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FOARAM Neg

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1NC – Exploration/Development
Before we get into the substance of this debate, we will begin
by discussing the stock issue of Topicality, or whether or not
the affirmative falls under the bounds of the resolution. The
resolution for this year is as follows: Resolved: The United
States federal government should substantially increase its
non-military exploration and/or development of the Earth’s
oceans.
The affirmative plan clearly does not meet this resolution—
monitoring is not exploration
Sarah Grimes, program manager at the Perth Regional
Programme Office of UNESCO's Intergovernmental
Oceanographic Commission, 12

[Sarah, 2/15/2012, SciDev.Net, “Ocean science for sustainable development: Facts
and figures”, http://www.scidev.net/global/fisheries/feature/ocean-science-forsustainable-development-facts-and-figures-1.html. Accessed 7/5/2014 CK]
Even so, much of the ocean remains unexplored in spite of our growing
recognition of its role in sustainable development. Since the early 1990s, governments
and researchers in both developed and developing countries have made strong
commitments to ongoing ocean monitoring — especially of physical measures such as
temperature and salinity and, more recently, the biological components.

They also do not meet the definition of exploration – it must be
open ended
McNutt, President And Chief Executive Officer, Monterey Bay
Aquarium Research Institute 2006 - (Marcia, Prepared Testimony,
UNDERSEA RESEARCH AND OCEAN EXPLORATION: H.R. 3835, THE NATIONAL OCEAN
EXPLORATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2005 AND THE UNDERSEA RESEARCH PROGRAM
ACT OF 2005, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-109hhrg28758/html/CHRG109hhrg28758.htm)
Ocean exploration is distinguished from research by the fact that
exploration leads to questions, while research leads to answers. When one
undertakes exploration, it is without any preconceived notion of what one
might find or who might benefit from the discoveries . Research, on the
other hand, is undertaken to test a certain hypothesis, with the clear understanding
of the benefits of either supporting or refuting the hypothesis under consideration. Often novel discoveries are
made accidentally in the process of performing hypothesis-driven research, but with a purposeful exploration
program, those discoveries are more likely to be appreciated for what they are, properly documented, and followedup. Here is a concrete example. One of the greatest surprises in oceanography in the 20th century was the
discovery of the hot-vent communities, deep-sea oases that thrive in sea water geothermally heated to several
hundred degrees centigrade. These animals form an entire ecosystem completely independent of the sun's energy,
and their existence opens up huge new possibilities for how life might be sustained elsewhere in the universe. This
discovery led to a host of new research questions. What is the energy source for this new style of community? How
do proteins fold at such high temperatures? By what reproductive strategy do deep-sea vent organisms manage to
find and colonize new, isolated vent systems as the old ones die? These are important questions, but ones that we
would not know enough to even ask had the discovery not happened. And it almost didn't. The shipboard party

involved was entirely geologists and geophysicists. There wasn't a single biologist on board to appreciate the
significance of what was to become the most important discovery in marine biology. Ever. Lacking basic biological
supplies, the geophysicists had to sacrifice all of their vodka to preserve the novel specimens they collected. Such
discoveries don't need to be rare, accidental, or potentially unappreciated with a strong, vigorous, and systematic
ocean exploration program. I created a graphic (Figure 1) to show how NOAA's OE program might ideally relate to
the broader ocean research agenda and to the NURP program. The upper box is meant to represent NOAA's Ocean

New discoveries are made by exploring new places, and/or
by deploying new tools which ``see'' the ocean in new dimensions . With roughly
Exploration program.

95 percent of the ocean still unexplored, and new tools that image the physics, chemistry, biology, and geology of
the ocean at all scales being developed constantly, the opportunities for discovery are virtually limitless. The
greatest strength of having a federal organization such as NOAA leading this effort is the fact that it can undertake
a systematic, multi-disciplinary exploration of the ocean. However, if I had to identify NOAA's weakness in terms of
being the lead agency for this effort, it is the fact that NOAA is not widely known for its prowess in developing new
technology. For this reason, I support the provision in H.R. 3835 that establishes an interagency task force which
includes NASA and ONR to facilitate the transfer of new exploration technology to the program.

Topicality is an a-priori stock issue that must always come first
when making your decision – if they are not topical, the
affirmative is not fulfilling their job of proving the resolution to
be true, and should therefore lose.

Inherency

1NC – Other Agencies
A multitude of agencies are already spending vast resources
on ocean acidification research – the affirmative is wholly
unnecessary
United States Government Accountability Office 2014 [“OCEAN
ACIDIFICATION”, September 2014, http://www.gao.gov/assets/670/665777.pdf] TYBG
In addition to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Science Foundation, and

eight other federal agencies are
part of the interagency working group on ocean acidification but were not
required by the Federal Ocean Acidification Research and Monitoring Act
of 2009 (FOARAM) to take specific steps related to ocean acidification.1 •
Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. The bureau has conducted research
and monitoring of ocean acidification conditions in areas of the outer
continental shelf where there are ongoing or proposed energy
development projects, including in the Arctic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico .
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA),

Nonetheless, these agencies have taken a variety of actions to support the federal response to ocean acidification.

• Department of State. The department has contributed funding
to help establish an international coordination center for ocean
acidification, housed at the International Atomic Energy Agency’s
environmental laboratories in Monaco. The center is intended to support international
monitoring systems and research. The department has also worked to share technical
expertise with other countries. For example, it cosponsored a workshop with the government of
For example: 2

New Zealand that brought together shellfish experts from both countries to share their experiences with ocean

• Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). EPA has issued final
regulations and proposed other regulations under the Clean Air Act to
regulate greenhouse gas emissions, including the carbon dioxide
emissions that contribute to ocean acidification.3 EPA has also issued
guidance to help states address ocean acidification under the Clean Water
Act.4 • U.S. Department of Agriculture. The department has funded
research related to ocean acidification, including research to better
understand the effects of ocean acidification on shellfish aquaculture and
how to adapt aquaculture operations to minimize those effects. In addition, EPA
acidification.

is conducting research in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, to better understand the contributions of nutrient

5 It also administers
agricultural conservation programs that provide billions of dollars in
assistance to farmers to reduce nutrient pollution—one of the factors
contributing to ocean acidification—and achieve other conservation
objectives.6 • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The service has updated its planning requirements to include
pollution to ocean acidification in estuarine and coastal environments.

ocean acidification as a potential factor to consider in drafting conservation plans and vulnerability analyses for

• U.S. Geological Survey. The Geological
Survey has researched ocean acidification and its effects by collecting
data on ocean chemistry at different locations and studying the effects of
acidification on certain species. For example, one of the areas the agency has focused on is the
marine and coastal national wildlife refuges.7

West Florida Shelf in the Gulf of Mexico, where it has studied spatial and temporal variations in carbon chemistry

The agency, in
conjunction with the U.S. Coast Guard, also monitored ocean chemistry in
and the effects of ocean acidification on the growth of calcifying organisms.

the Arctic Ocean from 2010 through 2012, documenting that about 20
percent of the area was undersaturated with respect to aragonite,
according to an agency official. In addition, it is considering establishing
coral reefs located in national wildlife refuges, which are often in remote
areas and experience little human disturbance, as “sentinel sites” where
the service can monitor the effects of ocean acidification. 8 • U.S. Navy.
The Navy has monitored research on ocean acidification conducted by
others to assess any potential implications for naval operations. One implication
for naval operations described in the research and monitoring plan is the potential for ocean acidification to
threaten the food supply in areas of the world that are heavily dependent on marine resources for food, which, in
turn, could lead to increased political instability in those regions.9 The Navy has also helped fund research on the
effects that ocean acidification might have on how sound travels through water, because of its potential impact on
sonar systems, which are important to naval operations.

1NC – NOAA
NOAA is already making a concerted effort to resolve
acidification
Kelly House, Writer for the Oregonian, 2014 [“NOAA offers $1.4
million to help shellfish growers track ocean acidification”, December 17 th 2014,
http://www.oregonlive.com/environment/index.ssf/2014/12/noaa_offers_14_million_t
o_help.html] TYBG
That National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is ponying up $1.4
million to help West Coast shellfish growers and scientists address ocean
acidification. The new three-year grant will help commercial shellfish
growers find ways to adapt their oyster and mussel-rearing businesses to
keep the animals from dying when waves of carbon dioxide-saturated
water come through. High levels of carbon dioxide throw the water’s chemistry out of balance, making it
difficult for bivalves to form their shells. The phenomenon has contributed to massive shellfish die-offs throughout

Burke Hales, an Oregon State University professor who
developed a machine that detects chemical changes in the water, will be
the leading expert on the project. Shellfish growers will learn how to
monitor ocean acidification levels, and will collaborate with Hales and
other scientists along the West Coast to develop more affordable, accurate
sensors that measure changes in ocean’s chemistry. The grant
announcement is the latest development in NOAA’s ongoing effort to
combat carbon dioxide’s damaging effects on ocean life. Earlier this fall,
the agency announced the launch of a new web-based tool that tracks
ocean acidification along the West Coast. The announcement follows Oregon State University
the Northwest.

researchers’ discovery this fall that ocean acidification isn’t caused by carbon dioxide alone, but the imbalance
created when carbon dioxide rises without a concurrent rise in seawater calcium carbonate levels.

Acidification Advantage

1NC – NOAA-Gate
NOAA is a fraudulent agency that produces inaccurate
scientific data
Marta Noon, executive director for Energy Makes America
Great Inc., 2014 (Noon, Marta, 12/22/14, " What if Obama’s Climate Change
Policies are based on pHraud?",
Heartland,news.heartland.org/editorial/2014/12/22/what-if-obamas-climate-changepolicies-are-based-phraud, accessed 1/15/14)
“Ocean acidification” (OA) is claimed to be a phenomenon that will destroy ocean life—all due to mankind’s use of

Dr.
Richard A. Feely is a senior scientist with the Pacific Marine Environmental
Laboratory (PMEL)—part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration (NOAA). His four-page report: Carbon Dioxide and Our Ocean Legacy, offered on the
fossil fuels. The claim of OA is a critical scientific foundation to the full spectrum of climate change assertions.

NOAA website, contains a chart titled “Historical & Projected pH & Dissolved Co2,” which shows a decline in

Mike
Wallace is a hydrologist with nearly 30 years’ experience, who is now
working on his Ph.D. in nanogeosciences at the University of New Mexico.
seawater pH (making it more acidic) that appears to coincide with increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide.

In the course of his studies, he uncovered something that he told me: “eclipses even the so-called climategate

Feely’s work is based on computer models that don’t line up with
real-world data—which Feely acknowledged in email communications with
Wallace. Feely, and his coauthor Dr. Christopher L. Sabine, PMEL Director, omitted 80 years of
data, which incorporate more than 2 million records of ocean pH levels . The
event.”

Feely chart began in 1850, which caught Wallace’s attention since similar charts all began in 1988. Needing the
historic pH data for a project, he went to the source. The NOAA paper with the chart lists Dave Bard, with Pew
Charitable Trust, as the contact. Wallace sent Bard an email: “I’m looking in fact for the source references for the
red curve in their plot which was labeled ‘Historical & Projected pH & Dissolved Co2.’ This plot is at the top of the
second page. It covers the period of my interest.” Bard responded and suggested that Wallace communicate with

Wallace asked again for the “time
series data (NOT MODELING) of ocean pH for 20th century.” Sabine responded
by saying that it was inappropriate for Wallace to question their “motives
or quality of our science,” adding that if he continued in this manner, “you
will not last long in your career.” He then included a few links to websites that Wallace, after
Feely and Sabine—which he did over a period of several months.

spending hours reviewing them, called “blind alleys.” Sabine concludes the email with: “I hope you will refrain from

In an effort to
obtain access to the records Feely/Sabine didn’t want to provide, Wallace
filed a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request. In a May 25, 2013 email, Wallace
contacting me again.” But communications did continue for several more exchanges.

offers some statements, which he asks Feely/Sabine to confirm: “…it is possible that Dr. Sabine WAS partially
responsive to my request. That could only be possible however, if only data from 1989 and later was used to
develop the 20th century portion of the subject curve.” “…it’s possible that Dr. Feely also WAS partially responsive
to my request. Yet again, this could not be possible unless the measurement data used to define 20th century
ocean pH for their curve, came exclusively from 1989 and later (thereby omitting 80 previous years of ocean pH
20th century measurement data, which is the very data I'm hoping to find).” Sabine writes: “Your statements in
italics are essentially correct.” He adds: “The rest of the curve you are trying to reproduce is from a modeling study

In his last email exchange,
Wallace offers to close out the FOIA because the email string “clarified
that your subject paper (and especially the ‘History’ segment of the associated time series pH curve)
did not rely upon either data or other contemporary representations for
global ocean pH over the period of time between the first decade of 1900
that Dr. Feely has already provided and referenced in the publication.”

(when the pH metric was first devised, and ocean pH values likely were first instrumentally measured and recorded)

through and up to just before 1988.” Wallace received no reply, but the FOIA was closed in July 2013 with a “no

NOAA reissued its World
Ocean Database. Wallace was then able to extract the instrumental
records he sought and turned the glass electrode pH meter data into a
meaningful time series chart, which reveals that the oceans are not
acidifying. Regarding the chart in question, Wallace concluded: “They
replaced that (historical) part of their curve through the execution of an
epic data omission—which was apparently the only way that ocean
scientists have been able to assert that the oceans are acidifying.”
document found” response. Interestingly, in this same general timeframe,

1NC – Adaptation
No impact to ocean acidification – it’s over-exaggerated and
species can adapt
Ridley, British Scientist and Journalist, 12 (Matt, Jan 7, “Taking Fears of
Acid Oceans With a Grain of Salt”, Wall Street Journal,
http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB100014240529702035503045771385614444
64028, Tang)

Coral reefs around the world are suffering badly from overfishing and various forms of pollution. Yet many experts
argue that the greatest threat to them is the acidification of the oceans from the dissolving of man-made carbon
dioxide emissions. The effect of acidification, according to J.E.N. Veron, an Australian coral scientist, will be "nothing
less than catastrophic.... What were once thriving coral gardens that supported the greatest biodiversity of the
marine realm will become red-black bacterial slime, and they will stay that way." Humans have placed marine life

The
Natural Resources Defense Council has called ocean acidification "the
scariest environmental problem you've never heard of." Sigourney Weaver, who
under pressure, but the chief culprits are overfishing and pollution. John S. Dykes This is a common view.

narrated a film about the issue, said that "the scientists are freaked out." The head of the National Oceanic and

But do the scientific data
support such alarm? Last month scientists at San Diego's Scripps
Institution of Oceanography and other authors published a study showing
how much the pH level (measuring alkalinity versus acidity) varies
naturally between parts of the ocean and at different times of the day,
month and year. "On both a monthly and annual scale, even the most stable open ocean
sites see pH changes many times larger than the annual rate of
acidification," say the authors of the study, adding that because good instruments to
measure ocean pH have only recently been deployed, "this variation has
been under-appreciated." Over coral reefs, the pH decline between dusk and dawn is almost half as
much as the decrease in average pH expected over the next 100 years. The noise is greater than
the signal. Another recent study, by scientists from the U.K., Hawaii and Massachusetts,
concluded that "marine and freshwater assemblages have always
experienced variable pH conditions," and that "in many freshwater lakes, pH changes
that are orders of magnitude greater than those projected for the 22ndcentury oceans can occur over periods of hours." This adds to other hints
that the ocean-acidification problem may have been exaggerated . For a start,
the ocean is alkaline and in no danger of becoming acid (despite headlines like that
Atmospheric Administration calls it global warming's "equally evil twin."

from Reuters in 2009: "Climate Change Turning Seas Acid"). If the average pH of the ocean drops to 7.8 from 8.1 by

The
central concern is that lower pH will make it harder for corals, clams and
other "calcifier" creatures to make calcium carbonate skeletons and shells.
Yet this concern also may be overstated. Off Papua New Guinea and the Italian island of
2100 as predicted, it will still be well above seven, the neutral point where alkalinity becomes acidity.

Ischia, where natural carbon-dioxide bubbles from volcanic vents make the sea less alkaline, and off the Yucatan,

where underwater springs make seawater actually acidic, studies have
shown that at least some kinds of calcifiers still thrive —at least as far down as pH 7.8.
In a recent experiment in the Mediterranean, reported in Nature Climate
Change, corals and mollusks were transplanted to lower pH sites, where
they proved "able to calcify and grow at even faster than normal rates
when exposed to the high [carbon-dioxide] levels projected for the next
300 years." In any case, freshwater mussels thrive in Scottish rivers, where the

pH is as low as five. Laboratory experiments find that more marine creatures thrive than suffer when
carbon dioxide lowers the pH level to 7.8. This is because the carbon dioxide dissolves mainly as bicarbonate, which
many calcifiers use as raw material for carbonate. Human beings have indeed placed marine ecosystems under

By comparison, a very slow
reduction in the alkalinity of the oceans, well within the range of natural
variation, is a modest threat, and it certainly does not merit apocalyptic
headlines.
terrible pressure, but the chief culprits are overfishing and pollution.

1NC – Natural Variability
Ocean acidification isn’t a thing – natural variability is higher
and other natural functions cancel them out
NIPCC, international panel of peer reviewed nongovernment
scientists and scholars, 2014

[Non-governmental Internal Panel on Climate Change, March 2014, Climate Change
Reconsidered II: Biological Impacts, “6.3.1.1 Assessing and Projecting Changes in
Oceanic pH”, Pg 823-826, JF
Based on four theoretical constructs—a geochemical model, an ocean general-circulation model, an IPCC CO2
emissions scenario for the twenty-first century, and a projected logistic function for the burning of Earth’s posttwenty-first century fossil-fuel reserves —Caldeira and Wickett (2003) calculated the atmospheric CO2
concentration could approach 2,000 ppm around the year 2300, leading to a surface seawater pH reduction of 0.7
unit, a change they describe as being much more rapid and considerably greater “than any experienced in the past
300 million years.” This long time interval makes the phenomenon sound truly catastrophic, especially as IPCC
claims this “ocean acidification” phenomenon will impede the process of calcification in corals and other marine life.

In judging the plausibility of this scenario, it is important first to know
whether the acidification phenomenon is really severe and unprecedented .
In a special issue of Oceanography published in December 2009, Feely et al. (2009) review what is known about the
current pH status of the world’s oceans and what can likely be expected by the end of the current century. The
three researchers write, “estimates based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change business-as-usual
emission scenarios suggest that atmospheric CO2 levels could approach 800 ppm near the end of the century,” and
“corresponding biogeochemical models for the ocean indicate that surface water pH will drop from a preindustrial
value of about 8.2 to about 7.8 in IPCC A2 scenario by the end of this century.” They warn, as a result, “the skeletal
growth rates of calcium-secreting organisms will be reduced” and conclude, “if anthropogenic CO2 emissions are
not dramatically reduced in the coming decades, there is the potential for direct and profound impacts on our living

the same issue of Oceanography, Tans (2009) presents a much
different take on the subject. He begins by noting the anthropogenic component
of the air’s CO2 concentration “depends primarily on the total amount
emitted, not on the rate of emissions,” Figure 6.3.1.2. Past and projected trends of oceanic pH
marine ecosystems.” In

based on fossil-fuel carbon utilization estimates from Tans (2009) and IPCC’s A2 scenario. Climate Change

IPCC reports have not helped public
understanding of this fact by choosing, somewhat arbitrarily, a rather
short time horizon (100 years is most commonly used) for climate forcing by CO2.”
“Instead of adopting the common economic point of view, which, through
its emphasis on perpetual growth, implicitly assumes infinite Earth
resources,” Tans notes the cumulative extraction of fossil-fuel carbon currently
stands at about 345 gigatons of carbon (GtC), and there appears to be another
640 or so GtC of proven reserves, yielding a total original reserve of about
1,000 GtC, from which he proceeds with his analysis. The past and projected history of
fossil-fuel carbon utilization, together with historical and projected
atmospheric CO2 concentrations out to the year 2500, as calculated by Tans, is
presented in Figure 6.3.1.1 above. According to the data presented there, Tans shows the air’s CO2
concentration peaking well before 2100 at only 500 ppm, as compared to
the 800 ppm Feely et al. take from IPCC. By the year 2500, the air’s CO2
concentration drops back to about what it is today, according to Tans’ analysis. Based
on his more modest projections of future atmospheric CO2 concentrations, Tans finds the projected pH
reduction of ocean waters in the year 2100 to be only one-half of the 0.4
value calculated by Feely et al., with a recovery to a reduction of slightly
more than 0.1 pH unit by 2500, which is less than the range of pH values
typical of today’s oceans (8.231 in the Arctic Ocean minus 8.068 in the North Indian Ocean equals
Reconsidered II: Biological Impacts 824 and “unfortunately,

0.163, according to Feely et al.). Graphical data presented by Pelejero et al. (2010) depict interannual pH variations
in the North Atlantic Ocean near Bermuda ranging from a high of approximately 8.18 to a low of about 8.03 at
various times over the years 1984 to 2007 (Bates, 2007), further demonstrating large pH variations are occurring in

Even greater natural pH
variability is evident on both shorter and longer time scales in still other
of Pelejero et al.’s graphs. Over a mere two days in July 2001 on a Molokai
(Hawaii) Reef flat, for example, seawater pH ranged from a high of 8.29 to a low of
7.79 (Yates and Halley, 2006). Over a period of about a decade in the mid-twentieth century, the pH at Arlington
some ocean basins as a result of seasonal seawater variability.

Reef in Australia’s Great Barrier Reef system ranged from a high of approximately 8.25 to a low of about 7.71 (Wei

These natural and recurring pH declines (0.50 and 0.54) are greater
than the 0.3 to 0.4 decline IPCC expects to occur between now and the
end of the century, and much greater than Tans’ estimate of about 0.2. Hofmann et al. (2011) state
“natural variability in pH is seldom considered when effects of ocean
acidification are considered,” and they suggest this omission is disturbing
because “natural variability may occur at rates much higher than the rate
at which carbon dioxide is decreasing ocean pH,” which is about 0.0017 pH unit per year,
et al., 2009).

according to Dore et al. (2009) and Byrne et al. (2010). They contend “ambient fluctuation in pH may have a large
impact on the development of resilience in marine populations,” noting “ heterogeneity

in the
environment with regard to pH and pCO2 exposure may result in
populations that are acclimatized to variable pH or extremes in pH.”

Hofmann
et al. recorded continuous highresolution time series of upper-ocean patterns of pH variability with autonomous
sensors deployed at 15 locations from 40.7303°N to 77.8000°S latitude and from 0 to 166.6712°E longitude and 0
to 162.1218°W longitude, over a variety of ecosystems ranging from polar to tropical, open ocean to coastal, and
kelp forest to coral reef. The 18 researchers report their measurements revealed “a continuum of month-long pH
variability with standard deviations from 0.004 to 0.277 and ranges spanning 0.024 to 1.430 pH units.” This
variability was “highly site-dependent, with characteristic diel, semi-diurnal, and stochastic patterns of varying
amplitudes.” Hofmann et al. write, “these biome-specific pH signatures disclose current levels of exposure to both
high and low dissolved CO2, often demonstrating that resident organisms are already experiencing pH regimes that
are not predicted until 2100.” These facts suggest the current real-world heterogeneity of the world’s oceans with
regard to pH and pCO2 exposure may already have “result[ed] in populations that are acclimatized to variable pH or

Lower ocean pH
levels may therefore not mature in the way projected by IPCC, a
conclusion Loaiciga (2006) shares, having written years earlier, “on a
global scale and over the time scales considered (hundreds of years),
there would not be accentuated changes in either seawater salinity or
acidity from the rising concentration of atmospheric CO2 .” Marine photosynthesis
extremes in pH,” such as those that have been predicted to be the new norm in 2100.

may also reduce CO2- induced lowering of ocean pH levels lower ocean pH levels, as it tends to increase surface
seawater pH, countering the tendency for pH to decline as the air’s CO2 content rises, as demonstrated by
Lindholm and Nummelin (1999). This phenomenon has been found to dramatically increase the pH of marine bays,
Aquatic Life 825 lagoons, and tidal pools (Gnaiger et al., 1978; Santhanam, 1994; Macedo et al., 2001; Hansen,
2002) and significantly enhance the surface water pH of areas as large as the North Sea (Brussaard et al., 1996).
Middelboe and Hansen (2007) studied a waveexposed boulder reef in Aalsgaarde on the northern coast of Zealand,
Denmark, plus a sheltered shallowwater area in Kildebakkerne in the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark. As one would expect
if photosynthesis tends to increase surface-water pH, the two researchers found “daytime pH was significantly
higher in spring, summer and autumn than in winter at both study sites,” often reaching values of 9 or more during
peak summer growth periods vs. 8 or less in winter. They also found “diurnal measurements at the most exposed
site showed significantly higher pH during the day than during the night,” sometimes reaching values greater than
9 during daylight hours but typically dipping below 8 at night, and “diurnal variations were largest in the shallow
water and decreased with increasing water depth.” In addition to their own findings, Middelboe and Hansen cite
Pearson et al. (1998), who found pH averaged about 9 during the summer in populations of Fucus vesiculosus in the
Baltic Sea; Menendez et al. (2001), who found maximum pH was 9 to 9.5 in dense floating macroalgae in a brackish
coastal lagoon in the Ebro River Delta; and Bjork et al. (2004), who found pH values as high as 9.8 to 10.1 in
isolated rock pools in Sweden. Noting “pH in the sea is usually considered to be stable at around 8 to 8.2,” the two
Danish researchers conclude “pH is higher in natural shallow-water habitats than previously thought.” Liu et al.
(2009) note, “the history of ocean pH variation during the current interglacial (Holocene) remains largely unknown,”
and it “would provide critical insights on the possible impact of acidification on marine ecosystems.” Working with

18 samples of fossil and modern Porites corals recovered from the South China Sea, the nine researchers employed
14C dating using the liquid scintillation counting method, along with positive thermal ionization mass spectrometry
to generate high-precision δ11B (boron) data, from which they reconstructed the paleo-pH record of the past 7,000

there is nothing unusual,
unnatural, or unprecedented about the two most recent pH values. They
are not the lowest of the record, nor is the rate of decline that led to them
the greatest of the record. This strongly indicates these recent values
have little to do with the nearly 40% increase in the air’s CO2
concentration that occurred over the course of the Industrial Revolution . As
years, as depicted in Figure 6.3.1.1.2. As the figure illustrates,

for the prior portion of the record, Liu et al. note there is also “no correlation between the atmospheric CO2
concentration record from Antarctica ice cores and δ11B-reconstructed paleo-pH over the mid-late Holocene up to
the Industrial Revolution.” Further insight comes from the earlier work of Pelejero et al. (2005), who developed a
more refined history of seawater pH spanning the period 1708– 1988 (depicted in Figure 6.3.1.1.3), based on δ11B
data obtained from a massive Porites coral from Flinders Reef in the western Coral Sea of the southwestern Pacific.
These researchers also found “no notable trend toward lower δ11B values.” They discovered “the dominant feature
of the coral δ11B record is a clear interdecadal oscillation of pH, with δ11B values ranging between 23 and 25 per
mil (7.9 and 8.2 pH units),” which they say “is synchronous with the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation.” Figure
6.3.1.1.2. Reconstructed pH history of the South China Sea. Created from Table 1 of Liu et al. (2009). Figure
6.3.1.1.3. Reconstructed pH history of Flinders Reef of the Western Coral Sea of the Southwestern Pacific. Adapted
from Pelejero et al. (2005). Climate Change Reconsidered II: Biological Impacts 826 Pelejero et al. also compared
their results with coral extension and calcification rates obtained by Lough and Barnes (1997) over the same 1708–
1988 time period. As best as can be determined from their graphical representations of these two coral growth
parameters, extension rates over the last 50 years of this period were about 12% greater than they were over the
first 50 years, and calcification rates were approximately 13% greater over the last 50 years. Wei et al. (2009)
derived the pH history of Arlington Reef (off the north-east coast of Australia). Their data show a 10-year pH
minimum centered at about 1935 (which obviously was not CO2-induced) and a shorter, more variable minimum at
the end of the record (which also was not CO2-induced). Apart from these two non-CO2-related exceptions, the

Numerous scientific
studies have demonstrated atmospheric CO2 enrichment stimulates pHboosting photosynthesis in marine micro- and macro-algae (see Sections 6.3.2 and
6.5.1). This phenomenon suggests anything else that enhances marine
photosynthesis— such as nutrient delivery to the waters of the world’s
coastal zones (i.e., eutrophication)—may do so as well, as Borges and Gypens (2010) have found. Employing
majority of the data once again fall within a band that exhibits no long-term trend.

an idealized biogeochemical model of a river system (Billen et al., 2001) and a complex biogeochemical model
describing carbon and nutrient cycles in the marine domain (Gypens et al., 2004), the two researchers investigated
“the decadal changes of seawater carbonate chemistry variables related to the increase of atmospheric CO2 and of
nutrient delivery in the highly eutrophied Belgian coastal zone over the period 1951–1998.” They write, “ the

increase of primary production due to eutrophication could counter the
effects of ocean acidification on surface water carbonate chemistry in
coastal environments,” and “changes in river nutrient delivery due to management regulation policies
can lead to stronger changes in carbonate chemistry than ocean acidification,” as well as changes “faster than
those related solely to ocean acidification.” They add, “the

response of carbonate chemistry
to changes of nutrient delivery to the coastal zone is stronger than ocean
acidification.” Given its failure to account for the full spectrum of important phenomena that affect ocean
acidification, IPCC’s current assessment of potential impacts on aquatic life
should be considered far more uncertain and much less extreme than IPCC
claims it to be.

1NC – Shipping Lanes Alt Cause
Alt cause to acidification – sulphur and nitrogen oxides from
shipping create irreversible acidification
Beijer 13 [Cathrine, editor at Sustainability, “Sulphur from shipping causes just as
much ocean acidification as increasing carbon emissions”,
http://sustainability.formas.se/en/Issues/Issue-4-December2013/Content/Articles/Sulphur-from-shipping-causes-just-as-much-oceanacidification-as-increasing-carbon-emissions/ 8/9] TYBG
Heavily trafficked shipping routes give rise to as serious acidification
effects as do the increasing carbon emissions. This has been demonstrated by research at
the University of Gothenburg and Chalmers University of Technology. Researchers hope that the new results will

Exhaust gases from ships contain high
levels of sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides. When they are emitted into
the air, they can be transformed into sulphuric acid and nitric acid. These
acids can react with water present in the atmosphere and locally form
acidic water droplets which fall into the ocean. Monthly results Researchers have now
contribute to further emissions controls on shipping.

concluded that during certain seasonal periods, foremost in coastal areas in the northern hemisphere, ship
emissions may cause just as much acidification as do annual carbon emissions. Earlier models for judging the
acidification effects of shipping were based on an annual globally averaged acidification .

In this new
study, a new model has been created which reveals the numbers for each
month. This has given quite different results. – We have been able to localise areas with intensive shipping
traffic where the surface water is quite thin during the spring and summers and the mixing of surface and deeper
waters is minimal. Whatever is deposited from the atmosphere is not mixed down into deeper waters, which makes
the effect on surface waters much greater, explains David Turner, professor of Marine Chemistry at the University of

As opposed to carbon dioxide, sulphuric acid
and nitric acid are two very strong acids. According to David Turner,
shipping emissions may therefore entail quite different consequences for
our oceans than carbon dioxide emissions. – When the oceans take up
carbon dioxide, the acidification which takes place is reversible . In other
words, if the amount of carbon dioxide in the air is decreased, the
acidification process can reverse. But strong acids cause an acidification
which cannot be reversed. This means that the water is affected in the long term, since it decreases
the water’s buffer capacity. Yet it still remains uncertain which consequences the
acidification caused by shipping may have on the living organisms in the
oceans. – There have been studies on the acidification effects of carbon dioxide, where one has determined
Gothenburg. Effects on living organisms

that organisms which need calcium carbonates find it more difficult to build their skeletons and shells, which is a

In the case of strong acids, the effects will most
likely be similar to the effects that carbon dioxide has in the short run. But
if a large amount of very strong acids are deposited, the consequences in
the long run may be different.
threat to large coral reefs, for example.

AT: Coral Reefs
Ocean acidification is decreasing and reefs have proven to be
resilient
CO2 Science, January 5th 2015 (1/5/15, " Reef Calcifiers Resisting Ocean
Acidification", CO2 Science, www.co2science.org/articles/V18/jan/a3.php, accessed
1/5/15)
In a paper published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Comeau et
al. (2014a) write that in spite of "pessimistic projections forecasting the
disappearance of most coral reefs before the end of the current century,"
a compilation of laboratory studies produced by Chan and Connolly (2013)
suggests it is more likely that "coral calcification will decline
approximately 10-20% (rather than ceasing) for a doubling of present-day partial
pressure of CO2." In addition, they note that "more subtle responses to ocean
acidification [OA] have also been shown in recent studies reporting signs of
resistance to OA for some reef calcifiers," citing the work of Takahashi and Kurihara (2013),
Comeau et al. (2013) and Comeau et al. (2014b). And they add that "field observations at
underwater CO2 vents in Papua New Guinea and sites with high seawater
pCO2 in Palau have also shown that some reef calcifiers can persist in
naturally acidified conditions," referencing the studies of Fabricius et al. (2011) and Shamberger et
al. (2014). In their own study of two coral taxa and two calcifying algae - which
they conducted in Moorea (French Polynesia), Hawaii (USA) and Okinawa (Japan) - Comeau et al. found
that for three of the four calcifiers "there was no effect of pCO2 on net
calcification" at any of the three locations, which led them to suggest that
this finding "may represent a constitutive and geographically conserved
capacity to resist some of the effects of OA." And, therefore, evidence continues
to accumulate in support of the view that the vast bulk of the pessimistic
projections of the world's climate alarmists relative to future ocean
acidification effects on calcifying organisms will likely never come to pass.

Solvency

1NC – Private Solvency Suggestion
Instead of pouring more resources into government based
acidification programs, a more effective course of action would
be too use current funding to create acidification competitions
for private companies
Brad Shannon, writer for the News Tribune, 2014 [“Kilmer
advocates for competition to reduce ocean acidification”, 5/13/14,
http://www.thenewstribune.com/2014/05/13/3192748_kilmer-advocates-forcompetition.html?rh=1] TYBG
U.S. Rep. Derek Kilmer thinks
he has found a way get more research done on ocean acidification without
forking out new taxpayer dollars. Kilmer’s solution, which the Gig Harbor Democrat
intends to introduce next week in the House, is to let federal agencies use existing dollars
devoted to research on the topic — which he estimates at nearly $30
million a year — for research competitions. He thinks this can encourage
competitors to put other private dollars to work on the ocean acidity
problem, which is tied to carbon dioxide emissions that scientists also link to climate change. By Kilmer’s
estimate, the proposal could generate “four to 10 times more value than the
amount of the prize’’ — or up to $50 million for a $5 million prize, based
on testimony he’s heard during hearings in the House science committee
on other research competitions. “There are clear questions here — will ocean acidification affect
Facing a Congress that rarely is able to act on contentious topics,

the salmon that we are working very hard to recover?” Kilmer said Monday during a press conference at Northern
Fish, a food company based in South Tacoma. “Will it affect other species of fish and crabs that our economy is
dependent on? … We’ve got a lot to learn about ocean acidification.” Northern Fish President John Swanes and vice
president Ross Swanes both said they had seen a drop-off in shellfish supplies along the coast in recent years. “This
is a big deal for our industry and for Lilliwaup, a little town I live in, there aren’t a lot of jobs,’’ said Lissa James,
retail and marketing manager for the Hama Hama Co., which raises shellfish in Hood Canal. James said the

Scientists say
the Pacific Ocean is absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere,
shifting the acidity of the seas and making it harder for oyster growers to
produce baby oysters, or “seed,” naturally from larvae. Research shows waters off the coast and
availability of oyster seed is the challenge and that demand for products is not a problem.

in Puget Sound are prone to the upwelling of more acidic waters. But lately acidic waters are present far more
frequently, harming organisms at the base of the food chain such as plankton and tiny snails called pteropods, as
well as oysters higher up on the chain, according to Terrie Klinger and Jan Newton, co-directors of the Washington

“We have more information needs
and we simply don’t have the tools we need,” Klinger added.
Ocean Acidification Center at the University of Washington.

1NC – Data Fails
The American Political system is already over-saturated with
data about environmental damage in the ocean – the
affirmative’s strategy of “observation” and “data gathering”
will never be able to influence policy makers, rather we should
direct our resources toward material change and changing
human behavior
Starr 14 - psychologist, journalist, and professor emeritus at the City University of
New York, Brooklyn College (Bernard, “Our Oceans Are Dying: Mobilizing an
Indifferent Public to Confront This Crisis,” Huffington Post, 6-27-14,
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/bernard-starr/our-oceans-are-dying_b_5533322.html)
//
After an eighteen-month investigation, the Commission, made up of
former heads of state, government officials, and prominent business
leaders concluded that our oceans are dying from climate change,
pollution, and over-fishing. The Commission proposes an eight point program to rescue the oceans
over the next five years. Why should we be concerned? José María Figueres, Co-chair of the Commission and former
president of Costa Rica, has summed up the dire situation with these words: "The ocean provides 50 percent of our
oxygen and fixes 25 percent of global carbon emissions. Our food chain begins in that 70 percent of the planet." He
added that "a healthy ocean is key to our well-being, and we need to reverse its degradation." He warned: "Unless
we turn the tide on ocean decline within five years, the international community should consider turning the high
seas into an off-limits regeneration zone until its condition is restored." A Commission video states the crisis even

Miliband, also co-chair of the Ocean
Commission and former UK Foreign Secretary, urged politicians, scientists, journalists, and
ordinary citizens to rally behind the salvation of our oceans and the planet
-- and to get the message out to others. Will getting the message out turn
the tide in the battle to save the planet? I doubt it. We are swimming in
more starkly: "No ocean, no us!" In his brief talk at the reception, David

information and messages . Earlier the this year leading scientists declared
that we are fast approaching the critical point of no return for climate
change -- a point with predictable devastating consequences. But who is
listening? The public continues to be frighteningly indifferent . Who
among the public is willing to place the salvation of the planet over
immediate personal concerns? That question was dramatically called to my attention recently when
I presented a list of critical issues to a group of seniors enrolled in a life-long learning program and asked them
which one they would place first. The list included: terrorism and national defense, global warming, jobs, vanishing
icebergs, protecting Social Security, income inequality, ocean pollution, sustaining Medicare, protecting the Amazon
rain forests, reducing fossil fuel emissions, regulating Wall Street and the banks, stopping fracking (shale gas
drilling), protecting wildlife (elephants, lions, whales, etc.), eliminating genetically modified foods (GMOs), campaign
finance reform, free college education for all, national healthcare (Medicare for all). I was particularly interested in
the seniors' answers since popular wisdom says that seniors are more concerned than other age groups with the
welfare of children, grandchildren, and future generations. And no issue is more vital for the well-being of future
generations than the viability of life on the planet. Psychologist Erik Erikson called this concern of older adults
"generativity." But the seniors defied conventional wisdom. Jobs, Social Security, and income inequality topped their
listings. Only one person, toward the end of the discussion, cited climate change -- and his response seemed almost
gratuitous in recognition that we were about to screen a documentary on the melting of icebergs. Perhaps I should

Politicians avoid talking about environmental issues for
fear of losing favor with their constituents, who are clamoring for jobs, mortgage relief, and
not have been surprised.

financial security. During the 2012 presidential debates between Barack Obama and Mitt Romney environmental

in the
throes of an economic crisis placing the salvation of the planet high on the
national agenda would not generate votes. It might even take away votes
from people who feared the candidate would be indifferent to their
personal struggles. So where does this leave us? If more environmental studies and
more alarming news will not mobilize leaders and the public for an all-out
commitment to the preservation of our small vulnerable corner of the
universe, what will? Perhaps we need to shift our focus from information to
changing human behavior. Let's enlist leading behavioral scientists and psychological associations to
issues took a far back seat; in fact, they were barely mentioned. Both candidates knew instinctively that

address how to awaken the public to the urgency of protecting the planet. Let's launch a campaign to make this the
number-one priority. And let's adopt these mantras: No planet, no jobs; no planet, no Social Security; no planet, no
mortgages; no planet, no corporate bonus packages. No planet, no us.

1NC
Now we’ll address the stock issue of the disadvantage, or the
negative consequences of the affirmative team’s plan.
The affirmative plan mandates that the United States federal
government should spend large and wasteful amounts of
money on <the plan>. While this may seem like a good idea,
this spending doesn’t tackle the real cause of the problem.
Instead, the money could be better directed towards improving
other more efficient projects.
They said in cross examination that the plan costs 50-100
million dollars
Because the plan is already happening in the current system
as per our inherency arguments, this risky and repetitive
spending is needless and harmful to our economy. Just after
exceeding the debt ceiling and enduring the government shut
down last year, the last thing the US and its economy needs is
more reckless spending

I/L – Spending Destroys Econ
New spending destroys the economy – research is conclusive
Romina Boccia, Assistant Director for the Roe Institute for
Economic Policy Studies at The Heritage Foundation, writes in
2013 (She holds a master’s degree in Economics at George Mason University,
“How the United States’ High Debt Will Weaken the Economy and Hurt Americans”,
Heritage Foundation, 2/13/13,
http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/02/how-the-united-states-high-debtwill-weaken-the-economy-and-hurt-americans)//js
U.S. federal spending in 2013, combined with depressed receipts from a
weak economy, is on track to result in a deficit of $850 billion . Publicly held
debt in the United States will exceed 76 percent of gross domestic product
(GDP) in 2013, and chronic deficits are projected to push U.S. debt to 87
percent of the economy in 10 years.[1] Debt is projected to grow even more rapidly after 2023.
Recent economic research, especially the work of Carmen Reinhart,
Vincent Reinhart, and Kenneth Rogoff, confirms that federal debt at such
high levels puts the United States at risk for a number of harmful
economic consequences, including slower economic growth, a weakened
ability to respond to unexpected challenges, and quite possibly a debtdriven financial crisis.[2] The federal government is quickly exhausting its ability to manage its bills,
with debt having already reached the statutory debt ceiling. The resulting debate should focus
on the need to reduce federal spending immediately and over the long
term by making necessary and prudent reforms to the nation’s major entitlement programs, and thus
reduce the continued buildup of debt and the expected harmful
consequences increasingly confirmed by academic research.

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