Floor Finishes

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AESTHETICS

ADDS A CHARACTER TO FLOOR COULD BE USED TO DICTATE FUNCTIONALITY OF THE SPACE DURABLITY

CLASSIFICATION OF FLOORING
The choice of material for floor covering is affected by factors such as cost, endurance, noise insulation, comfort and cleaning effort.

FLOORING MATERIALS      Hard flooring Wood flooring Soft coverings Resilient flooring Seamless chemical flooring

HARD FLOORING
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Ceramic tile: quarry tile, porcelain tile, terracotta tile, Vitrified tiles Natural stones: slate and marble Glass tiles: transparent LED embedded films laminated between glass. Terrazzo Mosaic

CERAMIC TILE
QUALITIES: ‡A natural product ‡Easy to clean ‡Hygienic and antiallergenic ‡Final installation ‡Inertia Uses: ‡showers ‡Pools ‡Bathtubs ‡kitchen MAINTENANCE: ‡Regular Cleaning ‡Cleaning Stained Grout ‡Re-Seal Regularly

FIXING a) Adhesive for tiling b) Tile guides and battens c) Spreading the tile adhesive d) Fixing the first tile e) Continue tiling f) Keeping tiles flat and level Grouting a) Types of tile grout b) Spreading the tile grout c) Excess tile grout

SPREADING THE ADHESIVE

FIXING THE FIRST TILE

CONTINUING TILING

GROUTING

QUALITIES: ‡better mechanical strength, scratch resistance, resistance to acids, alkalis and chemicals, resistance to staining ‡extremely durable, and heating and cooling systems can be installed underneath it to radiate through the floor ‡non abrasive ‡Designs on vitrified tiles are permanent ‡Resistance to extreme temperature

difference
MAINTENANCE: ‡Use of floor mat at entrance points to prevent entry of abrasive dust particles ‡do not use harsh chemical based cleaners ‡grout joints must be cleaned annually ‡Clean and sweep your tiles regularly

USES: ‡high traffic areas ‡homes, schools ‡Universities ‡Hotels ‡hospitals

VITRIFIED TILE

QUALITIES: ‡Mosaics are made from tiles that are less than two inches which are made into design pattern or laid out in a single colour ‡High fired and durable ‡Dense hard and tough ‡Mosaic tile comes in a wide variety of colours and textures ‡Easy to customize yourself ‡Water and bacteria resistant ‡Great for do it yourself project ‡Low maintenance

GLASS MOSAIC

STONE MOSAIC

Types of mosaic tiles:
‡Glass: medium traffic ‡Porcelain: heavy traffic ‡Ceramic : ‡stone

USES: ‡Kitchen ‡Bathroom ‡Entryways ‡Receptions

CERAMIC MOSAIC PORCELAIN MOSAIC

WOODEN MOSAIC

MOSAIC TILE

1. 2. 3.

Prepare the floor by cleaning the surface Gently clean the floor with dry cloth so that the floor is free of dust. Before using mosaic tiles apply stone sealer to protect the stone during installation. Sealer has to be left for 2-3 hours to ensure the sealer is absorbed by the mosaic tile. Remove the plastic protection off the back of the mosaic leaving only mesh. Clean the debris with a vacuum or broom Prepare and apply the thinset over the surface. Apply at least 1/8 of thinset and mark 2mm deep canals across the surface Set the mosaic in place over the thinset slightly giving pressure so that the thinset penetrates deep through the mesh Continue and clean the mosaic surface with a wet sponge to make sure that the excess of the thinset doesn͛t accumulate over the mosaic.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

FIXING

9.

10. Leave the mosaic and thinset to dry for about 24 hours. 11. Prepare a non sand grouting mix and use the minimum grouting thickness which is usually made from grouting less than 1/8. 12. Grout the surface of the marble mosaic like any other tile. The grouting color should not be dark or light from the mosaic but an average grout can be used.

Terrazzo is made from small pieces or marble mixed with Portland cement or Epoxy Terrazzo Floors or poly acrylic Portland cement, at a ratio of two to one. The surface layer of a terrazzo floor has extra marble chips that have been added during the installation process to cover nearly 70% of the exposed area, which gives it it͛s elegant finish QUALITIES: ‡Cast in-situ ‡Durable and easy to maintain ‡Water and heat resistant ‡Nearly impenetrable ‡Long lasting ‡Low maintenance ‡Extremely resistant to water and moisture ‡In tile form its very light comparatively USES: ‡Households ‡Public areas ‡Large offices ‡Multi storey buildings

TERRAZO TILES

MAINTENANCE: ‡Protection against scratching and chipping ‡Application of fresh sealer upon occupation of a building ‡Non abrasive detergents ‡water left on the floor can break down the sealer. ‡Use a clean dust mop with no chemical additives ‡Buff terrazzo floors with a water-based acrylic finishing products for enhanced protection and gloss ‡Polish regularly

1.

The first step is to clear any loose concrete with shotblasting (blastracking) and mitigate any cracking in the concrete subfloor with a crack suppression system. Then the entire floor is coated with a flexible membrane that will allow the terrazzo to float over the concrete subfloor. The design is printed out at one-hundred percent actual size and laid across the floor.

2.

3.

FIXING

STEP 1

STEP 2

STEP 3

4)

Then the design is cut into the membrane with a cutting wheel on a grinder. Any complex strip areas are prefabricated on mesh, the rest is cut and bent in place. Brass and zinc divider strip are attached to the floor with tacks or hot glue. All joints are either soldered or brazed.
STEP 6

5)

6)

7)
STEP 4

STEP 5

STEP 7

8)

Then the strip is glued to the floor with epoxy, here is a detail of the strip work. Final adjustments are made to the divider strip before the epoxy is completely set-up.

9)

10) The epoxy resin is mixed 11) Stone chips, recycled glass, mine by-products, etc. are mixed into the epoxy
STEP 8

STEP 11

STEP 9 STEP 10

12) The epoxy matrix is spread across the membrane with a trowel. 13) This is what the epoxy looks like in its rough form before grinding and polishing.

14) The epoxy is ground smooth with diamonds or carborundum and plastic disks progressively from 25 to 400 grit. 15) During the grinding stage, an epoxy grout is applied to remove any pinholes.

STEP 14

STEP 12

STEP 15 STEP 13

16) An entire section after a second grout coat. 17) Applying the sealer before the final wax coat and polish. 18) Here is a section after sealing.

STEP 16 STEP 18

STEP 17

FINISHED INTERIORS

Granite tiles QUALITIES: ‡ Wide variety of textures and colours ‡ Durability ‡ Suitability ‡ It will last forever ‡ Sustainable ‡ Good for heavy traffic ‡ consists of all natural stones like granite, slate, marble, sandstone etc.

MAINTENANCE: ‡ Proper sealing ‡ Stone can be resurfaced to extend its lifespan ‡ limit abrasion and staining

Natural stone tiles

USES: ‡ Residences specially kitchens and showers ‡ Office spaces ‡ Public places like temples

STONE FLOORING
Slate tiles Marble tiles

GLASS FLOORING
QUALITIES:
‡Creativity ‡Durability ‡Impermeable and non-porous ‡they never fade or scratch, ‡never decay ‡ endurance to harsh atmospheres ‡Versatility ‡non-allergenic USES: ‡Anti-bacterial ‡Recyclable ‡residences ‡unique appearance ‡spas ‡Transparent ‡pools ‡Easy Maintenance ‡courtyards ‡Easy on the Budget ‡stage floors ‡Hotels

MAINTENANCE:
‡Use a soft towel or cloth to wipe the tile ‡Non abrasive cleaners ‡Soft brushes ‡Routine grout check ‡No spiked shoes

RESILIENT FLOORING
VINYL SHEET VINYL COMPOSITION TILE CORK (SHEET OR TILE) RUBBER

VINYL SHEET AND TILES:

VINYL SHEET AND TILES:

FIXING:
‡ DENDRITE PC ʹ 65 ‡ FEVICOL SR505,707FW, VC31

RATE:
Rs. 55 ʹ 100 / SQ.FT

They are composed of coloured vinyl chips formed into solid sheets of varying thicknesses (1/8͟ is most common) by heat and pressure and cut into 12͟ squares USES: Commercial and Institutional applications ʹ widely used in schools, hospitals, offices, and public buildings

VINYL COMPOSITION TILE (VCT):

RATE: Rs. 45 ʹ 200/SQ.FT.

APPLICATION/FIXING: Tiles are applied to a smooth, levelled sub-floor using a specially formulated vinyl adhesive that remains tacky but does not completely dry. Tiles are typically waxed and buffed using special materials and equipment. ADVANTAGES: ‡ low cost, durability, and ease of maintenance. ‡ high resilience to abrasion and impact damage and repeatedly refinished with chemical strippers and mechanical buffing equipment ‡ can be easily removed and replaced when damaged. ‡ Tiles can easily be cut and assembled into colourful and decorative patterns

CORK FLOORING:
USES: Dance symposiums Gymnasiums Acoustical treatment

MAINTAINENCE: ‡ Vacuum or sweep or "swiffer" the floor weekly. ‡ Damp mop the floor monthly but do NOT use a lot of water. ‡ When cleaning the floor, use a damp mop with a PH-balanced detergent or mild soap to clean and keep the surface free of abrasives such as grit or sand. ‡ Always avoid the use of harsh cleaners such as abrasives, oil or ammonia-based cleaning products. Only use cleaning products approved by the manufacturer.

RATE: Rs. 120 ʹ 200/ SQ.FT
FIXING: The edges have specially fabricated grooves, similar to a tongue and groove, but are designed to interlock firmly in place. Sizes range approximately 12" wide by 36" long. Comes either in glue-down or floating floor applications.

RUBBER FLOORING
USE: Commercial, industrial, sports auditoriums (indoor), educational institutes, gymnasiums, dance floors. ADVANTAGES: ‡ Vulcanised surface ensures that it's virtually impossible to wear through. ‡ Provide an unequalled level of softness and impact absorbency. ‡ Resistant to fading, cigarette burns and damage. ‡ Environmentally friendly in both its manufacture and recyclability. ‡ Infinite number of ways to create different designer patterns. RATE: Rs. 35 ʹ 380/SQ.FT

WOOD FLOORING Wood flooring in two primary forms: plank and parquet. NATURAL WOOD

ENGINEERED WOOD

WOODEN LAMINATE

BAMBOO

VENEERS

NATURAL WOOD
NATURAL WOOD

HARDWOOD ‡ Oak ‡ Maple ‡ Ash SOFTWOOD ‡Pine ‡Birch ‡Fir

HARDWOOD

SOFTWOOD

Solid hardwood floors come in a wide range of dimensions and styles, with each plank made of solid wood and milled from a single piece of timber. Solid hardwood floors were originally used for structural purposes, being installed perpendicular to the wooden support beams of a building

APPLICATION: Bedrooms, drawing rooms, MAINTENANCE: Can be swept, moped or vacuumed. Do not use oil treated dust mops. Use wood cleaners as specified by the company. DISADVANTAGE: Sensitive to humidity not to be used in bathroom. Can be easily scratched. Expansion and contraction of wood from moisture and temperature fluctuation puts many dimensional restrictions on solid wood floors.

SIZE: Typically, 5" wide and 3/4" thick boards are the largest that can be manufactured from solid wood without compromising the structure of the flooring. 3/8 IN X 5 IN X Varying Lengths: 10 - 60 IN, 3/8 IN X 5 IN X Varying Lengths: 10 - 48 IN INSTALLATION: Wood can be manufactured with a variety of different installation systems: ‡ Tongue-and-groove ‡ "Click" systems ‡ Floor connection system ‡ Wood flooring can also be installed utilizing the gluedown method

ENGINEERED WOOD
Engineered wood flooring is composed of two or more layers of wood in the form of a plank. The top layer (lamella) is the wood that is visible when the flooring is installed, and is adhered to the core (or substrate) which provides the stability. ADVANTAGES: ‡ Engineered wood flooring has a lower initial cost, but the thin top layer of high-quality wood resting atop several layers of cheaper wood allows for only one to three refinishing. ‡ Scratch resistant APPLICATIONS: Engineered wood flooring works well in kitchens, basements, and bathrooms where light moisture might be present. Still, it doesn't hold up to really wet areas such as basements that flood

INSTALLATION: ‡ Nail-Down Floor. This is for the 3/8" thick floor--its thinness requires nailing to enhance stability; ‡ Glue-Down Floor. The 1/2" thick floor can be nailed down; or ‡ A Floating Floor. The 5/8" planks are thick enough to act as a floating floor COST :Rs 200 -400 per sq ft MAINTAINANCE: Regularly clean engineered-hardwood floors with either a dry or damp mop, sweeping, or vacuuming. Keeping your flooring clean will help reduce the risk of dirt and grim scratching the finish. Do not apply any finish to an engineered hardwood floor that has a factory finish, unless the manufacturer for that particular style of engineered flooring recommends it.

WOODEN LAMINATE FLOORS
Laminate flooring is a laminate flooring material made to look like natural products such as wood flooring but yet are made up of either synthetic materials (usually melamine resin) or of synthetic materials combined with natural and recycled ingredients. Laminate flooring gives a hardwood look minus the disadvantages of hardwood. It is resistant to stains and scratches.

A- Wear layer B- Image design layer C-Inner core layer D- Backing layer of High density fiber board (HDF)

APPLICATION:
Used for flooring of dry residential, commercial or public areas such as home, office, restaurants and shops where a low maintenance rich looking flooring solution is required Should not be used in or near any wet areas where water seepage or flooding is expected

Stilex laminate flooring

MAITAINANCE:
Clean all liquid spills immediately .Simply dust mop or vacuum with a soft brush or wood floor accessory to keep your floor clean from dust, dirt or grit. Or damp cloth or mop can be used without damage to the laminate panels, but do not use excessive water .Dry the floor with a clean soft cloth. Do not use soap based detergents, abrasive cleaners or combine ͞clean and shine͟ product on your laminate floor . Do not use steel wool or other scouring pads that may scratch the laminate panels.

STANDARD SIZE OF PLANKS:
450-940mm(L) X 186-450mm (W) 3mm(Thick)

COST: Wooden laminates cost between Rs 80 to Rs 400 square feet.

INSTALLATION
Laminate floors are reasonably easy for a do-it-yourself homeowner to install. Laminate flooring are packaged as a number of tongue and groove planks these can be clicked into one another. Installed laminate floors typically "float" over the sub-floor on top of a foam/film underlayment, which provides moisture and sound-reducing properties. In this ͞floating floor ͟ method of installation, the laminate floor is laid or ͞floated͟ over the existing subfloor without being glued to the surface. A small (1-10mm) gap is required between the flooring and any immovable object such as walls, this allows the flooring to expand without being obstructed.

BAMBOO FLOORING
APPLICATION: Residence, commercial spaces ,sport auditoriums and gyms INSTALLATION: ‡ Nail Down Installation ‡ Glue-Down Installation ADVANTAGES: ‡ Higher load carrying capacity ‡ Sustainable ‡ 154% harder than oak

MAITAINANCE: The use of wax water or soap should be avoidedAfter your floor has been installed, floor protectors should be placed under the legs of chairs and tables. Doors leading to the outside should have floor mats placed both inside and out. Your floor should be cleaned weekly with the use of a suction vacuum (no abrasive rotary brush vacuums), to remove grit and debris from the surface of the flooring. Higher traffic floors may require more frequent cleaning to keep floor free of grit and abrasive debris that can damage your floor and finish STANDARD SIZE OF PLANKS:
1 1/2" x 30" x 120" 1" x 30" x 120" 3/ " x 30" x 120" 4 3/ " x 48" x 96" 4 1/ " x 48" x 96" 2 1/ " x 48" x 96" 4

COST: Rs 200 per sq ft

5" x 72-1/2" x 1/2͞-residential and commercial

SOFT FLOOR COVERING

CARPETS

RUGS

COIR MATS

Carpet is a floor covering woven or felted from natural or man-made fibers. Fitted Carpet is attached to the floor structure, extends wall-to-wall, and cannot be moved from place to place. An underlay can extend carpet life and improve comfort. Fitted carpets offer comfort and some soundproofing, they are however hard to clean, and can trap dirt and mites, sometimes causing allergic reactions.

INFORMAL AREAS ʹ plush, soft, textured carpets are used FORMAL AREAS WITH HIGH TRAFFIC ʹ fabrics are knotted densely to attain high durability. Eg. Hotels, offices etc.

Carpet tiles come in different densities, so for use in your home lounge room you will want to choose a thicker carpet tile that will have a more cushiony feel. Thicker ones will also give a warmer feeling in the colder months. Thinner floor carpet tiles are better suited to offices and high traffic areas.

Rugs are also woven or felted from fibers, but are smaller than the room in which they are located, have a finished edge, and usually lie over another finished floor such as wood flooring. Rugs may either be temporarily attached to the flooring below by adhesive tape or other methods to prevent creep, or may be loose-laid.

Bio-degradable, Eco-friendly, Naturally elegant, Tough and Durable

Seamless Chemical Flooring
POLYESTER POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) URETHANE EPOXY LATEX Intended for a high-traffic movement space. These may have granular or rubberized particles added to give better traction.

Advantageous Floor System
‡ Endless Design Possibilities ‡ Seamless Advantages ‡ Safety Factor ‡ Unrivaled Durability ‡ Smooth and abrasion & impact resistant

Installation Guide
‡ Prepare the floor ‡ Allow to Dry ‡ Select the product to be applied ‡ Calculate the amount required ‡ Install the coating ‡ Allow it to cure ‡ Observe and re-coat

Warehouses, Light Assembly, Clean Rooms, Labs, Hospitals, Printing, Storage, Garages, Textile, Electronics - Anywhere you need a clean, durable surface

Epoxy Floor Coatings

Factories, Food proccessing, Kitchens, Auto Service, Pharmaceutical, Plating Rooms, Kennels, Prisons, Freezers, Waste Treatment - anywhere there is high traffic and chemical exposure

Durable Troweled Floors

Offices, Retail, Showrooms, Locker Rooms, Health Clubs, Schools, Basements - anywhere there is a desire for a lowmaintance decorative floor

Decorative Poured Floors

VINYL LAMINATE FLOORING

THE CHOICE OF MATERIAL FOR FLOOR COVERING IS AFFECTED BY FACTORS SUCH AS COST, ENDURANCE, NOISE INSULATION, COMFORT AND CLEANING EFFORT.

MARKET SURVEY DEEPAK AGENCIES; JAYASHREE FURNISHINGS @ SADAR MAIN ROAD BESIDE BLUE BLAH - CARPET TILES, HARD FLOORING AND WOODEN FLOORING CERAMIX @ LAD SQUARE - HARD FLOORING- DIFFERENT TYPES OF TILES SHADES AND STYLES @ DHARAMPETH - WOODEN FLOOR FINISH, FABRICS ͙.

THANK YOU

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