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The Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999 (FEMA) is an Act of
theParliament of India "to consolidate and amend the law relating to foreign
exchange with the objective of facilitating external trade and payments and
for promoting the orderly development and maintenance of foreign
exchange market in India". It was passed in the winter session of Parliament
in 1999, replacing the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA). This act
seeks to make offenses related to foreign exchange civil offenses. It
extends to the whole ofIndia.,[1] replacing FERA, which had become
incompatible with the pro-liberalisation policies of the Government of India.
It enabled a new foreign exchange management regime consistent with the
emerging framework of theWorld Trade Organisation (WTO). It also paved
way to Prevention of Money Laundering Act 2002, which was effected from
1 July 2005.
Unlike other laws where everything is permitted unless specifically
prohibited, under this act everything was prohibited unless specifically
permitted. Hence the tenor and tone of the Act was very drastic. It required
imprisonment even for minor offences. Under FERA a person was presumed
guilty unless he proved himself innocent, whereas under other laws a
person is presumed innocent unless he is proven guilty.

Switch from FERA[edit]
FERA, in place since 1975, did not succeed in restricting activities such as
the expansion of transnational corporations(TNCs). The concessions made
to FERA in 1991-1993 showed that FERA was on the verge of becoming
redundant.[3] After the amendment of FERA in 1993, it was decided that the
act would become the FEMA. This was done in order to relax the controls on
foreign exchange in India, as a result of economic liberalization. FEMA
served to make transactions for external trade (exports and imports) easier
– transactions involving current account for external trade no longer
required RBI’s permission. The deals in Foreign Exchange were to be
‘managed’ instead of ‘regulated’. The switch to FEMA shows the change on
the part of the government in terms of foreign capital.

Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA)
In India, all transactions that include foreign exchange are regulated by the Foreign Exchange
Management Act (FEMA), 1999. It repealed the Foreign Exchange Regulations Act (FERA),1973. FEMA
has been enacted to facilitate external trade and payments and to promote the orderly development
and maintenance of foreign exchange market. It applies to all branches,offices and agencies outside
India,owned or controlled by a person resident in India. According to the Act, the term 'foreign
exchange' means "foreign currency and includes:- (i) deposits, credits and balances payable in any
foreign currency; (ii) drafts, travellers cheques, letters of credit or bills of exchange, expressed or
drawn in Indian currency but payable in any foreign currency; (iii) drafts, travellers cheques, letters
of credit or bills of exchange drawn by banks, institutions or persons outside India, but payable in
Indian currency".

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has been assigned the function of administering the various
provisions of FEMA. The rules, regulations and norms pertaining to several sections of the Act are
laid down by the Reserve Bank of India, in consultation with the Central Government. Besides, the
Central Government may appoint an Adjudicating Authority for holding inquiries pertaining to any
contravention of the Act. There is also a provision for appointing one or more Special Directors
(Appeals) to hear appeals against the order of the Adjudicating authorities. An Appellate Tribunal
for Foreign Exchange to hear appeals against the orders of the Adjudicating Authorities and the
Special Director (Appeals) may also be established.
The main provisions of the Act are: It permits only authorised person to deal in foreign exchange or foreign security. Such an
authorised person, under the Act, means authorised dealer, money changer, off-shore
banking unit or any other person for the time being authorised by Reserve Bank. The Act
thus prohibits any person who: Deal in or transfer any foreign exchange or foreign security to any person not being
an authorized person;
 Make any payment to or for the credit of any person resident outside India in any
 Receive otherwise through an authorized person, any payment by order or on behalf
of any person resident outside India in any manner;
 Enter into any financial transaction in India as consideration for or in association
or transfer of a right to acquire, any asset outside India by any person;
 is resident in India which acquire, hold, own, possess or transfer any foreign
exchange, foreign security or any immovable property situated outside India.

 The Act regulates two types of foreign exchange transactions, namely 'Capital Account
Transactions' and 'Current Account Transactions'.
 According to the Act, 'Capital account transaction' means a transaction which alters
the assets or liabilities, including contingent liabilities, outside India of persons
resident in India or assets or liabilities in India of persons resident outside India, and
includes the following transactions referred in the Act: Transfer or issue of any foreign security by a person resident in India;
 Transfer or issue of any security by a person resident outside India;
 Transfer or issue of any security or foreign security by any branch, office or
agency in India of a person resident outside India;
 Any borrowing or lending in rupees in whatever form or by whatever name

 Any borrowing or lending in rupees in whatever form or by whatever name
called between a person resident in India and a person resident outside India;
 Deposits between persons resident in India and persons resident outside
 Export, import or holding of currency or currency notes;
 Transfer of immovable property outside India, other than a lease not
exceeding five years, by a person resident in India;
 Acquisition or transfer of immovable property in India, other than a lease not
exceeding five years, by a person resident outside India;
 Giving of a guarantee or surety in respect of any debt,obligation or other
incurred(i) By a person resident in India and owed to a person resident outside India;
(ii) By a person resident outside India.
 It also defines the term 'current account transaction' as a transaction other than a
capital account transaction and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing
such transaction includes:- (i) payments due in connection with foreign trade, other
current business, services, and short-term banking and credit facilities in the ordinary
course of business; (ii) payments due as interest on loans and as net income from
investments; (iii) remittances for living expenses of parents, spouse and children
residing abroad; and (iv) expenses in connection with foreign travel, education and
medical care of parents, spouse and children.
 The Act has empowered the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to specify, in consultation with the
Central Government, the permissible capital account transactions and the limits upto which
foreign exchange may be drawn for such transactions. But it shall not impose any restriction
on the drawal of foreign exchange for payments due on account of amortization of loans or
for depreciation of direct investments in the ordinary course of business.
 Any person may sell or draw foreign exchange if such sale or drawal is a current account
transaction. Under the Act, Central Government may, in public interest and in consultation
with the Reserve Bank, impose such reasonable restrictions for current account transactions
as may be prescribed.
 Every exporter of goods shall:- (i) furnish to the Reserve Bank or to such other authority a
declaration in such form and in such manner as may be specified, containing true and
correct material particulars, including the amount representing the full export value or, if the
full export value of the goods is not ascertainable at the time of export, the value which the
exporter, having regard to the prevailing market conditions, expects to receive on the sale of
the goods in a market outside India; (ii) furnish to the Reserve Bank such other information

as may be required by it for the purpose of ensuring the realisation of the export proceeds by
such exporter.
 The Reserve Bank may, at any time, cause an inspection to be made, by any officer specially
authorised in writing by it in this behalf, of the business of any authorised person as may
appear to it to be necessary or expedient for the purpose of:- (i) verifying the correctness of
any statement, information or particulars furnished to the Reserve Bank; (ii) obtaining any
information or particulars which such authorised person has failed to furnish on being called
upon to do so; (iii) securing compliance with the provisions of this Act or of any rules,
regulations, directions or orders made thereunder.
 If any person contravenes any provision of this Act, or contravenes any rule, regulation,
notification, direction or order issued in exercise of the powers under this Act, or
contravenes any condition subject to which an authorisation is issued by the Reserve Bank,
he shall, upon adjudication, be liable to a penalty.

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