Finger Print Voting Machine

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 OVERVIEW India is world‘s largest democracy. It is perceived to be charismatic one as it

accommodates cultural, regional, economical, social disparities and still is able to stand on its own. Fundamental right to vote or simply voting in elections forms the basis of Indian democracy. Elections allow the populace to choose their representatives and express their   preferences for how they will be b e governed. Naturally, the integrity in tegrity of o f the election electi on process p rocess is fundamental to the integrity of democracy itself. The election system must be sufficiently robust to withstand a variety of fraudulent behaviors and must be sufficiently transparent and comprehensible that voters and candidates can accept the results of an election. Voting is a method for a group such as a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion — often often following discussions, debates, or election campaigns. ―The heart of democracy is voting. The heart of voting is trust‖ 

1.1.1  BALLOT PAPER BASED VOTING In India all earlier elections be it state elections or center elections a voter used to cast his/her vote to his/her favorite candidate by putting the stamp against his/her name and then folding the ballot paper as per a prescribed method before putting it in the Ballot box. This is a long, time-consuming process and very much prone to errors.

  Idea mooted by the Chief Election Commissioner in 1977



  Recommended E-voting to save avoidable and recurring expenditure on



 printing, storage, transportation and security securit y of Ballot Paper to the exchequer.

1.1.2 ELECTRONIC VOTING This situation continued till election scene was completely changed by electronic voting machine. No more ballot paper, ballot boxes, stamping, etc. all this condensed into a simple box called ballot unit of the electronic voting machine.  

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE EVM is capable of saving considerable printing stationery and transport of large volumes of electoral material. It is easy to transport, store, and maintain. It completely rules out the chance of invalid votes. Its use results in reduction of polling time, resulting in fewer   problems in electoral preparations, law and order, candidates' expenditure, etc., and easy and accurate counting without any mischief at the counting center. It is also eco friendly.   All mechanical, electrical and software security features are provided to ensure the integrity of the voting data. It is independent of mains power and operates on a special power pack. It It is tamper-proof and error free. It incorporates a microprocessor that has ‗burnt-in‘ software code which cannot be altered or retrieved . All the data is recorded

on non-volatile dual redundant memory chips and can be retained for over 6 months even when the power pack is remove. 

EVM has two parts 1. Control Unit 2. Ballot Unit Problems in EVM

  People do malpractices to vote the candidate, like booth capturing etc.



  Getting information regarding voter is based on showing ID card this process is



very time consuming and less reliable.

  Lack of transparency in the elections.



1.2 CAPABILITIES In small cities and villages booth capturing problems are very major cause where a person vote number of votes for any candidate. There is no technology to stop these malpractices in our country.so to stop these malpractices or any security laps we can design a ―biometric electronic voting machine‖ this machine is based on finger print match

detection in this project the finger print or thumb impression of the voters are matched by the finger print module with the data base that is already stored in the memory. When this matched is done the relay open the voting machine for voting and a green light is shown also LCD display that you are ready for vote when voting has been done LCD shows voting done and red light shows.

  To stop malpractices during elections like booth capturing etc.



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  To reduce manual work at the voting booth regarding to collect information about



voters.

  To increase reliability and transparency in the elections.



  It eliminates the possibility of invalid and doubtful votes



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CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF STAGE 1

2.1 INTRODUCTION In project stage 1, we have done literature survey & studied the feasibility of project as well as done a through market survey. The designing of algorithm & flow chart was carried out in stage 1. There was a case study done for an organization having manual security system. We have gone through various type of detection system and distribution mechanism currently being used in India & problems associated with it. Also we have gone through the technical section of our project in synchronization between various modules.

2.2 LITERATURE SURVEY A literature survey is a body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. Most often associated with academic oriented literature, such as a thesis, a literature review usually precedes a research proposal and result section. Its ultimate goal is to bring the reader up to date with current literature on a topic and forms the basis for another goal, such as future research that may be needed in the area. Difference in the academic life and practical life of technology is revealed when one enters in the real life and competitive world with technology aspects. Theoretical knowledge which we gain from book is of worth but not so applicable without knowing its  practical implementation. It has been experienced ex perienced that theoretical theo retical knowledge kn owledge is volatile vola tile in nature. To accomplish the true fulfillment of this technical knowledge one has to implement the theoretical part in the form of project or model with a new concept of the technology along with is applicability such that, it is useful to society and country.

2.3 EVM (ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE) The EVMs reduce the time in b, EVMs have been under a cloud of suspicion over their   

alleged tamparability and security problems during elections (especially after  2009 Lok  Sabha elections). elections).  4

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2.3.1 INTRODUCTION Electronic Voting Machines ("EVM") are being used in Indian General and State Elections to implement electronic voting in part from 1999 elections and in total since 2004 elections. The EVMs reduce the time in b, EVMs have been under a cloud of  suspicion over their alleged tamparability and security problems  during elections (especially after  2009 Lok Sabha elections). elections). After rulings of Delhi High Court, Supreme   Court and demands from various political parties, Election Commission Commissionoth oth casting a vote and declaring the results compared to the old paper ballot system. However decided to introduce EVMs with Voter-verified paper audit trail (VVPAT) system.

Fig 2.1: EVM

2.3.2 HISTORY The EVMs were devised and designed by Election Commission of India in collaboration with two Public Sector undertakings viz., Bharat Electronics Limited, Bangalore and Electronics Corporation of India Limited, Hyderabad. The EVMs are now manufactured  by the above two undertakings.EVMs underta kings.EVMs were first used in 1982 in the by-election to North 5

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE Paravur Assembly Constituency of Kerala of Kerala for a limited number of polling stations (50  polling stations). stations) .  Table 2.1 History 

Introduction of the EVM concept in the world

1970

First use in 11 constituencies in India

1982-84

First Expert Committee to review EVM design

1990

Use of EVM in few Lok sabha Constituencies

2004

Appointment of another Expert Committee

2005

Expert Committee emphasizes use of EVM only after providing adequate

2006

―measures‖ for security, securit y, protection and up gradation. 

100% use of EVM during Lok sabha elections

2009

  Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL) a leading Public Sector Company



engaged in the design and manufacture of professional electronics was commissioned to design a machine to prove the feasibility

  Once feasibility was established, Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) a second



Public Sector Company was co-opted into the exercise

  Both the companies (ECIL & BEL) brought out models with a common User 



Interface in 1980

  The machines were extensively tried out at locations across the country



  Publicity campaigns were run in the press and other media



  Seminars conducted by Election Commission of India in various forums



  Feedback obtained used to fine-tune the machine



  Electronics Corporation of India Ltd (ECIL) & Bharat Electronics Ltd (BEL) have



shipped their proprietary software to be fused into the chip, to their vendors Renesas (Japan) and Microchip (USA) .

  Programming assembly code available to only a selected few. Plus there is no



 precise verification tool to check whether the EVM is mani manipulated. pulated.

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   New EVM purchases since 2006 (up graded) 2,53,400 from BEL and 1,94,600



from ECIL

  The mode of shipment goes through many private contractors before it reaches the



manufacturers or the polling booth.

  The Election Commission or any political party does not have any system to check 



the transparency of the hardware or software and its security

  ECIL and BEL also outsource including repair work to private contractors.



2.4 NEW BIOMETRIC EVM IDEA The main aim in designing this product is to provide the concept of the personal identity for each individual. This is extended to a special case of electronic voting machine concept. The summary of the design can be briefly explained diagrammatically as follows. As a pre-poll procedure the finger prints of all the voters are collected and stored in database initially at time of distributing cards. At the time of voting, the option of the voter  is taken along with the finger print. The finger print taken by the scanner is sent to the pc through an in-built A/D converter. The processed image is transferred to hard disk. The option entered by the voter is transferred to chip through DEMUX and is stored in the memory. If the transferred image is matched with any of the records in the data base,and then the ballot unit is ready to start the voting.

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CHAPTER 3 WORKING PRINCIPLE

3.1INTRODUCTION  The complete Voting machine consists mainly of two units  –   (a) Control Unit (b) Balloting Unit with cable for connecting it with Control unit. A Balloting Unit caters upto 3 candidates. Four Balloting Units linked together catering in all to 64 candidates can be used with one control unit. Unit is used by the voter for polling.The Balloting Unit of EVM is a small Box-like device, on top of which each candidate and his/her election symbol is listed like a  big ballot paper. Against each candidate's name, a button is provided. The voter vo ter polls his vote by pressing the button against the name of candidate.   These utilize fingerprint recognition technology to allow access to only those whose fingerprints you choose. It contains all the necessary electronics to allow you to store, delete, and verify fingerprints with just the touch of a button. Stored fingerprints are retained even in the event of complete power failure or battery drain. These eliminates the need for keeping track of keys or remembering a combination password, or PIN. It can only be opened when an authorized user is present, since there are no keys or  combinations to be copied or stolen, or locks that can be picked.   The main aim in designing this product is to provide the concept of the personal identity for each individual. This is extended to a special case of electronic voting machine concept. The summary of the design can be briefly explained diagrammatically as follows. As a pre-poll procedure the finger prints of all the voters are collected and stored in database initially at time of distributing cards. At the time of voting, the option of the voter  is taken along with the finger print. The finger print taken by the scanner is sent to the pc through an in-built A/D converter. The processed image is transferred to hard disk. The option entered by the voter is transferred to chip through DEMUX and is stored in the memory. If the transferred image is matched with any of the records in the data base,and then the ballot unit is ready to start the voting.

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3.2 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM  Block Diagram will consist the following modules:  

  Finger Print Reorganization System module



  Keypad



 



AT89S52 (8051 Microcontroller)   LCD Display



  Relay and Relay Driver 



Fig 3.1 Block Diagram

3.3 FPRS  Fingerprint normally refers to impressions transferred from the pad on the last joint of  fingers and thumbs, though fingerprint cards also typically record portions of lower joint areas of the fingers.   Fingerprint identification (sometimes referred to as dactyloscopy or palm print identification is the process of comparing questioned and known friction skin ridge impressions (see Minutiae) from fingers or palms or even toes to determine if the

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE impressions are from the same finger or palm. The flexibility of friction ridge skin means that no two finger or palm prints are ever exactly alike (never identical in every detail), even two impressions recorded immediately after each other. Fingerprint identification (also referred to as individualization) occurs when an expert (or an expert computer  system operating under threshold under threshold scoring rules) determines that two friction ridge impressions originated from the same finger or palm (or toe, sole) to the exclusion of all others.

Fig 3.2: Live Scan Devices

A known print is the intentional recording of the friction ridges, usually with  black printers ink  rolled across a contrasting white background, typically a white card. Friction ridges can also be recorded digitally using a technique called Live-Scan. A latent  print is the t he chance ch ance reproduction r eproduction of the friction ridges deposited on the surface s urface of an item. Latent prints are often fragmentary and may require chemical methods,  powder, or  alternative light sources in order to be visualized.

Fig 3.3: Finger Print Identification Process

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As shown in the diagram above, fingerprint identification system compares the input fingerprint image and previously registered data to determine the genuineness of a fingerprint. All the steps described above affect the efficiency of the entire system, but the computational load of the following steps can be reduced to a great extent by acquiring a good-quality fingerprint image in the first step. Fingerprint image acquisition is considered the most critical step of an automated fingerprint authentication system, as it determines the final fingerprint image quality, which has drastic effects on the overall system performance. There are different types of  fingerprint readers on the market, but the basic idea behind each capture approach is to measure in some way the physical difference between ridges and valleys. All the proposed methods can be grouped in two major families: solid-state fingerprint readers and optical fingerprint readers. The procedure for capturing a fingerprint using a sensor consists of  rolling or touching with the finger onto a sensing area, which according to the physical  principle in use (capacitive, optical, thermal, acoustic, etc.) captures the difference  between valleys v alleys and ridges. rid ges. When a finger touches or rolls rol ls onto a surface, the elastic skin deforms. The quantity and direction of the pressure applied by the user, the skin conditions and the projection of an irregular 3D object (the finger) onto a 2D flat plane introduce distortions, noise and inconsistencies in the captured fingerprint image. These problems result in inconsistent, irreproducible and non-uniform contactsand, during each acquisition, their effects on the same fingerprint results are different and uncontrollable. The representation of the same fingerprint changes every time the finger is placed on the sensor plate, increasing the complexity of the fingerprint matching, impairing the system  performance, and consequently conseq uently limiting the widespread use of this biometric techn technology. ology.

3.4 MICROCONTROLLER   Micro controller is a true computer on a chip the design incorporates all of the features found in a microprocessor CPU: arithmetic and logic unit, stack pointer, program counter  and registers. It has also had added additional features like RAM, ROM, serial I/O, counters and clock circuit. Like the microprocessor, a microcontroller is not a general purpose device, but one that is meant to read data, perform limited calculations on that data and control it‘s

environment based on those calculations. The prime use of a microcontroller is to control

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE the operation of a machine using a fixed program that is stored in ROM and that does not change over the lifetime of the system. The AT89C52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer  with 8K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmel‘s high -density nonvolatile memory technology and is

compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 and 80C52 instruction set and pinout. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C52 is a powerful microcomputer which  provides a highly flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.

3.4.1  FEATURES

  Compatible with MCS-51™ Products 



  8K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory   Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles





  Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz



  Three-level Program Memory Lock 



  256 x 8-bit Internal RAM



  32 Programmable I/O Lines



  Three 16-bit Timer/Counters



  Eight Interrupt Sources



  Programmable Serial Channel



  Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes



  Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles



  Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz



  Three-level Program Memory Lock 



  256 x 8-bit Internal RAM



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3.4.2 AT89C52 MICROCONTROLLER PIN DIAGRAM

Fig 3.4: Pin diagram ofAT89C52 1.  ALE/PROG: Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the

address during accesses to external memory. ALE is emitted at a constant rate of  1/6 of the oscillator frequency, for external timing or clocking purposes, even when there are no accesses to external memory. (However, one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external Data Memory.) This pin is also the program  pulse input (PROG) during EPROM programming. 2.  PSEN: Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external Program Memory.

When the device is executing out of external Program Memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle (except that two PSEN activations are skipped during accesses to external Data Memory). PSEN is not activated when the device is executing out of internal Program Memory. 3.  EA/VPP: When EA is held high the CPU executes out of internal Program

Memory (unless the Program Counter exceeds 0FFFH in the 80C51). Holding EA

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE low forces the CPU to execute out of external memory regardless of the Program Counter value. In the 80C31, EA must be externally wired low. In the EPROM devices, this pin also receives the programming supply voltage (VPP) during EPROM programming. 4.  XTAL1: Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier. 5.  XTAL2: Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. 6.  PORT 0: Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional port. As an open drain output

 port, it can sink eight LS TTL loads. lo ads. Port 0 pins that have 1s written to them float, and in that state will function as high impedance inputs. Port 0 is also the multiplexed low-order address and data bus during accesses to external memory. In this application it uses strong internal pullups when emitting 1s. Port 0 emits code  bytes during program verification. ve rification. In this application, appli cation, external pullup pullupss are required. 7.  PORT 1: Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pullups. Port 1 pins

that have 1s written to them are pulled high by the internal pullups, and in that state can be used as inputs. As inputs, port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current because of the internal pullups. 8.  PORT 2: Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pullups. Port 2 emits

the high-order address byte during accesses to external memory that use 16-bit addresses. In this application, it uses the strong internal pullups when emitting 1s. 9.  PORT 3: Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pullups. It also

serves the functions of various special features of the 80C51 Family as follows: 10. PORT PIN ALTERNATE FUNCTION:-

a.  P3.0 RxD (serial input port)  b.  P3.1 TxD (serial output port) c.  P3.2 INT0 (external interrupt 0) d.  P3.3 INT1 (external interrupt 1) e.  P3.4 T0 (timer 0 external input) f.  P3.5 T1 (timer 1 external input) g.  P3.6 WR (external data memory write strobe) h.  P3.7 RD (external data memory read strobe) 11. VCC: Supply voltage 12. VSS: Circuit ground potential

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CHAPTER 4 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION

4.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Fig. 4.1 Circuit Diagram of module 1 

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Fig. 4.2 Circuit Diagram of module 2&3

4.2 CIRCUIT WORKING This project consist of mainly three modules. They are general voting system, advanced  biometric system. These three modules combined form the biometric electronic voting machine In biometric electronic voting machine we have introduce fingerprint system. The fingerprint module first store the data of voter in our memory by converting the image into the hex Coad and when the matching takes place it matches the hex Coad with the already stored data. when this matching is done the microcontroller on the ballot unit port when the voting is done once it automatically off that port and if somebody trying to press another key the buzzer start beeping. If matching is not done the beep sound generated and the LCD show that invalid voter  The modules of the circuit are :

4.2.1 PASSWORD PROTECTED CIRCUIT  This system has one LCD and 4*3 matric keypad which is interface with microcontroller. If we want to on the second module first put the password if password is correct the second module will on otherwise LCD shows that invalid password.  

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4.2.2 FINGER PRINT CIRCUIT MODULE In biometric electronic voting machine we have introduce fingerprint system. The fingerprint module first store the data of voter in our memory by converting the image into the hex Coad and when the matching takes place it matches the hex Coad with the already stored data. when this matching is done the microcontroller on the ballot unit port when the voting is done once it automatically off that port and if somebody trying to press another key the buzzer start beeping. If matching is not done the beep sound generated and the LCD show that invalid voter 

4.2.3. BALLOT UNIT In this unit there are number of candidate that was standing in the election and switch  placed on the right of their names. This switch is used by voter to select our candidate to whom they want to vote.

4.3 PCB Layout Printed circuit board popularly known as PCB provides both physical, structure for  mounting and holding electronic component as well as the electrical interconnection  between components. A PCB consist of non-conducting substrate upon which a conductive pattern or circuit is formed. Copper is the most prevalent conductor. Although nickel, silver UN un-lead and gold may also be used as etch resists or top level metal. This assembly is the basic building block for all large electronic system from toys to toaster to telecommunications. The various processes involved in fabrication of the plate.   Considering these factors a layout is made. A mirror image of pattern is prepared and is carbon copied onto the copper clad laminate with the help of sharp pencil or ball  pointed pen and position of holes must be marked carefully. Then with fine brush and enamel mark trace as copied earlier. Then board is dried for at least four to six hours  before developing. A circuit is made considering following factor in mind:1.  Position of component (properly spaced) 2.  Inductive loop should be avoided. 3.  The grounding system should be separated into grounds conductors. 4.  Undesirable coupling should be avoided.

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE 5.  Power supply tracks should be of adequate width to withstand a possible shot circuit system. 6.  Use of jumper should be minimum and they should be avoided as far as possible. 7.  It should be easy to connect to board to test equipment.

4.3.1 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS The use of miniaturization and sub miniaturization in electronic equipment design has  been responsible for the introduction of a new technique in inters component wiring and assembly that is popularly known as printed circuit. The printed circuit boards (PCBs) consist of an insulating substrate material with metallic circuitry photo chemically formed upon that substrate. Thus PCB provides sufficient mechanical support and necessary electrical connections for an electronic circuit. Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is a mechanical assembly consisting of layers of  fiberglass sheet laminated with etched copper patterns. It is used to mount electronic parts in a rigid manner suitable for packaging.

Figure 4.3 PCB Layout of module 1

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Figure 4.4 PCB Layout of module 2&3

4.3.2 ADVANTAGES OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS  

 



Circuit characteristics can be maintained without introducing variations inter  circuit capacitance.

 



Wave soldering or vapour phase reflow soldering can mechanize component wiring and assembly.

 

Mass production can be achieved at lower cost.

 

The size of component assembly can be reduced with corresponding decrease in





weight.

 



Inspection time is reduced as probability of error is eliminated.

4.3.3 TYPES of PCB’s PCB’s  There are four major types of PCB‘s: -

1)  Single sided PCB: - In this, copper tracks are on one side of the board, and are the simplest form of PCB. These are simplest to manufacture thus have low production cost.

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE 2)  Double sided PCB: - In this, copper tracks are provided on both sides of the substrate. To achieve the connections between the boards, hole plating is done, which increase the manufacturing complexity. 3)  Multilayered PCB: - In this, two or more pieces of dielectric substrate material with circuitry formed upon them are stacked up and bonded together. Electrically connections are established from one side to the other and to the layer circuitry by drilled holes, which are subsequently plated through copper. 4)  Flexible PCB: - Flexible circuit is basically a highly flexible variant of the conventional rigid printed circuit board theme.

4.3.4 PCB DESIGN  Throughout the manufacturing process of a PCB, visual and electrical inspection is carried out to locate any flaws that might have crept in due to process automation like ‗Tombstone effect‘ when the solder is heated too quickly and one end of the component lifts up from

the board failing to make contact, or excess flow of solder or bridging. Even after the manufacturing process, the boards are tested for the output levels under varying conditions of environment, stress and strain. Back in the olden days, when PCBs had just been introduced, military was the chief consumer. But as the technology progressed and as the need grew, more and more interest was diverted towards better PCBs and as of today, they serve as the base for a multitude of components, gadgets and devices ranging from ever innovating computers and cell phonesto basic equipments like television, radio and toys for children. Soon there are going to be more mobile phones than there are people in this world and the trend will continue to rise. This might be a convenience to the users, but isn‘t without hazards either, combating which offers great scope for people from diverse fields.

4.4 LAYOUT DETAIL We have used "toner transfer method" for drawing the circuit layout on PCB. In this method we board layout onto a special paper using a laser printer, then "re-fuse" the toner  onto a blank copper board using a laminating machine. Then we soak the paper off, leaving the toner behind. The etchant can't eat through the toner, so any copper covered with toner remains behind as circuit traces or component pads. This process involves following steps:

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4.4.1 PRINTING OF LAYOUT Print your PCB layout as usual, except you must setup the printer as described above and you must print a mirrored layout.

4.4.2 CLEANING THE BOARD FOR TRANSFER  It is essential that the copper surface is spotlessly clean and free from grease that could adverse etching. To remove oxide from copper surface, I use the abrasive spongy scrubs sold for kitchen cleaning. It‘s cheaper than ultra -fine sandpaper and reusable many times.

Metallic wool sold for kitchen cleaning purposes also works. Thoroughly scrub copper  surface until really shiny. Rinse and dry with a clean cloth or kitchen paper.

Figure 4.5 Cleaning of PCB

4.4.3 PREPARING FOR TRANSFER  To make paper alignment easy, cut excess paper around one corner (leave a small margin though). Leave plenty of paper on the other sides to fix the paper to the desk. As the board is larger than the final PCB, there is large margin for easy placement of paper on copper.Turn the iron to its maximum heat (COTTON position) and turn off steam, if   present. While the iron warms up, position the materials on the table. Don‘t work on an ironing board as its soft surface makes it difficult to apply pressure and keep the PCB in  place. Protect table surface with flat, heat-resistant heat -resistant material (e.g. old magazines) and place the board on top, copper face up. Lock the board in place with double-adhesive tape. Position the PCB printout over the copper surface, toner down, and align paper and board corners. Lock the paper with scotch tape along one side only. This way, you can flip the  paper in and out instantly. instan tly.  21

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Figure 4.6 Preparation for Transfer

4.4.4 LAYOUT TRANSFER ON PCB Flip out the paper, and preheat copper surface placing the iron on top of it for 30 seconds. Remove the iron, flip back paper into its previous position over the copper. It is essential that paper does not slip from its position. You can also cover with a second sheet of blank   paper to distribute pressure more evenly. Keep moving the iron, while pressing down as evenly as you can, for about one minute. Remove the iron and let the board to cool down. 

Figure 4.7 Ironing of PCB

4.4.5 PEELING When the board is cool enough to touch, trim excess paper and immerge in water. Let it soak for 1 minute, or until paper softens. Cheap paper softens almost immediately, turning into a pulp that is easy to remove rubbing with your thumb. Keep rubbing until all paper  dissolves (usually less than 1 minute). Don‘t be afraid to scratch toner, if it has transferred

correctly it forms a very strong bond with copper. The board with all paper removed. It is

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE OK if some microscopic paper fibers remain on the toner (but remove any fiber from copper), giving it a silky feeling. It is normal that these fibers turn a little white when dry.

Figure 4.8 Etched PCB 

4.4.6 DEVELOPING OF PCB (ETCHING)   In this all excessive copper is removed from the copper clad laminate, and only pattern is left behind. Developing is done in a solution of heated tap water and ferric chloride (FeCl3). To 100 ml of tap water around 30 to 40 gms. of FeCl 3 is added. A few drops of  HCl may be added to speed up the process. The board with its copper side facing upward should be placed in a flat-bottomed plastic tray and the aqueous solution of FeCl3 poured. The etching process would take 40 to 60 minutes to complete depending upon the size of  the PCB. Then board is washed under the running water and dried. The printed pattern should be clearly visible otherwise allow it to stand in the solution for some more time. The paint should be removed with the help of alcohol or petrol.

Figure 4.9 Etching of PCB 

After a few minutes (it may take more if your plate's copper layer is thick) the copper part of the plate which is not painted will be dissolved. Move the plate in the

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE solution to help it dissolve easier. When all unwanted copper parts are dissolved quickly take it out the solution and rinse with plenty of tap water. This is really important that FeCl3 residue left on the PCB will make it rusty by the time. Be careful: do not split FeCl3 on any part of your home. It eats much of the metals and leaves ugly stains surfaces.

Figure 4.10 Etching Solution 

After drying the rinsed PCB, remove painting with a solvent (such as aceton or  thinner). Now it is ready to drill. Use proper hole diameters for your components to be soldered on. The one on the picture is a 1mm drill. You will also find the help of initial marking here as a guidance to the drill tip.

4.4.7 DRILLING For drilling the plate one can use high tensile steel bit of diameter 1mm and following  points should be kept in mind For IC‘s always alw ays use IC bas es, as direct soldering of IC may damage them. The drilling of holes is in such a manner so as to correspond to IC bases exactly so that no one faces any problem in inserting the pins of the bases. For other  components 18The holes are exactly placed so that components fix exactly in the holes without any bending or stretching of leads of components. For drilling of holes for fixing PCB in chassis always ensure that no copper line passes near the holes. After drilling the  proper sized holes hol es (or sometimes slots as need needed), ed), start soldering solde ring the components compo nents on PCB. For convenience first solder the small parts close to the board surface then the others last especially the fragile ones. I do not include soldering techniques here since there are many  pages on web about it.

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Figure 4.11 Drilling 

At this point, holes are drilled for any leaded componentsand mounting holes.

Figure 4.12 Drilling of PCB

For drilling the plate one can use high tensile steel bit of diameter 1 mm and following  points should be b e kept in mind: 

For IC’s:IC’s:-

  Always use IC bases, as direct soldering of IC may damage them.



  The drilling of holes is in such manner so as to correspond to IC bases exact



that no faces any problem in measuring the pins of the bases.  

For Other Components:-

1. The holes are exactly placed so that component fix exactly in the holes without any bending or stretching of leads of component. 2. For drilling of holes for fixing PCB in chassis always ensure that no copper line  passes near the holes.

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4.4.8 SOLDERING It is a process of joining two or more metal at a temperature below their melting point using filler metal (solder) having melting point below 450degree Celsius. Clean the two surfaces to be soldered thoroughly so that surfaces are free from all dust particles, Grease, oil, chemical etc. Preparation of component lead is done the component lead is done. The component lead may rust during storage. It will be difficult to solder such leaded components thus leads of such components or wires need to be tinned. Apply small amount of flux on the surface to be soldered. Select an iron bit of correct size and temperature, clean the tip of soldering iron on the sponge select correct gauge of solder  ensure the eutectic combination. Apply the soldering iron to the joint from one side heat up the surface to the soldered. Apply solder directly on to the component not the tip of soldering iron. The join should give the shiny bead like appearance, if not, apply little more flux and reheat the  joint.  Now, extra lengths of component leads may be cut off with the help of suitable cutter. All the components according to the component assembly diagram are mounted in the appropriate holes. Soldering is a process of joining two or more metals at a temperature below their  melting point using filter metal (solder) having melting point below 450 degree Celsius. Heat is applied to the metal parts, and the alloy metal is pressed against the joint, melts, and is drawn into the joint by capillary action and around the materials to be joined by wetting action. After the metal cools, the resulting joints are not as strong as the base metal, but have an adequate strength, electrical conductivity, and water tightness for many uses. Soldering is an ancient technique that has been used practically as long as humans have been making articles out of metal. Soldering can be done in number of ways, including passing parts over a bulk container of melted solder (wave soldering), using an infrared lamp, or by using a point source such as an electric soldering iron, a brazing torch, or a hot-air soldering tool. Flux is usually used to assist in the joining process. Flux can be manufactured as part of solder in single or multi-core solder in which case it is contained inside a hollow tube or multiple tubes that are contained inside the strand of solder. Flux can also be applied separately from the solder, often in the form of   paste. In some fluxes soldering, a forming gas tat is a reducing atmosphere rich in hydrogen can also serve much the same purpose as traditional flux, and provide the

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE  benefits of traditional flux in re-flow ovens through which electronic parts placed on a circuit board on a pad of solder cream are transported for a specific period of time. One application of soldering is making connections between electronic parts and printed circuit  boards. Another is in plumbing. Joints in sheet metal objects such as cans for food, roof  flashing, and drain gutters were also traditionally soldered. Jewelry and small mechanical  parts are often assembled by soldering. Soldering can also be used to repair technique to  patch a leak in a container con tainer or looking vessels. v essels. Soldering is distinct disti nct from welding in that tthe he  base materials to be joined are not melted, though the base metal is dissolved somewhat into the liquid solder  –  this dissolution process results in the soldered joints mechanical and electrical strengths. Brazing is similar to soldering but uses higher melting temperature alloys, based on copper, as the filter metal. Hard soldering or silver soldering (performed with high temperature solder containing up to 40% silver) is also a form of   brazing, and involves solders so lders with melting points aabove bove 450 C.

4.4.9 DESOLDERING & RESOLDERING Due to the dissolution of the base metals into the solder, solder should never be reused. Once the solders capacity to dissolve base metal has been achieved, the solder will not  properly bond with wit h the base metal and an d a cold solder solde r joint with a hard har d and brittle cr crystalline ystalline appearance will usually be the t\result. It is in good practice to remove solder from a joint  prior to re-soldering re-solderin g – de-soldering wicks or vacuum de-soldering equipment can be used. De-soldering wicks contains plenty of flux that will lift the contamination from the copper trace and any device leads that are present. This will leave a bright, shiny, clean  joint to be re-soldered. The lower melting point of solder means it can be melted away from the base metal, leaving it mostly intact though the outer layer will be ‗tinned‘ with solder. Flux will remain which can easily be removed by abrasive or chemical processes. This tinned layer will allow solder to flow into a new joint, as well as making the solder  flow very quickly and easily.

4.4.10 SOLDERING DEFECTS Soldering defects are solder joints that are not soldered correctly. These defects may arise when solder temperature is too low. When the base metals are too cold, the solder will not flow and will ‗ball up‘ without creating the metallurgical bond. An incorrect solder type

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE (for example, electronics solder for mechanical joints or vice versa) will lead to a weak   point. An incorrect or missing flux can corrode the metals in the joint. Without flux the  joint may not be clean. A dirty or contaminated joint leads to a weak bond. A lack of solder on a joint will make the joint fail. An excess of solder can create a ‗solder bridge‘ which is a short circuit.

Movement of metals being soldered before the solder has cooled will make the solder  appear grainy and may cause a weakened joint.

4.5 FINAL PCB

Figure 4.13 Final Project PCB

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CHAPTER 5 BASIC COMPONENTS

5.1 AT89S52 The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8Kbytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using high-density non-volatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out.  

5.1.1 FEATURES • Compatible with MCS®-51 Products • 8K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP) Flash Memory – Endurance: 10,00

write/Erase Cycles • 4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range   • Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz   • Three-level Program Memory Lock  • 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM • 32 Programmable I/O Lines • Three 16-bit Timer/Counters • Eight Interrupt Sources   • Full Duplex UART Serial Channel  • Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes • Interrupt Recovery from Power -down -down Mode • Watchdog Timer   • Dual Data Pointer   • Power -off -off Flag • Fast Pr ogramming ogramming Time • Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode)  • 32 Programmable I/O Lines  • Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz  

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5.1.2 DESCRIPTION The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8Kbytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. The device is manufactured using high-density non-volatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional non-volatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.

Figure 5.1 Microcontroller

The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash, 256  bytes of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, onchip oscillator, and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port, and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset.

5.2 CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR   A miniature 4 MHz quartz crystal enclosed in a hermetically sealed HC-49/US package, used as the resonator in a crystal oscillator. A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator  circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time (as in quartz wristwatches), to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers. The

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE most common type of piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal, so oscillator  circuits designed around them became known as "crystal oscillators."

Figure 5.3 Crystal Oscillator

A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time (as in quartz wristwatches), to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers. The most common type of   piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal, so oscillator circuits incorporating them  became known as crystal oscillators but other piezoelectric materials including  polycrystalline ceramics cer amics are used in similar circuits. circui ts. Quartz crystals are manufactured for frequencies from a few tens of kilohertz to tens of megahertz. More than two billion crystals are manufactured annually. Most are used for consumer devices such as wristwatches, clocks, radios, computers, and cellphones. Quartz crystals are also found inside test and measurement equipment, such as counters, signal generators, and oscilloscopes. The crystal oscillator circuit sustains oscillation by taking a voltage signal from the quartz resonator, amplifying it, and feeding it back to the resonator. The rate of expansion and contraction of the quartz is the resonant frequency, and is determined by the cut and size of the crystal. When the energy of the generated output frequencies matches the losses in the circuit, an oscillation can be sustained. An oscillator crystal has two electrically conductive plates, with a slice or tuning fork of quartz crystal sandwiched between them. During startup, the circuit around the crystal applies a random noise AC signal to it, and purely by chance, a tiny fraction of the noise will be at the resonant frequency of the crystal. The crystal will therefore start oscillating in synchrony with that signal. As the oscillator amplifies the signals coming out of the crystal, the signals in the crystal's frequency band will become stronger, eventually

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE dominating the output of the oscillator. The narrow resonance band of the quartz crystal filters out all the unwanted frequencies. The output frequency of a quartz oscillator can be either the fundamental resonance or a multiple of the resonance, called an overtone frequency. High frequency crystals are often designed to operate at third, fifth, or seventh overtones. Manufacturers have difficulty producing crystals thin enough to produce fundamental frequencies over 30 MHz. To produce higher frequencies, manufacturers make overtone crystals tuned to put the 3rd, 5th, or 7th overtone at the desired frequency,  because they are thicker and therefore easier to manufacture than a fundamental crystal that would produce the same frequency — although although getting the desired overtone frequency requires a slightly more complicated oscillator circuit. A fundamental crystal oscillator  circuit is simpler and more efficient and has more pullability than a third overtone circuit. Depending on the manufacturer, the highest available fundamental frequency may be 25 MHz to 66 MHz.

5.3 LED A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator  lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. Introduced as a  practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity low-intensit y red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. When a light-emitting diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. An LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as replacements for  aviation lighting, automotive lighting (particularly brake lamps, turn signals and indicators) as well as in traffic signals. The compact size, the possibility of narrow

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE  bandwidth, switching speed, and extreme reliability of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications technology. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including televisions, DVD players, and other  domestic appliances.

Figure 5.4 Types of LED’s  LED’s 

The LED consists of a chip of semiconducting material doped with impurities to create a p-n junction. As in other diodes, current flows easily from the p-side, or anode, to the n-side, or cathode, but not in the reverse direction. Charge-carriers — electrons electrons and holes — flow flow into the junction from electrodes with different voltages. When an electron meets a hole, it falls into a lower energy level, and releases energy in the form of a photon. The wavelength of the light emitted, and thus its color depends on the band gap energy of the materials forming the p-n junction. In silicon or germanium diodes, the electrons and holes recombine by a non-radiative transition, which produces no optical emission, because these are indirect band gap materials. The materials used for the LED have a direct band gap with energies corresponding to near-infrared, visible, or nearultraviolet light. LED development began with infrared and red devices made with gallium arsenide. Advances in materials science have enabled making devices with ever-shorter  wavelengths, emitting light in a variety of colors. LEDs are usually built on an n-type substrate, with an electrode attached to the ptype layer deposited on its surface. P-type substrates, while less common, occur as well. Many commercial LEDs, especially GaN/InGaN, also use sapphire substrate.

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5.4 78XX IC  The 78xx (sometimes LM78xx) is a family of self-contained fixed linear voltage regulator  integrated circuits. The 78xx family is commonly used in electronic circuits requiring a regulated power supply due to their ease-of-use and low cost. For ICs within the family, the xx is replaced with two digits, indicating the output voltage (for example, the 7805 has a 5 volt output, while the 7812 produces 12 volts). The 78xx line are positive voltage regulators: they produce a voltage that is positive relative to a common ground. There is a related line of 79xx devices which are complementary negative voltage regulators. 78xx and 79xx ICs can be used in combination to provide positive and negative supply voltages in the same circuit.

Figure 5.5 78XX IC

78xx ICs have three terminals and are commonly found in the TO220 form factor, although smaller surface-mount and larger TO3 packages are available. These devices support an input voltage anywhere from a couple of volts over the intended output voltage, up to a maximum of 35 or 40 volts, and typically provide 1 or 1.5 amps of current (though smaller or larger packages may have a lower or higher current rating). 78xx series ICs do not require additional components to provide a constant, regulated source of power, making them easy to use, as well as economical and efficient uses of space. Other voltage regulators may require additional components to set the output voltage level, or to assist in the regulation process. Some other designs (such as a switched-mode power supply) may need substantial engineering expertise to implement. 78xx series ICs have built-in protection against a circuit drawing too much power. They have protection against overheating and short-circuits, making them quite robust in most applications. In some cases, the current-limiting features of the 78xx devices can  provide protection not n ot only for the 78xx itself, but also for other parts o off the circuit. 34

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE The input voltage must always be higher than the output voltage by some minimum amount (typically 2 volts). This can make these devices unsuitable for powering some devices from certain types of power sources (for example, powering a circuit that requires 5 volts using 6-volt batteries will not work using a 7805).   As they are based on a linear regulator design, the input current required is always the same as the output current. As the input voltage must always be higher than the output voltage, this means that the total power (voltage multiplied by current) going into the 78xx will be more than the output power provided. The extra input power is dissipated as heat. This means both that for some applications an adequate heatsink must be provided, and also that a (often substantial) portion of the input power is wasted during the process, rendering them less efficient than some other types of power supplies. When the input voltage is significantly higher than the regulated output voltage (for example, powering a 7805 using a 24 volt power source), this inefficiency can be a significant issue. Even in larger packages, 78xx integrated circuits cannot supply as much power as many designs which use discrete components, and are generally inappropriate for  applications requiring more than a few amperes of current. Each specific model of 78xx is designed to produce only one fixed voltage output, so they may not be suitable for applications requiring a configurable or varying output (For such applications, the LM317 series of ICs are available, which are similar to 78xx ICs but can produce a configurable voltage).

5.5 CAPACITOR  A capacitor (formerly known as condenser) is a device for storing electric charge. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two conductors separated  by a non-conductor. Capacitors used u sed as parts of electrical systems, for example, consist co nsist of  metal foils separated by a layer of insulating film. A capacitor is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). When there is a potential difference (voltage) across the conductors, a static electric field develops across the dielectric, causing positive charge to collect on one plate and negative charge on the other plate. Energy is stored in the electrostatic field. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance, measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor  to the potential difference between them.

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Figure 5.6 Types of Capacitors

Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass, in filter networks, for smoothing the output of power  supplies, in the resonant circuits that tune radios to particular frequencies and for many other purposes. The capacitance is greatest when there is a narrow separation between large areas of conductor, hence capacitor conductors are often called "plates," referring to an early means of construction. In practice the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current and also has an electric field strength limit, resulting in a breakdown voltage, while the conductors and leads introduce an undesired inductance and resistance. A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region. The non-conductive region is called the dielectric. In simpler terms, the dielectric is just an electrical insulator. Examples of dielectric media are glass, air, paper, vacuum, and even a semiconductor depletion region chemically identical to the conductors. A capacitor is assumed to be self-contained and isolated, with no net electric charge and no influence from any external electric field. The conductors thus hold equal and opposite charges on their facing surfaces, and the dielectric develops an electric field. In SI units, a capacitance of one farad means that one coulomb of charge on each conductor causes a voltage of one volt across the device.

Sometimes charge build-up affects the capacitor mechanically, causing its capacitance to vary. In this case, capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes.

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5.6 RESISTOR  A resistor is a two-terminal passive electronic component which implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. When a voltage V is applied across the terminals of a resistor, a current I will flow through the resistor in direct proportion to that voltage. This constant of proportionality is called conductance, G. The reciprocal of the conductance is known as the resistance R, since, with a given voltage V, a larger value of R further  "resists" the flow of current I as given by Ohm's law: I= V/R  Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel-chrome). Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits,  particularly analog analo g devices, and can also be integrated i ntegrated into hybrid and printed circuits.

Figure 5.7 Resistor 

The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than 9 orders of magnitude. When specifying that resistance in an electronic design, the required precision of the resistance may require attention to the manufacturing tolerance of the chosen resistor, according to its specific application. The temperature coefficient of the resistance may also  be of concern in some precision applications. Practical resistors are also specified as having a maximum power rating which must exceed the anticipated power dissipation of  that resistor in a particular circuit: this is mainly of concern in power electronics applications. Resistors with higher power ratings are physically larger and may require heat sinking. In a high voltage circuit, attention must sometimes be paid to the rated maximum working voltage of the resistor. Practical resistors have a series inductance and a small parallel capacitance; these specifications can be important in high-frequency applications. In a low-noise amplifier or   pre-amp, the noise characteristics ch aracteristics of a resistor may ma y be an issue. The unwanted inductance, ind uctance, excess noise, and temperature coefficient are mainly dependent on the technology used in

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE manufacturing the resistor. They are not normally specified individually for a particular  family of resistors manufactured using a particular technology. A family of discrete resistors is also characterized according to its form factor, that is, the size of the device and the position of its leads (or terminals) which is relevant in the practical manufacturing of circuits using them.

5.7 DIODE  In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal electronic component with an asymmetric transfer  characteristic, with low (ideally zero) resistance to current flow in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other. A semiconductor diode, the most common type today, is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a p-n junction connected to two electrical terminals.[5] A vacuum tube diode is a vacuum tube with two electrodes, a  plate (anode) and heated heat ed cathode.

Figure 5.9 Diode

The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the diode's forward direction), while blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction). Thus, the diode can be viewed as an electronic version of  a check valve. This unidirectional behavior is called rectification, and is used to convert alternating current to direct current, including extraction of modulation from radio signals in radio receivers — these these diodes are forms of rectifiers. However, diodes can have more complicated behavior than this simple on – off  off  action. Semiconductor diodes begin conducting electricity only if a certain threshold voltage or cut-in voltage is present in the forward direction (a state in which the diode is said to be forward-biased). The voltage drop across a forward-biased diode varies only a little with the current, and is a function of temperature; this effect can be used as a temperature sensor or voltage reference. Semiconductor diodes' nonlinear current  –  – voltage voltage characteristic can be tailored by varying the semiconductor materials and doping, introducing impurities into the materials. These are exploited in special-purpose diodes that perform many different functions. For  example, diodes are used to regulate voltage (Zener diodes), to protect circuits from high

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE voltage surges (avalanche diodes), to electronically tune radio and TV receivers (varactor  diodes), to generate radio frequency oscillations (tunnel diodes, Gunn diodes, IMPATT diodes), and to produce light (light emitting diodes). Tunnel diodes exhibit negative resistance, which makes them useful in some types of circuits. Diodes were the first semiconductor electronic devices. The discovery of crystals' rectifying abilities was made by German physicist Ferdinand Braun in 1874. The first semiconductor diodes, called cat's whisker diodes, developed around 1906, were made of  mineral crystals such as galena. Today most diodes are made of silicon, but other  semiconductors such as germanium are sometimes used.

Figure 5.10 Current –   –   voltage characteristic characteristic

5.8 TRANSFORMER   A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers energy by inductive coupling  between its winding circuits. A varying current in the primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic flux through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic flux induces a varying electromotive force (EMF), or "voltage", in the secondary winding. Transformers range in size from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden in microphones to units weighing hundreds of tons used in electrical substations at power  generation stations and to interconnect the power grid. Transformers are used in wide-

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE ranging designs for varied electrical and electronic circuits and devices and are essential for the transmission, distribution, and utilization of electric power. The transformer is based on two principles: first, that an electric current can  produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism) and second that a changing magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnetic flux that is developed. The changing magnetic flux induces a voltage in the secondary coil. An ideal transformer is shown in the figure below. Current passing through the  primary coil creates a magnetic field. The primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability, such as iron, so that most of the magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils. If a load is connected to the secondary winding, the load current and voltage will be in the directions indicated, given the primary current and voltage in the directions indicated (each will be alternating current in practice).

Figure 5.10 Transformer Coil

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE An ideal voltage stepdown transformer. The secondary current arises from the action of  the secondary EMF on the (not shown) load impedance. The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be calculated from Faraday's law of induction, which states that:

where Vs is the instantaneous voltage, Ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil and Φ is the magnetic flux through one turn of the coil. If the turns of the coil are

oriented perpendicularly to the magnetic field lines, the flux is the product of the magnetic flux density B and the area A through which it cuts. The area is constant, being equal to the cross-sectional area of the transformer core, whereas the magnetic field varies with time according to the excitation of the primary. Since the same magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils in an ideal transformer,[36] the instantaneous voltage across the primary winding equals

Taking the ratio of the two equations for Vs and Vp gives the basic equation[37] for stepping up or stepping down the voltage

 Np/Ns is known as the turns ratio, and is the primary functional characteristic of  any transformer. In the case of step-up transformers, this may sometimes be stated as the reciprocal, Ns/Np. Turns ratio is commonly expressed as an irreducible fraction or ratio: for example, a transformer with primary and secondary windings of, respectively, 100 and 150 turns is said to have a turns ratio of 2:3 rather than 0.667 or 100:150. If a load is connected to the secondary winding, current will flow in this winding, and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer  to the load. Transformers may be used for AC-to-AC conversion of a single power  frequency, or for conversion of signal power over a wide range of frequencies, such as audio or radio frequencies. In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary winding (Vs) is in  proportion to the t he primary primar y voltage volta ge (Vp) and is given by the ratio of the number of turns tur ns in the secondary (Ns) to the number of turns in the primary (Np) as follows:

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By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus enables an alternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making Ns greater than Np, or  "stepped down" by making Ns less than Np. The windings are coils wound around a ferromagnetic core, air-core transformers being a notable exception. If the secondary coil is attached to a load that allows current to flow, electrical  power is transmitted from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit. Ideally, the transformer is perfectly efficient. All the incoming energy is transformed from the primary circuit to the magnetic field and into the secondary circuit. If this condition is met, the input electric power must equal the output power:

giving the ideal transformer equation

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CHAPTER 6 SOFTWARE USED AND FLOW CHART OF PROGRAM

6.1 SOFTWARES

There are three softwares used

6.1.1 PROTEUS 7 PROFFESIONAL Proteus PCB design combines the ISIS schematic capture and ARES PCB layout  programs to provide a powerful, integrated and easy to use suite of tools for professional PCB Design. All Proteus PCB design products include an integrated shape based auto router and a basic SPICE simulation capability as standard. More advanced routing modes are included in Proteus PCB Design Level 2 and higher whilst simulation capabilities can be enhanced by  purchasing the Advanced Simulation option and/or micro-controller simulation capabilities.

6.1.2 PROTEUS PROFESSIONAL STARTER KIT

  Full feature ISIS schematic capture with support for hierarchical design, bus pins,



configurable bill of materials and much, much more.

   Netlist based ARES PCB layout with support of up to 16 copper layers, 10nm



resolution, any angle component placement, full electrical and physical design rule checks and much more.

  Standard version of our integrated shape based auto-router (fully automated



routing only)

  External Autorouter Interface - allows export and import of designs (in the most



common format) to/from a dedicated external Autorouter.

  Support for one shaped based ground plane per layer.



  Component libraries containing over 10000 schematic parts and 1500 PCB



footprints.

  Support for one shaped based ground plane per layer.



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6.1.3 PROTEUS PCB DESIGN LEVEL 1 AND LEVEL 1 These products offer exactly the same functionality as the Starter Kit but offer more realistic design capacities of 1000 or 2000 pins.

  Full feature ISIS schematic capture with support for hierarchical design, bus pins,



configurable bill of materials and much, much more.    Netlist based ARES PCB layout with support of up to 16 copper layers, 10nm



resolution, any angle component placement, full electrical and physical design rule checks and much more.

  Standard version of our integrated shape based auto-router (fully automated



routing only).

  External Autorouter Interface - allows export and import of designs (in the most



common format) to/from a dedicated external Autorouter.

  Support for one shaped based ground plane per layer.



  Component libraries containing over 10000 schematic parts and 1500 PCB



footprints.

  Includes ProSPICE mixed mode simulator with 6000 models and 12virtual



instruments.

  1000 pin capacity in Level 1; 2000 pin capacity in Level 1+.



6.1.4 PROTEUS PCB DESIGN LEVEL 2 AND LEVEL 2+ These products are restricted in terms of pin count only, and same set of features as the top of the range Level 3. Extra functionality over Level 1 includes:

  Automatic component placement - this tool will automatic place the component



specified in the netlist onto the board.

  Ability to run the integrated shape based router in interactive mode (partial



routing, fanout control, etc.) or by loading custom scripts.

  3D Visualisation of the current board including navigation and user application of 



3D data to footprints.

  The ability to export your layouts using the ODB++ CAD/CAM data exchange



format.

  Unlimited shape based power planes per layer.



  Automatic gateswap optimization.



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  1000 pin capacity in Level2; 2000 pin capacity in Level 2+



6.1.5 PROTEUS PCB DESIGN LEVEL 3 This is the top of the range package and offers all system features as above plus unlimited design capacity.

6.1.6 KEIL UVISION 3 The Keil 8051 Development Tools are designed to solve the complex problems facing embedded software developers. When starting a new project, simply select the microcontroller you use from the Device Database and the μVision IDE sets all compiler, assembler, linker, and memory

options for you.

   Numerous example programs are included to help you get started with the most



 popular embedded 8051 devices.

  The Keil μVision Debugger accurately simulates on -chip peripherals (I²C, CAN,



UART, SPI, Interrupts, I/O Ports, A/D Converter, D/A Converter, and PWM Modules) of your 8051 device. Simulation helps you understand hardware configurations and avoids time wasted on setup problems. Additionally, with simulation, you can write and test applications before target hardware is available.

  When you are ready to begin testing your software application with target



hardware, use the MON51, MON390, MONADI, or FlashMON51 Target Monitors, the ISD51 In-System Debugger, or the ULINK USB-JTAG Adapter to download and test program code on your target system. Keil C51 is the industry-standard toolchain for all 8051-compatible devices, it supports classic 8051, Dallas 390, NXP MX, extended 8051 variants, and C251 devices. The μVision IDE/Debugger integrates complete device simulation, interfaces to many

target debug adapters, and provides various monitor debug solutions. The Keil Device Database provides a complete list of devices that are supported by the Keil development tools. The Device Database lists tools, middleware, emulators, evaluation boards, data sheets, and example projects for each specific device.The μVision IDE/Debugger integrates complete device simulation, interfaces to many target debug adapters, and provides various monitor debug solutions.

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6.1.7 EXPRESS PCB SOFTWARE DETAIL

Express PCBis a complete state-of-the-art PCB Design System. It includes: 

 

PCB Layout  —  PCB designs with an easy-to-use manual routing tools, shape-based auto router and auto-placer.

 

Schematic  —  Schematic Capture with multi-level hierarchy and export to PCB Layout, Spice or Net list.



 

Component and Pattern Editors — allow you to make new parts and footprints.



 

Standard Libraries - include 100,000+ parts.



 

Import/Export Features - allow you to exchange designs and libraries with other EDA



tools. 

 

Step-by-Step Tutorial - learn the software and start real work in a few hours.

6.1.7.1 EXPRESS PCB PROVIDES THE FOLLOWING FEATURES

 



Easy to learn user interface: To design a schematic, simply select and place components onto your document and connect them together using the wire and bus

tools. Multi sheet and hierarchical schematics are supported. Then select the menu option 'Convert to PCB' to convert the schematic to PCB. Layout can be updated from Schematic in a few clicks at anytime. When you create or edit design objects they are highlighted to improve your work.  

  Smart placement and auto-placement features: After converting Schematic to PCB



layout, place board outline and arrange components. Then use "placement by list" for  chips/connectors and auto-placement for other components to get acceptable result in a few minutes and start routing.   Easy to use manual and powerful automatic routing : Express PCB software



includes 2 automatic routers (Shape-based and Grid-based). Shape Router is able to route complex layouts with SMD components as well as single-layer boards. Grid Router can also make single-layer boards with jumper wires. With Spectra DSN/SES interface you can use external shape-based or topological auto router. Intelligent manual routing tools allow you to create and edit traces by 90, 45 degree or without any limitations. Curved traces are supported. Through, blind or buried vias can be used in automatic and manual routing. Board size is not limited. 

  Shape-based copper pour: Powerful copper pour system can help to reduce your  manufacturing costs by minimizing the amount of etching solution required. To use it,

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE all you have to do is insert a copper area on your board in the PCB Layout program and any pad or trace inside the selected area will be automatically surrounded with a gap of the desired size. Using copper pour you can also create planes and connect them to pads and vias (different thermal types are supported).

  Advanced Verification Features: Schematic and PCB design modules have number 



of verification features that help control project accuracy on different design stages: The ERC function shows possible errors in Schematic pin connections using defined rules and allows you to correct errors step-by-step. DRC function checks the clearance  between design objects, minimum size of traces, and drills. Errors are displayed graphically and you can fix them step-by-step and rerun the DRC in one click after any corrections. Net Connectivity Check verifies if all nets of PCB are electrically connected. This feature uses traces, copper pour filled area and shapes to control connectivity, then reports broken and merged nets with area details. Comparing to Schematic allows you to check if routed PCB is identical with Schematic.

  Spice Support: With Express PCBSchematic Capture or Component Editor specify



spice settings or attach models to the parts. Then export .cir net-list of your Schematic to LT Spice or another simulation software to verify how it works.

  Import/Export Features: Package modules allow you to exchange schematics,



layouts and libraries with other EDA and CAD packages (DXF, Eagle, P-CAD, PADS, ORCAD). Express PCB Schematic Capture and PCB Layout also support Accel, Allegro, Mentor, PADS, P-CAD, Protel and Tango net list formats.

  Producing PCB’s using milling method : Express PCBallows you to export edge



 poly lines to DXF. The DXF files can be converted to G-code with Ace Converter. Before edge exporting the DRC function of PCB layout program checks the design and shows possible problems if exist.

  Creation of your own libraries: Component and Pattern Editors allow designing your 



own symbols and patterns. To create complete components simply connect them together using Component Editor.

6.2 ALGORITHM OF PROJECT   Step 1: Start 



  Step 2: Enter the password 



  Step 3: Finger print modules gets active 



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  Step 4: Finger print scan by scanner  



  Step 5: if data match then voting unit is on



 



 



 



Else if  Buzzer buzz. If once voting is done then buzzer will buzz and other vote cannot be done.

  Step 6: Process goes on until switch off 



6.3 FLOWCHART OF PROJECT

start

Capture finger print Feature set Long  beep

Verification module

verified

Ballot is ready to vote n

Candidate voting done

end

Fig 6.1 Flowchart of the Project

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CHAPTER 7 PROBLEM FACED

7.1 INTRODUCTION The academic project is demanding, but an exciting learning experience. However, it is not without problems which, if not identified and addressed, could seriously affect the final result. There are a lot of problems met along the whole trimester for this project. Firstly, designing the schematic of the project is quite time consuming for a beginner who never  design one before. A lot of hard works need to be done to complete the schematic. Besides that, PCB design will waste a lot of time for the project. If want to design a good and efficient PCB trace, more time will be spend and more hard works needed to done the PCB design, if not, poor PCB design will be produced and it will cause future  problems like hardware problems. Hardware problems are hard to be debugged and solved, which mean it is quite a time consuming problem that will slow down the whole working process for this project. Some problems like sensor not functioning and burned of components are met. When stuck on some problems without solution, helps will be needed among course mate or get advises from lecturer. When hardware part had no problem, programming part can  be done rapidly unless there are fatal bugs that needed to be solved. To solve  programming problems, prob lems, a lot of tries are needed and it is i s quite time ti me consuming if problem cannot be solved after few tries. Programming is also one of the important parts in a project. Although the problems in a program can be rectified by using a good compiler, this would notify you about the errors, and would also give you the proper warnings. The decision of which programming platform we should use was also an important factor. We first thought of programming in high level languages but that was not a good decision. We had to move on low level language programming and that was a bit easier.

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE During programming we made certain illogical loops and then suffered with the lack of programming space inside the microcontroller so we switched to shorter but smarter programming and that was possible only by taking help of standard author books. Also the selection of suitable assembler and a suitable compiler was also an important and deciding factor. We searched a lot for it and also consulted our teachers and guide which assembler we should use and we were successful in the first assembler used. The problems which occur during any project are to be rectified immediately else they would incur you high end losses even the project might not run at all. So a word of  caution is mandatory before moving on to next stages and wasting the hard work and the resources. The efficient planning and risk calculation before each step would help a lot in the successful development of the project. Although the project we made was not hundred  percent perfect but it had very less problems because of time to time correction, rectification and proper vigilance. Initially this project was built at low level language i.e. assembly language but there is no scope for the development of the project as it is hard to understand by other  users. So we switch to the embedded C language as it has large options and alternatives to develop the project. With assembly language we were using the five microcontrollers which were hard to synchronise and thus when we switched to embedded C language it solved our problem and we could use only one controller for the whole project. With one controller we came across the shortage of pins which leads us to use decoder in our   project. In circuit desinging we have come across some problems like when we worked upon the Express PCB software and we take the print out on the glossy paper the IC socket was short in length. Then we made the whole circuit designing on Diptrace software which was hard task to do it.

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CHAPTER 8 APPLICATIONS AND FUTURE SCOPE

8.1 FUTURE SCOPE 1.   Number of candidates could coul d be increased. 2.  It could be interfaced with printer to get the hard copy of the result instantly from the machine itself. 3.  It could also be interfaced with the personal computer and result could be stored in the central server and its backup could be taken on the other backend servers. 4.  Again, once the result is on the server it could be relayed on the network to various offices of the election conducting authority. Thus our project makes the result available any corner of the world in a matter of seconds. 5.  Fast track voting which could be used in small scale elections, like resident welfare association, ―panchayat‖ level election and other society level elections.

6.  It could also be used to conduct opinion polls during annual shareholders meeting. 7.  It could also be used to conduct general assembly elections where number of 

candidates are less than or equal to eight in the current situation.   8.  Memory of finger print module can be expanded .We can use a 1mb flash memory finger print module for increasing the capacity. 9.  External memory can be provided for storing the finger print image, which can be later accessed for comparison. 10. Smart Card reader module is supposed to be introduced with the existing module for further security, and to reduce the database storage. 11. Audio output can be introduced to make it user friendly for illiterate voters. 12. Retina scanning can also be developed.

8.2 APPLICATIONS  

1. This project can be used as an voting machine that can prevent rigging during the elections in the polling booths.

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE 2.  Fast track voting which could be used in small scale elections, like resident welfare association, ―panchayat‖ level election and other society level elections.

3.  It could also be used to conduct opinion polls during annual shareholders meeting. 4.  It could also be used to conduct general assembly elections where number of  candidates are less than or equal to eight in the current situation 5.  For High Efficiency Security at Various Places. 6.  Biometrics based authentication applications include workstation, network and domain access, single sign-on, application logon, data protection, remote access to resources, transaction security and web security etc.

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CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION

9.1 CONCLUSION Difference in the academic life and practical life of technology is revealed when one enters in the real life and competitive world with technology aspects. Theoretical knowledge which we gain from book is of worth but not so applicable without knowing its  practical implementation. It has been experienced ex perienced that theoretical theo retical knowledge kn owledge is volatile vola tile in nature. To accomplish the true fulfillment of this technical knowledge one has to implement the theoretical part in the form of project or model with a new concept of the technology along with is applicability such that, it is useful to society and country. To meet this requirement in our engineering curriculum, provision of project is provided. In the project stage- I, we have already done with the documentation part of the  project and analysis and study stud y of various var ious module and components component s that we will be using in our project circuit. We have learnt the designing the layout of the PCB in dip trace. As well as, we also learnt about the procedure of making the printed circuit board. We searched about the different components and their prices available in the market. We also studied the interfacing of the different components and modules with the microcontroller. The performance of the system is more efficient. Reading the Data and verifying the information with the already stored data and perform the specified task is the main job of the microcontroller. The mechanism is by the microcontroller. Fingerprint Based Voting Machine is designed to make the procedure of voting easier and more convenient as it is a modified system.it has proved to be very advantageous in providing security EVM is capable of saving considerable printing stationery and transport of large volumes of electoral material. It is easy to transport, store, and maintain. It completely rules out the chance of invalid votes. In total, the complete system (including all the hardware components and software routines) is working as per the initial specifications and requirements of our   project. So certain aspects of the system can be modified as operational experience is gained with it. As the users work with the system, they develop various new ideas for the development and enhancement of the project.

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7.1 KEY LEARNING During the Stage-I first thing learned was the organizing skills of the project for  implementing the new trends of technology, which was the necessary part of the problem solving algorithm. Hence we have learned convincing power and team working skills due to this whole procedure. We learn the new available technology like biometric which is based on the fingerprint of  the human we also studied the 8051 microcontroller it‘s implementation, it‘s interfacing and so many other things. we also meet the officers of election commission of India , Jaipur and know about the EVM that are currently used by the election commission of  India. 

  Microcontroller 



  Power supply



  Matrix keypad



  Embedded system



  Finger print sensor 



  Microcontroller Coding



  Module interfacing with Microcontroller 



  Finger print module interfacing with Microcontroller  



9.2 ADVANTAGES The various advantages of biometric electronic voting machine are

• Minimizing voting time for voters. • Reducing forcefully voting in elections - by using biometric sensor there is no accidents

like rigging, forcefully voting in election. • Increasing voting efficiency- As we discussed above that it will minimize the voting

time, accident, rigging, stop delays so we can easily say that there is average increase in efficiency.  

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ANNEXURE A1 DATA SHEET A1.1 AT89S52 

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A1.3 78XX IC

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ANNEXURE A2 COADING

A2.1MODULE 1 $crystal = 11059200

Dim I As Byte Dim Key As Byte Dim Tk As Byte Dim Pass As String * 4

Dim C1 As Byte Dim C2 As Byte Dim C3 As Byte Dim C4 As Byte Dim C5 As Byte

Dim Total As Word Dim Temp As Byte Config Lcdpin = Pin , Db4 = P2.4 , Db5 = P2.5 , Db6 = P2.6 , Db7 = P2.7 , E = P2.3 , Rs = P2.2

P0 = 0 P0.7 = 1 Row1 Alias P1.4 Row2 Alias P1.5 Row3 Alias P1.6 Row4 Alias P1.7

Col1 Alias P1.0 Col2 Alias P1.1 Col3 Alias P1.2

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St: Cls Lcd "ENT. PASSWORD"

Do

Row1 = 0 Row2 = 0 Row3 = 0 Row4 = 0

I = P1 I = I And 15

If I <> 15 Then Cls Lcd "PASS" Lowerline Pass = "" Gosub Gpass

If Pass = "1234" Then Goto Main Cls Lcd "invallid code" Wait 2 Cls End If 

Loop

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Main: Cls Lcd "E. V. M" Lowerline Lcd "READY voting" ; Total Do P2.0 = 0

End

Gpass: Tk = 0

Do Gosub Getkey

Lcd Key Gosub Dpress

Pass = Pass + Str(key) Tk = Tk + 1 Loop Until Tk = 4

Return

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Getkey: Gosub Press

Row1 = 0 Row2 = 1 Row3 = 1 Row4 = 1

If Col1 = 0 Then Key = 1 If Col2 = 0 Then Key = 4 If Col3 = 0 Then Key = 7 If Col4 = 0 Then Key = 3

Row1 = 1 Row2 = 0 Row3 = 1 Row4 = 1

If Col1 = 0 Then Key = 2 If Col2 = 0 Then Key = 5 If Col3 = 0 Then Key = 8 If Col4 = 0 Then Key = 0

Row1 = 1 Row2 = 1 Row3 = 0 Row4 = 1

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If Col1 = 0 Then Key = 3 If Col2 = 0 Then Key = 6 If Col3 = 0 Then Key = 9 If Col4 = 0 Then Key = 11

Row1 = 1 Row2 = 1 Row3 = 1 Row4 = 0

If Col1 = 0 Then Key = 12 If Col2 = 0 Then Key = 13 If Col3 = 0 Then Key = 14 If Col4 = 0 Then Key = 15

Waitms 60

Return

Press: Do Row1 = 0 Row2 = 0 Row3 = 0 Row4 = 0

I = P1 I = I And 15 Loop Until I <> 15 Waitms 20

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Dpress: Do Row1 = 0 Row2 = 0 Row3 = 0 Row4 = 0

I = P1 I = I And 15 Loop Until I = 15 Waitms 20 Return

A2.2 MODULE 2

$crystal = 11059200 $baud = 9600

Config Lcdpin = Pin , Db7 = P2.7 , Db6 = P2.6 , Db5 = P2.5 , Db4 = P2.4 , E = P2.3 , Rs = P2.2

Dim V1_flag As Bit , V2_flag As Bit , V3_flag As Bit , V4_flag As Bit Dim C1 As Byte , C2 As Byte , C3 As Byte , C4 As Byte

Dim B1 As Byte , I As Byte B yte , T As Byte , Flag As Bit Dim M As Byte , I1 As Byte B yte , Fid As Byte Dim A(17) As Byte Flag = 0

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE Main: Lcdinit Cls Lcd "FINGER PRINT " Lowerline Lcd "VOTING SYSTEM " Wait 3

Do

Loop Until P2.1 = 0

Lcdinit Cls Lcd "FINGER PRINT " Lowerline Lcd "MACHINE READY"

Do

Gen: A(10) = 255 Gosub Genimage

Do Waitms 200 Loop Until A(10) <> 255

If P1.0 = 0 Then Gosub Register 

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If A(10) <> 0 Then Goto Gen

T=0 A(10) = 255 Gosub Charcter:

Do Waitms 200 Loop Until A(10) <> 255

If A(10) <> 0 Then Goto Gen T=0 A(10) = 255 A(12) = 255

Gosub Matchid

Do T=T+1 Waitms 200 If T > 3 Then Exit Do Loop Until A(10) <> 255

If A(10) <> 0 Then Lcdinit Cls Lcd "NOT REGISTERD" Lowerline Lcd "TRY AGAIN" P2.0 = 0 Wait 1 P2.0 = 1

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE Cls Lcd "C.I=" ; C1 ; " BJP=" ; C2 Lowerline Lcd "SP=" ; C3 ; " BSP=" ; C4 End If 

If A(10) = 0 Then

Cls Lcd "VOTER.ID=" ; A(12)

If A(12) = 1 And V1_flag = 0 Then V1_flag = 1 Lowerline Lcd "O.K." Wait 2 Cls Lcd "PLZ SEL. CHOICE" Gosub Lcdshow End If 

If A(12) = 2 And V2_flag = 0 Then V2_flag = 1 Lowerline Lcd "O.K." Wait 2 Cls Lcd "PLZ SEL. CHOICE" Gosub Lcdshow End If 

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE If A(12) = 3 And V3_flag = 0 Then V3_flag = 1 Lowerline Lcd "O.K." Wait 2 Cls Lcd "PLZ SEL. CHOICE" Gosub Lcdshow End If 

If A(12) = 4 And V4_flag = 0 Then V4_flag = 1 Lowerline Lcd "O.K." Wait 2 Cls Lcd "PLZ SEL. CHOICE" Gosub Lcdshow End If 

Cls Lcd "C.I=" ; C1 ; " BJP=" ; C2 Lowerline Lcd "SP=" ; C3 ; " BSP=" ; C4

End If 

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE

Loop

Register: Gosub Fidloop Cls Lcd "O.K." Lowerline Lcd "PLACE FINGER"

Gen1: A(10) = 255 Gosub Genimage

Do Waitms 200 Loop Until A(10) <> 255

If A(10) <> 0 Then Goto Gen1

A(10) = 255 Gosub Charcter:

Do Waitms 200 Loop Until A(10) <> 255

If A(10) <> 0 Then Goto Gen1

Cls Lcd "O.K." Lowerline Lcd "REMOVE FINGER"

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE A(10) = 255

Wait 2

Gen2:

Cls Lcd "O.K." Lowerline Lcd "FINGER AGAIN"

A(10) = 255 Gosub Genimage

Do Waitms 200 Loop Until A(10) <> 0

A(10) = 255 Gosub Genimage

Do Waitms 200 Loop Until A(10) <> 255

If A(10) <> 0 Then Goto Gen2

A(10) = 255 Gosub Charcter1

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE Do Waitms 200 Loop Until A(10) <> 255

If A(10) <> 0 Then Goto Gen2 A(10) = 255

A(10) = 255 Gosub Reg

Do Waitms 200 Loop Until A(10) <> 255

If A(10) <> 0 Then Goto Gen2 A(10) = 255

Gosub Storem Do Waitms 200 Loop Until A(10) <> 255

If A(10) <> 0 Then Goto Gen2 Cls Lcd "REGIS. SUCESS" Wait 1 Flag = 0 Do If P1.0 = 0 Then Goto Main Loop

End

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE

Lcdshow: Do If P0.0 = 0 Then C1 = C1 + 1 Exit Do End If 

If P0.1 = 0 Then C2 = C2 + 1 Exit Do End If 

If P0.2 = 0 Then C3 = C3 + 1 Exit Do End If 

If P0.3 = 0 Then C4 = C4 + 1 Exit Do End If  Loop

P2.0 = 0 Lcdinit Cls Lcd "C.I=" ; C1 ; " BJP=" ; C2 Lowerline Lcd "SP=" ; C3 ; " BSP=" ; C4 Wait 1 P2.0 = 1 Return

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE

Genimage:

Disable Serial Set Scon.1

For I = 0 To 11 B1 = Lookup(i , Genimg) Print Chr(b1);  Next I

Reset Scon.1 Enable Serial

Return

Charcter: Disable Serial Set Scon.1

For I = 0 To 12 B1 = Lookup(i , Img2z) Print Chr(b1);  Next I

Reset Scon.1 Enable Serial

Return

Charcter1: Disable Serial

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE Set Scon.1

For I = 0 To 12 B1 = Lookup(i , Img2z1) Print Chr(b1);  Next I

Reset Scon.1 Enable Serial

Return

Fidloop: Waitms 200 Bitwait P1.0 , Set

Do If Fid > 0 And P1.2 = 0 Then Fid = Fid -1 If P1.1 = 0 Then Fid = Fid + 1 If Fid > 100 Then Fid = 100 'If Fid < 1 Then Fid = 1

If P1.3 = 0 Then Waitms 200 Bitwait P1.3 , Set Return End If 

Cls Lcd "FING.I.D=" ; Fid Waitms 250

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE Loop

Matchid: Disable Serial Set Scon.1

For I = 0 To 16 B1 = Lookup(i , Match) Print Chr(b1);  Next I

Reset Scon.1 Enable Serial

Return

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE

ANNEXURE A3 COST OF PROJECT

A3.1 COST OF PROJECT   Budget Estimates (with details)



Total- Rs. 6,710 

• Minor Equipment   

Microcontroller

(2 X 100)

200

 

LCD

(2X200)

400

 

PCB Manufacturing

 

Keypad buttons

50

 

LED‘s (green,red,yellow)

10

 

Finger print module

500

3,500

• Consumable  

Battery

50

 

Resistances(various)

10

 

Capacitances(various)

20

 

Diodes

10

 

IC Stands

50

 

Voltage regulators

10

• Report writing (Rs. 1000/- max)     Printing Cost  

Hard Binding

500 400

• Contingency & other costs (Rs. 2000/- max)    

Physical Model cost

500

 

Others

500

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.  Wenjie Chen, Lifeng Chen, Zhanglong Chen, and Shiliang Tu.Wits. ―BIOMETRIC SYSTEM.‖ in International Multi-Symposiums of  Computer and Computational Sciences Conference (IMSCCS’06),  pages 635 –   – 641, 641, April 2006. 

2.  Amnesh Goel, Sukanya Ray, Nidhi Chandra ―voting system‖  JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 3, ISSUE 12, DECEMBER 2011, ISSN 2151-9617  

3.  Sharma, A., Chaki, R., Bhattacharya, U. ―Applications of Wireless Sensor Network in Intelligent Traffic System: A Review‖ Electronics

Computer Technology (ICECT), 2011 3rd International Conference on  Issue Date: 8-10 April 2011 On page(s): 53 - 57 Print ISBN: 978-14244-8678-6  

4.  Abishek C, Mukul Kumar and Kumar Padmanabh, ―City voting  In  IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC  2007), 2007 Congestion Congestion Control in Indian Scenario using Wireless Sensors Network‖, Fifth Network‖, Fifth IEEE Conference on Wireless Communication Communication and Sensor Networks (WCSN), 2009, pp. 1-6.  

5.  Malik Tubaishat, Qi Qi, Yi Shang, Hongchi Shi ―biometric voting‖  IEEE CCNC 2008 proceedings 1-4244-1457-1/08 

6.  Qingfeng Huang and Ying Zhang. ―Dynamic balancing of push and  pull in a distribu distributed ted traffic informati information on system.‖. 7.  Jianhou Gan, Lingyun Yuan, Zhongqi Sheng and Tianwei Xu, ―fingerprint system‖,  Proc. 21st annual international conference on Chinese control and decision conference, 2009, pp. 4726-4731. 

8.  Xu Li, Wei Shu, Minglu Li, Hong-Yu Huang, Pei-En Luo, Min-You Wu, ―features of fingerprint system‖  IEEE transactions on vehicular  technology, May 2009, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1647-1653. 

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BIOMETRIC ELECTRONIC VOTING MACHINE

9.  Sensor

node

information

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/voting en.wikipedia.org/wiki/voti ng system 

available

via

www

at

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