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Fedora Linux Core 4    (46320388)       (46320511) (46321105)      (46321139)           3    .. 2548   

 

 1   Linux 1. 1.11    Unix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. 1.22    Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. 1.33    Fedora Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 3 4 6

2     OS

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3   Hardware 3.1 CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Hard Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10 10 10 11

3.4    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4  RAID 4. 4.11    RAID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2   RAID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. 4.33     Inexpensive  independent ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 4.4    RAID     . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11 12 12 12 12 13

5  File System 14 5. 5.11 ext2 ext2   Sec Second ond ext extende endedd fifille syst system em . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5. 5.22 ext3 ext3   Th Thirirdd ext extende endedd filfile syst system em . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6  Memory Management

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   

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1

 

  1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6

    Unix  Unix Compatible (  htt http:/ p://en /en.wi .wikip kipedi edia.o a.org/ rg/wik wiki/U i/Unix nix)) . . . . . 4 Linus Torvalds, ds,      Linux kernel (  http:/ http://en /en.wi .wikip kipedi edia.o a.org/ rg/wik wiki/L i/Linu inux) x) . . . . . . . . . 4 Richard Richard Matthew Matthew Stallman, Stallman,        GNU (  htt http:/ p://en /en.wi .wikip kipedi edia.o a.org/ rg/wik wiki/L i/Linu inux) x) . . . 5 Andrew Andrew S. Tan Tanenb enbaum aum,, Profes Professor sor of Comput Computer er Science, ence, Vri Vrije je Univer Universit sityy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Red Hat Hat Enterpri Enterprise se Linux Linux 4 (  http://en.w http://en.wikipe ikipedia.or dia.org/wik g/wiki/Red i/Red Hat Enterprise Enterprise Linux) Linux) . . . . 6 Fedora Core Core 4  GNOME desktop environment (  http://en.wi http://en.wikipedi kipedia.org/wiki/ a.org/wiki/GNOM GNOME) E) 7

2.1 GNOME GNOME desktop desktop environment environment (  http:/ http://en /en.wi .wikip kipedi edia.o a.org/ rg/wik wiki/G i/GNOM NOME) E) . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.22 KDE desk 2. deskto topp envi enviro ronm nmen entt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5.1 Ext File System Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6.11 Logi 6. Logiccal addr addreess in Linu Linuxx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

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    Linux         Fedora Linux Core 4         Unix  Linux    

1.11  1.   Unix    Unix        Bell Labs ( AT&T)     Ken Thompson  Dennis Ritchie  1969     MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology),    AT&T Bell Labs  GE (General Electric)       Multics  1960         Mainframe Computer    GE 635   (Interactive)               Bell Labs         Ken Thompson  Dennis Ritchie     Bell Labs         Ken & Dennis             PDP-7       Unix         Multics        Unix  Multics                  (Shell)          Version 2         PDP-11/20  Assembly        C ( C     Bell Labs      Unix)          Version 6  .. 1976   .. 1978 Version 7      Unix         AT&T       Bell Labs             Unix                  AT&T   Unix     System III  1982  1983  System V                  Unix        University of California at Berkley   BSD Unix (Berkley Software Distribution)         (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency - DARPA)    Berkley    Unix  BSD Version 4          DARPA           TCP/IP Version   Berkley  BSD Version 4.4     .. 1993     Protocol X.25     Berkley     Unix  Berkley                        Sun OS  Solaris  DEC      Ultrix        OSF/1      XENIX     AIX           BSD   System V        Unix        (Registere (Registeredd Trademark) Trademark)       The Open Group         Unix    Unix  2    1.          Unix            The Open Group        Digital Unix, SCO Unix, IBM’s Open Edition   (    1.1) 2.     Unix (Unix Compatible, Unix like systems    Unix Clone)        Unix         Sun Solaris, IBM AIX, Linux   (   1.1) 3

 

   1.1:   Unix  Unix Compatible (  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix)

1.22  1.   Linux          .. 1980  Linus Trovalds (   1.2)        (Computer Science)     .. 1983 Richard Matthew Stallman (    1.3)      GNU               Linux    GNU        Unix                     . 1990                   Thomas Bushnell       The BSD 44-Lite Kernel           . 1991              Trovalds      Minix    0.01 0.01               POSIX    Linux     GNU Bash Shell         

   1.2: Linus Torvalds,      Linux kernel (  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux) 4

 

   1.3: Richard Matthew Stallman,        GNU (  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux)

   1.4: Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Professor of Computer Science, Vrije University  Trovalds            X             Linux            comp.os.minix                Linux      (Minix)            .  (Andrew S. Tannenbaum) (   1.4)                                                                                                                                      2.6.14 (01/11/05)                       1.0.x,1.2.x                          1.1.x, 1.3.x                                  GNU/Linux             Open Source           Open Source             (             )  )                 Linux  Open Source               Linux      (   ) )       Linux Distribution                    Linux                         Linux           IBM, Novell  Sun Microsystems  

5

 

1.33  1.  Fedora Linux

   1.5: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 (  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red Hat Enterprise Linux) Linux Distribution Distribution                  Red Hat Linux (   1.5)     Red Hat Inc.     Distribution  Red Hat            (    Downtime ) )      Server       Desktop                              Graphic Interface   Windows                   Download          Support                Package             2003             Open Source      Red Hat         Red Hat Linux                  Linux   Linux Distribution  1                  Linux Distribution        2                         Red Hat Enterprise Linux       Fedora Linux         Community Project           Linux        Red Hat                   Red Hat Linux       Red Hat Inc.      Fedora Linux    Package                      Fedora Linux     Red Hat Enterprise Linux   Red Hat Enterprise Linux          Red Hat Advance Server           3     3    1. Advance Server (AS)    Server    Data center  2. Entry Server (ES)  Server        Mail Server, File/Print Server  3. Workstation (WS)     Desktop  Workstation  4. Desktop Desktop -                    Red Hat Enterprise Linux                  Fedora             Beta tester  Red Hat Enterprise Linux          Fedora Core (   1.6)  RPM-based (Red Hat Packages Management - Base)  Linux distribution    Linux                  Red Hat

6

 

   1.6: Fedora Core 4  GNOME desktop environment (  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNOME) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNOME)  Fedora Linux  Core      •  Fedora Core 1  (FC1,     Cambridge,          Yarrow) Yarrow)         6   2003   Fedora Legacy   20   2004        Red Hat Linux 9   Automated Updates    Notebook Notebook 2004    ACPI  cpufreq            AMD64     •  Fedora Core 2 (FC2,        Tettnang)       18  2004    Fedora Legacy   11  2005    Linux Kernel 2.6, GNOME 2.6, KDE 3.2.1,  SELinux               XFree86  X.Org Server                          dual-booting      Windows XP •  Fedora Core 3 (FC3,       Heidelberg),           i386  AMD64      8   2004    GNOME 2.8  KDE 3.3.0, X.Org Server 6.8.1, Xen virtualizer,  Linux kernel    2.6.9 •  Fedora Core 4 (FC4,       Stentz)         (25   2005)      KDE i386,3.4,AMD64  gcj-compiled PowerPC      IDE    13  kernel 2005     GNOME 2.10 GCC 4.0,   Eclipse Linux   2.6.11. •  Fedora Core 5  Test 1               (           ) )              27    2006    Fedora Core 5    –  21   2005 - Fedora Core 5 Test 1 –  23   2005 - Fedora Core 5 Test 2 –  23  2006 - Fedora Core 5 Test 3 –  27    2006 - Fedora Core 5 Final (  ) )

7

 

  2

    OS Fedora  Packages  5,000 packages    GUI installation    Packages     •   File Manager   Nautilus (  Windows Explorer)  Default Window Manager  Metacity •   Desktop Environment  GNOME   (   2.1)

   2.1: GNOME desktop environment (  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNOME) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNOME)

    2.2: KDE desktop environment (  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KDE) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KDE) •   Themes  ClearLooks Theme  GNOME (   2.1)  Bluecurve Theme  KDE (   2.2)   •      OpenOffice.org , K office , GNOME Office                          OpenOffice.org       Version 2.0   8

 

   Microsoft Office System              Microsoft Windows                     •   Server    (Web Server, Mail Server, DHCP Server, DNS Server, Internet Sharing, Proxy Server, File sharing Server  )          Lan Card  1        Lan Card   Internet  Lan Card    Network       Fedora Linux   IP Address (DHCP Server), Share Internet,  Proxy Server  DNS Cache Server       Internet     , ,  Firewall     , ,         Internet   Port             Lan Card        Fedora Linux  IP Address (DHCP Server)  Proxy Server     *        Lan Card    Firewall      Share Internet Internet  Apache Apache Web Server        Website            Web page                   Web page                Network Place  Windows  ssh ssh  Unix/Linux    FTP   Samba Server   File    Client  Windows      Fedora Linux           File  ( backup)          Admin   Folder       Share     Fedora Linux   Web Admin Tools    Fedora Linux      File  Operating System (OS)       Windows     Intranet Mail Server        Internet Mail Server     Mail Server  Internet          Webmin Tools Mail      FedoraVisual LinuxHost        Spam        Fedora Linux          •   Backup and Restore          Backup        CD/DVD         Restore           Upgrade       •     Unix operating system/Linux                     •  Programming language C/C++, Java, Perl, Python, Ada, Tck/tk,     •   Embedded systems  Portable device   Linux                , Palm   •   Graphics Rendering, Realtime, Image Processing and and Simulation Linux        , ,     Daimler Chrysler  Linux     Image Processing          Digital Domain       CGI (Computer Generated Imagery)     Titanic  Linux  Reder   Titanic     Graphics Rendering  Linux  Square  Render Farm  900+ CPU  Linux Cluste Clusterr  Software Software    Pixar RenderMan for Linux  render  •     

9

 

  3

  Hardware 3.1 CPU CPU 32-bit x86 systems •      Pentium  Fedora Core 4    optimized    CPU Pentium 4      CPU       ( Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Pentium III   AMD  VIA ) •    CPU       text-mode  200 MHz  Pentium   •    CPU       graphical-mode  400 MHz  Pentium II  

CPU 64-bit x86 64 systems

• CPU AMD64 processors (  (    Athlon64  Opteron) • Intel processors   Intel Extended Memory 64 Technology      Intel EM64T

CPU PowerPC (PPC) • PowerPC G3 / POWER4 • Fedora Core 4     New World  Apple Power Macintosh        1999     64-bit G5 processor  POWER processors  IBM eServer pSeries    32-bit IBM RS/6000          CPU       text-mode  233 MHz G3   –   –     CPU       graphical-mode  400 MHz G3   

3.22 Hard 3. Hard Dr Drivivee CPU 32-bit x86 systems) • Custom Installation (  ( ): ): 620MB • Server: 1.1GB • Personal Desktop: 2.3GB • Workstation: 3.0GB • Custom Installation (  ): ): 6.9GB

10

 

CPU 64-bit x86 64 systems • Custom Installation (  ( ): ): 900MB • Server: 1.5GB • Personal Desktop: 2.7GB • Workstation: 3.4GB • Custom Installation: (  ) ) 7.5GB

CPU PowerPC (PPC) •   CPU 64-bit x86 64 system

3.33 Memo 3. Memorry CPU 32-bit x86 systems •      text-mode: 64MB •      graphical-mode: 192MB ( for graphical-mode: 256MB)

CPU 64-bit x86 64 systems •      text-mode: 128MB •      graphical-mode: 256MB ( for graphical-mode: 512MB)

CPU PowerPC (PPC) •   CPU 64-bit x86 64 systems

3.4    • Keyboard*, Mouse* • Floppy Drive*, Optical Drive*, Monitor* * Drive               alDrive              Optical          Optic     Optical     Optical Drive    

11

 

  4

 RAID RAID   Redundant Array of Independent Independent Disks  Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks     Hard Drive                    RAID  Hard Drive     Hard Drive    1  (     single logical unit)

4.11  4.   RAID •  1978 Norman Ken Ouchi    IBM    U.S. Patent 4,092,732  "System for recovering data stored in failed memory unit"            •  1988 1988 RAID level level 1 - 5        David A. Patterson, Garth A. Gibson  Randy H. Katz       "A Case for Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID)"    SIGMOD Conference 1988   109 - 116

4.22  4.     RAID •      (Data Transfer Rates)            •                single logical unit                     (C,D,E ))                           •      Data redundancy/ Fault tolerance                                                   Down                      

4.33  4.  Inexpensive  independent ?   I  RAID    independent  inexpensive   RAID              SCSI  IDE/ATA    Flash memory     RAID       Independent        Inex-  pensive                 RAID     12

 

4.4   RAID         RAID   Level            Level    3   Standard RAID levels, Nested RAID Levels, Proprietary RAID levels           Standard RAID levels       

Standard RAID levels  Level     •   RAID Level 0      Striped Disk Array without Fault Tolerance    performanceoriented data mapping            Data Block  Data Block         RAID            , ,      parity     , ,             RAID 0      RAID               (data redundancy)  Hard Drive                  Hard Drive      2 Drive •   RAID Level 1      Disk Mirroring    provides redundancy by writing identical                    RAID              RAID Level 0    parity    , ,           RAID Level 0        Drive                 Drive       Hard Drive      2 Drive •  RAID Level 4        Independent Data Disks with Shared Parity Disk    striping  parity bit       Hard Drive      3 Drive  2 Drive       RAID Level 0   Drive   parity bit                     strip          strip  parity    bit            parity             strip    2       2            RAID Level 0          parity bit                Drive    parity  •  RAID Level 5      Independent Data Disk with Distributed Parity Blocks     striping  parity bit   RAID Level 4          2 Drive      RAID Level 0   Drive   parity bit     Drive     strip  parity bit    Drive1   2    RAID   Drive   stripping    Drive     3Level 5 parity bit  3         stripping   Drive  2  3   1  parity bit          •  Linear RAID        Drive     linear RAID   allocated sequentially drive (disk) space   drive                   drive            drive             drive        drive          linear RAID     Drive         

13

 

  5

 File System  File System (FS)  Fedora Linux Core 4     Extended file system  ext  file system               Linux         Minix File system  xiafs    2     ext2  ext3  File System     Fedora Linux   NILFS, ReiserFS  Reiser4

5.11 ext2 5. ext2   Second extended file system ext2   File    Linux kernel   Journaling    Remy Card  1993         System        File System *  Journaling File System        ext3 ext2  file system     Red Hat Linux, Fedora Linux Core  Debian Linux * Journaling File System (FS)        metadata              Journaling FS         NTFS  Windows, XFS  IRIX, EXT3, Reiser4, ReiserFS  Linux,  HFS+  Mac OS X     Journaling FS            system failure     crash     force reset (  (  powe powerr ..     shutdown process)           100%         Non-Journal Non-Journaling ing       (       ..     benchmark tool         ), ),     

5.22 ext3 5. ext3   Third extended file system            ext2   ext3           3   1. Journaling File System 2. H-tree (hashed tree) directory indexes 3. Online filesystem resizing   ext3   file system     Red Hat Linux, Fedora Linux Core, Ubuntu Linux  Debian Linux

14

 

            ext2  ext3 •          : Stephen Tweedie ( ext3   ), ), Remy Card ( ext2,    ext3  ), ), Theodore Ts’o (  (        ), ), Andreas Gruenbacher (xattrs   ACLs), Andreas Dilger ( online resizing),            •      : Second extended file system (ext2)  Third extended file system (ext3) •       :  :   1992 (Linux kernel 0.96c)  ext2     2001 ( Linux kernel 2.4.15)  ext3 •    Directory : inode table (ext2)  H-tree (ext3) •  File allocation : bitmap (free space)  table (metadata) •  Bad blocks : Table •            : 2TB •      :    •              : 32TB •             : 255  •   )    :: Unix permissions, ACLs  arbitrary security attributes (Linux kernel 2.6   )

   5.1: Ext File System Layout

15

 

  6

 Memory Management   kernel              memory management          

   6.1: Logical address in Linux •   Paging •      (Physical memory)   (Logical memory)   page table •   (frame management) •    (Process address space)  –  Memory descriptors –  Memory regions –  Page faults •        Intel x86  segmentation * • Linux   segmentation • Linux   paging   16

 

–    page  4KB  x86 CPU  8KB  Alpha CPU –   page table 3   64-bit addresses space –   x86 processors   page table 2   32 bit addresses space    Segment + Offset  4 GB Linear address (  32 bits)   user space    3 GB  kernel space   1GB  paging     hardware ∗





    TLB (Translation Lookaside Buffer) ** * Segmentation (    ) )                     2           (Offset) (Offset)             (Dynamic partitioning)            (Internal fragmentation) ∗

** TLB : Translation lookaside buffer (      )               2                       2     cach memory                     (TLB : Translation Lookaside Buffer)   TLB   TLB hit     TLB miss            TLB      

17

 

 

  •     (NECTEC) http://www.nectec.or.th/courseware/program/Unix/0001.html • Unix (    ) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix •         (Kaiwal Development Team) http://xn--12cu4b7b4dza6l.th/pub/linux.sis/3.1/docs/LTP/02 http://xn--12cu4b7b4dza6l.th/pub/linux.sis/3.1/docs /LTP/02 2intro.html •   (  ) http://th.wikipedia.org/wiki/  • Unix  Linux   ? ? ( ) ) http://veer.exteen.com/20050804/Unix-linux • Fedora Core (  ) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fedora Core • Fedora Project, sponsored by Red Hat (Red Hat, Inc.) http://fedora.redhat.com/ • Red Hat Enterprise Linux (  ) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red Hat Enterprise Linux • Journaling filesystem (    ) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journaling filesystem • General overview of the Linux file system (Machtelt Garrels) http://www.faqs.org/docs/linux intro/sect 03 01.html • The Official Red Hat Linux Reference Guide RAID (Red Hat, Inc.) http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-6.2-Manual/ref-guide/ch-raid.html • Comparison of file systems (  ) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison of file systems • Linux Memory Management (Craig M. Grube) http://www.cs.purdue.edu/homes/li/cs690Z/Outline/vmm.pdf  • Lecture Overview Linux Memory Management (Dr. Richard Hall, Torsten Fink) http://www.inf.fu-berlin.de/lehre/SS01/OS/Lectures/Lecture14.pdf  •         Journaling filesystem,     (ithilien rp (   )) )) http://www.cs.su.ac.th/ 18

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