in the design of aerodynamically efficient shapes for cars and airplanes. Drag caused by the viscosity of the medium as the molecules along the body's surface move through it is called skin drag or skin friction. It is an important factor in the design of efficient surface materials for cars, airplanes, boat hulls, skis, and swimsuits. Translations drag [dræg] vt → arrastrar [+ river]; dragar, rastrear vi → arrastrarse por el suelo n (AVIAT) (= resistance); resistencia aerodinámica; (col) → lata (= women's clothing): in drag → travestido drag away vt to drag away (from) → separar a rastras (de) drag on vi → ser interminable v drag [drӕg] 1 to pull, especially by force or roughly She was dragged screaming from her car. llevar a rastras 2 to pull (something) slowly (usually because heavy) He dragged the heavy table across the floor. arrastrar 3 to (cause to) move along the ground His coat was so long it dragged on the ground at the back. arrastrar 4 to search (the bed of a lake etc) by using a net or hook Police are dragging the canal to try to find the body. rastrear, dragar 5 to be slow-moving and boring The evening dragged a bit. hacerse largo, hacerse pesado n 1 something which slows something down He felt that his lack of education was a drag on his progress. estorbo, carga 2 an act of drawing in smoke from a cigarette etc He took a long drag at his cigarette. calada 3 something or someone that is dull and boring Washing-up is a drag. lata, plomo, rollo, coñazo, pelmazo 4 a slang word for women's clothes when worn by men. vestido de travesti


dra·mat·ic adj. 1. Of or relating to drama or the theater. 2. Characterized by or expressive of the action or emotion associated with drama or the theatre: a dramatic rescue at sea. 3. Arresting or forceful in appearance or effect: a dramatic sunset. 4. Music Having a powerful, expressive singing voice: a dramatic tenor. dra·mat i·cal·ly adv. Adjective 1. of or relating to drama 2. like a drama in suddenness or effectiveness: the government's plan has had a dramatic effect on employment in television 3. acting or performed in a flamboyant way: he spread his hands in a dramatic gesture of helplessness dramatically adv Translations dramatic [drəˈmætɪk] adj → dramático


dust n. 1. Fine, dry particles of matter. 2. A cloud of fine, dry particles. 3. Particles of matter regarded as the result of disintegration: fabric that had fallen to dust over the centuries. 4. a. Earth, especially when regarded as the substance of the grave: "ashes to ashes, dust to dust" (Book of Common Prayer).


b. The surface of the ground. 5. A debased or despised condition. 6. Something of no worth. 7. Chiefly British Rubbish readied for disposal. 8. Confusion; agitation; commotion: won't go back in until the dust settles. v. dust·ed, dust·ing, dusts v.tr. 1. To remove dust from by wiping, brushing, or beating: dust the furniture. 2. To sprinkle with a powdery substance: dusted the cookies with sugar; dust crops with fertilizer. 3. To apply or strew in fine particles: dusted talcum powder on my feet. 4. Baseball To deliver a pitch so close to (the batter) as to make the batter back away. v.intr. 1. To clean by removing dust. 2. To cover itself with such particulate matter. Used of a bird. Phrasal Verb: dust off To restore to use: dusted off last year's winter coat. Idioms: in the dust Far behind, as in a race or competition: a marketing strategy that left our competitors in the dust. make the dust fly To go about a task with great energy and speed. Noun 1. small dry particles of earth, sand, or dirt 2. bite the dust a. to stop functioning: my television has finally bitten the dust b. to fall down dead 3. shake the dust off one's feet to depart angrily 4. throw dust in someone's eyes to confuse or mislead someone Verb 1. to remove dust from (furniture) by wiping 2. to sprinkle (something) with a powdery substance: serve dusted with brown sugar and cinnamon Translations dust [dʌst] n → polvo vt [+ furniture] → desempolvar [+ cake etc]: to dust with → espolvorear de dust off vt (also fig) → desempolvar, quitar el polvo de n dust [dast] 1 fine grains of earth, sand etc The furniture was covered in dust. polvo 2 anything in the form of fine powder gold-dust; sawdust. polvo v to free (furniture etc) from dust She dusts (the house) once a week. quitar el polvo n duster a cloth for removing dust. trapo adj dusty a dusty floor. polvoriento n dustiness calidad de polvoriento n dustbin [ˈdasbin] (Americanˈgarbage-canorˈtrash-can) a container for household rubbish. cubo de la basura n dust-jacket [ˈdasdʒӕkit] the loose paper cover of a book. sobrecubierta n dustman [ˈdasmən] a person employed to remove household rubbish. basurero n dustpan [ˈdaspӕn] a type of flat container with a handle, used for holding dust swept from the floor. recogedor n dust-up a quarrel There was a bit of a dust-up between the two men. pelea dust down to remove the dust from with a brushing action She picked herself up and dusted herself down. sacudirse el polvo throw dust in someone's eyes


to try to deceive someone. tratar de engañar a alguien


ef·fort n. 1. The use of physical or mental energy to do something; exertion. 2. A difficult exertion of the strength or will: It was an effort to get up. 3. A usually earnest attempt: Make an effort to arrive promptly. 4. Something done or produced through exertion; an achievement: a play that was his finest effort. 5. Physics Force applied against inertia. ef fort·ful adj. ef fort·ful·ly adv. Noun 1. physical or mental energy needed to do something 2. a determined attempt to do something 3. achievement or creation: his earliest literary efforts effortless adj effortlessly adv 1. Force applied against inertia. 2. The force needed by a machine in order to accomplish work on a load. Translations effort [ˈɛfət] n → esfuerzo; to make an effort to do sth → hacer un esfuerzo or esforzarse para hacer algo n effort [ˈefət] 1 hard work; energy Learning a foreign language requires effort; The effort of climbing the hill made the old man very tired. esfuerzo 2 a trying hard; a struggle The government's efforts to improve the economy were unsuccessful; Please make every effort to be punctual. intento, esfuerzo 3 the result of an attempt Your drawing was a good effort. obra; intento adj effortless done without (apparent) effort The dancer's movements looked effortless. sin esfuerzo, fácil adv effortlessly sin esfuerzo, fácilmente


es·pe·cial·ly adv. To an extent or degree deserving of special emphasis; particularly. Adverb 1. particularly: people are dying, especially children and babies 2. more than usually: an especially virulent disease Translations especially [ɪˈspɛʃlɪ] adv (gen) → especialmente (= above all); sobre todo (= particularly); en especial


es·trange tr.v. es·tranged, es·trang·ing, es·trang·es 1. To make hostile, unsympathetic, or indifferent; alienate. 2. To remove from an accustomed place or set of associations. es·trange ment n. es·trang er n. Synonyms: estrange, alienate, disaffect These verbs refer to disruption of a bond of love, friendship, or loyalty. Estrange and alienate are often used with reference to two persons whose harmonious relationship has been


replaced by hostility or indifference: Political disagreements led to quarrels that finally estranged the two friends. His persistent antagonism alienated his wife. Disaffect usually implies discontent, ill will, and disloyalty within the membership of a group: Colonists were disaffected by the royal governor's actions Adjective 1. no longer living with one's husband or wife: his estranged wife 2. having quarrelled and lost touch with one's family or friends: I am estranged from my son estrangement n Translations estranged [ɪˈstreɪndʒd] adj → separado


ex·change v. ex·changed, ex·chang·ing, ex·chang·es v.tr. 1. To give in return for something received; trade: exchange dollars for francs; exchanging labor for room and board. 2. To give and receive reciprocally; interchange: exchange gifts; exchange ideas. 3. To give up for a substitute: exchange a position in the private sector for a post in government. 4. To turn in for replacement: exchange defective merchandise at a store. v.intr. 1. To give something in return for something received; make an exchange. 2. To be received in exchange: At that time the British pound exchanged for $2.80. n. 1. The act or an instance of exchanging: a prisoner exchange; an exchange of greetings. 2. One that is exchanged. 3. A place where things are exchanged, especially a center where securities or commodities are bought and sold: a stock exchange. 4. A telephone exchange. 5. a. A system of payments using instruments, such as negotiable drafts, instead of money. b. The fee or percentage charged for participating in such a system of payment. 6. A bill of exchange. 7. A rate of exchange. 8. The amount of difference in the actual value of two or more currencies or between values of the same currency at two or more places. 9. A dialogue: a heated exchange between the two in-laws. adj. Of or relating to a reciprocal arrangement between a local and a foreign institution or group: an exchange student; exchange programs for students learning foreign languages. ex·change a·ble adj. Translations INTERCAMBIO

nombre 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. cambio canje intercambio lonja bolsa central telefónica central

8. cambalache verbo


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

cambiar canjear darse permutar intercambiar cambalachear


ex·cite·ment n. 1. a. The act or an instance of exciting. b. The condition of being excited. 2. Something that excites: the dancing tigers and other circus excitements. Noun 1. the state of being excited 2. a person or thing that excites Translations excitement [ɪkˈsaɪtmənt] n → emoción f


ex·on·er·ate tr.v. ex·on·er·at·ed, ex·on·er·at·ing, ex·on·er·ates 1. To free from blame. 2. To free from a responsibility, obligation, or task. ex·on er·a tion n. ex·on er·a tive adj. Verb [-ating, -ated] to clear (someone) of blame or a criminal charge exoneration n Translations exonerate [ɪgˈzɔnəreɪt] vt to exonerate from → exculpar de


e·ven·tu·al adj. 1. Occurring at an unspecified time in the future: his eventual failure. 2. Archaic Dependent on circumstance; contingent. Adjective happening or being achieved at the end of a situation or process: the Fascists' eventual victory in the Spanish Civil War eventually adv Translations eventual [ɪˈvɛntʃuəl] adj → final adj eventual [iˈventʃuəl] happening in the end their quarrel and eventual reconciliation. final n eˌventuˈality [-ˈӕ-] a possible happening We are ready for all eventualities. eventualidad adv eˈventually


finally; at length I thought he would never ask her to marry him, but he did eventually. finalmente, con el tiempo


e·ven·tu·al·ly adv. At an unspecified future time: eventually rose to the position of vice president Translations eventually [ɪˈvɛntʃuəlɪ] adv (= finally) → por fin (= in time); con el tiempo EVENTUALMENTE


eye n. 1. An organ of vision or of light sensitivity. 2. a. Either of a pair of hollow structures located in bony sockets of the skull, functioning together or independently, each having a lens capable of focusing incident light on an internal photosensitive retina from which nerve impulses are sent to the brain; the vertebrate organ of vision. b. The external, visible portion of this organ together with its associated structures, especially the eyelids, eyelashes, and eyebrows. c. The pigmented iris of this organ. 3. The faculty of seeing; vision. 4. The ability to make intellectual or aesthetic judgments: has a good eye for understated fashion. 5. a. A way of regarding something; a point of view: To my eye, the decorations are excellent. b. Attention: The lavish window display immediately got my eye. c. Watchful attention or supervision: always under his boss's eye; kept an eye on her valuables. 6. Something suggestive of the vertebrate organ of vision, especially: a. An opening in a needle. b. The aperture of a camera. c. A loop, as of metal, rope, or thread. d. A circular marking on a peacock's feather. e. Chiefly Southern U.S. The round flat cover over the hole on the top of a wood-burning stove. Also called regionally cap1, griddle. 7. A photosensitive device, such as a photoelectric cell. 8. Botany a. A bud on a twig or tuber: the eye of a potato. b. The often differently colored center of the corolla of some flowers. 9. a. Meteorology The circular area of relative calm at the center of a cyclone. b. The center or focal point of attention or action: right in the eye of the controversy. 10. Informal A detective, especially a private investigator. 11. A choice center cut of meat, as of beef: eye of the round. tr.v. eyed, eye·ing or ey·ing ( ng), eyes 1. To look at: eyed the passing crowd with indifference. 2. To watch closely: eyed the shark's movements. 3. To supply with an eye. Idioms: all eyes Fully attentive. an eye for an eye Punishment in which an offender suffers what the victim has suffered. clap/lay/set (one's) eyes on To look at. eye to eye In agreement: We're eye to eye on all the vital issues. have eyes for


To be interested in. have (one's) eye on 1. To look at, especially attentively or continuously. 2. To have as one's objective. in the eye of the wind Nautical In a direction opposite that of the wind; close to the wind. in the public eye 1. Frequently seen in public or in the media. 2. Widely publicized; well-known. my eye Slang In no way; not at all. Used interjectionally. with an eye to With a view to: redecorated the room with an eye to its future use as a nursery. with (one's) eyes closed Unaware of the risks involved. with (one's) eyes open Aware of the risks involved. Noun 1. the organ of sight in humans and animals 2. the external part of an eye, often including the area around it 3. (often pl) the ability to see or record what is happening: the eyes of an entire nation were upon us 4. a look, glance, or gaze 5. attention or observation: his new shirt caught my eye 6. the ability to judge or appreciate something: his shrewd eye for talent 7. (often pl) opinion, judgment, or authority: in the eyes of the law 8. a dark spot on a potato from which new shoots can grow 9. a small hole, such as the one at the blunt end of a sewing needle 10. a small area of calm in the centre of a storm, hurricane, or tornado 11. all eyes Informal acutely vigilant 12. an eye for an eye justice consisting of an equivalent action to the original wrong or harm 13. have eyes for to be interested in 14. in one's mind's eye imagined or remembered vividly 15. in the public eye exposed to public curiosity 16. keep an eye on to take care of 17. keep an eye open or out for to watch with special attention for 18. keep one's eyes peeled or skinned to watch vigilantly 19. look someone in the eye to look openly and without embarrassment at someone 20. make eyes at someone to look at someone in an obviously attracted manner 21. more than meets the eye hidden motives, meanings, or facts 22. my eye! Old-fashioned informal nonsense! 23. see eye to eye with to agree with 24. set or lay or clap eyes on to see: I never laid eyes on him again 25. turn a blind eye to or close one's eyes to to pretend not to notice 26. up to one's eyes in extremely busy with 27. with an eye to with the intention of 28. with one's eyes open in full knowledge of all the facts Verb eyeing or eying, eyed to look at carefully or warily eyeless adj eyelike adj eye 1. Anatomy The vertebrate organ of sight, composed of a pair of fluid-filled spherical structures that occupy the orbits of the skull. Incoming light is refracted by the cornea of the eye and transmitted through the pupil to the lens, which focuses the image onto the retina. 2. Zoology An organ in invertebrates that is sensitive to light. 3. Botany A bud on a tuber, such as a potato. 4. Meteorology The relatively calm area at the center of a hurricane or similar storm. Eye, Nye a brood of pheasants. Translations eye [aɪ] n → ojo vt → mirar;


to keep an eye on → vigilar; as far as the eye can see → hasta donde alcanza la vista; with an eye to doing sth → con vistas or miras a hacer algo; to have an eye for sth → tener mucha vista or buen ojo para algo; there's more to this than meets the eye → esto tiene su miga n eye [ai] 1 the part of the body with which one sees Open your eyes; She has blue eyes. ojo 2 anything like or suggesting an eye, eg the hole in a needle, the loop or ring into which a hook connects etc. ojo; agujero 3 a talent for noticing and judging a particular type of thing She has an eye for detail/colour/beauty. buen ojo v to look at, observe The boys were eyeing the girls at the dance; The thief eyed the policeman warily. mirar, observar n eyeball 1 the whole rounded structure of the eye. globo ocular 2 the part of the eye between the eyelids. pupila n eyebrow the curved line of hair above each eye. ceja adj eye-catching striking or noticeable, especially if attractive an eye-catching advertisement. llamativo n eyelash one of the (rows of) hairs that grow on the edge of the eyelids She looked at him through her eyelashes. pestaña n eyelet [-lit] a small hole in fabric etc for a cord etc. ojete n eyelid the movable piece of skin that covers or uncovers the eye. párpado n eye-opener something that reveals an unexpected fact etc Our visit to their office was a real eye-opener – they are so inefficient! revelación n eye-piece the part of a telescope etc to which one puts one's eye. ocular n eyeshadow a kind of coloured make-up worn around the eyes. sombra de ojos n eyesight the ability to see I have good eyesight. vista n eyesore something (eg a building) that is ugly to look at. monstruosidad n eye-witness a person who sees something (eg a crime) happen Eye-witnesses were questioned by the police. testigo ocular before/under one's very eyes in front of one, usually with no attempt at concealment It happened before my very eyes. delante de los propios ojos be up to the eyes in to be very busy or deeply involved in or with She's up to the eyes in work. estar hasta el cuello de algo close one's eyes to to ignore (especially something wrong) She closed her eyes to the children's misbehaviour. hacer la vista gorda a algo in the eyes of in the opinion of You've done no wrong in the eyes of the law. a ojos de alguien keep an eye on 1 to watch closely Keep an eye on the patient's temperature. no perder de vista 2 to look after Keep an eye on the baby while I am out! vigilar lay/set eyes on to see, especially for the first time I wish I'd never set eyes on her! poner los ojos encima raise one's eyebrows to (lift one's eyebrows in order to) show surprise. levantar las cejas see eye to eye to be in agreement We've never seen eye to eye about this matter. estar de acuerdo con alguien with an eye to something with something as an aim He's doing this with an eye to promotion. con la intención de hacer algo


with one's eyes open with full awareness of what one is doing I knew what the job would involve – I went into it with my eyes open. con los ojos abiertos


fab·ric n. 1. a. A cloth produced especially by knitting, weaving, or felting fibers. b. The texture or quality of such cloth. 2. A complex underlying structure: destroyed the very fabric of the ancient abbey during wartime bombing; needs to protect the fabric of civilized society. 3. a. A method or style of construction. b. A structural material, such as masonry or timber. c. A physical structure; a building. Noun 1. any cloth made from yarn or fibres by weaving or knitting 2. the structure that holds a system together: the fabric of society 3. the walls, floor, and roof of a building [Latin faber craftsman] Translations fabric [ˈfæbrɪk] n → tejido, tela n fabric [ˈfӕbrik] (a type of) cloth or material Nylon is a man-made fabric. tela, tejido

fa·cil·i·ty n. pl. fa·cil·i·ties 1. Ease in moving, acting, or doing; aptitude: "an extreme facility in acquiring new dialects" (W.H. Hudson). 2. Readiness to be persuaded; pliability. 3. Something that facilitates an action or process. Often used in the plural. 4. Something created to serve a particular function: hospitals and other health care facilities. 5. facilities Informal A restroom. –noun, plural -ties. 1. Often, facilities. a. something designed, built, installed, etc., to serve a specific function affording a convenience or service: transportation facilities; educational facilities; a new research facility. b. something that permits the easier performance of an action, course of conduct, etc.: to provide someone with every facility for accomplishing a task; to lack facilities for handling bulk mail. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. readiness or ease due to skill, aptitude, or practice; dexterity: to compose with great facility. ready compliance: Her facility in organizing and directing made her an excellent supervisor. an easy-flowing manner: facility of style. the quality of being easily or conveniently done or performed. Often, facilities. Informal. a rest room, esp. one for use by the public, as in a theater or restaurant. freedom from difficulty, controversy, misunderstanding, etc.: facility of understanding.



fin n.


1. A membranous appendage extending from the body of a fish or other aquatic animal, used for propelling, steering, or balancing the body in the water. 2. Something resembling a fin in shape or function, as: a. A fixed or movable airfoil used to stabilize an aircraft, missile, or projectile in flight. b. A thin, usually curved projection attached to the rear bottom of a surfboard for stability. c. A projecting vane used for cooling, as on a radiator or an engine cylinder. d. See tail fin. 3. See flipper. v. finned, fin·ning, fins v.tr. To equip with fins. v.intr. 1. To emerge with the fins above water. 2. To swim, as a fish. 3. To lash the water with the fins. Used of a dying whale. n. Slang A five-dollar bill. Noun 1. any of the winglike projections from a fish's body enabling it to balance and swim 2. Brit a vertical surface to which the rudder is attached at the rear of an aeroplane 3. a swimmer's flipper finned adj FIN One of the winglike or paddlelike parts of a fish, dolphin, or whale that are used for propelling, steering, and balancing in water. Translations fin [fɪn] n (gen) → aleta n fin [fin] 1 a thin movable part on a fish's body by which it balances, moves, changes direction etc. aleta 2 anything that looks or is used like a fin the tail-fin of an aeroplane. deriva


Flux n. 1. a. A flow or flowing. b. A continued flow; a flood. 2. The flowing in of the tide. 3. Medicine The discharge of large quantities of fluid material from the body, especially the discharge of watery feces from the intestines. 4. Physics a. The rate of flow of fluid, particles, or energy through a given surface. b. See flux density. c. The lines of force of an electric or magnetic field. 5. Constant or frequent change; fluctuation: "The newness and flux of the computer industry has meant many opportunities for women and minorities" (Connie Winkler). 6. Chemistry & Metallurgy A substance that aids, induces, or otherwise actively participates in fusing or flowing, as: a. A substance applied to a surface to be joined by welding, soldering, or brazing to facilitate the flowing of solder and prevent formation of oxides. b. A mineral added to the metals in a furnace to promote fusing or to prevent the formation of oxides. c. An additive that improves the flow of plastics during fabrication. d. A readily fusible glass or enamel used as a base in ceramic work. v. fluxed, flux·ing, flux·es v.tr. 1. To melt; fuse. 2. To apply a flux to. v.intr. 1. To become fluid. 2. To flow; stream. Noun


1. continuous change or instability 2. a flow or discharge 3. a substance mixed with a metal oxide to assist in fusion 4. Physics a. the rate of flow of particles, energy, or a fluid b. the strength of a field in a given area: magnetic flux flux 1. The rate of flow of fluids, particles, or energy across a given surface or area. 2. The presence of a field of force in a region of space, represented as a set of lines indicating the direction of the force. The density of the lines indicates the strength of the force. Lines used to represent magnetic fields in depictions of magnets, for example, follow the lines of flux of the field. See also fieldmagnetic flux 3. A measure of the strength of such a field. Also called field flux. 4. A readily fusible glass or enamel used as a base in ceramic work. 5. An additive that improves the flow of plastics during fabrication. 6. A substance applied to a surface to be joined by welding, soldering, or brazing to facilitate the flowing of solder and prevent formation of oxides. 7. A substance used in a smelting furnace to make metals melt more easily. Translations flux [flʌks] n → flujo; in a state of flux → cambiando continuamente n flux [flaks] continual change Events are in a state of flux. inestabilidad, cambio constante


gov·er·nor n. 1. Abbr. Gov. A person who governs, especially: a. The chief executive of a state in the United States. b. An official appointed to govern a colony or territory. c. A member of a governing body. 2. The manager or administrative head of an organization, business, or institution. 3. Abbr. Gov. A military commandant. 4. Chiefly British Used as a form of polite address for a man. 5. A feedback device on a machine or engine that is used to provide automatic control, as of speed, pressure, or temperature. Noun 1. the chief political administrator of a region, such as a US state or a colony Related adjective gubernatorial 2. Brit the senior administrator of a school, prison, or other institution 3. Brit informal one's employer or father governorship n Translations governor [ˈgʌvənəʳ] n → gobernador(a) m/f [of jail] → director(a) m/f


hu·man n. 1. A member of the genus Homo and especially of the species H. sapiens. 2. A person: the extraordinary humans who explored Antarctica. adj. 1. Of, relating to, or characteristic of humans: the course of human events; the human race. 2. Having or showing those positive aspects of nature and character regarded as distinguishing humans from other animals: an act of human kindness. 3. Subject to or indicative of the weaknesses, imperfections, and fragility associated with humans: a mistake that shows he's only human; human frailty. 4. Having the form of a human. 5. Made up of humans: formed a human bridge across the ice. hu man·hood n.


hu man·ness n. Adjective 1. of or relating to people: human occupants 2. having the qualities of people as opposed to animals, divine beings, or machines: human nature 3. kind or considerate Noun a human being 1. A member of the species Homo sapiens; a human being. 2. A member of any of the extinct species of the genus Homo, such as Homo erectus or Homo habilis, that are considered ancestral or closely related to modern humans. Translations human [ˈhjuːmən] adj → humano n (also: human being) → ser m humano adj human [ˈhjuːmən] of, natural to, concerning, or belonging to, mankind human nature; The dog was so clever that he seemed almost human. humano n a person Humans are not as different from animals as we might think. ser humano adv humanly within human power If it is humanly possible, he will do it. humanamente human being a person Animals may behave like that, but human beings shouldn't. ser humano n human resources the abilities and skills of people (used to refer to the benefit derived from them). recursos humanos


id·i·om n. 1. A speech form or an expression of a given language that is peculiar to itself grammatically or cannot be understood from the individual meanings of its elements, as in keep tabs on. 2. The specific grammatical, syntactic, and structural character of a given language. 3. Regional speech or dialect. 4. a. A specialized vocabulary used by a group of people; jargon: legal idiom. b. A style or manner of expression peculiar to a given people: "Also important is the uneasiness I've always felt at cutting myself off from my idiom, the American habits of speech and jest and reaction, all of them entirely different from the local variety" (S.J. Perelman). 5. A style of artistic expression characteristic of a particular individual, school, period, or medium: the idiom of the French impressionists; the punk rock idiom. Noun 1. a group of words which, when used together, have a different meaning from the one suggested by the individual words, eg it was raining cats and dogs 2. linguistic usage that is grammatical and natural to native speakers 3. the characteristic vocabulary or usage of a person or group 4. the characteristic artistic style of an individual or school idiomatic adj Translations idiom [ˈɪdɪəm] n → modismo (= style of speaking); lenguaje m n idiom [ˈidiəm] 1 an expression with a meaning that cannot be guessed from the meanings of the individual words His mother passed away (= died) this morning. locución, modismo, frase hecha 2 the expressions of a language in general English idiom. idioma adj idio’matic [-ˈmӕtik] (negativeunidiomatic) 1 using an idiom an idiomatic use of this word. idiomático 2 using appropriate idioms We try to teach idiomatic English. idiomático adv idio’matically idiomáticamente



il·lu·sion n. 1. a. An erroneous perception of reality. b. An erroneous concept or belief. 2. The condition of being deceived by a false perception or belief. 3. Something, such as a fantastic plan or desire, that causes an erroneous belief or perception. 4. Illusionism in art. 5. A fine transparent cloth, used for dresses or trimmings. il·lu sion·al, il·lu sion·ar y (-zh -n r ) adj. il·lu sion·less adj. Noun 1. a false appearance or deceptive impression of reality: her upswept hair gave the illusion of above average height 2. a false or misleading idea or belief: we may suffer from the illusion that we are special Illusion of painters: group of painters, 15th century. Translations illusion [ɪˈluːʒən] n → ilusión f; to be under the illusion that... → estar convencido de que ... n illusion [iˈluːʒən] (something that produces) a false impression, idea or belief an optical illusion. ilusión n il’lusionist a conjuror. ilusionista


in·cum·bent adj. 1. Imposed as an obligation or duty; obligatory: felt it was incumbent on us all to help. 2. Lying, leaning, or resting on something else: incumbent rock strata. 3. Currently holding a specified office: the incumbent mayor. n. A person who holds an office or ecclesiastical benefice: The incumbent was reelected to another term. in·cum bent·ly adv. Noun a person who holds a particular office or position Adjective morally binding as a duty: it is incumbent on cricketers to respect the umpire's impartiality Translations incumbent [ɪnˈkʌmbənt] n → ocupante m/f adj it is incumbent on him to... → le incumbe...


in·dis·tinct adj. 1. Not clearly or sharply delineated: an indistinct pattern; indistinct shapes in the gloom. 2. Faint; dim: indistinct stars. 3. a. Hazy; vague: an indistinct memory; an indistinct notion of how to proceed. b. Difficult to understand or make out: indistinct speech. in dis·tinct ly adv. in dis·tinct ness n. Adjective unable to be seen or heard clearly


indistinctly adv Translations indistinct [ɪndɪˈstɪŋkt] adj → indistinto adj indistinct [indiˈstiŋkt] not clear to the eye, ear or mind; not distinct an indistinct outline of a ship; His speech is rather indistinct. indistinto adv indiˈstinctly indistintamente n indiˈstinctness indistinción


in·fat·u·at·ed adj. Possessed by an unreasoning passion or attraction. in·fat u·at ed·ly adv. Adjective (often foll. by with)carried away by an intense and unreasoning passion for someone Translations infatuated [ɪnˈfætjueɪtɪd] adj infatuated with (= in love) → loco por; to become infatuated (with sb) → enamoriscarse (de algn), encapricharse (con algn)


in·ge·nu·i·ty n. pl. in·ge·nu·i·ties 1. Inventive skill or imagination; cleverness. 2. Imaginative and clever design or construction: a narrative plot of great ingenuity. 3. An ingenious or imaginative contrivance. 4. Obsolete Ingenuousness. Noun cleverness at inventing things Translations ingenuity [ɪndʒɪˈnjuːɪtɪ] n → ingeniosidad f


in·ju·ry n. pl. in·ju·ries 1. Damage or harm done to or suffered by a person or thing: escaped from the accident without injury; a scandal that did considerable injury to the campaign. 2. A particular form of hurt, damage, or loss: a leg injury. 3. Law Violation of the rights of another party for which legal redress is available. 4. Obsolete An insult. Noun pl -ries 1. physical hurt 2. a specific instance of this: a leg injury 3. harm done to the feelings 4. damage: inflict no injury on the wealth of the nation See also pain. lapidation the process or act of pelting with stones, sometimes as a form of execution. octogild Anglo-Saxon Law. payment for an injury, calculated at eight times its real or estimated value. traumatism


1. any abnormal condition, either pathological or psychological, caused by wound or injury, either physical or psychological. 2. the trauma, wound, or injury itself. — traumatic, adj. A term comprising such conditions as fractures, wounds, sprains, strains, dislocations, concussions, and compressions. In addition, it includes conditions resulting from extremes of temperature or prolonged exposure. Acute poisonings (except those due to contaminated food) resulting from exposure to a toxic or poisonous substance are also classed as injuries. See also casualty; wounded. Translations injury [ˈɪndʒərɪ] n → herida, lesión f (= wrong); perjuicio, daño; to escape without injury → salir ileso


in·scribe tr.v. in·scribed, in·scrib·ing, in·scribes 1. a. To write, print, carve, or engrave (words or letters) on or in a surface. b. To mark or engrave (a surface) with words or letters. 2. To enter (a name) on a list or in a register. 3. a. To sign one's name or write a brief message in or on (a gift book or photograph, for example). b. To dedicate to someone. 4. Mathematics To draw (one figure) within another figure so that every vertex of the enclosed figure touches the outer figure. in·scrib er n. Verb [-scribing, -scribed] 1. to mark or engrave with (words, symbols, or letters) 2. to write one's name, and sometimes a brief dedication, on (a book) before giving to someone 3. to enter (a name) on a list 4. Geom to draw (a geometric construction) inside another construction so that the two are in contact at as many points as possible but do not intersect Translations inscribe [ɪnˈskraɪb] vt → inscribir [+ book etc]: to inscribe (to sb) → dedicar (a algn) v inscribe [inˈskraib] to carve or write The monument was inscribed with the names of the men who died in the war; He carefully inscribed his name in his new book. inscribir n inscription [inˈskripʃən] something written, eg on a gravestone or on a coin The coin was so worn that the inscription could scarcely be read. inscripción


in·struct v. in·struct·ed, in·struct·ing, in·structs v.tr. 1. To provide with knowledge, especially in a methodical way. See 2. To give orders to; direct. v.intr. To serve as an instructor. Verb 1. to order to do something 2. to teach (someone) how to do something 3. to brief (a solicitor or barrister) Translations instruct [ɪnˈstrʌkt] vt to instruct sb in sth → instruir a algn en or sobre algo;


to instruct sb to do sth → dar instrucciones a algn de or mandar a algn hacer algo v instruct [inˈstrakt] 1 to teach or train (a person in a subject or skill) Girls as well as boys should be instructed in woodwork. instruir 2 to order or direct (a person especially to do something) He was instructed to come here at nine o'clock; I have already instructed you how to cook the meat. ordenar, dar instrucciones/órdenes a n inˈstruction [-ʃən] 1 the act of instructing (especially in a school subject or a skill) or the process of being instructed She sometimes gives instruction in gymnastics. instrucción 2 an order or direction You must learn to obey instructions. instrucción 3 (in plural) (a book etc giving) directions, eg about the use of a machine etc Could I look at the instructions, please? instrucciones adj inˈstructive [-tiv] giving knowledge or information He gave an instructive talk about electrical repair work. instructivo adv inˈstructively de manera instructiva n inˈstructiveness carácter instructivo n inˈstructor a person who gives instruction (in a skill etc) a ski-instructor. instructor, monitor, entrenador; instructura, monitora, entrenadora


in·tend v. in·tend·ed, in·tend·ing, in·tends v.tr. 1. To have in mind; plan: We intend to go. They intend going. You intended that she go. 2. a. To design for a specific purpose. b. To have in mind for a particular use. 3. To signify or mean. v.intr. To have a design or purpose in mind. Verb 1. to propose or plan (something or to do something) 2. to have as one's purpose 3. to mean to express or indicate: no criticism was intended 4. (often foll. by for)to design or destine (for a certain purpose or person): the plane was never intended for combat Translations intend [ɪnˈtɛnd] vt [+ gift etc]: to intend sth for → destinar algo a; to intend to do sth → tener intención de or pensar hacer algo v intend [inˈtend] 1 to mean or plan (to do something or that someone else should do something) Do you still intend to go?; Do you intend them to go?; Do you intend that they should go too? tener la intención de, querer 2 to mean (something) to be understood in a particular way His remarks were intended to be a compliment. pretender, querer decir 3 (with for) to direct at That letter/bullet was intended for me. ir dirigido a adj inˈtent [-t] 1 (with on) meaning, planning or wanting to do (something) He's intent on going; He's intent on marrying the girl. decidido, resuelto, que tiene intención de 2 (withon) concentrating hard on He was intent on the job he was doing. absorto n purpose; what a person means to do He broke into the house with intent to steal. intención, propósito n in’tention [-ʃən] what a person plans or intends to do He has no intention of leaving; He went to see the boss with the intention of asking for a pay rise; If I have offended you, it was quite without intention; good intentions. intención adj in’tentional [-ʃənl]


(negativeunintentional) done, said etc deliberately and not by accident I'm sorry I offended you – it wasn't intentional; intentional cruelty. intencional adv in’tentionally intencionalmente adv in’tently with great concentration He was watching her intently. atentamente


in·tox·i·cate v. in·tox·i·cat·ed, in·tox·i·cat·ing, in·tox·i·cates v.tr. 1. To stupefy or excite by the action of a chemical substance such as alcohol. 2. To stimulate or excite: "a man whom life intoxicates, who has no need of wine" (Anaïs Nin). 3. To poison. v.intr. To cause stupefaction, stimulation, or excitement by or as if by use of a chemical substance: "The notion of Holy War is showing that it has not yet lost all its power to intoxicate and to inflame" (Conor Cruise O'Brien). in·tox i·cat ing·ly adv. in·tox i·ca tive adj. in·tox i·ca tor n. –verb (used with object) 1. to affect temporarily with diminished physical and mental control by means of alcoholic liquor, a drug, or another substance, esp. to excite or stupefy with liquor. 2. to make enthusiastic; elate strongly, as by intoxicants; exhilarate: The prospect of success intoxicated him. 3. Pathology. to poison. –verb (used without object) 4. to cause or produce intoxication: having the power to intoxicate. –adjective 5. Archaic. INTOXICATED. Translations intoxicated [ɪnˈtɔksɪkeɪtɪd] adj → embriagado INTOXICADO


Jar n. 1. A cylindrical glass or earthenware vessel with a wide mouth and usually no handles. 2. The amount that a jar can hold. 3. Chiefly British A glass of beer. tr.v. jarred, jar·ring, jars To put into a jar. jar ful n. v. jarred, jar·ring, jars v.intr. 1. To make or utter a harsh sound. 2. To be disturbing or irritating; grate: The incessant talking jarred on my nerves. 3. To shake or shiver from impact. 4. To clash or conflict: "We ourselves . . . often jar with the landscape" (Isak Dinesen). v.tr. 1. To bump or cause to move or shake from impact. 2. To startle or unsettle; shock. n. 1. A jolt; a shock. 2. Harsh or grating sound; discord.


jar ring·ly adv. Noun 1. a wide-mouthed cylindrical glass container, used for storing food 2. Brit informal a glass of beer Verb [jarring, jarred] 1. to have an irritating or unpleasant effect: sometimes a light remark jarred on her father 2. to be in disagreement or conflict: their very different temperaments jarred 3. to jolt or bump Noun a jolt or shock [probably imitative] jarring adj Translations jar [dʒɑːʳ] n (= glass) (large) → jarra; (small) → tarro vi [sound] → chirriar; [colours] → desentonar n jar [dʒaː] a kind of bottle made of glass or pottery, with a wide mouth She poured the jam into large jars; jam-jars. tarro, bote v jar [dʒaː] 1 (withon) to have a harsh and startling effect (on) Her sharp voice jarred on my ears. chirriar, discordar 2 to give a shock to The car accident had jarred her nerves. chocar, afectar, impresionar adj jarring startling or harsh The orange curtains with the purple carpet had a jarring effect. discordante


lan·tern n. 1. a. An often portable case with transparent or translucent sides for holding and protecting a light. b. A decorative casing for a light, often of paper. c. A light and its protective or decorative case. 2. a. The room at the top of a lighthouse where the light is located. b. Obsolete A lighthouse. 3. A structure built on top of a roof or dome with open or windowed walls to admit light and air. Noun 1. a light with a transparent protective case 2. a raised part on top of a dome or roof which lets in light or air 3. the upper part of a lighthouse that houses the light Translations lantern [ˈlæntn] n → linterna, farol m n lantern [ˈlӕntən] a case for holding or carrying a light. linterna, farol


lech·er·ous adj. Given to, characterized by, or eliciting lechery. lech er·ous·ly adv. lech er·ous·ness n. Adjective (of a man) having or showing strong and uncontrolled sexual desire [Old French lechier to lick]


lecher n lechery n Translations lecherous [ˈlɛtʃərəs] adj → lascivo


lec·ture n. 1. An exposition of a given subject delivered before an audience or a class, as for the purpose of instruction. 2. An earnest admonition or reproof; a reprimand. v. lec·tured, lec·tur·ing, lec·tures v.intr. To deliver a lecture or series of lectures. v.tr. 1. To deliver a lecture to (a class or an audience). 2. To admonish or reprove earnestly, often at length: always lecturing me about my manners. Noun 1. a talk on a particular subject delivered to an audience 2. a lengthy scolding Verb [-turing, -tured] 1. to deliver a lecture (to an audience or class) 2. to scold (someone) at length lecturer n lectureship n Translations lecture [ˈlɛktʃəʳ] n → conferencia; (SCOL) → clase f vi → dar clase(s) vt (= scold) → sermonear (= reprove); echar una reprimenda a; to give a lecture on → dar una conferencia sobre n lecture [ˈlektʃə] 1 a formal talk given to students or other audiences a history lecture. conferencia, clase 2 a long and boring or irritating speech, warning or scolding The teacher gave the children a lecture for running in the corridor. reprimenda, sermón v to give a lecture He lectures on Roman Art; She lectured him on good behaviour. dar una conferencia/clase n lecturer a person who lectures, especially to students He is a lecturer in the English department. conferenciante, profesor


Mas·sive adj. 1. Consisting of or making up a large mass; bulky, heavy, and solid: a massive piece of furniture. 2. Large or imposing, as in quantity, scope, degree, intensity, or scale: "Local defense must be reinforced by the further deterrent of massive retaliatory power" (John Foster Dulles). 3. Large in comparison with the usual amount: a massive dose of a drug. 4. Pathology Affecting a large area of bodily tissue; widespread and severe: massive gangrene. 5. Mineralogy Lacking internal crystalline structure; amorphous. 6. Geology Without internal structure or layers and homogeneous in composition. Used of a rock. mas sive·ly adv. mas sive·ness n.


Adjective 1. (of objects) large, bulky, heavy, and usually solid 2. impressive or imposing 3. intensive or considerable: a massive overdose massively adv Translations massive [‘mæsɪv] adj → enorme; [support, intervention] → masivo adj massive [‘mӕsiv] huge or heavy a massive building; a massive burden of taxation. enorme, monumental adv massively enormemente n massiveness masividad


of·fi·cial adj. 1. Of or relating to an office or a post of authority: official duties. 2. Authorized by a proper authority; authoritative: official permission. 3. Holding office or serving in a public capacity: an official representative. 4. Characteristic of or befitting a person of authority; formal: an official banquet. 5. Authorized by or contained in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia or National Formulary. Used of drugs. n. 1. One who holds an office or position, especially one who acts in a subordinate capacity for an institution such as a corporation or governmental agency. 2. Sports A referee or umpire. of·fi cial·dom n. of·fi cial·ly adv. Adjective 1. of an office or position of authority: I'm not here in any official capacity 2. approved by or derived from authority: there has been no official announcement 3. formal or ceremonial: he was speaking at an official dinner in Warsaw Noun a person holding a position of authority officially adv Translations official [ə’fɪʃl] adj (= authorized) → oficial, autorizado; [strike] → oficial n → funcionario/a adj official [ə’fiʃəl] 1 of or concerning a position of authority official powers; official uniform. oficial 2 done or confirmed by people in authority etc the official result of the race. oficial n a person who holds a position of authority a government official. funcionario, oficial


op·pose v. op·posed, op·pos·ing, op·pos·es v.tr. 1. To be in contention or conflict with: oppose the enemy force. 2. To be resistant to: opposes new ideas. 3. To place opposite in contrast or counterbalance. 4. To place so as to be opposite something else. v.intr. To act or be in opposition. Idiom: as opposed to


In contrast to: "a Baroque violin that ... uses gut strings as opposed to metal-wound ones" (William Zagorski). op·pos er n. Synonyms: oppose, fight, combat, resist, withstand, contest These verbs mean to set someone or something in opposition to another: Oppose has the widest application: opposed the building of a nuclear power plant. "The idea is inconsistent with our constitutional theory and has been stubbornly opposed ... since the early days of the Republic" (E.B. White). Fight and combat suggest vigor and aggressiveness: "All my life I have fought against prejudice and intolerance" (Harry S. Truman). "We are not afraid ... to tolerate any error so long as reason is left free to combat it" (Thomas Jefferson). To resist is to strive to fend off or offset the actions, effects, or force of: "Pardon was freely extended to all who had resisted the invasion" (John R. Green). Withstand often implies successful resistance: "Neither the southern provinces, nor Sicily, could have withstood his power" (Henry Hallam). To contest is to call something into question and take an active stand against it: contested her neighbor's claims to her property in court. Verb [-posing, -posed] 1. Also: (be opposed to) to be against (something or someone) in speech or action 2. as opposed to in strong contrast with: I'm a realist as opposed to a theorist opposing adj Translations oppose [ə’pəuz] vt → oponerse a; to be opposed to sth → oponerse a algo; as opposed to → en vez de (= unlike); a diferencia de v oppose [əˈpəuz] 1 to resist or fight against (someone or something) by force or argument We oppose the government on this matter. oponerse (a), estar en contra (de) 2 to act or compete against Who is opposing him in the election? oponerse (a) as opposed to separate or distinct from; in contrast with I would prefer it if we met in the morning, as opposed to the evening. a diferencia de, en contraposición a


par·tic·u·lar adj. 1. Of, belonging to, or associated with a specific person, group, thing, or category; not general or universal: has a particular preference for Chinese art. 2. Separate and distinct from others of the same group, category, or nature: made an exception in this particular case. 3. Worthy of note; exceptional: a piano performance of particular depth and fluidity. 4. a. Of, relating to, or providing details: gave a particular description of the room. b. Attentive to or concerned with details or niceties, often excessively so; meticulous or fussy. 5. Logic Encompassing some but not all of the members of a class or group. Used of a proposition. n. 1. An individual item, fact, or detail: correct in every particular. 2. An item or detail of information or news. Often used in the plural: The police refused to divulge the particulars of the case. 3. A separate case or an individual thing or instance, especially one that can be distinguished from a larger category or class. Often used in the plural: "What particulars were ambushed behind these generalizations?" (Aldous Huxley). 4. Logic A particular proposition. Idiom: in particular Particularly; especially. Adjective 1. of, belonging to, or being one person or thing; specific: the particular type of tuition on offer


2. exceptional or special: the report voices particular concern over the state of the country's manufacturing industry 3. providing specific details or circumstances: a particular account 4. difficult to please; fussy Noun 1. a separate distinct item as opposed to a generalization: moving from the general to the particular 2. an item of information; detail: she refused to go into particulars 3. in particular especially or exactly: three painters in particular were responsible for these developments particularly adv Translations particular [pə’tɪkjuləʳ] adj (= special) → particular (= concrete); concreto (= given); determinado (= detailed); detallado, minucioso (= fussy); quisquilloso, exigente; particulars npl (= information) → datos mpl; detalles mpl (= details); pormenores mpl; in particular → en particular; to be very particular about → ser muy exigente en cuanto a; I'm not particular → me es or da igual adj particular [pə’tikjulə] 1 of a single definite person, thing etc thought of separately from all others this particular man/problem. particular, especial 2 more than ordinary Please take particular care of this letter. especial, particular 3 difficult to please He is very particular about his food. especial, exigente adv par’ticularly more than usually He was particularly pleased to see his brother. especialmente, en especial, en particular n pl par’ticulars facts or details You must give them all the particulars about the accident. detalles, pormenores in particular more than others I liked this book in particular. en particular


phy·si·cian n. 1. A person licensed to practice medicine; a medical doctor. 2. A person who practices general medicine as distinct from surgery. 3. A person who heals or exerts a healing influence. Noun 1. a medical doctor 2. Archaic a healer Translations physician [fɪ`zɪʃən] n → médico/a n physician [fi’ziʃən] a doctor who specializes in medical rather than surgical treatment of patients My doctor sent me to a physician at the hospital. médico


por·ter n. 1. A person employed to carry burdens, especially an attendant who carries travelers' baggage at a hotel or transportation station. 2. A railroad employee who waits on passengers in a sleeping car or parlor car. 3. A maintenance worker for a building or institution. n. Chiefly British One in charge of a gate or door. n. A dark beer resembling light stout, made from malt browned or charred by drying at a high temperature.


Noun 1. a man employed to carry luggage at a railway station or hotel 2. a hospital worker who transfers patients between rooms porterage n Noun Chiefly Brit a doorman or gatekeeper of a building Noun Brit a dark sweet ale brewed from black malt [short for porter's ale] Translations porter [‘pɔ’təʳ] n (for luggage) → maletero (= doorkeeper); portero/a, conserje m/f; (US) (RAIL) → mozo de los coches-cama n porter [‘po:tə] 1 a person whose job is to carry luggage in a railway station etc The old lady could not find a porter to carry her suitcase from the train. mozo de equipajes, maletero 2 a person whose job is to carry things eg in rough country where there is no other form of transport He set off into the jungle with three porters. cargador 3 a doorman or attendant in a hotel etc a hospital porter. portero


pres·ent n. 1. A moment or period in time perceptible as intermediate between past and future; now. 2. Grammar a. The present tense. b. A verb form in the present tense. 3. presents Law The document or instrument in question: Be it known by these presents. adj. 1. Existing or happening now; current: the present leader; present trends. 2. a. Being at hand or in attendance: Thirty guests were present at the ceremony. b. Existing in something specified: Oxygen is present in the bloodstream. 3. Now being considered; actually here or involved: the present subject; present company excepted. 4. Grammar Designating a verb tense or form that expresses current time. 5. Archaic Readily available; immediate. 6. Obsolete Alert to circumstances; attentive. Idioms: at present At the present time; right now. for the present For the time being; temporarily. pres ent·ness n. v. pre·sent·ed, pre·sent·ing, pre·sents v.tr. 1. a. To introduce, especially with formal ceremony. b. To introduce (a young woman) to society with conventional ceremony. 2. To bring before the public: present a play. 3. a. To make a gift or award of. b. To make a gift to. 4. a. To offer for observation, examination, or consideration; show or display. b. To afford or furnish: The situation presented us with a chance to improve our knowledge. c. To turn or position in the direction of another: presented his face to the camera. d. To attach (an antigen, for example) on the surface of a molecule for detection by other molecules. 5. To hold, carry, or point (a weapon) in a particular manner as a salutation or sign of honor, usually along the center axis of the body. 6. Ecclesiastical To recommend (a cleric) for a benefice. 7. Law a. To offer to a legislature or court for consideration.


b. To bring a charge or indictment against. v.intr. 1. To manifest as a part of a disease or medical condition. 2. To make a presentation. n. 1. pres·ent (pr z nt) Something presented; a gift. 2. pre·sent (pr -z nt ) The position of a rifle or other weapon when presented. pre·sent er n Adjective 1. being in a specified place: he had been present at the birth of his son 2. existing or happening now 3. current: the present exchange rate 4. Grammar of a verb tense used when the action described is happening now Noun 1. Grammar the present tense 2. at present now 3. for the present for now; temporarily 4. the present the time being; now Noun [prez-int, pri-zent] a gift Verb 1. to introduce (a person) formally to another 2. to introduce to the public: the Museum of Modern Art is presenting a retrospective of his work 3. to introduce and compere (a radio or television show) 4. to show or exhibit: they took advantage of every tax dodge that presented itself 5. to bring about: the case presented a large number of legal difficulties 6. to put forward or submit: they presented a petition to the Prime Minister 7. to give or offer formally: he was presented with a watch to celebrate his twenty-five years with the company 8. to hand over for action or payment: to present a bill 9. to portray in a particular way: her lawyer presented her as a naive woman who had got into bad company 10. to aim (a weapon) 11. present arms to salute with one's weapon Translations present adj [‘prɛznt] (= in attendance) → presente (= current); actual n (= gift) → regalo (= actuality); actualidad f; presente m vt [prɪ`zɛnt] (= introduce) → presentar (= expound); exponer (= give); presentar, dar, ofrecer; (THEAT) → representar; to be present at → asistir a, estar presente en; those present → los presentes; to give sb a present, make sb a present of sth → regalar algo a algn; at present → actualmente; to present o.s. for an interview → presentarse a una entrevista; may I present Miss Clark → permítame presentarle or le presento a la Srta Clark adj present [‘preznt] 1 being here, or at the place, occasion etc mentioned My father was present on that occasion; Who else was present at the wedding?; Now that the whole class is present, we can begin the lesson. presente 2 existing now the present moment; the present prime minister. presente 3 (of the tense of a verb) indicating action now In the sentence `She wants a chocolate', the verb is in the present tense. presente adv presently 1 soon He will be here presently. en breve, dentro de poco 2 (especially American) at the present time The manager is presently on holiday. en este momento, ahora, actualmente the present the time now Forget the past – think more of the present and the future! el presente at present


at the present time He's away from home at present. actualmente; en este momento for the present as far as the present time is concerned You've done enough work for the present. por ahora, por el momento, hasta ahora v present [pri’zent] 1 to give, especially formally or ceremonially The child presented a bunch of flowers to the Queen; He was presented with a gold watch when he retired. entregar, hacer entrega de 2 to introduce May I present my wife (to you)? presentar (a) 3 to arrange the production of (a play, film etc) The Elizabethan Theatre Company presents `Hamlet', by William Shakespeare. presentar 4 to offer (ideas etc) for consideration, or (a problem etc) for solving She presents (=expresses) her ideas very clearly; The situation presents a problem. presentar 5 to bring (oneself); to appear He presented himself at the dinner table half an hour late. presentarse n pre’senter presentador adj pre’sentable suitable to be seen, introduced etc You don't look very presentable in those clothes. presentable n presen’tation [pre-] 1 the act of presenting the presentation of the prizes; the presentation of a new play; (also adjective ) a presentation ceremony; a presentation gold watch. presentación 2 the manner in which written work etc is presented or set out Try to improve the presentation of your work. presentación 3 a performance, or set of repeated performances, of a play, opera etc This is the best presentation of `Macbeth' that I've ever seen. representación present arms to hold a rifle upright in front of one, as a salute. presentar armas n present [‘preznt] a gift a wedding present; birthday presents. regalo, presente, obsequio


pro·ceed·ing n. 1. A course of action; a procedure. 2. proceedings A sequence of events occurring at a particular place or occasion: hectic proceedings in the kitchen. 3. proceedings A record of business carried on by a society or other organization; minutes. 4. Law a. Legal action; litigation. Often used in the plural. b. The instituting or conducting of legal action. Translations proceedings [prə’si:dɪŋz] npl → acto sg; actos mpl; (LAW) → proceso sg (= meeting); función fsg (= records); actas fpl


pro·cure v. pro·cured, pro·cur·ing, pro·cures v.tr. 1. To get by special effort; obtain or acquire: managed to procure a pass. 2. To bring about; effect: procure a solution to a knotty problem. 3. To obtain (a sexual partner) for another. v.intr. To obtain sexual partners for others. pro·cur a·ble adj. pro·cur ance, pro·cure ment n. Verb [-curing, -cured] 1. to get or provide: it remained very difficult to procure food and fuel 2. to obtain (people) to act as prostitutes


procurement n Translations procure [prə’kjuəʳ] vt → conseguir, obtener v procure [prə’kjuə] to get or obtain He managed to procure a car. conseguir, obtener


pros·pect n. 1. Something expected; a possibility. 2. prospects a. Chances. b. Financial expectations, especially of success. 3. a. A potential customer, client, or purchaser. b. A candidate deemed likely to succeed. 4. The direction in which an object, such as a building, faces; an outlook. 5. Something presented to the eye; a scene: a pleasant prospect. 6. The act of surveying or examining. 7. a. The location or probable location of a mineral deposit. b. An actual or probable mineral deposit. c. The mineral yield obtained by working an ore. v. pros·pect·ed, pros·pect·ing, pros·pects v.tr. To search for or explore (a region) for mineral deposits or oil. v.intr. To explore for mineral deposits or oil. Noun 1. (pl) chances or opportunities for future success: a job with impossible workloads and poor career prospects 2. expectation, or something anticipated: she was terrified at the prospect of bringing up two babies on her own 3. Old-fashioned a view or scene: a prospect of spires, domes, and towers Verb (sometimes foll. by for)to search for gold or other valuable minerals Translations prospect n [‘prɔspɛkt] vb [prə’spɛkt] n (= chance) → posibilidad f (= outlook); perspectiva (= hope); esperanza vt → explorar vi → buscar; prospects npl (for work etc) → perspectivas fpl; to be faced with the prospect of → tener que enfrentarse a la posibilidad de que ...; we were faced with the prospect of leaving early → se nos planteó la posibilidad de marcharnos pronto; there is every prospect of an early victory → hay buenas perspectivas de una pronta victoria n prospect [‘prospekt] 1 an outlook for the future; a view of what one may expect to happen He didn't like the prospect of going abroad; a job with good prospects. panorama, perspectiva (de futuro) 2 a view or scene a fine prospect. vista, panorama [prə’spekt], (American ) [‘prospekt] v to make a search (for gold etc) He is prospecting for gold. prospectar, explorar n prospector [prə’spektə, (American ) ‘prospektər] a person who prospects for gold etc. buscador (de oro, etc) n prospectus [prə’spektəs] a booklet giving information about a school, organization etc. prospecto



pul·ver·ize v. pul·ver·ized, pul·ver·iz·ing, pul·ver·iz·es v.tr. 1. To pound, crush, or grind to a powder or dust. 2. To demolish. v.intr. To be ground or reduced to powder or dust. pul ver·iz a·ble adj. pul ver·i·za tion (-v r- -z sh n) n. pul ver·iz er n. Verb [-izing, -ized] or -ising, -ised 1. to reduce to fine particles by crushing or grinding 2. to destroy completely [Latin pulvis dust] pulverization -isation n Translations pulverize [‘pʌlvəraɪz] vt → pulverizar; (fig) → hacer polvo v pulverize, pulverise [‘palvəraiz] to make or crush into dust or powder. pulverizar n pulveri’zation, ‘pulveri’sation pulverización


rec·ol·lect v. rec·ol·lect·ed, rec·ol·lect·ing, rec·ol·lects v.tr. To recall to mind. v.intr. To remember something; have a recollection. rec ol·lec tive adj. Verb to remember recollection n Translations recollect [rɛkə’lɛkt] vt → recordar, acordarse de v recollect [rekə’lekt] to remember I don't recollect having seen him before. recordar, acordarse de n recol’lection [-ʃən] 1 the act or power of recollecting. memoria 2 something that is remembered My book is called `Recollections of Childhood'. recuerdo


re·cov·er v. re·cov·ered, re·cov·er·ing, re·cov·ers v.tr. 1. To get back; regain. 2. To restore (oneself) to a normal state: He recovered himself after a slip on the ice. 3. To compensate for: She recovered her losses. 4. To procure (usable substances, such as metal) from unusable substances, such as ore or waste. 5. To bring under observation again: "watching the comet since it was first recovered spotted since its 1910 visit" (Christian Science Monitor). v.intr. 1. To regain a normal or usual condition, as of health. 2. To receive a favorable judgment in a lawsuit. first


re·cov er·a·ble adj. re·cov er·er n. Synonyms: recover, regain, recoup, retrieve These verbs mean to get back something lost or taken away. Recover is the least specific: The police recovered the stolen car. "In a few days Mr. Barnstaple had recovered strength of body and mind" (H.G. Wells). Regain suggests success in recovering something that has been taken from one: "hopeful to regain/Thy Love" (John Milton). To recoup is to get back the equivalent of something lost: earned enough profit to recoup her expenses. Retrieve pertains to the effortful recovery of something ( retrieved the ball) or to the making good of something gone awry: "By a brilliant coup he has retrieved . . . a rather serious loss" (Samuel Butler). Verb 1. (of a person) to regain health, spirits, or composure 2. to regain a former and better condition: real wages have recovered from the recession 3. to find again or obtain the return of (something lost) 4. to get back or make good (expense or loss) 5. to obtain (useful substances) from waste 6. Law to gain (something) by the judgment of a court: it should be possible to recover damages recoverable adj Translations recover [rɪ’kʌvəʳ] vt → recuperar (= rescue); rescatar vi → recuperarse v recover [rə’kavə] 1 to become well again; to return to good health etc He is recovering from a serious illness; The country is recovering from an economic crisis. recuperarse 2 to get back The police have recovered the stolen jewels; He will recover the cost of the repairs through the insurance. recuperar 3 to get control of (one's actions, emotions etc) again The actor almost fell over but quickly recovered (his balance). recuperar(se) n re’covery (an) act or process of recovering The patient made a remarkable recovery after his illness; the recovery of stolen property. recuperación


re·gress v. re·gressed, re·gress·ing, re·gress·es v.intr. 1. To go back; move backward. 2. To return to a previous, usually worse or less developed state. 3. To have a tendency to approach or go back to a statistical mean. v.tr. Psychology To induce a state of regression in. n. (r gr s ) 1. a. The act of going or coming back; return. b. Passage back; reentry. 2. The act of reasoning backward from an effect to a cause. re·gres sor n. Verb to return to a former and worse condition Noun return to a former and worse condition regressive adj Translations REGRESIVO, RETRÒGRADO,



re·la·tion n. 1. A logical or natural association between two or more things; relevance of one to another; connection: the relation between smoking and heart disease. 2. The connection of people by blood or marriage; kinship. 3. A person connected to another by blood or marriage; a relative. 4. The way in which one person or thing is connected with another: the relation of parent to child. 5. relations a. The mutual dealings or connections of persons, groups, or nations in social, business, or diplomatic matters: international relations. b. Sexual intercourse. 6. Reference; regard: in relation to your inquiry. 7. a. The act of telling or narrating. b. A narrative; an account. 8. Law The principle whereby an act done at a later date is considered to have been done on a prior date. Noun 1. the connection between things or people 2. a person who is connected by blood or marriage 3. connection by blood or marriage 4. an account or narrative 5. in or with relation to with reference to: an inquiry into export controls in relation to Iraq Translations relation [rɪ’leɪʃən] n (person) → pariente m/f (= link); relación f; in relation to → en relación con, en lo que se refiere a; to bear a relation to → guardar relación con; diplomatic relations → relaciones fpl diplomáticas


re·la·tion·ship n. 1. The condition or fact of being related; connection or association. 2. Connection by blood or marriage; kinship. 3. A particular type of connection existing between people related to or having dealings with each other: has a close relationship with his siblings. 4. A romantic or sexual involvement. Noun 1. the dealings and feelings that exist between people or groups 2. an emotional or sexual affair 3. the connection between two things: the relationship between exercise and mental health 4. association by blood or marriage See also children; father; mother; parents; wife. affinity the condition of close relationship. Cf. consanguinity. See also marriage. agnate a relation through descent on the male side. Cf. cognate. — agnate, agnatic, adj. agnation relationship through male descent. Cf. cognation. amity friendship or harmony between individuals or groups. Also called comity. cognate a relation through descent on the female side. Cf. agnate. — cognate, — cognatic, adj. cognation relationship through female descent. Cf. agnation. — cognate, adj. comity amity. congener


a thing or person of the same kind as another. consanguinity blood relationship. Cf. affinity. cousinry cousins collectively or as a group or class. enation the maternal relationship. epigone an heir, descendant, or successor, frequently an inferior successor. filiation 1. the f act or condition of being a son or daughter. 2. the relation of child to parent, especially father. kinship family relationship or other close tie or relationship. lineage line of descent from an ancestor or ancestors; family or ancestry. matriliny descent through the female line, as in ancestry, inheritance, etc. — matrilineal, matrilinear, adj. patriliny relationship or descent through the male line, as in ancestry, inheritance, etc. — patrilineal, patrilinear, adj. synomosy Ancient Greece. fellowship or brotherhood bound by solemn oath. Translations relationship [rɪ’leɪʃənʃɪp] n → relación f; (personal) → relaciones fpl (also: family relationship) → parentesco


rel·e·vant adj. Having a bearing on or connection with the matter at hand. rel e·vant·ly adv. Synonyms: relevant, pertinent, germane, material, apposite, apropos These adjectives describe what relates to and has a direct bearing on the matter at hand. Something relevant is connected with a subject or issue: performed experiments relevant to her research. Pertinent suggests a logical, precise relevance: assigned pertinent articles for the class to read. Germane implies close kinship and appropriateness: "He asks questions that are germane and central to the issue" (Marlin Fitzwater). Something material is not only relevant but also crucial to a matter: reiterated the material facts of the lawsuit. Apposite implies a striking appropriateness and pertinence: used apposite verbal images in the paper. Something apropos is both to the point and opportune: an apropos comment that concisely answered my question. Adjective to do with the matter in hand relevance n Translations relevant [‘rɛləvənt] adj [fact] → pertinente; relevant to → relacionado con adj relevant [‘reləvənt] connected with or saying something important about what is being spoken about or discussed I don't think his remarks are relevant (to our discussion); Any relevant information should be given to the police. pertinente; relevante, importante n relevance pertinencia; relevancia



re·move v. re·moved, re·mov·ing, re·moves v.tr. 1. To move from a place or position occupied: removed the cups from the table. 2. To transfer or convey from one place to another: removed the family to Texas. 3. To take off: removed my boots. 4. To take away; withdraw: removed the candidate's name from consideration. 5. To do away with; eliminate: remove a stain. 6. To dismiss from an office or position. v.intr. 1. To change one's place of residence or business; move: "In 1751, I removed from the country to the town" (David Hume). 2. To go away; depart. 3. To be removable: paint that removes with water. n. 1. The act of removing; removal. 2. Distance or degree of separation or remoteness: "to spill, though at a safe remove, the blood of brave men" (Anthony Burgess). re·mov er n. Verb [-moving, -moved] 1. to take away and place elsewhere 2. to take (clothing) off 3. get rid of 4. to dismiss (someone) from office 5. Formal to change the location of one's home or place of business Noun 1. the degree of difference: one remove away from complete rebuttal 2. Brit (in certain schools) a class or form designed to prepare pupils for senior classes Translations remove [rɪ’mu:v] vt → quitar [+ employee]; destituir [+ name] (from list) → tachar, borrar [+ doubt]; disipar; (TECH) → retirar, separar; (MED) → extirpar; first cousin once removed (= parent's cousin) → tío/a segundo/a; (cousin's child) → sobrino/a segundo/a v remove [rə’mu:v] 1 to take away Will someone please remove all this rubbish!; He removed all the evidence of his crimes; I can't remove this stain from my shirt; He has been removed from the post of minister of education. quitar, llevarse 2 to take off (a piece of clothing) Please remove your hat. quitarse 3 to move to a new house etc He has removed to London. mudarse adj re’movable desmontable, de quita y pon n re’moval the act of removing or the state of being removed, especially the moving of furniture etc to a new home After his removal from power, the dictator was sent into exile; Our removal is to take place on Monday; (also adjective ) a removal van. extirpación, eliminación; mudanza n re’mover a person or thing that removes a stain remover; a firm of furniture removers. empleado de mudanzas; producto que elimina algo (por ej. quitamanchas)


re·quest tr.v. re·quest·ed, re·quest·ing, re·quests 1. To express a desire for; ask for. Often used with an infinitive or clause: requested information about the experiment; requested to see the evidence firsthand; requested that the bus driver stop at the next corner. 2. To ask (a person) to do something: The police requested her to accompany them. n.


1. The act of asking. 2. Something asked for. Idioms: by request In response to an expressed desire: We are offering these scarves for sale again by request. in request In great demand: a pianist in great request. on/upon request When asked for: References are available on request. re·quest er n. Verb to ask for or politely demand: we requested a formal meeting with the committee Noun 1. the act or an instance of asking for something: a polite request 2. something asked for 3. on request if asked for: most companies will send samples on request Translations request [rɪ’kwɛst] n → solicitud f; petición f vt to request sth of or from sb → solicitar algo a algn; at the request of → a petición de; "you are requested not to smoke" → "se ruega no fumar" n request [ri’kwest] 1 the act of asking for something I did that at his request; After frequent requests, he eventually agreed to sing. petición, solicitud 2 something asked for The next record I will play is a request. petición v to ask (for) something; People using this library are requested not to talk; Many people have requested this next song. pedir by request when or because one is asked to I'm singing this next song by request. a petición on request when requested Buses only stop here on request. a solicitud, si se solicita/pide


re·sort intr.v. re·sort·ed, re·sort·ing, re·sorts 1. To have recourse: The government resorted to censorship of the press. 2. To go customarily or frequently; repair. n. 1. A place frequented by people for relaxation or recreation: a ski resort. 2. A customary or frequent going or gathering: a popular place of resort. 3. The act of turning to for aid or relief; recourse: raised the money without resort to borrowing. 4. One turned to for aid or relief: I would ask him only as a last resort. Synonyms: resort, apply, go1, refer, turn These verbs mean to repair to or fall back on someone or something in time of need: resorted to corporal punishment; apply to a bank for a loan; goes to her friends for comfort; referred to his notes to refresh his memory; turns to his parents for support. Verb 1. resort to to have recourse (to) for help, use, etc.: some people have resorted to begging for food 2. to go, esp. often or habitually: to resort to the beach Noun 1. a place to which many people go for holidays 2. the use of something as a means or aid 3. last resort the last possible course of action open to a person Resort people who resort or go together to a place. Examples: resort of ladies and damoyles, 1470; of learned men, 1817; of men of talents, 1806; of abundance of merchants, 1630; of politicians, 1768; of swordsmen, 1768. Translations


resort [rɪ’zɔ:t] n (town) → centro turístico (= recourse); recurso vi to resort to → recurrir a; in the last resort → como último recurso; seaside/winter sports resort → playa, estación f balnearia/centro de deportes de invierno v resort [rə’zo:t] (withto) to begin to use, do etc as a way of solving a problem etc when other methods have failed He couldn't persuade people to do what he wanted, so he resorted to threats of violence. recurrir (a) n a place visited by many people (especially for holidays) Brighton is a popular (holiday) resort. centro turístico, lugar de veraneo as a last resort when all other methods etc have failed If we can't get the money in any other way, I suppose we could, as a last resort, sell the car como último recurso


re·vise tr.v. re·vised, re·vis·ing, re·vis·es 1. To prepare a newly edited version of (a text). 2. To reconsider and change or modify: I have revised my opinion of him. n. Printing (r v z , r -v z ) A proof made from an earlier proof on which corrections have been made. re·vis a·ble adj. re·vis er, re·vi sor n. Verb [-vising, -vised] 1. to change or alter: he grudgingly revised his opinion 2. to prepare a new edition of (a previously printed work) 3. to read (something) several times in order to learn it in preparation for an examination Translations revise [rɪ’vaɪz] vt [+ manuscript] → corregir [+ opinion]; modificar; (BRIT) (= study) [+ subject] → repasar (= look over); revisar; revised edition → edición f corregida v revise [rə’vaiz] 1 to correct faults and make improvements in (a book etc) This dictionary has been completely revised. revisar 2 to study one's previous work, notes etc in preparation for an examination etc You'd better start revising (your Latin) for your exam. revisar 3 to change (one's opinion etc). modificar, cambiar n revision [rə’viʒən] revisión


re·volve v. re·volved, re·volv·ing, re·volves v.intr. 1. To orbit a central point. 2. To turn on an axis; rotate. 3. To recur in cycles or at periodic intervals. 4. To be held in the mind and considered in turn. 5. To be centered: Their troubles revolve around money management. v.tr. 1. To cause to revolve. 2. To ponder or reflect on. re·volv a·ble adj Verb [-volving, -volved] 1. to move or cause to move around a centre 2. revolve around to be centred or focused upon: the campaign revolves around one man


3. to occur periodically or in cycles 4. to consider or be considered revolvable adj Translations revolve [rɪ’vɔlv] vi → dar vueltas, girar v revolve [rə’volv] to move, roll or turn (in a complete circle) around a central point, axis etc A wheel revolves on its axle; This disc can be revolved; The Moon revolves (a)round the Earth; The Earth revolves about the Sun and also revolves on its axis. (hacer) girar n re’volver a type of pistol She shot him with a revolver. revólver adj re’volving revolving doors. giratorio


riv·et n. A metal bolt or pin having a head on one end, inserted through aligned holes in the pieces to be joined and then hammered on the plain end so as to form a second head. tr.v. riv·et·ed, riv·et·ing, riv·ets 1. To fasten or secure with or as if with a rivet. 2. To hammer the headless end of so as to form a head and fasten something. 3. To fasten or secure firmly; fix. 4. To engross or hold (the attention, for example). riv et·er n. Noun a short metal pin for fastening metal plates, with a head at one end, the other end being hammered flat after being put through holes in the plates Verb [-eting, -eted] 1. to join by riveting 2. to cause a person's attention to be fixed in fascination or horror: their eyes riveted on the protesters riveter n Translations rivet [‘rɪvɪt] n → roblón m; remache m vt → remachar; (fig) → fascinar n rivet [‘rivit] a sort of metal nail; a bolt for fastening plates of metal together eg when building the sides of a ship. remache v – past tense, past participle ‘riveted – 1 to fasten with rivets They riveted the sheets of metal together. remachar 2 to fix firmly He stood riveted to the spot with fear; His eyes were riveted on the television. fijar; clavar, absorber n riveter remachador


rup·ture n. 1. a. The process or instance of breaking open or bursting. b. The state of being broken open. 2. A break in friendly relations. 3. Pathology a. A hernia, especially of the groin or intestines. b. A tear in an organ or a tissue: rupture of an appendix; ligament rupture. v. rup·tured, rup·tur·ing, rup·tures v.tr.


To break open; burst. v.intr. To undergo or suffer a rupture. rup tur·a·ble adj. Noun 1. the act of breaking or the state of being broken 2. a breach of peaceful or friendly relations 3. Pathol a hernia Verb [-turing, -tured] 1. to break or burst 2. to cause a breach in relations or friendship 3. to affect or be affected with a hernia Translations rupture [‘rʌptʃəʳ] n (MED) → hernia vt to rupture o.s → causarse una hernia n rupture [‘raptʃə] a tearing or breaking. ruptura, quebradura; hernia v to break or tear. romper(se), quebrar(se); herniarse


sane adj. san·er, san·est 1. Of sound mind; mentally healthy: "their protector, the strongest and sanest of them all" (Pat Conroy). 2. Having or showing sound judgment; reasonable. sane ly adv. sane ness n. Adjective 1. having a normal healthy mind 2. sensible or well-judged: sane advice Translations sane [seɪn] adj → cuerdo, sensato adj sane [sein] 1 not mad in a perfectly sane state of mind. cuerdo, sano 2 sensible a very sane person. sensato adv sanely cuerdamente; sensatamente n sanity [‘sӕ-] the state or quality of being sane I am concerned about her sanity. cordura; sensatez


sen·si·ble adj. 1. Perceptible by the senses or by the mind. 2. Readily perceived; appreciable. 3. Having the faculty of sensation; able to feel or perceive. 4. Having a perception of something; cognizant: "I am sensible that a good deal more is still to be done" (Edmund Burke). 5. Acting with or exhibiting good sense: a sensible person; a sensible choice. sen si·ble·ness n. sen si·bly adv. Adjective 1. having or showing good sense or judgment 2. (of clothing and footwear) practical and hard-wearing


3. capable of receiving sensation 4. capable of being perceived by the senses 5. perceptible to the mind 6. Literary aware: sensible of your kindness sensibly adv Translations sensible [‘sɛnsɪbl] adj → sensato (= reasonable); razonable, lógico adj sensible [‘sensəbl] 1 wise; having or showing good judgement She's a sensible, reliable person; a sensible suggestion. sensato 2 (of clothes etc) practical rather than attractive or fashionable She wears flat, sensible shoes. práctico, cómodo adv sensibly in a sensible way He sensibly brought a spare pair of shoes. con sensatez


se·vere adj. se·ver·er, se·ver·est 1. Unsparing, harsh, or strict, as in treatment of others: a severe critic. 2. Marked by or requiring strict adherence to rigorous standards or high principles: a severe code of behavior. 3. Stern or forbidding, as in manner or appearance: spoke in a severe voice. 4. Extremely plain in substance or style: a severe black dress. 5. Causing great discomfort, damage, or distress: a severe pain; a severe storm. 6. Very dangerous or harmful; grave or grievous: severe mental illness. 7. Extremely difficult to perform or endure; trying: a severe test of our loyalty. se·vere ly adv. se·vere ness n. Synonyms: severe, stern1, austere, ascetic, strict These adjectives mean unsparing and exacting with respect to discipline or control. Severe implies adherence to rigorous standards or high principles and often suggests harshness: "Praise or blame has but a momentary effect on the man whose love of beauty in the abstract makes him a severe critic on his own works" (John Keats). Stern suggests unyielding disposition, uncompromising resolution, or forbidding appearance or nature: "a man fatally stern and implacable" (George Meredith). Austere connotes aloofness or lack of feeling or sympathy, and often rigid morality: Austere officers demand meticulous conformity with military regulations. Ascetic suggests self-discipline and often renunciation of worldly pleasures for spiritual improvement: "Be systematically ascetic ... do ... something for no other reason than that you would rather not do it" (William James). Strict means requiring or showing stringent observance of obligations, rules, or standards: "He could not be severe nor even passably strict" (W.H. Hudson). Adjective 1. strict or harsh in the treatment of others: a severe parent 2. serious in appearance or manner: a severe look, a severe hairdo 3. very intense or unpleasant: severe chest pains, the punishments are severe 4. causing discomfort by its harshness: severe frost 5. hard to perform or accomplish: a severe challenge severely adv severity n Translations severe [sɪ’vɪəʳ] adj → severo (= serious); grave (= hard); duro; [pain] → intenso adj severe [sə’viə] 1 (of something unpleasant) serious; extreme severe shortages of food; a severe illness; Our team suffered a severe defeat. grave, serio 2 strict or harsh a severe mother; severe criticism. severo 3 (of style in dress etc) very plain a severe hairstyle. austero adv se’verely severamente


n se’verity [-‘ve-] the severity of the punishment; the severity of her dress. severidad


sup·port tr.v. sup·port·ed, sup·port·ing, sup·ports 1. To bear the weight of, especially from below. 2. To hold in position so as to keep from falling, sinking, or slipping. 3. To be capable of bearing; withstand: "His flaw'd heart . . . too weak the conflict to support" (Shakespeare). 4. To keep from weakening or failing; strengthen: The letter supported him in his grief. 5. To provide for or maintain, by supplying with money or necessities. 6. To furnish corroborating evidence for: New facts supported her story. 7. a. To aid the cause, policy, or interests of: supported her in her election campaign. b. To argue in favor of; advocate: supported lower taxes. 8. To endure; tolerate: "At supper there was such a conflux of company that I could scarcely support the tumult" (Samuel Johnson). 9. To act in a secondary or subordinate role to (a leading performer). n. 1. a. The act of supporting. b. The state of being supported. 2. One that supports. 3. Maintenance, as of a family, with the necessities of life. Synonyms: support, uphold, back1, advocate, champion These verbs mean to give aid or encouragement to a person or cause. Support is the most general: "the policy of Cromwell, who supported the growing power of France against the declining power of Spain" (William E.H. Lecky). To uphold is to maintain or affirm in the face of a challenge or strong opposition: "The Declaration of Right upheld the principle of hereditary monarchy" (Edmund Burke). Back suggests material or moral support intended to contribute to or assure success: The important medical research was backed by the federal government. Advocate implies verbal support, often in the form of pleading or arguing: Scientists advocate a reduction in saturated fats in the human diet. To champion is to fight for one that is under attack or is unable to act in its own behalf: "championed the government and defended the system of taxation" (Samuel Chew). Verb 1. to carry the weight of (a thing or person) 2. to provide the necessities of life for (a family or person) 3. to give practical or emotional help to (someone) 4. to give approval to (a cause, idea, or political party) 5. to take an active interest in and be loyal to (a particular football or other sport team) 6. to establish the truthfulness or accuracy of (a theory or statement) by providing new facts 7. to speak in a debate in favour of (a motion) 8. (in a concert) to perform earlier than (the main attraction) 9. Films, theatre to play a less important role to (the leading actor or actress) Noun 1. the act of supporting or the condition of being supported 2. a thing that bears the weight of an object from below 3. a person who gives someone practical or emotional help 4. the means of providing the necessities of life for a family or person 5. a band or entertainer not topping the bill supportive adj 1. The action of a force that aids, protects, complements, or sustains another force in accordance with a directive requiring such action. 2. A unit that helps another unit in battle. 3. An element of a command that assists, protects, or supplies other forces in combat. Translations support [sə’pɔ:t] n (moral, financial etc) → apoyo; (TECH) → soporte m vt → apoyar; (financially) → mantener (= uphold); sostener;


(SPORT) [+ team]; seguir, ser hincha de; they stopped work in support (of) → pararon de trabajar en apoyo (de); to support o.s (financially) → ganarse la vida v support [sə’po:t] 1 to bear the weight of, or hold upright, in place etc That chair won't support him / his weight; He limped home, supported by a friend on either side of him. aguantar, sostener 2 to give help, or approval to He has always supported our cause; His family supported him in his decision. apoyar, secundar, respaldar 3 to provide evidence for the truth of New discoveries have been made that support his theory; The second witness supported the statement of the first one. corroborar, confirmar 4 to supply with the means of living He has a wife and four children to support. mantener n 1 the act of supporting or state of being supported That type of shoe doesn't give the foot much support; The plan was cancelled because of lack of support; Her job is the family's only means of support; I would like to say a word or two in support of his proposal. apoyo, soporte 2 something that supports One of the supports of the bridge collapsed. soporte n sup’porter a person who helps or supports (a person, cause, team etc) a crowd of football supporters. defensor, partidario; (deporte) seguidor adj sup’porting (of an actor, rôle etc) secondary to the leading actor, rôle etc He has had many supporting rôles; a supporting cast. secundario


so·phis·ti·cate v. so·phis·ti·cat·ed, so·phis·ti·cat·ing, so·phis·ti·cates v.tr. 1. To cause to become less natural, especially to make less naive and more worldly. 2. To make impure; adulterate. 3. To make more complex or inclusive; refine. v.intr. To use sophistry. n. (-k t) A sophisticated person. so·phis ti·ca tion n. so·phis ti·ca tor n. Translations sophistication [səfɪstɪ’keɪʃən] n → sofisticación f


sym·pa·thy n. pl. sym·pa·thies 1. a. A relationship or an affinity between people or things in which whatever affects one correspondingly affects the other. b. Mutual understanding or affection arising from this relationship or affinity. 2. a. The act or power of sharing the feelings of another. b. A feeling or an expression of pity or sorrow for the distress of another; compassion or commiseration. Often used in the plural. 3. Harmonious agreement; accord: He is in sympathy with their beliefs. 4. A feeling of loyalty; allegiance. Often used in the plural: His sympathies lie with his family. 5. Physiology A relation between parts or organs by which a disease or disorder in one induces an effect in the other. Noun pl -thies 1. (often foll. by for)understanding of other people's problems; compassion 2. sympathy with agreement with someone's feelings or interests: we have every sympathy with how she felt


3. (often pl) feelings of loyalty or support for an idea or a cause: was this where her sympathies lay? 4. mutual affection or understanding between two people or a person and an animal Translations sympathy [‘sɪmpəθɪ] n (= pity) → compasión f (= understanding); comprensión f; a letter of sympathy → un pésame; with our deepest sympathy → nuestro más sentido pésame n sympathy [ˈsimpəði] 1 a feeling of pity or sorrow for a person in trouble When her husband died, she received many letters of sympathy. compasión, lástima 2 the state or feeling of being in agreement with, or of being able to understand, the attitude or feelings of another person I have no sympathy with such a stupid attitude; Are you in sympathy with the strikers? afinidad; comprensión; acuerdo (estar de acuerdo con alguien) adj sympa’thetic [-‘θetik] (negativeunsympathetic) showing or feeling sympathy She was very sympathetic when I failed my exam; a sympathetic smile. compasivo; comprensivo adv sympa’thetically con compasión; con comprensión v sympathize, ‘sympathise to show or feel sympathy to I find it difficult to sympathize with him when he complains so much. simpatizar


ter·rif·ic adj. 1. Very good or fine; splendid: a terrific tennis player. 2. Awesome; astounding: drove at a terrific rate of speed. 3. Causing terror or great fear; terrifying: a terrific wail. 4. Very bad or unpleasant; frightful: a terrific headache. ter·rif i·cal·ly adv. Adjective 1. very great or intense: a terrific blow on the head 2. Informal very good; excellent: a terrific book terrifically adv Translations terrific [tə’rɪfɪk] adj → fantástico, fenomenal, macanudo (LAM) (= wonderful); maravilloso


Tramp v. tramped, tramp·ing, tramps v.intr. 1. To walk with a firm, heavy step; trudge. 2. a. To travel on foot; hike. b. To wander about aimlessly. v.tr. 1. To traverse on foot: tramp the fields. 2. To tread down; trample: tramp down snow. n. 1. a. A heavy footfall. b. The sound produced by heavy walking or marching. 2. A walking trip; a hike. 3. One who travels aimlessly about on foot, doing odd jobs or begging for a living; a vagrant. 4. a. A prostitute. b. A person regarded as promiscuous. 5. Nautical A tramp steamer. 6. A metal plate attached to the sole of a shoe for protection, as when spading ground.


tramp er n. tramp ish adj. tramp y adj. Verb 1. to walk long and far; hike 2. to walk heavily or firmly across or through (a place): she tramped slowly up the beach Noun 1. a homeless person who travels about on foot, living by begging or doing casual work 2. a long hard walk; hike: we went for a long tramp over the downs 3. the sound of heavy regular footsteps: we could hear the tramp of the marching soldiers 4. a small cargo ship that does not run on a regular schedule 5. US, Canad, Austral & NZ slang a promiscuous woman Translations tramp [træmp] n (= person) → vagabundo/a; (col) (offensive) (= woman); puta vi → andar con pasos pesados v tramp [trӕmp] 1 to walk with heavy footsteps He tramped up the stairs. caminar pesadamente/con pasos pesados 2 to walk usually for a long distance She loves tramping over the hills. dar una caminata, hacer excursiones, caminar mucho n 1 a person with no fixed home or job, who travels around on foot and usually lives by begging He gave his old coat to a tramp. vagabundo 2 a long walk. caminata, paseo largo 3 the sound of heavy footsteps. ruido fuerte de pasos 4 (alsotramp steamer) a small cargo-boat with no fixed route. tramp, vapor volandero 5 (American) a prostitute or a woman who sleeps with a lot of men. fulana, lagarta, pelandusca


var·i·ous adj. 1. a. Of diverse kinds: for various reasons. b. Unlike; different. 2. Being more than one; several. 3. Many-sided; versatile: a person of various skills. 4. Having a variegated nature or appearance. 5. Being an individual or separate member of a class or group: The various reports all agreed. 6. Archaic Changeable; variable. pron. Usage Problem (used with a pl. verb) Several different people or things. var i·ous·ly adv. var i·ous·ness n. Usage Note: The use of various as a pronoun, as in various of the committee members spoke out against the measure, is widely regarded as an error. Eighty-six percent of the Usage Panel finds this sentence unacceptable, a figure not much different from the 91 percent who rejected the various of construction in 1967. The Panel is somewhat more tolerant of the construction when it is used with inanimate objects rather than people. Seventy percent objected to its use in the phrase ownership of the lake and various of its tributaries and effluents. It is not clear why this usage should be regarded as an error, since it is analogous to the use of quantifiers such as few, many, and several. Adjective 1. several different: there are various possible answers to this question 2. of different kinds: the causes of high blood pressure are various and complicated variously adv


USAGE: The use of different after various should be avoided: the disease exists in various forms (not in various different forms). Translations various [‘vɛərɪəs] adj → varios/as, diversos/as; at various times (= different) → en distintos momentos (= several); varias veces adj various [‘veəriəs] 1 different; varied His reasons for leaving were many and various. vario, diverso 2 several Various people have told me about you. varios adv variously diversamente, variadamente


vi·cious adj. 1. Having the nature of vice; evil, immoral, or depraved. 2. Given to vice, immorality, or depravity. 3. Spiteful; malicious: vicious gossip. 4. Disposed to or characterized by violent or destructive behavior. 5. Marked by an aggressive disposition; savage. Used chiefly of animals. 6. Severe or intense; fierce: a vicious storm. 7. Faulty, imperfect, or otherwise impaired by defects or a defect: a forced, vicious style of prose. 8. Impure; foul. vi cious·ly adv. vi cious·ness n. Adjective 1. cruel or violent: vicious attacks 2. forceful or ferocious: she gave the chair a vicious jerk 3. intended to cause hurt or distress: vicious letters 4. (of an animal) fierce or hostile viciously viciousness n Translations vicious [‘vɪʃəs] adj [remark] → malicioso; [blow] → brutal; a vicious circle → un círculo vicioso adj vicious [‘viʃəs] evil; cruel; likely to attack or cause harm Keep back from that dog – it's vicious. cruel, malintencionado adv viciously cruelmente, malintencionadamente n viciousness crueldad, maldad, perversidad



vul·gar adj. 1. Crudely indecent. 2. a. Deficient in taste, delicacy, or refinement. b. Marked by a lack of good breeding; boorish. c. Offensively excessive in self-display or expenditure; ostentatious: the huge vulgar houses and cars of the newly rich. 3. Spoken by or expressed in language spoken by the common people; vernacular: the technical and vulgar names for an animal species. 4. Of or associated with the great masses of people; common. vul gar·ly adv. vul gar·ness n.


Word History: The word vulgar now brings to mind off-color jokes and offensive epithets, but it once had more neutral meanings. Vulgar is an example of pejoration, the process by which a word develops negative meanings over time. The ancestor of vulgar, the Latin word vulg ris (from vulgus, "the common people"), meant "of or belonging to the common people, everyday," as well as "belonging to or associated with the lower orders." Vulg ris also meant "ordinary," "common (of vocabulary, for example)," and "shared by all." An extension of this meaning was "sexually promiscuous," a sense that could have led to the English sense of "indecent." Our word, first recorded in a work composed in 1391, entered English during the Middle English period, and in Middle English and later English we find not only the senses of the Latin word mentioned above but also related senses. What is common may be seen as debased, and in the 17th century we begin to find instances of vulgar that make explicit what had been implicit. Vulgar then came to mean "deficient in taste, delicacy, or refinement." From such uses vulgar has continued to go downhill, and at present "crudely indecent" is among the commonest senses of the word. Adjective 1. showing lack of good taste, decency, or refinement: vulgar tabloid sensationalism 2. denoting a form of a language spoken by the ordinary people, rather than the literary form vulgarly adv Translations vulgar [‘vʌlgəʳ] adj (= rude) → ordinario, grosero (= in bad taste); de mal gusto adj vulgar [‘valgə] 1 not generally socially acceptable, decent or polite; ill-mannered Such behaviour is regarded as vulgar. vulgar, ordinario 2 of the common or ordinary people the vulgar tongue/language. vulgar adv vulgarly vurgalmente n vul’garity [-‘gӕ-] (an example of) bad manners, bad taste etc, in eg speech, behaviour etc the vulgarity of his language. vulgaridad


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