Food and Beverage Operations

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Food & Beverage Operations
May2010

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1

Content
I. II. Description Learning Outcomes

III. Syllabus IV. Assessment V. Chapters 1 - 8

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Description

Description

The aim of the Food & Beverage Operations module is to provide students with an understanding of the operational & supervisory aspects of running a food & beverage operation for an international clientele in a range of establishments. To encourage an appreciation of the origins of such systems & to understand the various factors involved in meeting customer needs. Students will gain an understanding of food & beverage & its service in a variety of styles of restaurant & establishments & they will have sufficient knowledge to produce a broad plan for specified food & beverage operations.

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Content
I. II. Description Learning Outcomes

III. Syllabus IV. Assessment V. Chapters 1 - 8

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Learning Outcomes

Summary of Learning Outcomes

On completion of this module, students will be able to: Demonstrate knowledge of the key functional areas of the food & beverage operation Describe the kitchen operation including food production systems, methods of cookery, kitchen layout & commodities Demonstrate the different methods of purchasing & food storage Examine the appropriateness of the different methods of food & beverage service to manage customer expectations Develop & plan menus according to customer requirements Describe the different types & requirements of banqueting functions

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Content
I. II. Description Learning Outcomes

III. Syllabus IV. Assessment V. Chapters 1 - 8

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Syllabus – Part 1 of 3

Syllabus
● Restaurant concepts & types of outlets; banqueting, fast food, hotel, industrial, outside catering, institutional, in-flight, restaurant, public house & transport catering ● Typical organization structures & job titles in kitchen, restaurant & banqueting departments ● Food production systems including traditional, centralised, cook-chill, cook-freeze & sous vide ● The suitability of these systems to the operation. Methods of cookery. Kitchen layout & equipment. Commodities: food & non-food ● The policies & procedures for purchasing of food & non-food items for a hospitality operation ● The use of standard purchasing specifications & other recognised standards/brand names when ordering both food & non-food items. ● The correct storage of commodities. The security aspects of storing high value items ● Procedures for the issuing of stock items, including all records kept, & checks on the use of commodities
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Introduction to food & beverage operations

Food production operations

Purchasing & storage of goods

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Syllabus – Part 2 of 3

Syllabus

Food service systems

● Methods of food service, silver service, plate service, buffet, counter service, room service, self service, assisted service. Suitability & cost of service styles ● Meeting managing customer expectations. Staff skill levels. Preparation & layout of food & service operations ● Preparation & layout of beverage service, service of alcoholic & nonalcoholic beverages & hot beverages ● Beverage menu & wine list ● Menu structure & trends ● Factors affecting the compilation of menus, menu development ● Catering for customer requirements & trends in modern diets.

Production & sale of non-alcoholic & alcoholic beverages

Menu planning

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Syllabus – Part 3 of 3

Syllabus

Providing excellent customer service in food & beverage operations

● Employee attitude, personal appearance, hygiene practices ● Attentiveness, body language, effective communication, team work, attention to detail

Banqueting & functions

● Types of events, planning, organising & costing of an event. Menu & service styles ● Health, safety & hygiene considerations. Staffing the event. Evaluation

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Content
I. II. Description Learning Outcomes

III. Syllabus IV. Assessment V. Chapters 1 - 8

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Assessment

Assessment

This module will be assessed via a 2 ½ hour examination, set & marked by CTH. The examination will cover the whole of the assessment criteria in this unit & will take the form of 10 x 2 mark questions & 5 x 4 mark questions in section A (40 marks). Section B will comprise of 5 x 20 mark questions of which candidates must select & answer three (60 marks). CTH is a London based awarding body & the syllabus content will in general reflect this. Any legislation & codes of practice will reflect the international nature of the industry & will not be country specific. International centres may find it advantageous to add local legislation or practice to their teaching but they should be aware that the CTH examination will not assess this local knowledge.

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Content
I. II. Description Learning Outcomes

III. Syllabus IV. Assessment V. Chapters 1 - 8

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Chapters
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Introduction to food & beverage Food production Purchasing food & beverage Food service delivery Beverages Menu planning Service quality in food & beverage Conference & banqueting

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Objectives

In this chapter you will learn to :-

● Present the key characteristics, objectives & challenges of the sector ● Detail the diverse structure & scope of the sector ● Explain the complexity of the classifying the sector ● Describe & evaluate the characteristics & aims of a range of different types of food & beverage operations

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Introduction to the food & beverage sector

1.

Introduction to the food & beverage sector 1.1 Food & beverage: main objectives & expectations 1.2 Characteristics of the food & beverage sector 1.3 Trends in food & beverage 1.4 Size & structure of the food & beverage industry 1.5 Classification & organisation of the sector: the challenge

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Introduction to the food & beverage sector

Fig 1.1 The food & beverage cycle Most food & beverage businesses operate within the cycle & the different stages of the cycle present both challenges & opportunities for operators .

1. Purchasing 8. Consuming 2. Receiving

7. Serving

3. Storing

6. Cooking 5. Preparing

4. Issuing

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Introduction to the food & beverage sector

1.1 Food & beverage: main objectives & expectations Most food & beverage operations aim to provide: Quality food & beverages A clean, hygienic & safe environment Comfortable & well designed facilities Professional, attentive & friendly service Value for money

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Introduction to the food & beverage sector

The main challenges of the hospitality industry & the food sector are:-

● Intangibility – such as ambiance ● Simultaneous production & consumption - where mass production is difficult for it requires large amounts of customers & producers in one placer which would cause environmental, social, cultural & economic problems ● Heterogeneity – where service experience may vary due to different producers & consumers with different needs & requirements ● Consistency – is difficult to achieve due to the intangible element in food & beverage ● Perishability – where unused hospitality services cannot be stored, returned, claimed or resold Ownership – where the consumer only owns a hospitality product only for a certain period of time No guarantees – with little aftercare or service Imitation is easy – with no patents on service processes & easily copied by competitors Seasonality – where staffing & expenses are challenging to many restaurant operators External variables – that impact the running of the business such as political, economic, social, technological, legal & environmental change

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Introduction to the food & beverage sector

1.2 Characteristics of the food & beverage sector Following are the main characteristics:-

● A vital part of everyday life ● Major contributor to the national economy ● Highly fragmented & complex ● Creates employment ● Encourages entrepreneurship ● Promotes diversity through many different food concepts & cuisines ● Fuels innovation ● Local multiplier using many other peripheral services ● Consumer led ● Competitive ● An opportunity to enjoy the company of friends, family & colleagues ● Fulfils basic needs (see Fig 1.2)

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Introduction to the food & beverage sector

Fig 1.2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Food is a basic need for everyday life

Self actualization

Self Esteem

Love & belonging

Safety needs

Physiological needs

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Introduction to the food & beverage sector

1.3 Trends in food & beverage Following are some key trends in the UK:-

● Guests become more sophisticated ● More emphasis on food safety & sanitation ● More casual/less formal & theme restaurants ● Increase in ethnic restaurants & ethnic food ● Growth in chains –all cuisines ● Increase in convenience food ● Increase in coffee chains – coffee culture ● Increased take out meals & home meal replacement ● Outsourcing outlets in hotels – co-branding ● More focus on healthier eating ● Increase in organic food consumption, food sustainability & provenance

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Introduction to the food & beverage sector

1.4 Size & structure of the food & beverage industry Fig 1.3 The United Kingdom Food Service Industry (2006)

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Introduction to the food & beverage sector

1.5 Classification & organisation of the sector: the challenge The food & beverage sector is extremely diverse & fragmented that the size & scope of the industry creates a challenge when attempting to organise & classify it. It has many subsectors. Following are the classification approaches & options:-

● Commercial & non-commercial ● Size ● Ownership ● Star rating or quality ● Service method ● Food or beverage ● Concept or theme ● Revenue or turnover ● Location ● Meal time or meal period ● Customer type ● Cuisine ● Awards & schemes
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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Introduction to the food & beverage sector

Fig 1.4 Classification of food & beverage
Food & Beverage outlets

Commercial

Non Commercial

General market

Restricted market

Institutional catering

Employee catering

Hotels

Travel catering

Schools

In-house catering

Restaurants & snack bars

Clubs

University catering

Contract caterer

Fast food & take away

Institutional & employee catering

The military services

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Prisons

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Introduction to the food & beverage sector

Variety of food & beverage operations
Shopping malls, airports, food counters Ethnic restaurants (Chinese, Japanese, French, Malaysian, Caribbean) Restaurants (bistros, brasseries, coffee shops, cafeterias, wine bars, public houses, roadside restaurants) Ethnic chains (Wagamama, Bombay Bicycle Yo Sushi, Nandos) Educational Institutions (schools, colleges, universities) Transport (rail, air & marine)

Welfare catering hospitals, healthcare, prisons, military

Supermarkets – food retail ( food to go)

Employee dining

Outside catering

Private clubs

Street vendors

Fine dining

Themed restaurants (Hard Rock Café, Planet Hollywood)

Cafes & sandwich bars

Fast food chains (McDonalds, Subway KFC, Wendy’s)

Accommodation (hotels, motels, guest houses, hostels)

Leisure (museums, theme parks, theatres, cinemas)

Conference centres

Takeaway (kiosks, fish & chips, snack bars)

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Management options in food and beverage: main approaches

2.

Management options in food & beverage: main approaches 2.1 Self – operated 2.2 Franchise agreement 2.3 Management contracting 2.4 Outsourcing

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Management options in food and beverage: main approaches

2.1 Self-operated The owner or organisation manages the operation themselves. It could be a small, large or a franchised situation

2.2 Franchise agreement Ninemeier (2000) explains: ‘ With a franchise, the franchisee (the owner of the facility) pays fees to the franchisor (or franchise company) in exchange for the right to use the name, building design, and business methods of the franchisor. Furthermore, the franchisee must agree to maintain the franchisor’s business & quality standards’.

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Management options in food and beverage: main approaches

Figure 1.5 Evaluation of Franchise agreement: Franchiser & Franchisee (Mc Donalds)

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Management options in food and beverage: main approaches

2.3 Management contracting When an owner or operator of an establishment employs or contracts specialised hospitality or food & beverage service company to manage the whole or part of the operation. This could b don either in a hotel or in a non-commercial institution, for example a university Figure 1.6: Management contracting analysis

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Management options in food and beverage: main approaches

2.4 Outsourcing Increasingly, hotels are realising that hotel-run restaurants are in some cases unprofitable due to many residents opting to dine at known branded outlets. Therefore, a new & emerging trend is where the hotel forms a partnership with a restaurant/coffee chain/bar brand that would operate from a designated area within the hotel. Fig 1.7 Food & beverage outsourcing in hotels (Starbucks)

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations

3.

Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations 3.1 Food & beverage in accommodation 3.2 Food & beverage services in hotels 3.3 Independent restaurants (small/medium enterprise – SME) 3.4 Ethnic restaurants 3.5 Themed restaurants 3.6 Public houses or licensed premises 3.7 Chained restaurants & bars 3.8 Food & beverage in transportation 3.9 Non-commercial food & beverage 3.10 Characteristics of non-commercial operations

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations

Main types of commercial & non-commercial food & beverage:Commercial ● Food & beverage in accommodation ● Independents operations ● Themed restaurants ● Public houses ● Fast food chains ● Transport services Non-commercial ● Military ● Schools ● Universities ● Hospitals ● Employee catering
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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations

3.1 Food & beverage in accommodation Can vary depending on location specific areas, size, ownership, location, goals, customer & quality. 5-star hotels Coffee shop, Fine dining restaurant/s, Specialty restaurant, Bar, Coffee lounge/pastry counter, Conference & banqueting, Outside catering, 24hour full room service menu, Executive lounge food & beverage services, In room guest amenities, Mini bar, Nightclub, karaoke, cigar room, pool café, delicatessen, Employee dining Coffee shop, Specialty restaurant, Bar & lounge, Room service (limited throughout the night), Guest amenities, Conference & banqueting, Mini bar, Employee dining Breakfast buffet, Bar, Vending machines, Employee dining Breakfast, Limited set menu available at set times on request Snack bar, Vending, Food prepared on request to take away
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4-star hotels Budget hotels Bed & breakfast Hostel
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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations

Fig 1.8 The food & beverage structure within a 4-star hotel
Food & Beverage Manager

Assistant food & Beverage Manager

Executive Chef

Food and Beverage coordinator Conference and Banqueting Manager Conference and Banqueting Team

Sous Chef

Restaurant Manager

Bar Manager

Coffee shop Manager

Chief Steward

Restaurant Team

Bar Team

Room service and Mini Bar Manager

Kitchen team

Room Service team

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations

3.2 Food & beverage services in hotels Most hotels operate multiple food & beverage outlets. Outlets, products and services offered are subject to change from property to property. The outlets could be:-

● Coffee shop ● Restaurant ● Fine dining ● Bar ● Lounge ● Executive lounge ● Conferencing & banqueting ● Outside catering ● Room service ● Mini bar ● Guest amenities ● Employee dining

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations

3.3 Independent restaurants An independent restaurant is an individual trading entity, and in most cases the unit is managed by the owner. The restaurants could be themed ethnic, have a variety of service methods such as self-service, cafeteria, take-away, sit down or drive-through. They rely heavily on passing trade and word of mouth advertising. Almost 70% are often dynamic & varied. As the team is much smaller, many of the positions overlap. Fig 1.13 Typical organisational chart of a small independent food & beverage organisation
Restaurant Manager/ Owner

Assistant food & Beverage Manager

Restaurant Supervisors

Kitchen Team

Restaurant Team

Bar Supervisor

Kitchen Porters
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Cleaners

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations

An independent restaurant is an individual trading entity, and in most cases the unit is managed by the owner. The restaurants could be themed ethnic, have a variety of service methods such as self-service, cafeteria, take-away, sit down or drive-through. They rely heavily on passing trade and word of mouth advertising. Almost 70% are often dynamic & varied. As the team is much smaller, many of the positions overlap. Fig 1.13 Typical organisational chart of a small independent food & beverage organisation

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations

3.4 Ethnic restraints These type of restaurants can be part of a chain but also independent in nature. Manage by owners and operated around a central theme such as Chinese, Japanese and Middle Eastern.

3.5 Themed restaurants These type of restaurants are operations that have a central theme throughout such as music, entertainment or sport for example. For a example the Hard Rock Cafe.

3.6 Public houses or licensed premises Public houses (‘pubs’) offer comfortable, relaxing environments for groups or individuals can get together to enjoy beverages. Beverages are the main products but they offer great verity of foods due to declining beverage sales. They outsource their kitchen to chef entrepreneurs and the growth in gastro pubs.

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations

3.7 Chain restaurants and bars Key characteristics of chain restaurants

● Several units operating in different locations. ● Can be national, regional or global ● Operations normally duplicated and featured the same design, menus and operations in each unit. ● Good infrastructure and support networks – training and purchasing for example. ● Provide consistency and standardisation to customers. ● Centralised purchasing and distribution networks. ● Operations are normally themed around a central concept. ● Service systems can vary from take-away, drive thru, dine in, causal or fine dining. ● The operations can be owned by a parent company, a franchise or private owners.

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations

3.8 Food and beverage in transportation Sea Range from cafeteria-style snacks on short routes to fine dining on cruise lines. Normally transfer large quantities in short period of time. Range from purchased snack on budget airlines or gourmet set menus for firstclass passengers. The food is mass produced and prepared off-site. The on-board catering is normally contracted out to a specialist cater. Beverage can be range from trolley to full. Range from fine dining to trolley service. Provide on-board kiosk where customers can purchase a basic selection of hot and cold food and beverages. Another common method is an on-board trolley service, move from carriage to carriage. Fine dining is offered in first-class long journeys.

Air

Rail

3.9 Non-commercial food and beverage Main focus is on providing nutritious food and beverages but the primary mission is not to sell food and beverages.
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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Commercial and non-commercial food & beverage operations

3.10 Characteristics of non-commercial operations

● Non-commercial institutions hire commercial food service management(contract) companies from outside to manage food service in their institutions. ● Commercial food service management companies exist to make profit. ● They carry out fully the food and service responsibilities for the institutions under contract. ● The institution or workplace can free itself from the day-to-day concern of managing food service operations. ● They are professional food service companies. ● These operations are planned to keep the expenses/ costs low; they are budget-oriented. ● They are part of properties that exist for reasons other than the service of food and beverages, which is only supportive. ● Competition is limited as the service is provided in a private, closed environment. ● Normally large scale, delivered at particular times of day. ● Business levels are quite predictable making it easier for production and planning. ● Emphasis is not placed on nutrition.

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Chapter 1 – Introduction to food & beverage

Summary

Introduction to food and beverage

Objectives, Challenges and characteristics Food and beverage classifications and types

Management options

Commercial operations

Non commercial operations

Hotel food and beverage

Military

Independent operations

Schools

Ethnic, themed and chain operations

University

Transport catering

Employee

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Chapters
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Introduction to food & beverage Food production Purchasing food & beverage Food service delivery Beverages Menu planning Service quality in food & beverage Conference & banqueting

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Objectives

In this chapter you will learn to :-

● Explain kitchen organization and the responsibilities of key personnel employed ● Describe and appraise the different food production methods ● Identify the main food groups and commodities ● Describe the main considerations in kitchen designs ● Discuss the importance of achieving food cost ● Explain the importance of food hygiene and control

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Kitchen introduction

1.

Kitchen introduction 1.1 Communication 1.2 Kitchen chef characteristics 1.3 Staffing and responsibilities 1.4 Kitchen organization 1.5 Partie system analysis 1.6 The stewarding department

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Kitchen introduction

Fig 2.1 Main objectives of the kitchen department
To provide safe meals for all consumers To prepare food in the time expected, to avoid customer waiting To provide quality meals for all consumers

To prepare the right quantity of food

Kitchen Objectives

To meet or exceed the food needs of organization’s target market

To create menus that will both attract and retain customers

To utilize food stocks in the best way possible

To achieve monthly financial food targets

To minimize stock wastages

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Kitchen introduction

Most kitchens will be managed by an Executive or Head Chef. Their responsibilities can be, Fig 2.2 Executive Chef job description

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Kitchen introduction

1.1 Communication
Fig 2.3 Executive Chef communication
Purchasing & Stores Department

Competitors

Bar Genaeral Manager's office

Customers

External Suppliers

Room service

Housekeeping

EXECUTIVE CHEF

Accounts department

Sales and Marketing

Human Resources

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Kitchen introduction

1.2 Kitchen chef characteristics 1.2.1Qualities of a good chef Ability to work under pressure Ability to multi task Creative Consistent Good palate Ability to work in a team 1.2.2 Challenges for a chef Fast paced and hot work environment Many stakeholders Risk of food poisoning In most cases a high level of competition High perishability of stock items Frequently changeable external environment (i.e. food trends or scares) Unsociable work
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Chapter 2 – Food production

Kitchen introduction

1.2.3 Opportunities for a chef Be creative and showcase skills Satisfy customers Acquire and pass on skills Meet lots of interesting people Learn and sample a wide variety of different food Travel Obtain awards for culinary expertise 1.2.4 Chef presentation Appearance – trimmed hair, clean hair, hair tied back if long, neatly shaven, no earrings on males, studded earrings only for women Accessories – wristwatch, maximum two rings, body piercings or tattoos should not be visible, no visible necklaces Trousers – pin striped, clean, well pressed Shoes – slip resistant, in good repair
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Chapter 2 – Food production

Kitchen introduction

1.3 Staffing and responsibilities The organizational structure of a kitchen will depend on a number of factors including : Size and kitchen space available Quantity of food output (demand) Number of food outlets to cater Sophistication and type of menu Equipment requirement Location where production is taking place (in kitchen or outsourced) Service methods (Buffets, plated)

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Kitchen introduction

1.4 Kitchen organization “Partie system” is a method of kitchen organization which is formal, structured brigade and in most cases, only found in high quality kitchens and restaurants.
Fig 2.4 The ‘Partie’ system
Executive Chef

Sous Chef

Chef Tournant

Chef de partie Grade Manager

Chef de partie Saucier

Chef de partie Poissonier

Chef de partie Patiser

Chef de partie Entremetier

Demi Chef de Partie Grade Manager

Demi Chef de Partie partie Saucier

Demi Chef de Partie Poissonier

Demi Chef de Partie Patiser

Demi Chef de Partie Entremetier

Commis Grade Manager
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Commis Saucier

Commis Poissonier
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Commis Patiser

Commis Entremetier

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Kitchen introduction

Role Sous Chef Chef Tournant Chef Grade Manager Chef Saucier Chef Poissonnier Chef Patissier Chef Entremetier

Responsibilities Assistant to the executive chef, deputies in his/her absence Covers each section as and when required – has the skills and knowledge to cover all sections Responsible for the preparation of all cold savoury foods Responsible for all sauteed items Preparation and cooking of all fish dishes Preparation of desserts and pastries Preparation of all vegetables, soups and hot appetisers

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Kitchen introduction

1.5 Partie system analysis
Advantages Chefs specialize in a particular section of a kitchen Disadvantages Although chefs specialize, they only focus on one section of the kitchen as opposed to learning a wide range of skills in more conventional kitchen systems. Staff can be ideal when particular section of the kitchen are not busy Can be expensive for the organization due to the large numbers of staff required Chefs becomes bored

Each section has a support infrastructure to avoid any weaknesses Chef have a clear route f or progression Customers receives quality meals Kitchen managers are able to allocate responsibility and accountability to the various sections Kitchen managers are able to detect and monitor problems more easily
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Chapter 2 – Food production

Kitchen introduction

Many kitchens now provide chefs with opportunities to work and rotate in other sections of the kitchen. The benefits of this for the organization: Chefs become multi skilled and therefore more flexible Job satisfaction is more greater due to acquiring a more divers skill set Labour cost are more streamlined due to better utilization of labour

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Kitchen introduction

1.6 The stewarding department Stewarding is a sub department of the kitchen and it’s staffing requirements for a large operation are detailed below: Fig 2.5 Basic Stewarding organization chart in a large kitchen Chief Steward Assistant Chief Steward Kitchen Porter Kitchen Porter Kitchen Porter Kitchen Porter Kitchen Porter

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Kitchen introduction

Position Chief Steward and assistant

Responsibilities

• Report to Executive Chef and Food and Beverage Manager • Supervise team of porters • Schedule work of Porters • Create cleaning standards • manage and control equipment stores (in/out) •Responsible for the maintenance of hygiene within kitchen • Control of kitchen chemicals (COSHH) • Co-ordinate booking of any maintenance of kitchen cleaning contractors or casual staff • Responsible for inventory and maintenance of kitchen cleaning equipments • Carry out day-to-day cleaning of the kitchen • Operate the dishwasher machine • Clean kitchen equipment after use • Empty dustbins • Periodically sweep and mop floors • Clean kitchen work tops
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Kitchen Porters

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Kitchen design and planning considerations

2.

Kitchen design and planning considerations When planning a kitchen there are many factors to consider. Each design element must work together, to create smooth running kitchen operation, and include control, safety, business yield and employee satisfaction. Poor planning often lead to, Wasted capacity Poor stock rotation Employee accidents Low employee motivation Slow production and output Risk of food poisoning

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Kitchen design and planning considerations

Figure 2.6 Kitchen design considerations
Maximum Output Standards of organisation Work flow of employees Production efficiency

POS Systems

Space available

Environmental regulations

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning

Service methods of restaurants

Utilisation of space

Communication with services LegislationEmployees working space ratios Health and safety of employees & customers

HACCP requirements

Menu types

Equ8ipment requirements

Supervision by managers

Efficient communication between chefs

Gas & Electricity

Control of stock

Refuse disposal

Storage requirements (bulk & section)

Drainage & plumbing

Production methods

Restaurant preparation area

Allocation of cleaning space

Ergonomics

Task Lighting

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Production methods and organisation

3.

Production methods and organisation 3.1 Production methods 3.2 The conventional food production method 3.3 The sous-vide method of food production (vacuum cooking) 3.4 Sous-vide - evaluation 3.5 Cook-chill method of food production 3.6 Cook-freeze method of food production 3.7 The central distribution method of food production

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And efficient kitchen is where the chefs prepare and cook food in minimal time whilst maintaining a very high standard. This could be achieved through a methodical and economical method of working by, Ensuring all kitchen equipment is up to standard and ready to use. E.g.: A sharp knife over a blunt one at all times.

Source: http//www.luxuryhomedesign.blogspot.com

Using electrical equipment for appropriate and worth while purposes, for instances a potato peeler for 4 portions of potatoes which is likely to take more time in putting the machine to use than the time taken to peel potatoes it self is unworthy. Working systematically as possible The kitchen crew holding right postures in order to avoid fatigue and so forth. E.g. when standing for ;long periods of times standing correctly with weight evenly on both legs.

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Production methods and organisation

Ensuring all necessary equipment is ready and usable at the start of each working session. Positioning all work tops, sinks, stores, and refrigerators within easy reach to eliminate unnecessary movements of chefs. Storing all ingredients as close to the practical work area, starting from most frequently used items close at hand. Preparing the mise en place thoroughly to ensure the follow-on of a smooth and efficient service. Following a clear and continuous work plan, opposed to a haphazard one. E.g. preparing those dishes first which demands more time to prepare.

Source: Caterer & Hotelkeeper

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Production methods and organisation

3.1 Production methods Food production is differing methods of preparing, cooking and serving food to produce meals to the customer.
Food Fresh Fresh cooked Fresh Prepared Canned Fresh Chilled Vacuum Dehydrated Smoked Salted Crystallised Acidified Pasteurized Bottled UHT Preparation Weigh/Measure clear/open Chop/cut Combine/mix Blend Shape/coat Form Cooking Blanch Warm Simmer Boil Steam Grill Sauté Brown Bake Roast Broil Fry Microwave Holding Chill Sous-vide Freeze Tray Hot Cupboard Cold Cupboard Regeneration Regithermic Microwave Convection Traditional Presentation

Bain-marie Service flats Plates Trays Vending Buffet Trolley Dishes

Foods in
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Process
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Output

Chapter 2 – Food production

Production methods and organisation

3.1.1 Key considerations in food production Food hygiene Quality raw materials Foods should be stored properly Appropriate preparation for each food item Minimised wastage Employees should comply with handling regulations Foods should be cooked to proper temperatures Methods differ in relation to: Actual location where food is produced Total time from preparation to service Staff numbers required Level of hygiene and control Quantity of food produced

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Production methods and organisation

Figure 2.7 Food production methods

Conventional

Cook- chill

Cook-freeze

Food Production Methods

Centralised distribution

Sous-vide

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Production methods and organisation

3.2 The conventional food production method The conventional method is used in most kitchen establishments and follows the process as shown in figure 2.8.

Figure 2.8 Conventional food production process

Goods in to kitchen

Refrigeration Freezing Dry Store

Preparation (Mise en place)

Ordered from customer

Cooking

Serving

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Production methods and organisation

Food as given in the table below can be cooked in variety of methods during the food production process.

Method
Baking Blanching Boiling Braising Boiling Fried Deep fried Grilled Poaching Roasting Sautéing Steaming Stewing

Explanation
Cooked in dry heat, in the oven Dipping the food in to boiling water or oil for a short time Cooked in a boiling or rapidly simmering liquid Browned in small amount of fat, then cooked slowly in a small amount of liquid Cooked by direct heat from above or below Cooked in fat or oil Cooked in enough fat to cover the food Cooked on a grill, over direct heat Cooked in a liquid , just below boiling point (simmering) Cooked uncovered, usually by in oven by dry heat Browned or cooked in a small amount hot fat or oil Cooked in steam with or without pressure Simmering slowly in enough liquid to cover the food Adapted from cichy & wise (1999)

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Production methods and organisation

3.3 The sous-vide method of food production (vacuum cooking) Figure2.9 Sous vide process

Goods in

Prepared

Cooked

Portioned in to plastic pouches and vacuum packed Chilled and refrigerated

Customer orders meals

Sealed pouches placed in boiling water

Reheated

Pouch is cut open

Food is arranged on plate and served

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Production methods and organisation

3.4 Sous – vide - evaluation

Advantages
Pouches retain freshness During re-heating juices are retained in pouch and not lost Individual pouches are labeled for easy stock rotation There is less risk of cross contamination during storage due to sealed pouches and labeling Less wastage as foods is used only when ordered Food can be produced and accurately portioned Chef does not need to be present for reheating and finishing stage Pouched can be frozen to extend life Inexpensive regeneration
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Disadvantages
Capital investment in equipment and storage Not as fresh as conventional method Not able to adjust to customer requirements Not all foods suitable for sousvide method Negative stigma attached(Boil in the bag!)

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3.5 Cook-chill method of food production Cook chill is a catering system based on normal preparation and cooking of food followed by rapid chilling and storage. In controlled low temperature conditions above freezing point, subsequently reheating prior to consumption. The chilled food is regenerated in finishing kitchens which require low capital investment and minimum staff. All most any food can be cook chilled provided that the correct methods are used. Foskett et al. ( 2004) Figure 2.11 The cook- chill process

Goods in to kitchen store

Preparing and cooking

Portioning

Packaging

Blast chilling

Re-heating

Consumption

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Production methods and organisation

3.6 Cook freeze method of food production The method is similar to cook-chill apart from refrigeration temperatures .

Figure 2.12 The cook- freeze process

Goods in

Preparing and cooking

Blast freezing

Blast thawing

Re-heating

Serving

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Production methods and organisation

3.7 The central distribution method of food production Centralised food production is when food is produced in bulk-off site. The method is frequently adopted by large chains who are looking to outsource all or part of their food production.

source;:http//www.stangard-online.net
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Production methods and organisation

Advantages
CPU is specialised in food production Due to bulk production costs, prices are cheaper for buyers High levels of hygiene during production

Disadvantages
Pass control to another company Potential delays in delivery to operation

Figure 2.11 The cook- freeze process

Hotel or restaurant creates dish specification

Central production unit (CPU) produces food off site

Blast chilling

CPU delivers food to hotel or other hospitality operation

Operation stores food in refrigeration or freezers

Food is thawed and en place

Consumers order food

Food is reheated and served

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Food classifications

4.

Food classifications There are many different types and varieties of food. One way of organising ingredients is to categorise them into particular groups of families. Few of food are detailed below.

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Food classifications

4.1 Cheese
Semi-hard Gouda Edam Emmenthal Soft Camembert Brie Mozzarella Blue Dolcelatte Stilton Roquefort

4.2 Vegetables
Root Turnip Radish Potato Beet Leaf Spinach Lettuce Chicory Brassicas Cauliflower Brussels sprouts Broccoli Shoot Fennel Asparagus Artichoke Celery Fruit Avocado Aubergine Peppers Tomato Bulb Garlic Onion Shallot Squash Cucumber Zucchini Pumpkin Marrow Pods Corn Bean sprouts Peas Okra

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Food classifications

4.3 Fruits
Berries Blackberry Raspberry Blueberry Citrus Lime Orange Lemon Tropical Guava Mango Papaya Other Apples Melon Bananas

4.4 Fish
Freshwater Trout Ecl Carp Salmon Seawater Mullet Mackerel Snapper Cod

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Food classifications

4.5 Seafood
Crustaceans Lobster Shrimp Crab Mollusc Octopus Oyster Mussel

4.6 Poultry and game
Poultry Chicken Capon Goose Turkey
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Feathered game Woodcock Quail Partridge

Furred game Rabbit Hare

Chapter 2 – Food production

Food cost and control

5.

Food cost and control 5.1 Food cost 5.2 Benefits of food cost for an organisation 5.3 How to achieve food cost targets?

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Food cost and control

To ensure food is prepared to ‘optimum condition’, the following factors must be implemented to ensure a quality product.
Dish specifications (standard recipes)

Purchase specifications

Qualified chefs

HACCP implementation

Functioning equipment

Batch cooking

Good supervision

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Food cost and control

5.1 Food cost Food cost is the percentage of total restaurant sales spent on the food product, It is normally around 28·30% as an industry guideline and can be considered as a performance measure for kitchen managers. Food cost can be calculated as: Total cost of food consumption / total food sales x100%

When there are more than one outlet (such as in a large hotel), the internal requisitioning system assists in keeping track of food consumption for each outlet.

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Food cost and control

5.2

Benefits of food cost for an organisation Fig 2.14 Benefits of food cost
Target for the Executive Chef

Measurement of performance

Food cost

An industry benchmark

Overall assessments of food management cycle

Some organisations with food operations provide incentives for Executive Chefs if food coast targets are achieved.
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Chapter 2 – Food production

Food cost and control

5.3 How to achieve food cost targets? Fig 2.15 Key considerations for achievement of food cost target
Qualified employees avoid errors Monitor food prices for fluctuations Monitor refrigerator temperatures Demonstrate first in first out (FIFO) roattion system No meals leave the kitchen unless posted through POS system

All management meals through POS system

Slow moving items utilised

Discourage employees picking food in kitchen

Lockable fridges

Monthly and mid monthly food stock takes

Good security procedures in place

Remove poor selling items from menu monitor ‘Sales Mix’

Minimise food wastage, utilise food fully

Only prepare what is needed

Have and adhere to dish specifications for each dish

Cook and serve foods correctly – avoid customer returns and complaints

Employees eat employee food

Store goods correctly

DO not let foods spoil!

Incorrect costing and pricing

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Food poisoning

6.

Food poisoning 6.1 Main types of food poisoning 6.2 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Food poisoning

6.1 Main types of food poisoning Salmonella Staphylococcus Clostridium Listeria

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Food poisoning

Figure 2.16: Impacts of food poisoning for a food & beverage operation

Loss of business Employee turnover and loss of employme nt Illness to customer

Fines and penalties from authorities

Food Poisoning impact

Poor ‘unclean’ image

Possible closure by authorities

Bad publicity

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Food poisoning
Figure 2.17: Ways in which to minimize a food positioning outbreak
Implement HACCP Pay particular attention when dealing with eggs, pork and poultry Food should be cooked thoroughly Wash vegetables and food thoroughly Food hygiene training Keep foods outside the danger zonebetween 40F (4.4C) and 140 F (60C) Discard old food Risk assessment Clean equipment between use Correct thawing Always cover and label foods Frequent hand washing Do not leave food hanging around in kitchen

No pets or vermin (pest control)

Uncooked, raw meats should always be stored on lower shelves Serve cold food cold

Leftover food to be thoroughly cooked Sick employees should be sent home

After preparation of food, keep refrigerated until cooking or serving

Serve hot food hot

Do not cross contaminate
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Keep buns covered

Food should be thoroughly destroyed before cooking
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Clean kitchen surface frequently

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Food poisoning

6.2

Hazard analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)

The HACCP system entails identifying potential risks during the food cycle and production stage and implementing controls to reduce those risks. This includes implementing regular checking systems and maintaining good records.

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Food poisoning

Figure 2.18: The HACCP food control process
Analyse Hazards

Identification of CCPs (Critical Control Points)

CCP prevention measures

Monitoring of CCP Prevention Measures

CCP not met

HACCP and CCP Log
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Chapter 2 – Food production

Kitchen equipment

7.

Kitchen equipment Large commercial kitchens have a wide selection of equipment to assist staff in their varying roles.

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Chapter 2 – Food production

Food poisoning

Considerations when purchasing equipment Can we afford it? Can we get spare parts? Who requires training? Will it be easy to use? Guarantees Warrantees Will it add value? What is the company support if it breaks down? Where is the best location for this equipment? What training is required? What is the procedure for cleaning? Instructions for use? How long will it last? Who else has purchased one- testimonials? What are the safety risks (risk assessments)? Has it been safety approved?
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Chapter 2 – Food production

Summary

Kitchen introduction

Organisation and structure

Kitchen design

Kitchen equipment

Food cost and control

Food classifications

Production methods and organisation

Objectives

Food cost

Cheese, vegetables, fruit, poultry, game, fish & seafood

Cooking methods

Staffing

Standard recipes

Conventional, cook – chill, cook – freeze, sous – vide &centralised

Communication

Food poisoning

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Chapters
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Introduction to food & beverage Food production Purchasing food & beverage Food service delivery Beverages Menu planning Service quality in food & beverage Conference & banqueting

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Objectives

In this chapter you will learn to :-

● Explain the importance and the process of selecting the right suppliers ● Describe the key standards required when purchasing, receiving, storing and issuing food and beverages ● Recommend the tools required for the effective control of finances and hygiene throughout the procurement and storage process

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Departmental goals and structure

1.

Departmental goals and structure 1.1 Departmental objectives 1.2 Factors that impact purchasing 1.3 Departmental personnel 1. 4 Sample job description: Food and Beverage Manager

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Departmental goals and structure

Fig 3.1: The purchasing cycle
1. Purchasing

4. Issuing

2. Receiving

3. Storing

The purchasing department is responsible for sourcing, receiving, storing and issuing of stocks. These stocks could be in the form of: food, beverage, supplies, equipment.

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Departmental goals and structure

1.1

Departmental objectives

● ● ● ●

To meet financial targets To maintain quality To meet buyers' requirements To meet consumers' requirements

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Departmental goals and structure

1.2 Factors that impact purchasing
Business Levels Geographic location of operation Organization Size and type

Fig 3.3 : Purchasing considerations
Availability of storage space The organization budget

Standard of operations

Time of Year (seasonality)
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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Departmental goals and structure
1.3 Departmental personnel Purchasing department is managed and supervised by the Accounts department . their responsibilities are given in the following table.
Person Purchaser Responsibilities

● Liaising with departments ● Researching suppliers ● Finding suppliers ● Receiving goods ● Checking goods ● Data entry of new stocks ● Maintaining of quality of stocks ● Issuing of stocks to departments• Updating stock
records

● Obtaining quotations ● Researching market prices ● Negotiating prices ● Dealing with delivery personnel ● Signing for deliveries ● Liaising with purchasing, receiving and
department personnel ● • Maintaining the hygiene of stocks ● • Assisting with stock-takes and inventories

Receiver Store man

Cost controller

● Observing stock transactions ● Conducting impromptu stock –takes ● Checking stock documentation

● Identifying weakness in stock control ● Making recommendations for improved stock
control ● Assisting with stock-takes

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Departmental goals and structure
1.4 Sample job description: Food and Beverage Manager (Skills & duties) Skills ● ● ● ● Strong communication skills(verbal ,l listening, writing) Innovative Proactive and reliable Able to work alone and within a team

Duties ● To supervise in all aspects of purchasing food and beverage to ensure quality and profitability ● To support the Director of Food and Beverage and Executive Chef to order food and beverage ● To assist in accurate administration of all delivery notes, requisitions and invoices in accordance with hotel and company standards ● Manage the receiving and inspecting of all food and beverage deliveries ● Maintain inventory controls and proper levels, dating and rotation of all food and beverage items that are received

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Departmental goals and structure

● To ensure high standards of work performance, conduct and appearance of himself and his departments are met ● To maintain healthy inter-departmental relationships ● To support the Financial Controller in monthly product line checks ● To be responsible for the safe keeping of all keys relating to purchasing and stores ● To maintain the highest level of cleanliness, health and safety and security within the delivery area, storage area and kitchen ● To forecast weekly food and beverage cost figures in conjunction with other departments and hotel occupancy ● To maintain healthy inter-departmental relationships ● To promote awareness of health and safety within the department for associates and guests. Example fire alert points, exits, extinguishers, table clips etc. ● To attend relevant training courses to aid self-development ● Adhere to all current legislation including food safety and health and safety ● Attend all food and beverage meetings and morning briefing when necessary ● Check all invoices for price fluctuations and take action where necessary
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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Purchasing

2.

Purchasing 2.1 Purchasing responsibilities 2.2 Capital purchases 2.3 Quality control 2.4 Selecting suppliers 2.5 Financial control 2.6 Changes in product cost +/-

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Purchasing

2.1 Purchasing responsibilities

● Liaising with Suppliers ● Liaising with department managers ● Gaining approval ● Obtaining quotes for more expensive items ● Sending orders ● Maintaining records ● Market surveys on food prices

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Purchasing

2.2 Capital purchases 4.Purchaser selects best supplier offer and creates purchase order

5. Delivery of refrigerator

1. Chef needs a new refrigerator

2.Provides model, brand and specification to purchasing department

3.Purchasing employee sources quotations from suppliers

Supplier 1

Supplier 2

Supplier 3

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Purchasing

2.3 Quality control Specifications The first step in achieving control in the purchasing of food and beverages is to create a product specification. The specification should:

● Set out clearly the standard required for each product ● Ensure mangers set out exact requirements in advance ● Provide the supplier ● Guide the supplier ● Minimise discrepancies on delivery ● Be used when bidding for contracts ● Act as a checking tool on delivery

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Purchasing

2.4 Selecting suppliers The following questions needs to be asked when selecting suppliers: ● Are they reputable? ● Are they certificated? ● Can they supply the products that I want at the right quality? ● Are their prices competitive? ● Will they be consistent? ● Which other companies do they serve? ● Can they deal with the volume that I want? ● What are their credit terms, do their payment terms meet the ● criteria of our accounts department? ● Will they add value to my product overall?

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Purchasing

2.5 Financial control Purchasers periodically check market prices to ensure that suppliers are quoting competitively to give the best deal.

Supplier 3 £3.05 kg

My Supplier £3.00 kg

Supplier 2 £2.75 kg

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Purchasing
2.6 Changes in product cost +/Changes in costs can occur due to, ● Seasonal availability ● Variations in the external environment ● Quantities ordered Fig 3.6 :Bulk discounting High Cost

Low
High

Low Quantity Ordered
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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Purchasing

Fig 3.7:Purchasing steps
1.Idenify what stock is needed to meet business demands

3.Order Goods

2.Check stock available and order the difference. Compare Purchase Order

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Receiving

3.

Receiving 3.1 Equipment 3.2 Product checks on receipt of delivery 3.3 Delivery temperatures 3.4 Meat checks 3.5 Beverages 3.6 Health and safety tips: receiving area

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Receiving

3.1 Equipment In order to carry out all the tasks of a receipt of a delivery , the receiver requires the following equipment to be available on the “receiving area” or “loading bay”:

● Scales ● Trolleys ● Thermometer and thermopin ● Sink ● Calculator ● Scissors and box cutters

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Receiving

3.2 Product checks on receipt of delivery On the receipt of delivery the following checks should be carried out by the receiver.

● The delivery note matches the purchase order ● The products match any food specifications ● Checks the weight of items against delivery note ● Counts items purchased by unit against delivery note ● Checks prices against purchase order ● Checks expiry dates of items ● Checks temperatures of meats and fresh foods ● Checks for any breakages or damaged items ● Opens any boxes or containers to check inside

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Receiving

3.3 Delivery temperatures

● Most refrigerated items should be received at 41°F or below ● Dry goods are received at room temperature, packaged intact and in good condition ● Frozen products should of course be received frozen ● Signature of the receiving clerk who conforms accuracy of the order ● Company stamp
Note: It is also good for the receiver to randomly check the temperature of the delivery vehicles.

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Receiving

3.4 Meat checks

● Check for excess blood seepage ● Ensure no cross contamination has occurred and all meats are separated ● Pork products should be wrapped in dry paper ● Frozen meats should be unthawed ● Poultry should have no strong smell ● Chicken meat should be golden yellow, not white

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Receiving

3.5 Beverages Beverage checks include examination:

● For any breakages ● That seals are not broken ● That the vintages are correct ● That the label is in good condition

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Receiving

3.6 Health and safety tips: receiving area

● Lift correctly and avoid lifting heavy items ● Wash hands frequently ● Keep area clear of debris and rubbish ● Sweep and mop regularly

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Storage

4.

Storage 4.1 Perishability 4.2 Storeroom health tips and good practice

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Storage

After goods are checked-in, stock is transferred into the correct storage facilities and records updated. Different types of goods have varying storage temperature requirements, as given below. Most establishments have a computerised system whereby all new products received are entered into the computer so that accurate stock levels are held. Store Dry Refrigerated Frozen Temperature oC Room temperature 0 to 5 -18 to -24

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Storage

4.1 Perishability Storage requirements are based on each type of food item’s perishability.
Fig 3.10: Categorisation of stock Perishability and cost Long life Dried food (spices, canned drinks,tobacco,fro zen food) Low cost Fruit,salads, Dairy items Fresh seafood, caviar, fresh meats Wines,liquuers, deluxe spirits shark's fin

High cost

Short life
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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Storage

● A daily ,weekly and monthly cleaning schedule ● Ensure all heavy goods are lifted correctly ● Avoid storing items to high ● Clean any spills as they occur ● Do not store anything on the floor that may cause an obstruction ● Cover dustbins to prevent infestation ● Enforce a pest control schedule ● Store goods in clear well –ventilated containers ● All products should have a label and an expiry date ● All fresh meats stored on lower shelves ● Refrigerate perishable ingredients promptly ● Ensure labels are clear and visible

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Issuing

5.

Issuing 5.1 Secure storage 5.2 Internal requisitions 5.3 Issuing rationale 5.4 Steps in requisitioning 5.5 Issuing times 5.6 Stock rotation 5.7 Stock movement 5.8 Reports

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Issuing

5.1 Secure storage For control of goods they should be kept in a lockable store room permitting access to only authorized personnel. 5.2 Internal requisitions
Fig3.11 Departments with main stock demands
Main kitchen

Room service Stores

Bar

Conference And Banqueting
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Mini Bar

Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Issuing

5.3 Issuing rationale Departments issues stocks to: ● Have the appropriate goods to run their departments ● Prevent running out of stocks ● Maintain departmental par stock levels The stocks are requested by completing an internal department requisition The purpose of the requisition form is to: ● Have a paper trail in stock movements ● Force departments to plan stock requests ● Accurately allocate cost expenditure and usage per department ● Document individual request and supply ● Use as a back-up when discrepancies in stock occur ● Act as backup when computer errors occur ● Detail consumption of stock items ● Be an internal accounting document between stores and the department.
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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Issuing

5.4 Steps in requisitioning 1. Departmental employee identifies what stock is required. 2. Department employee completes a requisition from detailing date,departmnet,stock and units required. 3. The requisition form is submitted to stores. 4. Store person gathers stock items in readiness for collection 5. If items are not available ,unit adjustments have to be made or substitutes are provided. 6. Department employee collects stock, and checks that all items and quantities are fulfilled. 7. Both parties sign to confirm the goods issued. 8. In most cases-one copy of the requisition form goes to the department, one to stores, one copy to the accounts department. 9. Store person updates stock records. 10. Department employee replenishes departmental stock levels.

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Issuing

5.5 Issuing times In busy organizations specific times are allocated to different departments for collection of orders Monday 8.00-9.00 am. 9.00-10.00 am. Kitchen Rest and Bar Tuesday Kitchen Rest and Bar Wednesday Kitchen Rest and Bar Thursday Kitchen Rest and Bar Friday Kitchen Rest and Bar

11.00 -12.00 am

Banqueting

Banqueting

Banqueting

Banqueting

Banqueting

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Issuing

5.6 Stock rotation Stock is rotated and issued on a “FIFO” sysytem.Basically FIFO means using the oldest stock first, which reduces wastage.

5.7 Stock movement Bin Cards- a manual system whereby a small card is allocated to each stock item. As stock is added it is recorded in the card. As stock is used, the date ,amount of stock, and where the stock went is recorded on the card.

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Issuing

5.8 Reports Slow item report This report monitors stock items that are not being requested by departments. If stock has been ordered it should be consumed. This information is passed to departments to be used in menu planning. This report informs departments of stocks that is soon to expire. Items past their sell by dates cannot be used, therefore it is important to manage stocks and ensure consumption or sage takes place before expiration. Failure to do so will result in financial loss.

Expiry item report

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Control

6.

Issuing 6.1 Inventory

6.1.1 Stock –take inventory Stock need to be counted on a monthly basis ,and usually carried out on the last day of the month by personnel from the Stores and Accounting department 6.1.2 Why stock-take?

● To have an accurate up to date count of each stock item ● To check the stock corresponds with consumption ● To identify any discrepancies in stock quantities ● To balance actual stock against in and out transfers.

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Chapter 3– Purchasing food and beverage

Summary

Purchasing

Structure

Purchasing

Receiving

Storing

Issuing

Control

Goals and Objectives

Responsibilitie s

Equipment

Temperatures

Rational

Stock takes

Personnel

Capital purchases

Delivery checks

Perishability

Requisitions

Specifications

Health and safety

Health and safety

Stock rotations

Selecting suppliers

Reports

Financial control The purchasing steps

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Chapters
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Introduction to food & beverage Food production Purchasing food & beverage Food service delivery Beverages Menu planning Service quality in food & beverage Conference & banqueting

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Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Objectives

In this chapter you will learn to :-

● Justify the importance of service to food and beverage organizations ● Explain the methods adopted by food and beverage organizations to consistently meet customers’ needs and wants ● Discuss the key and their responsibilities in food and beverage service ● Compare and contrast the different food and beverage service methods

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Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Introduction to service

1.

Introduction to service 1.1 The service gap 1.2 Strategies to achieving good service 1.3 Service personnel 1.4 Presentation and personal hygiene 1.5 Service staff: presentation tips 1.6 Structures 1.7 Traditional service organization

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Introduction to service

Customers have varying needs and expectations which the provider has to attempt to meet. Giving a high stand of service creates many advantages for the customer, the individual staff members and the organization as a whole. The advantages are:The customers A good experience Satisfaction Customer loyalty Positive word of mouth The organization Less discount Happy customers Good reputation Positive image Brand growth Awards Good reviews Develop market share Unique selling points (USP) Achieve financial targets Cost reduction Overall growth
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The employees Employee retention Less turnover Recognition Praise and gratitude Opportunities to develop Positive moral Good work environment and atmosphere

Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Introduction to service

1.1 The service gap Customer satisfaction can be achieved through consistently meeting the customer’s specific needs, wants and expectations. Fig 4.1 The service gap

Service gap
Customer expectation Service delivery Satisfaction achieved

Gap
Customer expectation Service delivery

Dissatisfaction
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Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

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1.2 Strategies to achieving good services Fig 4.2 Factors necessary to achieve good service
Standards Regular audits
Good supervisio n

Incentives & rewards

Strategies

Internal system

Good employees Meeting customer needs and wants

Training

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Introduction to service

1.3 Service personnel Employees play major part in the service experience. The level of service that customer receive will ultimately depend on server's technical skills, personality, experience and the team within which they work. Qualities of a good food and beverage server are: Good product knowledge Punctuality Excellent presentation Friendly and outgoing personality Positive attitude to customers Ability to work in a team Good memory Customer-oriented Honesty Professional conduct Sales-oriented Well organized
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1.4 Presentation and personal hygiene One of the most important factor of food and hygiene service is the overall good presentation and high standards of hygiene of the service staff.

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1.5 Service staff: presentation tips Positive image must be projected to the customer at all times and in doing so be aware with: Be clean and use deodorants (not strong smelling ones) Aftershaves and perfumes should not be overpowering Hands must be clean at all times with well trimmed nails Men should be clean shaven or with a well trimmed moustache or beard Woman should only wear light make up. If nail varnish is worn it should be clear Large earrings should not be worn Uniform should be clean, starched and well pressed at all times Breath should be fresh smelling Hair should be clean and well groomed. Long hair should be tied back and neat Shoes should be comfortable, safe and well polished Any cuts and burns should be covered with a waterproof dressing Any colds or other possible infections should be reported to the supervisor promptly Hands should be washed with hot water and antibacterial soap immediately after visiting the toilet, smoking, dealing with refuse or eating Staff should avoid touching their face and hair while on duty Jewellery should be kept to a minimum
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Introduction to service

1.6 Structure The structure and organization of service personnel vary in each organization. Factors that effect the organizational structure include: Labour budget Size of operation Quality of operation Service methods used Type of cuisine offered Type of customers Menu type Technology available Availability of skilled labour

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Introduction to service

1.7 Traditional service organization

A traditional, formal service structure within a restaurant is dependent on discipline and tradition, with all employees having particular role and responsibilities. Its top-down approach achieves high standards and customer satisfaction. Individuals are trained from the bottom-up learning the skills of their supervisor before progressing. It is normally found in a fine dining type of food and beverage operation, and is illustrated below.

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Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Introduction to service

Fig 4.3 Traditional fine dining restaurant structure
Restaurant Manager Headwaiter (Assistant Restaurant Manager)

Station Headwaiter

Station Headwaiter (Section supervisor)

Sommelier

Chef de Rang (Station Waiter)

Chef de Rang (Station Waiter)

Demi Chef de Rang (Assistant to station Waiter) Commis de Rang (Trainee)

Demi Chef de Rang (Assistant to station Waiter)

Commis de Rang (Trainee)
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Introduction to service

Fig 4.3 Organization chart for a typical small casual restaurant
Restaurant Manager Assistant Restaurant Manager Supervisors / Captains Waiter/ess Sommelier Bus Persons
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Host/ess

Cashier

Bar

Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Introduction to service

The following is a typical job description for a restaurant manager.

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Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Introduction to service

The key responsibilities for each of the different types of service staff are detailed in the following table.
Position Restaurant or Catering Supervisor Responsibilities

• Checking mise en place and preparation. • Checking lay out of service area or restaurant. • Checking reservations and bookings. • Assigning table sections to service staff before shift. •Welcoming and looking after customer during their visit. • Assisting the team where necessary during service. • Communicating with kitchen and other support departments. • Checking customer satisfaction during service. • Maintaining a safe, comfortable and pleasant atmosphere for
customers and employees. •Dealing with any problems or emergencies promptly and efficiently. • Performing any duty paperwork such as POS reports, log book. •Guiding and motivating employees. •Maintaining service standards. •Maximizing sales.

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Position Host/ess

Responsibilities

• Answering the telephone and dealing with enquiries. • Taking reservations. • Welcoming and escorting customers to tables on arrival. • Managing arrivals and staggering service. • Providing general information. • On arrival collecting and safeguarding customers’ belongings such as
jackets, hats and umbrellas. • Checking satisfaction throughout the meal. • Informing customers of any forthcoming promotions. • Collecting customer feedback. • Cashiering as required. • Assisting service personnel if required. • Returning customers’ belongings on departure. • Thanking customers and bidding farewell. • Collecting and updating customer information records.

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Position Waite/ess

Responsibilities

Sommelier (wine waiter)

• General cleaning of service area. • Completing mise en place. • Taking customers’ orders. • Informing customers about food and beverage products. • Up-selling. • Collecting and serving food and beverages. • Removing empty covers and maintaining customer tables. • Checking satisfaction throughout meal. • Using point of sales to order food and beverage. • Communicating with bar, kitchen and stewarding. • Working in a team. • Reporting any faults. • Reporting any customer concerns. • Creating wine lists. • Recommending wine and beverages. • Serving wine and beverages. • Maintenance of wine stocks.
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Introduction to service

Position Bus Person

Responsibilities

• Mise en place duties. • Run orders to the kitchen. • Taking food from kitchen to service area. • Taking service ware from service area to dish-wash. • Refilling service areas during service with clean crockery, cuties and
mise en place. • Taking laundry to the linen room. • Cleaning the still room.

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Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Service methods and descriptions

2.

Service methods and description 2.1 Different service types 2.2 Evaluation of different service methods 2.3 A guide for staffing ratios for different service methods 2.4 Evaluation of different service methods

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Service methods and descriptions

Service methods vary from operation to operation. The type of food and beverage method adopted on several factors which included the:-

● Size of operation ● Objectives of the operation ● Quality of the operation ● Nature of the menu ● Quantity of customers ● Budget of the operation ● Budget of the customers ● Customer needs ● Availability of resources

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Service methods and descriptions

They also differ in relation to the required:-

● Quantity of personnel ● Skill level of personnel ● Level of interaction with the customer ● Level of dependency on either the service or food production ● Level of involvement by the customer

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Service methods and descriptions

2.1 Different service types
Table service The customer is served at a laid table. This is found in many types of restaurants, cafes and in banqueting, including plated service and silver serving. The customer is required to help them selves from a buffet or counter. It can be found in cafeterias and canteens. The customer is served part of the meal at the table and is required to obtain part through self-service from some form of a display or buffet. It's found in "carvery" type operations and is often used for meals such as breakfast in hotels. It may also be used for functions. The customer orders, pays and receives the food and beverages. (at a counter, at a bar in licensed premises, in a fast food operation or at a vending machine) The food and drink is taken to where the customer is. This includes tray service in hospitals and aircraft, trolley service, home delivery, lounge and room service.

Self-service

Assisted service

Single point service Specialized service

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Service methods and descriptions

2.2 Evaluation of different service methods
Method Plate service Description Food is prepared, placed on individual plates and delivered to the customers. Uses : Hotel & Independent Restaurants Food is prepared in advance. Large quantities of food then placed in containers and served from a table in the restaurant. Customers either help themselves or are assisted by either chefs or service staff. Uses : Conference & Banqueting Opportunities Challenges

• Presentation • Quality • Portion control • Can serve large quantities of
people • Customers have choice • Customers are part of the process • Fewer staff required • Service staff require less skills • Few customer complaints due to their decision-making

• •

Need high quantity and highly skilled chefs Customers sometimes have to wait for food delivery

Buffet service

• Queuing •‘All you can eat’ image • Food presentation can be
affected •Food can run out • Food quality can be affected due to temperature and mixing of service cutlery • Foreign bodies in food

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Service methods and descriptions

Family / English service

Food is prepared & placed in bowls/dishes. Server then transports to restaurant & it is placed in the centre of tables. Customers then help themselves by serving the food from the bowls onto their empty plates. Uses : Chinese & Middle Eastern cultures Food is prepared/cooked, placed on hot silver platters/containers. Server collects platter using a waiter’s cloth & goes to restaurant. Server transfers food using a large spoon and fork on to the customers plate from the silver platter. Uses : Some fine dining, conference & banqueting.

• Less demands on kitchen • Visual for customers • Customers are in control
of quantity and selection • Does not demand high skilled service staff • Highly convenient for customers

• Food temperature can
change • Food distribution can be inconsistent

Silver / Russian service

• Highly personalized
service • Reduces pressure on kitchen

• Require very highly skilled
service staff • High labour cost •Kitchen loses control in relation to plate presentation • For customers service can be slow, interruptive & sometimes dangerous • Old fashioned

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Service methods and descriptions

Gueridon or flambe service

Food is prepped but not cooked. Server puts food on a portable trolley & transfer into front of house area. The trolley is placed next to the customer’s table and the waiter prepares/cooks the food in front of the customer. Then puts the food onto a plate & it is placed in front of the customer. Uses : Fine dining restaurant

• Highly personalized
service • Visual and aromatic • Waiter becomes the chef and artist • Entertainment for the customer • Customer feels more involved in the process

• High labour cost • Not suitable with
large numbers.

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Service methods and descriptions

2.3 A guideline for staffing ratios for different service method Service method Guerdion Silver service Plated service Family service Buffet service Ratio 1 waiter : 10 guests 1 waiter : 20 guests 1 waiter : 30 guests 1 waiter : 40 guests 1 waiter : 50+ guests

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Service methods and descriptions

2.4 Evaluation of different service methods
Method Tray service Description Food is prepared & placed on plates/containers and put on trays. All eating utensils & accompaniments are also placed on tray. Food is transported for customers. Uses : Room service/ airline catering Guests move along a counter & make their selection. Some foods are plated, some prepared to order. Collect food on tray & pay at cashier. Uses : Sea catering and work cafeterias Opportunities Challenges

• Convenient for
customer as has complete meal

• Food temperature
can change during transport

Cafeteria service

• Customers do the
work • Promotes other food and beverage items

• Customers have to
queue

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Service methods and descriptions

Drive-thru

Used most in fast food chains (McDonalds). While in the car customer order through a tannoy system. The food is then prepared & customer collects it and pays for food a few minutes later from a window. Customer then drives off with food. Customers input money/card to vending machine. Customer make request & collect food from dispatched area. Depending on type of machine customer either consume immediately or need to heat up in microwave. Uses : Employee cafeteria, budget hotels, non-commercial catering establishments

• Highly convenient for
customers as do not have to leave their car • Customers occupies no table space leaving more room for other customers

• Food quality can
deteriorate

Vending

• Available 24 hours • High control as prepayment is required before purchase • Management data available on consumption preferences • No staff required • Low cost • Less wastage

• Machine can malfunction • Impersonal • Limited choice • Electricity • Ongoing maintenance • Vandalism

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Service methods and descriptions

2.4 Evaluation of different service method
Cocktail Hot & cold food snacks are placed on large platter. Waiters collect them and offer customers. Used mostly when customers are standing & no seating is available. Uses : Conference and banquet events, predinner events. Food is ordered through telephone to food service organization. Operators takes the order & passes it to kitchen. On completion, kitchen packs food & it’s delivered to customer at destination on transport. Uses : Fast food chain & ethnic restaurants

• Can cater to large
numbers

• Difficult for employees to
move around between customers at times

Home delivery

• Extends business • Frees-up seat
capacity

• Transport can be
unpredictable and delays in delivery due to traffic • Food temperature and presentation can deteriorate during transport • Can deter people from visiting the food & beverage facility directly

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Service methods and descriptions

Take away

Customer visit or telephones food & beverages operation and selects food over an order counter. Food is prepared and packed, customer pays for food in a takeaway container/bag. Uses : Fast food chain & ethnic restaurants.

• Extends business • Frees up seat capacity • Brand extension through
packaging • Sometimes cheaper for customers

• Litter

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Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

The service encounter

3.

The service encounter

1. Pre service

2. Service

3. Post service

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Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

The service encounter

3.1 Preparation for service (pre-service) Mise en place Is the preparation in readiness for the start of service. There are different types and quantities of mise en place required for different types of food service operation. Examples of mise en place for a formal restaurant are:● Polishing cutlery and crockery ● Polishing glasses ● Setting table covers ● Preparing the sideboard or station ● Preparing and cutting butters ● Preparing accompaniments ● Preparing ice buckets and stands ● Filling water jugs ● Lining trays ● General cleaning of furniture ● Vacuuming
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The service encounter

Cleaning Cleaning and hygiene within the food service area is of utmost importance for customers and employees. To achieve a good standard of cleaning clear standards and schedules need to be implemented and monitored. Following will give an example of a daily, weekly & monthly cleaning tasks:Daily Polish ice buckets Clean service trays Clean buffets Vacuum after each service Brush chairs down Weekly Clean sideboard throughout Clean windows and polish shelves Clean menus Polish fixtures Wipe chair and tables Polish lamps and lights
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Monthly Move sideboards Move sofas and vacuum De-scale coffee urns

Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

The service encounter

A standard needs to be created to maintain quality and achieve consistency, together with a weekly cleaning roster, so staff are fully aware of their responsibilities. A example is :
Standard Steps Remove all objects on small table Dust the table Dust with clean, slightly damp cloth followed by a dry cloth. Dust natural finished wood surfaces with only a dry cloth unless otherwise instructed. If you use a chemical or polish, wipe the surface with a soft, clean cloth afterwards. Apply about one cap of polish per small table. Clean all over tops, legs and underneath. How to clean a table Methods Health & safety tips Place objects in a safe place away from where people can trip Do not use a chemical cleaner, glass cleaner, brass polish or cleaner, or furniture polish unless told to do so.

Put all objects back onto small table Check positioning
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The following table gives an example weekly cleaning roster:-

Cleaning roster Clean sideboard throughout Clean windows and sills Wipe menus Polish tixtures Wipe chair and table legs Polish lamps and lights De-scale coffee urns

Mon Peter

Tue

Wed

Thursday

Fri

Sat

Sun

Julia Fred John Roelf Suzy Amira

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Accompaniments Examples of accompaniments follow:-

Accomplishment Oil and vinegar, vinaigrette, thousand island, Italian dressing, balsamic vinegar or mayonnaise Croutons Parmesan cheese Lemon wedges Tabasco sauce Tartar sauce Apple sauce Mint sauce or jelly English mustard
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Dish or menu item Fresh salad Soups and some salads Minestrone soup and pasta dishes Fish dishes Oysters Fried fish Roast pork, duck or goose Roast lamb Roast beef

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Accompaniments continued …

Cranberry sauce Horseradish sauce Worcestershire sauce Tomato ketchup Chutney Soy sauce

Roast turkey Roast beef Irish stew Grills Curries Chinese and some Asian dishes

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The service encounter

Table set-ups or covers If the food service operation is not a buffet or cafeteria-style of restaurant, staff will in most cases set-up the tables with a all the equipment required for customers to consume their meal before service. The supervisor or manager will check the setting to ensure that they are correct, well placed, clean and complete. A la carte place setting Napkin Fish knife Fish fork Side plate Side knife Water glass Wine glass
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The service encounter

Table set-ups or covers continued… With an d la crate setting different cutlery are placed depending on what the customer has ordered. For example, A soup 1. Remove the fish knife and fork. 2. place a steak knife and soup spoon on the right-hand side of the cover. 3. Place a joint fork on the left-hand side of the cover, Table d’hote place setting Side plate Fish knife Joint fork Sweet fork Side knife Water glass Joint knife Soup spoon Fish fork Sweet spoon Napkin Wine glass

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The service encounter

Reservation When taking a restaurant reservation:

● Greet the caller, for example, ‘Good evening, Raffles Seafood Restaurant, Peter speaking, how I may help you?’ ● Take the name of the customer ● Confirm the date of reservation ● Confirm the time of arrival ● Confirm the number of people in the party ● Ask if there are any special requests ● Take a contact telephone number

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The service encounter

Serving briefing Examples of information :

● Previous day’s errors and good points ● Inspect of uniforms and presentation ● allocation of section for the shift ( who is responsible for which tables or sections) ● Any guest reservations and specific needs ● Sales targets to meet for that particular service ● Dishes to promote or up-sell-sales goals ● Any information passed down from management

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The service encounter

Essential items for food service personnel Front of house food service personnel should be equipped with the following personal items:

● Waiter’s friend or wine opener ● Pen lighter ● Small notebook ● Service cloth

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Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Service

4.

Service 4.1 Standard of performance 4.2 Food and beverage service basics 4.3 Effective communication 4.4 Selling 4.5 Electronic points of sales (POS)

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Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Service

To ensure consistency in the delivery of service, establishments set-up procedures for servers to follow. These steps are normally referred to as the 'order of service' and detail the tasks to be followed from the time the customer arrives to his or her departure.

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Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Service

4.1 Standard of performance Example for standard of performance:
Steps 1. Prepare to approach customers How Gather waiter’s order pad and pen Check if any dishes are not available Familiarize yourself with any dishes of the day or specials Collect menus, ensuring they are clean Check the name of the host before approaching Approaching the host say ‘Excuse me Mr. Smith may I now take you order? Take orders by starting with women, then men, then the host last Collect menus one by one Repeat orders back to customers for confirmation Thank customer and inform them of time for first course to arrive Check if they need anything else Wish them a good evening

2. Approach table 3. Take orders

4. Finish

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Service

4.2 Food and beverage service basics ● Be punctual ● Always smile ● Know the products that you are serving ● Try to accommodate the customer’s needs at all times ● Check if you’re not sure! ● Do not oversell to customers ● Try to use a tray when carrying food and beverages ● use the customer’s name at every opportunity ● Anticipate customer’s needs and wants ● Carryout your duties in an efficient manner ● Work harmoniously with your co-workers ● Report any customer complaints or concerns to your supervisor promptly ● Report any maintenance defects promptly ● Ask if you find you need help during your work shift ● Be flexible in your approach to work ● Communicate any delays to your customers ● Respect your supervisor and your co-workers
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Service

4.3 effective communication 1. Tone of voice – try to raise and fall your voice as this is more pleasant than a dull constant monotone. 2. Volume – try not to speak too loudly as this is most annoying to customers. Speaking too quietly can also make it difficult for customers to hear you properly. Try to match your voice volume to the person with whom you are speaking. 3. Speed – try not to speak fast or too slow. 4. Clarity – try not to mumble your words.

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Service

4.4 Selling Is a critical part of any food service employee’s job. Effective selling techniques require confidence, ability and knowledge. Suggested selling techniques :

● Recommend aperitifs or drinks before the meal ● Provide the wine list ● Promote branded drinks where possible ● Recommend double measures if appropriate ● Recommend dishes that are popular ● Describe hoe the food looks on the plate ● Recommend appetizers where possible ● Recommend items ● Provide recommendations on what dishes go together well ● Recommend side dishes with main courses ● Present menu items on platters where possible such as steak or seafood ● Show dessert menu instead of just asking customers want a dessert ● Have a trolley to tempt people
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Service

4.5 Electronic points of sales (POS) Many large food and beverage operations now feature some kind of POS system. A large proportion of the food service employee’s job is operating these terminals.

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Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Post-service

5.

Post service

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Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Post-service

Following the end of service the food and beverage employees carryout a variety of duties including:
Servers General cleaning Organizing of dirty laundry Restocking stations for next shift Creating requisitions for new stock Cashiering Updating customer history records Distributing tips or gratuities Printing reports and reconciling sales receipts Completing hand over log in log book Post-service debriefing

Supervisors

Post-service debriefing includes:

● Praise for what worked well ● Discussing areas to be improved ● Reading out completed customer questionnaires ●Shift sales totals performance
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Chapter 4 – Food service delivery

Summary

Food Service

Service personnel

Introduction The importance of service

Service methods

Importance of personal presentation

Pre-service

Service

Post- service

Different approaches

Organisational structure

Mise-en- place

Order of service

Duties

Staffing ration

Cleaning

Service basics

Briefings

Point of sale

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Chapters
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Introduction to food & beverage Food production Purchasing food & beverage Food service delivery Beverages Menu planning Service quality in food & beverage Conference & banqueting

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Chapter 5 – Beverages

Objectives

In this chapter you will learn to :-

● Explain the critical factors and considerations when designing and organising a bar ● Discuss key bar personnel their responsibilities and organisation ● Identify the different types of beverages used in a bar, their uses, methods of production and service ● Understand the importance of control within bar and discuss a range of methods that can be implemented to maintain control

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Chapter 5 – Beverages

Introduction and overview

1. Introduction and overview 1.1Types of bar operations 1.2 Hotel bars 1.3 Bar personnel 1.4 The importance of sales

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Chapter 5 – Beverages

Introduction and overview

1.1 Types of bar operations

● Hotel bars ● Independently run bars ● Public house ● Bar chains ● Nightclub operations ● Wine bars ● Employee bars in the work place

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Chapter 5 – Beverages

Introduction and overview

1.2 Hotel bars
Independent bar theme • A bar concept within a hotel. Open residents and non-residents

Support/Adjacent bar

• The bar supports a restaurant or dining facility where customers can have aperitifs and appetisers prior to using the restaurant and digestifs after

Service/Dispense bar

• This bar would be situated ‘back of house’ and is not visible to customers. The bar acts as a central dispense and serve beverages to service personnel who place order from different outlets.

Conference and Banquet bar

• This bar is located within the conference and banquet area and is in most cases only in operation when event are taking place.

Mini bar

• Mini bars are small self-service bars located in customer’s bedroom.

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1.3 Bar personnel Staffing within a bar depends on many factors ;

● Quality standards ● Size of operation ● Turnover of operation ● Theme or concept ● Customer type ● Times of operation

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Fig5.1: A typical bar operation
Head Barperson or Bar Manager

Assistant Bar Manager

Supervisors

Bartender
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Floor Staff

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The bar is managed by a senior staff member to oversee its running, and the position provides many challenges to include: General ● Meeting goals and targets ● Achieving 100% customer satisfaction ● Attracting and retaining a skilled team ● Minimising wastage ● Maximising sales ● Maitaining standards Specific ● A competitive environment ● Adhering to the licensing laws ● Being constantly innovative ● Running promotions ● Minimising theft by employees ● Strict cash control monitoring ● Inventory management ● Dealing with intoxicated guests
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Most hotels and bars organise their staffing into; ● Bartenders ● Floor staff Their job roles and responsibilities: Bartenders Setting-up bar area for service (mise en place) Serving customers who visit the bar or sit at the bar Preparing and dispensing drinks to floor staff Controlling the beverages Keeping front and back bar areas clean and well presented
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Floor staff Setting-up floor area service (mise en place) Greeting customers who enter the bar Taking drinks and food to tale customers Serving drinks and food to table customers Clearing and resetting tables

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Personal and professional characteristics of good bar staff
Personal Friendly Conversationist Well organised Creative Efficient-ability to multi-task Good memory of customers and their particular preferences Professional Good knowledge of production and service of wines, spirits and cocktails Awareness of licensing laws relating to the service of alcoholic beverage service Ability to sell Understanding of the correct methods to store and control beverages To deal with difficult or intoxicated customers Knowledge of point of sale

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1.4 The importance of sales Employee sales and sale activities are an integral part of any bar operations. Sales can be achieved through many different ways that include ● Employing sales-oriented individuals ● Training employees on how to sell and up-sell ● Encouraging suppliers to provide product knowledge training ● Creating sales incentives for employees ● Providing quality products that customer want ● Displaying eye-catching table ‘tent cards’ and promotional literature ● Discount techniques – ‘Happy Hour’ ● Product promotions ● Entertainment – live music, sports and quizzes ● Relationship marketing ● ‘Get to know your customer’

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Bar design and equipment

2. Bar design and equipment

2.1 Questions and considerations in bar design 2.2 Bar equipment, glassware and consumables

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The layout of a bar depends on the type of operation. Each type of operation presents its own limitations and challenges. For example, the poolside bar at a resort hotel will have a special refrigeration and sanitation concerns. An airport bar has to emphasis speed and accessibility in its layout. The layout of a restaurant bar will need to accommodate the storage requirements of wines and champagnes Kotschevar and Tanke (1996)

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2.1 Questions and considerations in bar design
Theme Allocation of space Atmosphere Type of customer

•What will be the underpinning theme of the bar? Music, sports or cocktail bar? •How much space you will be required and allocated for customers, employee service and storage? •Do we want to create a quite, loud, relaxing or intimate atmosphere? •Who will be the target consumers, business, students, conference delegates, resident or non-residents? What will the
business mix be?

Operating times Budget Table and seating arrangements Traffic flow

•Will it be open for lunch, dinner or all day? •How much do we have to spend on design? •Will we use stools, tables, booths or couches and what proportion of each? How is this linked to atmosphere, goals
and revenues?

•To ensure that employees can serve efficiently, customers can access products and services easily, minimise
customer queuing.

Employees Furnishing Equipment Entertainment Menus Financial targets and projections
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•What skills will they need, what products are we serving, how many employees? •What quality, colour and material •What equipment will we need to achieve our goals (TVs, pinball machine. Speakers, bar equipment) •How will entertain our customers, live music, DJ, jukebox, dance floor, flaring bartenders? •What products will be available? •How much do we want to achieve?

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Other factors to consider in bar design are ergonomics and sales, including: ● Sufficient space for customers to move and to get to the bar ● Comfortable furniture ● Good lighting to display products ● Equipment easily accessible for staff ● Sufficient amounts of equipment for staff to carry out other duties ● Server needs to be able to see customers ● Clear price lists

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2.2 Bar equipment, glassware and consumables Most bars are divided and oraganised into two main areas, the ‘front bar’ and the ‘back bar’. The front bar is the area that is not visible to the customer and is the main service point for the barman.. The back bar is visible to the customer and is the main area for product displays and merchandising. Bars require different types of equipment for the employees to carry out their job functions efficiently. This can be typically categorized into four main areas ● Fixed equipment ● Portable equipment ● Glassware ● Consumables

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Examples of fixed equipment
Refrigerators Sink and running water Point of sales terminal Shelving Ice machine Coffee machine Draught beer system mirrors Glass washing machine Bar lighting Post mix machine Blackboards and signage

Examples of portable equipment
Drinks liquidiser Ice buckets Cutting knives Dustbins Juice containers Water pitches Wine baskets Waiter’s friend
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Cocktail shaker Wine coolers Strainers Broken glass box Cigar cutter Spirit measures Selection of glassware Drip trays
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Chopping board A skip Ice tongs Juice press Coffee machine Optics Service trays Cigar lighter

Chapter 5 – Beverages

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Glassware Glassware can range in quality, colour, size and shape depending on the operation. In addition, to being used for the service of beverages the glassware can also add to the design and decoration of the bar. Important tips for employees when using glasses include: ● Pick up glasses from the base and place holding the stem ● Never touch the rim of a full glass ● Only carry a safe amount of glasses at any one time ● Try to use trays where possible in front of house areas ● Ensure you see the right type of glass for the beverage being served ● Ensure the glass is clean on the exterior and inside, without any marks or stains ● Ensure the glass is in good condition and cannot cause any harm

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Examples of consumables
Paper napkins Coasters Cleaning materials Table matches Swizz stick straws Cocktail sticks Drink umbrellas

There are also a variety of food items that would be stocked in a bar as accompaniments to different beverages, as listed below.
Olives Tabasco sauce Angostura bitters Cream Lemons Cherries Worcestershire sauce Sugar cubes Coconut
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Oranges Limes Sugar Salt Cucumber

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Beverage service

3. Beverage service 3.1 Pre-service duties – open bar 3.2 Post-service – close of bar

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Beverage service

3.1Pre-services duties – open bar

● Collect requisition and beverages from stores ● Collect float and guest list ● On arriving at the bar turn on equipment, lights, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)and music ● Clean and prepare tables with tent cards, bud vase and ashtrays ● Check tables and chairs are in correct position ● Stock sideboards ● Collect fresh linen from linen room ● Fill bar refrigerators (use first in, first out method) ● Prepare garnishes (cut lemons, oranges) ● Polish any glassware and re-stock on shelves ● Prepare complimentary items (nuts/olives) ● Polish any silverware ● Check daily food specials ● Check handover log book
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Beverage service

3.2 Post service – close of bar

● Cash-up and balance takings ● Clean bar area ● Complete beverage requisition ● Complete log book ● Lock refrigerators and secure bar ● Remove all garbage ● Deposit ditty laundry ● Turn off equipment

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4. Types of beverage, service and production 4.1 Types of soft drink 4.2 Coffee preparation methods 4.3 Beers 4.4 Spirits 4.5 Liqueurs 4.6 Cocktails 4.7 Wines 4.8 Service of Wine
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Figure 5.5: Classification of beverages

Soft drinks

Wines

Beers

Beverage s

Cocktails

Spirits

Liqueurs

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4.1 Types of soft drinks

Examples Mineral water Mixers or sodas Juices Syrups and cordials Still (eg Evian) Sparkling (eg Perrier) Coke, diet coke, tonic, soda, ginger ale, bitter lemon, tango, sprite, tonic Orange, tomato, cranberry, apple, mango, tomato and vegetable Grenadine, lime and orange cordial

service Serve chilled, with slice of lemon , tall glass, ice only on request Can be served on their own or as a mixer with another drink, ie gin and tonic Can be produced in-house or brought-in, serve chilled, with or without ice Normally served diluted or as a dash in other beverages. For example, lager and lime Served hot and can be accompanied with any of the following – hot water, cold milk, sugar, sweetener or lemon slices

Teas

English breakfast, Earl Grey, Ceylon, Darjeeling, Lap sang Souchong, Iced, Oolong, Green, Fruit and Herbal

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4.2 Coffee preparation methods
Coffee type Filter cafetiere Espresso Americano Cappuccino Café latte Ice coffee Turkish/Egyptian Decaffeinated Instant coffee Explanation Traditional method of making coffee. Often served with hot or cold milk or cream Popular method of making and saving fresh coffee in individual or multi-portion jugs. Often served with hot or cold milk or cream Traditional short storing black coffee Espresso with added hot water to create regular black coffee Espresso coffee topped with steamed frothed milk, often finished with sprinkling of chocolate Shot of espresso plus hot milk, with or without foam Chilled regular coffee, sometimes served with milk or simply single espresso topped up with iced cold milk Intense form of coffee made in special jugs with finely ground coffee Coffee with caffeine removed Coffee made from processed powder (often freeze dried)

Source: lillicrap & Cousins (2006)
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4.3 Beers Most bars stock a good selection of local and international beers, which are served in a selection of ways to include kegs (draught), cans or bottles. A ‘draught beer dispensing system’ can be seen in many bars. Figure 5.6: Draught beer system

Source: www.kegworks.com
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Opportunities and challenges of stocking draught beer:
Opportunities Serves large quantities of people Doesn’t requires as much strong as other methods No bottles or left over storage containers Environmentally friendly Fresh Customers feel that they are getting value for money Good taste Challenges Development of cellar system Spillage and spoilage Difficult to accurately account consumption Requires regular sanitation and maintenance Not all brands distribute their beer as draught Investment in training and monitoring Heavy Pilferage can be easy (hard to trace) Short shelf life

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Beer classification
Example lagers Carlsberg, Fosters, Heineken, San Miguel, Asahi, Tsingtao Characteristics Made from cold fermented yeast, carbonated, normally light or pale in colour, drier in taste than ales Top fermented yeasts, stronger than lagers Bitter in taste, made from barley, malt and hops 4.7 ABV or less Service Serve chilled 4-7ºC,39-45ºF

Ales Dark beers or stout Non/low alcoholic

English bitters, pales Guinness Barbican, Bud light

8-12ºC, 45-54ºF 5-8ºC Chilled 7ºC, 39-45ºF

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4.4 Spirits Most spirits feature product variations that differ in taste, alcoholic volume, area of production, packaging and quality.
Origin Vodka Rum Eastern Europe Caribbean Characteristics Clear, distilled from fermented grain, potatoes, molasses, beets, 35-60% ABV Distilled and produced from fermented sugar (molasses) and water. Can be white, golden or dark in coloure, 37-43% ABV Clear grain spirit produced from juniper berries Made from agave plant. Coloure ranges from clear to pale, 38-40ABVProduced from barley, water and yeast Service Very chilled (Store in freezer before service), serve neat or mixed Serve chilled, neat or mixed

Gin Tequila

England Mexico

Serve chilled, neat or mixed Serve on its own with lemon and salt or in cocktails Neat or mixed with a mineral or still water

whisky

Whisky (Ireland) Whisky (Scotland)

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4.5 Liqueurs The range of liqueurs available on the market is extensive. These compounded spirits vary in coloure, origin and flavour. Production methods can include the use of fruits, spices and spirits. They are colorful in appearance and contribute towards the atmosphere to the back bar. They are versatile in their uses and can be served on their own, in cocktails and as accompaniments in specialty coffees. They have long shelf lives

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The following table provides information on some common liquers:
Liqueur Advocaat Anisette Amaretto Archers Arrack Bailey’s Irish Cream Benedictine Calvados Chartreuse Cherry brandy
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Colour yellow clear Golden Clear Clear coffee Yellow/green Amber Green (45% ABV) Yellow (55% ABV) Deep red

Flavour/Spirit base Egg/sugar/brandy Aniseed/neutral spirit Almonds Peaches/Schnapps Herbs/Sap of palm trees Honey/chocolate/cream/w hisky Herbs/brandy Francappel/brandy Herbs/ palnts/brandy Cherry/brandy
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Country of origin Holland France, Spain, Italy, Holland Italy UK Java, India, Sri Lanka, Jamaica Ireland France France France Denmark

Chapter 5 –Beverages

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Liqueur Cointreau Crème de cacao Drambuie Galliano Grand marnier kirsch Kahlua Malibu Sambuca Southern comfort Tia Maria

Coloure Clear Dark brown Golden Golden Amber Clear Pale chocolate Clear Clear Golden brown

Flavour/Spirit base Orange/brandy Chocolate/vanilla/rum Heather/honey/herbs/whisky Herbs/berries/flowers/roots Orange/brandy Cherry/neutral spirit Coffee/rum Coconut/white rum Liquorice/neutral spirit Peaches/oranges/whiskey Coffee/rum

Country of origin France France Scotland Italy France Alsace Mexico Caribbean Italy United states Jamaica

Lillicrap & Cousins (2006)

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4.6 Cocktails The availability in cocktail in bars varies from full cocktail to none. The reason for this is that to promote cocktails, establishments need to invest in training an extensive range of beverages, special equipment, glassware, accompaniments and time. There are hundreds of cocktail receipts and for most establishment to serve all of these would be unrealistic. It is for this reason that most hotels tend to train their bar staff to have knowledge in the preparation of the ‘main cocktails’ that are normally requested. In situations where other more obscure cocktails are requested the bartender can ask customer for information and attempt to create the cocktail. Restaurant such as TGI Fridays have a full and extensive cocktail list and use this as one of their unique selling points to differentiate themselves from their competitors and attract customers. Cocktails can be classified into the ways they are made which include: ● Shaken ● Stirred ● Blended ● Build ● Mixed ● layered
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4.7 Wines Wines are classifieds as: ● Red wine ● White wine ● Sparkling wine ● Dessert wine ● Fortified wine The main wine producing regions are: ● Europe – Italy, France, Germany and Spain ● Australia ● South Africa ● South America ● North America

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Different grape varieties used in wine production
White grapes Chardonnay Chenin Blanc Gewurztraminer Ripe melon, fresh, pineapple, tropical fruits, nutty Apples Rose petals, grapefruit, tropical fruits Grapes/ rasins Apricots, peaches, lime, peaches, stony Gooseberries, tropical fruits Cabernet Sauvignon Nebbiolo Merlot Red grapes Blackcurrants Roses, Prunes, black cherry, sloes Plum, damson, blackcurrants

Muscat Riesling Sauvignon blanc

Pinot Noir Syrah/Shiraz zinfandel

Strawberries, cherries, plums Raspberries, blackcurrants, blackberries Blackberries, bramble, spice

Lillicrap & Cousins (2006)

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Wine terminology
Ageing Aroma Bouquet Body Dry Vintage Aperitif wine Bordeaux Burgundy Claret Dessert wine Sparkling Wine
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Storing wines in wooded (typically oak) or stainless steel barrels before bottling The fragrance of a young wine, usually fruity or flowery The complex smell of mature wine The feel and weight of a wine in the mouth Not sweet The year a wine’s grapes were harvested and wine making begun Wine and spirits, added, and sometimes flavored with herbs and spices Wine from the Bordeaux region of France Wine from the Burgundy region of France A generic name for a Red Bordeaux wine Sweet wines suitable for drinking with or after dessert Wine containing carbon dioxide, which produce bubbles when the wine is poured
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4.8 Service of wine Some hotels of a high standard would employ a Sommelier to assist the selection and stocking of wines. A wine sommelier;

● Creates wine lists with the manager ● Meets with wine suppliers ● Organises wine training ● Maintains wine stocks ● Takes customers wine orders ● Recommends wines (wine with foods) ● Serves wines ● Manages the wine cellar ● Develops wine promotions

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4.8.1 Wine serving procedure
Steps 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12 White wine Collect wine from refrigerator Check label that it is the correct wine Place in ice bucket and half fill with ice and water Place on stand and take next to host’s table Using a waiter’s cloth present the bottle (label facing) for the host to check Place bottle back in ice bucket and using a ‘waiter’s friend’ remove outer foil Using waiter’s cloth remove any debris or mould from on top of cork Using waiter's friend slowly remove cork and place on table in front of host Using cloth wipe around the inside of the bottle neck Offer the host a small taste If satisfactory, serve other guests before topping up the host’s glass Replace back in ice bucket and top-up glasses when required Red wine1 Collect wine from rack or cellar Check label that is the correct wine Place in wicker basket and collect side plate and waiter’s cloth Place on stand next to host’s table Using a waiter’s cloth present the bottle (label facing) for the host to check Place bottle back in ice bucket and using a ‘waiter’s friend’ remove outer foil Using waiter’s cloth remove any debris or mould from on top of cork Using waiter's friend slowly remove cork and place on table in front of host Using cloth wipe around the inside of the bottle neck Offer the host a small taste If satisfactory, serve other guests before topping up the host’s glass Replace back in ice bucket and top-up glasses when required

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Wine serving temperatures

Degrees Fahrenheit (ºF) White and rose Sparkling wines Red wines 44-45 45 60-65

Degrees Centigrade (ºC) 7-13 7 16-19

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Food servers can assist customers by providing recommendations of wines and how they match best with particular menu items.
Food Cheese Caviar Soup Roast Chicken Duck Fish Prime rib (steak) Shellfish Wine type Cabernet Sauvignon, Zinfandel, Pinot Noir Champagne A light styled white or red Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Blanc Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot Chardonnay, Riesling, Gewurtztraminer

Adapted from Kotschevar and Tanke (1996)
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Bar control

5. Bar Control 5.1 The importance of bar control 5.2 Control tools 5.3 Cost considerations in bar management

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5.1 The importance of bar control

● Many beverages are perishable ● Many beverages are expensive ● Beverages are attractive to employees ● Bars tend to receive lots of ‘cash’ payments ● Bar work is not normally highly paid so cash cam prove to be a temptation to employees ● Bar work can attract seasonal and unskilled individuals ● Bar stock is difficult to control due to the many variations and combinations of beverages ● Over consumption by customers can lead to problems

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Chapter 5 – Beverages

Bar control

5.2 Control tools ● Carryout thorough character and reference checks on new employees ● Install Close Circuit Television Camera (CCTV) and check tapes regularly, not just when problems occur ● Set up regular mystery guest visits ● Install a POS to assist with billing and control ● Carry out daily stock-takes with random beverages ● Create standards of performance for all drinks ● Empty bottles to be exchanged for full bottles ● No friends or family of employees in bar except without prior approval from manager ● Only supervisor permitted to carry out voids ● Do not allow junior staff to use “No Sale” key ● All mistake beverages or dropped bottles to be recorded and kept for inspection ● No cash on duty policy for employees ● No employee bags to be brought into bar area

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5.2 Control tools continued...

● Tips jar to be lockable ● Managers to change cash drawers regularly throughout the shift ● No drinks to leave the bar without written or electronic order ● No employees to bring empty bottles into bar ● No consumption of alcohol on duty by employees ● Employee cashing-up should not carry out X reading ● All customers consuming to have running bill ● Any entertainment to be pre-approved by manager ● Any ‘out of date’ stock to be kept for managers' approval ● Supervise and manage ‘under’ and ‘over’ pouring practices

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5.3 Cost considerations in bar management
Increase profits Buy in bulk to receive better discounts Negotiate deals with supplier to receive product discounts Implementing strict controls on receiving and checking Select the most appropriate storage method to result in longer shelf life Implement ‘first In first out ‘ stock rotation system Be aware of product and seasonal price fluctuations in the market and adjust price accordingly Be aware of ‘slow moving items’ and ‘expiry items’ and implement selling strategies to avoid high wastage costs. Ensure requisitioning is accurate and consistent-to and forms stores and departments To ensure end of month stock-takes are completed and ‘mid-month’ wherever possible Decrease profits Buy small and receive few discounts Accept all pries from suppliers and fail to bargaining Lapse controls on receiving beverage items. On receipt beverages should be checked for price, quality, brand, expiry and damage. If these are not checked high cost will occur For example, if champagne is stored too cold it will affect the quality Old stock must be used and issued first to make sure customers receive the most fresh items and to avoid items expiring Selling prices of beverages are set against product costs. Therefore, if cost prices increase and adjustments to selling prices are not made a loss in profit will occur Beverage items that will expire and have expired cannot be sold Faulty and bad requisitioning practices will create irregularities in beverage stocks If no stock takes (or inventories) are made hotels or organisations cannot determine if beverage stock has go missing

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Increase profits To ensure that all beverages sold in outlets are billed

Decrease profits Beverages that are issued to the customers and no bill has been made can mean: 1. That the customer has paid but the money has not gone in the till (has gone in the server’s pocket!) 2. That the beverage has been served to the customer and no money has been received at all, therefore, 100% loss If wrong or incorrect selling are calculated, the right profit will not be achieved For example, different types of beer are different prices. If a guest wanted a Tsingtao and a Heineken was served by mistake and the customer was charged for Tsingtao a loss would be made All beverages are costed out per portion, therefore, if a larger measure is given ,money will be lost Broken bottles or faulty beverages must be accounted for and included in the stocktake reconciliation Checks on employee bags, security camera, random, bar checks, random till checks, etc.. If no efforts made to increase stock turnover at all times expiry will occur

To ensure that beverages are costed appropriately to reflect product cost and outlet’s sales goals To ensure the correct brands are sold on purchase

To ensure ‘weights and measures’ and portions are correct and followed at all times To ensure that any wastage is recorded and accounted for To implement controls to ensure that theft is kept to a minimum To set sales incentives to move more beverage stock

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Spillage report form If beverages are spilled, a Spillage Report Form should be completed, explaining what happened. The bar shift manager should sign the form to show that he is aware of the spillage. An example of a spillage report form follows.

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Standard recipe Standard recipes are used when mixing drinks to maintain consistency and quality, for example, a standard recipe for a gin and tonic:
Ingredient House gin Tonic Lime Swizzle stick Ice cube Quantity 1 Jigger 1 Small bottle Small Slices 1 3 pieces Method •Pour gin into a clean hi-ball glass over ice •Add tonic and mix with swizzle stick •Place swizzle stick inside drink and add slice of lime •Serve on tray with a coaster •Wish the customer an enjoyable drink

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Chapter 5 – Beverages

Summary

Introduction

Staffing

Bar design and organisation

Preparation for service

Beverages

Bar control

Considerations

Soft drinks

Equipment and glassware

Beer

Spirits

Liqueurs

Cocktails

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Chapters
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Introduction to food & beverage Food production Purchasing food & beverage Food service delivery Beverages Menu planning Service quality in food & beverage Conference & banqueting

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Chapter 6 – Menu Planning

Objectives

In this chapter you will learn to :-

● Explain the importance of the menu within an operation ● List, explain and critique the different types of menus found in operations ● Discuss the factors to be considered when creating menus ● Describe a range of tools for evaluating menus

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Chapter 6 – Menu Planning

The importance of the menu

The menu is central to a food and beverage operation. It is the ‘first impression’ of your establishment It communicates everything about your type of operation It dictates your staffing, organisation, production and service methods It drives your image , theme, concept, quality and overall mission It is the main ‘sales tool’ for your product It differentiates you from your competition It can make or break you!

www.chaletnarnia.com

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Menu styles

2.

Menu styles 2.1 Courses 2.2 Table d’hôte menu 2.3 À la carte (ALC) menus 2.4 Cyclical menus

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Chapter 6 – Menu Planning

Menu styles

2.1 Courses Menus normally consists of three different sections. Some customers will have all three courses, some will have just one depending on their time, budget or situation.
Characteristics Appetisers The first course The taster Smaller portion Can be hot or cold Normally savoury Follows the appetiser (not always) Larger portion size Savoury Can be hot or cold Must be expensive menu items Normally final course Can be small or large in size Sweet or savoury Can be served hot or cols Examples Soups, salads, smaller variations of the main course dishes

Main courses or entrée

Grills, meats, platters, fish, vegetarian, large salads

Desserts

Ice creams, cakes, gateaux, fruit, cheese

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Other menus will offer more sections such as: Side orders Snacks or light meals Children’s meal Signature meals The variety of sections offered will depend on: The type of menu The type of theme or food The main menu formats found in commercial and non-commercial operations are: Table d’ hôte (TDH) À la carte (ALC) Cyclical menus

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2.2 Table d’ hôte menu A table d’ hôte is a 'set menu‘ which normally:

● Consists of three or more courses ● 1, 2 or 3 choices per course ● Are in most cases a set, all inclusive price
TDH menus are mostly available:

● At lunchtimes ● For themed lunches and dinners (Valentines, Easter, Christmas) ● In Conference and Banqueting (choices will be limited depending on quantity of people)
TDH menus are deal for catering to large numbers of people. They are sometimes used in restaurant operations during lunch and dinner service. These menus would be normally run instead of the operation's full à la carte menu.
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Table d’ hôte (TDH) menus:
Opportunities for operation ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Less costs overall, labour, purchasing, preparation, training and utilities Can run TDH menus during slow demand periods. Requires less chefs to be on duty as there is less food to prepare Can trial out new dishes before putting on full ALC menu Requires less skilled chefs as only a few dishes to concentrate on Requires less service staff due to simplicity Can incorporate slow moving or soon to expire food In some situations senior chef can implement TDH menus when there is a shortage of kitchen staff or skill Can used skilled chefs to perform other functions

Challenges for operation Opportunities for customer

● Difficult to compete with ALC choice being provided by other establishments ● Food is served much faster as food is en place ● Easier and faster to select as there is less choice ● Appears good value as several courses for one set price ● Choice is limited

Challenges for customer

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2.3 À la carte (ALC) menus À la carte (ALC) menus are found mostly in commercial food and beverage operations. These menus are characterised by:

● A large selection of options ● All menu items are individually priced ● Dishes are in most cases cooked to order ● Customers can consume several dishes depending on their situation

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ALC menus - challenges and opportunities
Opportunities for operation ● Attracts customers due to wide choice of dishes ● Able to showcase and promote culinary expertise ● Opportunities to increase sales ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Large quantity of dishes requires lots of purchasing, storage, preparation and controlling High perishability – difficult to sell during slow demand periods Requires higher quantities of kitchen and service staff Demands higher skilled chefs due to more complexity More training for chefs and service personnel More things to manage therefore more opportunities for error More choice can results in longer wait times and reduction ins eat turnover Higher costs, space, utilities, labour, wastage Greater customer expectations

Challenges for operation

Opportunities for customer Challenges for customer

● Lots of choice ● Select according to own particular dietary needs ● Higher quality ● Too much choice , difficult to select ● Order to delivery times can be longer ● Running costs passed onto customer and, therefore , can be more expensive

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2.4 Cyclical menus Most commonly found in non-commercial food operations such as schools, hospitals and military establishments. The menus are pre-planned to meet the needs of the target consumers and are rotated weekly, fortnightly or monthly. Challenges and opportunities of a cyclical menu:
Opportunities for operation

● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Less changes in the menu allows for easier planning Able to ensure menus are well balanced across the week Able to buy in bulk and achieve cheaper prices with supplier Employees become skilled and specialised in the production of particular dishes allowing for greater competency and efficiency Less training for employees Less errors Food can be prepared in advance and chilled Less skilled employees required

Challenges for operation Opportunities for customer Challenges for customer
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● Employees get bored due to lack of scope ● Customers get to look forward to particular menus on certain days ● Customers can get bored
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3

Menu considerations 3.1 The consumers 3.2 Trends 3.3 Food needs 3.4 Operational and business considerations in menu planning 3.5 Legislation in menu planning 3.6 Menu cover 3.7 Flexibility 3.8 Terminology 3.9 Layout and design 3.10 Food 3.11 Colour balance 3.12 Textures 3.13 Wording 3.14 Nutritional balance 3.15 Ingredient balance 3.16 Suppliers
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Figure 6.3: Considerations in menu planning
Priority Concern of Menu Planner

Guests/ consumers

Operation

Food

Likes & dislikes of target market Socio-economic factors

Costs

Consistency

Availability of ingredients

Portion size

Ethnic factors

Equipment needs

Textures

Demographic factors

Skill requirements of chefs Size of restaurant (covers)

Colour balance

Religious considerations

Nutritional balance

Concept of value

Service method – Plated, buffet for example

Aesthetic balance

Food trends Storage facilities available Health & Safety legislation

Provenance

Environmental concerns

Suppliers

Competition

Environmental legislation Design and flow of kitchen Menu cover & design

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3.1 The consumers Attracting and retaining customers is important. The underpinning goal is to provide a menu that your consumers will want, and in order to do so market research should be undertaken with your target group. Consumers expect:

● To see a good variety of dishes on the menu ● To receive what is described on the menu ● To see descriptions accompany the main dish headings ● For the menu item to be available as advertised ● To be made aware of any specific ingredients that may cause an allergic reaction, such as nuts
Food and beverage operators have an obligation to:

● Provide good quality ingredients ● Be truthful in what they advertise on their menus ● Inform customers promptly when items are not available
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3.2 Trends
Vegetarianism Organic food Around 6% of the UK population is vegetarian. Consumers increasingly demand food that is healthy, organic and produced without any artificial addictives. Consumers increasingly enjoy more exotic food from areas such as Japan, China, Thailand and India.

Exotic

Healthier options

Increasing obesity level are leading consumers to be more health conscious.

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3.3 Food needs Although there are basic needs and wants there are also customers with more specific requirements.
Halal Kosher Caters for members of the Muslim faith; in the food production process the animal or poultry has to be slaughtered in a ritual way known as Zibah. Kosher food is food that meets Jewish dietary laws, or the laws of Kashrut. Similar to Halal, it has strict rules in the preparation and production stages, where food is supervised by a rabbi. Members of the Jewish faith would not consume items such as pork or seafood and would not mix diary and fruits. Vegetarians would not eat meat, poultry and fish. They eat primarily vegetables, pulses and fruits.

Vegetarian

Vegan

Vegans do not eat meat, eggs, diary products and all other animal-derived ingredients. They eat beans, grains, legumes, vegetables and fruits.

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3.4 Operational and business considerations in menu planning Costs Each establishment has a target food cost to be achieved. The food cost drives the pricing margins. The cost, preparation and production of the food items selected have to fit in with target costs to ensure margins are maintained.

Cost considerations when planning and creating menus:

● The establishment’s target food cost ● The cost of ingredients ● Food seasonality ● The quantity of food used for each dish (portion) ● Food wastage during production ● Food production methods adopted
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Availability of ingredients: When compiling menus the chef need to take in to consideration the availability of ingredients in seasonality and suppliers. If a dish is composed with a particular type of vegetable it should be checked that it is available all year round. Food prices fluctuate in and out of seasons so it is imperative that food is used that is in season, however as already stated seasonality is becoming a thing of the past with many foods being imported but at higher costs which impact the chef's budget.

Equipment needs: Some food such as fresh pasta and pizzas require special equipment if made in-house, however this can add value to the menu. Many establishments recognise that with equipment come space, depreciation, maintenance, training , cleaning and control.

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Skill requirements of chefs: Chefs should be capable of serving the menu. If a sophisticated menu is written it is all well and good, but if the chefs do not have the skills to serve them complaints will be made. Furthermore the employees will feel de-motivated and become dissatisfied when complaints arise. Hence it is best to identify the right type of menu that can be provided. Similarly, if a higher level of menu is required investment in new personnel or training should take place. Size of food production and food service facilities: If the restaurant has a large seating capacity it is important to consider how the kitchen will operate when full. If the menu is complex a full restaurant will require large amounts of staff and space to meet these needs. If the menu is too complex it will slow up the service time when busy. Similarly, if the kitchen is small the space available for food preparation may be limited and so having dishes that require lots of preparation space may cause accidents and problems. In this case, the preparation should be carried out off-site and finished on site where possible. Storage is another consideration in relation to space, if food storage is limited menu items should be restricted to reduce storage requirements.
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Service method: Buffet, family, silver service, plated and gueridon restaurant service methods will affect the type of food you serve.

Competition: It is important to carry out regular competitor evaluations. Consumers will select one competitor over another for different reasons, such as quality, presentation, price, variety, ingredients used, promotions, portion and service. It is, therefore, imperative that your menu is different and better than your competition. If you differentiate your product you will increase your chances of attracting consumers. Be sure to also carry out this analysis quarterly as competitors’ menus can change frequently. Also, remember that they are probably visiting your establishment as well, evaluating your menu and repositioning theirs!

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3.5 Legislation in menu planning

The Trade Descriptions Act 1968 is an Act of Parliament of the UK which prevents manufacturers, retailers or service industry providers from misleading consumers as to what they are spending their money on. Other words, commonly used care needs to be taken with:

● Fresh salad ● Garden vegetables ● Homemade desserts

Another important law is:

● The Sale of Goods Act 1979 ● The Food Standards Agency
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3.6 Menu cover Menu cover needs to:

● be attractive ● be eye catching ● set the scene ● communicate the theme ● be cleanable ● be replaceable

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3.7 Flexibility Menus need to be flexible and adaptive. Internal and external forces can affect the dishes that you offer.
Change agent Ingredient prices change due to political and economic factors Food scares such as bird flu and mad cow disease Impact/ Action Menu prices need to be amended Consumers will not purchase Remove from menu Replace Consumers will not purchase Remove from menu Replace Create dishes Add to menu Advertise Menu changes Ingredients not available or too expensive, remove form menu

Items wanted due to social changes – red meat, fat

Items wanted due to social changes – organic, healthier options, exotic food Internal; restructuring – change in budget, staffing, leadership, theme Supplier problems

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3.8 Terminology It is important to remember that your menu is an important communication tool. Therefore, wherever possible, complex terminology should be avoided. If customers do not understand the menu it may deter them from entering the restaurant/ In cases where more obscure terminology is used it is important to ensure that the service staff can explain meaning to customers.

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3.9 Layout and design Once decided on what dishes will be available the menu needs o be laid out correctly. Nowadays, there is a trend for electronic menus. Questions that need to be asked when laying out a menu:
● Are all descriptions accurate? ● Is the font the correct size? ● Are my sections clear with the right food in each section ● Could I use different colours, bold or underline particular dishes to make them stand out? ● Have we communicated the brand well? ● Is the menu easy to clean? ● Do we have taxes and service charge information communicated well? ● Have we highlighted any potential allergies( eg:nuts)? ● Are my dishes easy to read? ● Have I fully utilised all the paper space well? ● If a menu item is not popular will it be easy to remove? ● Where will we store the menus ● Is the spelling and grammar correct? ● Do we need to consider getting menus translated into another language?

● Does the design fit ion with my target market? ● If prices change, can we amend the prices easily? ● Do we have the address, e-mail and reservations number on the menu? ● Have we considered guests with particular disabilities, blind, visual impairment?

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3.10 Food Consistency: To enable consistency of dishes, standard recipes need to be created for each menu item. The standard consists of:

● Ingredients ● Weightings ● Preparation and cooking methods ● Serving temperatures ● Cooking times ● Equipment ● Health and safety ● Costings ● Photographs of final presentation
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Portion size: Portion sizes are built into the standard recipe. The portion size is decided through consideration of the type of cuisine, time of day, the customer type, menu type and target food margin. Portion sizes are managed through using food production equipment such as ladles, mixers, cooking trays, crockery and glassware. In addition, sometimes items are portioned in units such as ten onion rings or five prawns.

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3.11 Colour balance It is important to consider the colour combination of each dish. Customers should be able to ‘eat with their eyes’! If the colours on the plate are well balanced then it will be more appealing to the customers. It is also important when creating a table d’hôte menu that colours are balanced between each course.

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3.12 Textures Not only is colour a consideration in dishes but there is also a requirement for a range of textures. Textures that are used include smooth, hard, coarse and crunchy and can be created through using different cooking methods ingredients, cutting and preparation techniques.

An example which features a variety of features: •a salad of grilled, sliced chicken •raw chopped carrot •crispy romaine lettuce, •bound with a creamy mayonnaise

An example which does not feature a variety of features: •A main course of, • braised beef • mashed potatoes • creamed carrots

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3.13 Wording The menu is a sales tool, it is therefore important to make your dishes sound exciting. Furthermore, as the dish often cannot be seen before consumption it is key to fully explain and communicate the main features of the dish creating a visual picture in the mind of the potential consumer. Examples of words to encourage purchases:

● Tasty ● Chilled ● Juicy

● Traditional ● Fresh ● Authentic

● Homemade ● Crunchy ● Creamy

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3.14 Nutritional balance When compiling menus it is important to ensure that dishes are produced as nutritiously as possible, with a balance throughout the menu of protein, carbohydrates and vitamins. The different nutrients provide for the varying functions of the body and so it is important to offer a variety to meet the needs of different consumers and diets.

Trend: Some chained restaurants now inform customers of the calorific information for each dish.

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3.15 Ingredient balance

The overall menu and dishes should use a good variety of different ingredients to include:

● Vegetables ● Fruits ● Red meats ● White meats ● Fish ● Pulses ● Herbs ● Spices

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3.16 Suppliers Your menu is as good as the quality of the ingredients used

Are there suppliers that can deliver the menu items required? Are the suppliers able to consistently meet food specifications? Am I using the best supplier to provide food in relation to quality, consistency of delivery and price? Is there a back-up supplier should there be any problems?

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Menu options

4.

Menu options 4.1 Coffee shop 4.2 Bar or lounge 4.3 Executive lounge 4.4 Fine dining 4.5 Leisure and recreational areas 4.6 Employee dining 4.7 Conference and Banqueting 4.8 Room service department

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4.1 Coffee shop
Menu Breakfast ● Normally consists of hot (English or American) or cold (Continental) ● In large hotels: in most cases breakfast served in buffet style ● In addition an à la carte menu available for the guests who do not require the whole buffet ● Sometimes offered at weekends between 11 am to 2 pm ● Combination of breakfast and lunch food items ● Can be available as buffet or à la carte ● Depending on the operation ● Can be served in a variety of ways to include buffet, table d’hôte or a à la carte ● ● ● ● Provided separately in most cases Dishes smaller in portion, cheaper Consists of meals such as mini burgers, pasta, salads and sandwiches In some cases: menus can double up as drawing or colouring menus to occupy children throughout the meal

Brunch

Lunch Children

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4.1 Coffee shop

Menu Dessert Afternoon tea Special or themed Beverages ● Can be either separate or part of the main menu ● Can also be promoted on buffets, ‘dessert trolleys’ and blackboards ● Normally available between 2 – 4 pm ● Menu offers sweets, scones, freshly cut sandwiches and a selection of hot teas ● Created for special promotions or calendar events (Valentines, Mother’s day) ● In most cases: set menus ● Drinks can be feature on the main à la carte menu as a separate menu

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4.2 Bar or lounge Menu Drinks An extensive drinks menu featuring beers, wines, spirits, liqueurs, cocktails and soft beverages. Depending on type of operation these can be advertised on separate menus if the bar has a particular focus. Most bars provide food, normally consisting of light snacks eaten to accompany the drinks being served. These can come in the form of finger food, platters to share, sandwiches and salads.

Bar snacks

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4.3 Executive lounge An executive lounge is an area within a luxury a hotel designated only for customers who stay in executive rooms. Menu Food Executives can enjoy an a la carte breakfast menu, snacks and sandwiches throughout the day and complimentary hot canapés in the evening. Complimentary soft drink throughout the day and complimentary beverages at a specified time in the evening.

Beverage

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4.4 Fine dining Menu A` la carte The menu provides a wide selection of dishes featuring the restaurant’s particular concept A menu offering an extensive range of wines. Some hotels feature a humidor with a selection of fine cigars A menu that offers coffee served with liqueurs

Wine list Cigar

Specialty coffee

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4.5 Leisure and recreational areas Hotels that provide leisure and recreational facilities may feature a menu to include fresh and vegetable juices, waters and energy drinks.

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4.6 Employee dining Most hotels provide some type of catering for its employees. When creating menus for employees the following should be considered.

● Demographic of workforce(age, gender) ● Job roles(clerical or manual) ● HR budget for employee meals ● Numbers of employees on duty ● Hours of operation of each department ● Feeding night staff

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4.7 Conference and Banqueting When catering for large numbers most departments is quite different from other departments with regard to its menu planning. When catering for large numbers most departments feature a pre planned set of menus that vary to accommodate different budgets. The advantages are

● Food can be bought in bulk and therefore cheaper prices achieved ● Frequently food in this department will be cook-chilled and not all food items are suitable for chilling ● It allows for specification ● It facilitates forecasting ● Menus can easily be sent out to customers by e-mail or mail

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4.8 Room service department Menus A` la carte menu The main menu will be advertised either in the in-room directory of services or nowadays on the television. These menus are placed in customers’ rooms and are completed the night before by the guest. On completion the customers hang them on their bedroom door knob and they are then collected by a room service employee. The mini bar menu is a priced list of all items on sale in the in-room mini bar.

Breakfast door menu

Mini bar

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Menu evaluation and performance

5.

Menu evaluation and performance 5.1 Management information

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After menus have been created and implemented it is important to monitor them in relation to customer satisfaction and their financial contribution. Customer satisfaction can be monitored through: Speaking to customers directly Questionnaires Mystery guest visits Observing customer plates – ‘garbage survey’ Sales per dish analysis Speaking to employees

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5.1 Management information Menus can also be monitored by examining records from point of sales report. The information is provided by: Sales per dish Profit per dish and can be listed by performance indicators as given in the following table.
Performance Stars Definition High profit High sales Dogs Low profit Low sales Workhorses Low profit High sales Puzzles High profit Low sales
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Action Keep on menu

Remove from menu

Amend ingredients, portion or selling price to achieve sales

Position on menu for more visibility, larger or more colourful font

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Summary

The importance of the menu

Menu style

Menu consideration

Menu options

Menu evaluation

Table d’hote

Consumers

Coffee shop

A la carte

The operation

Bar and lounge

Cyclical

Food

Executive lounge

Briefings

Fine Dining

Leisure

Employee

Conference and banqueting

Room Service

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Chapters
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Introduction to food & beverage Food production Purchasing food & beverage Food service delivery Beverages Menu planning Service quality in food & beverage Conference & banqueting

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Chapter 7 – Service quality in food and beverage

Objectives

In this chapter you will learn to :-

● ● ●

Explain the importance of quality to a food and beverage operation Discuss a range of methods operators can use to improve quality Evaluate a range of approaches to measure and maintain quality

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Introduction to quality

1.

Introduction to quality 1.1 What is quality

1.2 Importance of quality 1.3 Importance of customer satisfaction

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1.1 What is quality? It is difficult to accurately define quality, but in general quality perceptions is based on things such as our experiences, our expectations and our particular needs at that time.
‘To consistently meet or exceed consumer expectations by providing products and services at prices that creates value for customers and profit for the company’. Woods & King (2002)
‘The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy a stated or implied need’ British standards 4778 (1987) ‘Freedom from defects’ Kotler & Brown (2003)

‘Delighting the customer by fully meeting their needs and expectations’. These may include performance, appearance, availability, delivery, reliability, maintainability, cost effectiveness and price.

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Introduction to quality

1.2 Importance of quality High quality
Happy customers Retain customers Meet budget No discounts Employee gratuities and recognition Attract customers Positive image Growth Retain employees Market share Owners satisfied Good public relations Profit Competitive Open

Low quality
Unhappy customers Lose customers Under budget Discounts No gratuities and recognition Hard to attract customers Poor image Decline Lose employees Decrease market share Unsatisfied owners Bad public relations Loss Not competitive Close

Wuest as cited kadampully et al. (2001) notes ‘poor service leaves a guest unimpressed, discouraged and unsatisfied’
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1.2.1 Quality challenges and issues in hospitality operations Fast production to sale cycle- hard to check quality People factor- hard to standardise Highly perishable product- pressure to sell Complexity- multiple moments of truth Variety of stakeholders, with differing expectations People deliver service and people think differently Perception of quality are highly subjective Future cost of dissatisfied customers Bad news travels faster than good ones 100% staff/customer retention is unrealistic probably 80/85% is possibly achievable

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1.3 Importance of customer satisfaction The cost of gaining a new customer is around six times the cost to retain an existing one. A dissatisfied guest will tell ten other people about the complaint. 91% of customers who have an unresolved complaint will not return. 65% to 85% switchers are dissatisfied guests. Only 4% of dissatisfied guests will complain.

Rowe (1998)

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Quality tools

2.

Quality tools 2.1 Effective leadership

2.2 Effective market segmentation 2.3 Expectations 2.4 2.4 Standards of performance or ‘ standard operating procedures” 2.5 Effective human resource management 2.6 Training 2.7 Quality sourcing 2.8 Quality schemes 2.9 Service recovery and complaint handling

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Quality tools

Figure 7.2: Integrated service quality management 1. Determine customer service specification in terms of:
Level of service Availability of service standards Reliability of the service Flexibility of the service

2.

Check the operation is physically capable of supporting the service specification at given volume of business

3.

Check that the service systems and the staff are able to deliver to the customer the totality of the service specification (Including maintaining the desired service relationship) Monitor operational aspects Monitor customer satisfaction Feed back to original service specification and alter as appropriate

4. 5. 6.

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There are many actions that food and beverage operators can take to improve their service quality.
Figure 7.3: Standards for effective service quality

Quality sourcing Effective human resource management

Effective leadership and supervision

Quality tools Quality feedback and monitoring systems Standards of performance (SOP’s)

Effective market segmentation, meeting their needs, wants and expectations

Quality schemes

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2.1 Effective leadership To successfully achieve quality within an organisation it needs to be made clear and driven by the person at the top. It is their responsibility to ensure that quality is fabricated in to the entire organisation system. This is achieved through researching the target market needs, introducing systems of service quality control with an ongoing, strong, quality checking system to monitor and evaluate. ‘A company must have leaders at the top who are totally committed quality service’ Woods & King (2002) Wuest as cited in kandampully et al. (2001) ‘management plays a vital role in the delivery of quality service’

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2.2 Effective market segmentation Its an important part of quality to consistently satisfy customer needs, wants and expectations . To establish and maintain needs and wants the following steps are required.

Research the target markets needs and wants Create the standard to meet needs and wants Implement the standard Supervise and maintain the standard Evaluate and adjust the standard.

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Figure 7.4 The market mixes link to quality

The Marketing Mix
Product Customer needs and wants

Price

Cost to satisfy

Place

Convenience to buy

Promotion
Source: http://grey-matter.org
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Communication

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Quality tools

2.3 Expectations Linked into needs and wants are expectations. This ensure that you also meet what your customers expect to receive from their visits. Expectations vary in relation to the type of the customer and situation.
Figure 7.5 gap analysis model – customers’ expectations

Customer expectation
Expectations exceeded

Service delivery

Customer expectation
Expectations exceeded

Service delivery

Customer expectation

Service performance gap Expectations exceeded

Service delivery

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Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage

2. Quality tools

2.4 Standards of performance or ‘ standard operating procedures’ ( SOPs)
‘Standards of Performance help with consistency because they detail exactly what must be done and how it should be done’ Ninemieir ( 2000)

Advantages of performance standards for an operation include: Consistency of service Guides the employee in their work Supervisory tool for employees Supervisory tool for evaluating employee performance Assists in allocating cost per task accurately

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Figure 7.6 the standard process
Standard training Implement standard

Trial standard

Customer Expectations

Monitor standard

Create standard Adjust standard

Measure standard

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Examples of standards in a food and beverage operation are: How to clean cutlery How to take a pre-dinner reservation How to take a table booking over the phone How to complete a charge using a ‘point of sale’ machine How to open wine How to welcome a customer How to deal with complaints

Figure 7.6 the standard process
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Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage

Quality tools

The following step-by-step guide can help you to deal with customer complaints. Step
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Standard: how to deal with a complaint
Listen with concern and empathy. Isolate the guest if possible, so that other customers wont overhear. Stay calm. Avoid responding with hostility or defensiveness. Never argue with the guest. Beware of the guests self esteem, take complaint seriously, use guests name frequently, show a personal interest in the problem. Give the problem complete attention, and don’t insult the guest. Take notes, write down the key facts. Provide the guest with options, don’t promise the impossible and exceed you authority. Set an time frame for the completion of the corrective actions. Monitor the progress of the corrective action. Follow up on the complaint even if its dealt with by someone else

‘Service standards are only as good as the restaurant performance. Although service policies may establish guidelines and performance standards, personnel may not perform adequately’. Wuest cited in kandampully et al. (2001)
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Quality tools

2.5 Effective human resource management ‘Wuest as cited in Kandampully et al. (2001) ‘ Service providers must involve all of their staff in each department in an in an effort to provide quality service’ There is a clear relationship between quality human resource management and the organisation achieving quality goals. Key goals and objectives Recruit the right people Keep employees happy Retain them

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Quality tools

HR
Recruit the right people

Rationale
Less complaints Less defects Less training Less risk Greater customer satisfaction

How
Job descriptions and job specifications Match the best candidate with job specification and description Complete reference checks Paper and pencil tests Qualified interviewers Employee trials Succession planning Regular training Regular performance evaluation and appraisal; Recognise and reward achievement Provide regular social events Sufficient number of tools to their jobs effectively Proper work environment Fair and effective leadership Practice empowerment

Keep your employees happy

Increased job satisfaction Less absence Improved team work Better service to customer

Retain them

Stronger team Familiarity with customers’ names Awareness of customers individual needs and wants

‘More than 65% of customers who will not return do so because of the way they were treated, not because of the product’ Rowe (1998)
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2.6 Training
Benefits to employees
• • • • • • • •

Prepares employees to do their job effectively Improves self confidence Improves motivation and morale Prepares for promotion Reduces tension and stress Provides an opportunity to succeed Provides high quality service Provides high quality products Makes the experience more pleasant and enjoyable Increases productivity Reduce costs Builds a strong team Reduces problems and defects Creates a better image Increases referrals Attracts potential employees Kavanaaugh & Ninemier (2001)

Benefits to the guest



• •

Benefits to the operation

• • • • •

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Quality tools

2.7 Quality sourcing It is important that all products sourced, meet the needs of the organisation’s objectives. Products should fit the needs of the target market Should fit the organisation’s financial requirements Meet the desired purchase criteria on arrival Should be better than the competitors Examples of sourced products in a food and beverage operation Perishable- food and beverages Non-perishable- linen Equipment- crockery Furniture- tables, Fixtures and fittings- lights Tools to achieve this include: Purchase specifications Ongoing customer research to determine satisfaction
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Quality tools

2.7.1 Sourcing considerations and limitations

Budget available Availability of suppliers Seasonality Storage space available

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2.8 Quality schemes A quality scheme is scheme that is purchased from an external organisation to improve the standard of products and services. The schemes can be challenging but once successful offer many opportunities.
Figure 7.7 Examples of quality schemes

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Opportunities Higher standards Customer retention Reduced complaints Increase in profits Happier employees Aids ‘ self marketing’ A competitive advantage A benchmark Independent assessment of quality

Challenges Can be expensive! Difficult for small businesses to afford Can be difficult to achieve

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Most quality schemes are multi-dimensional focusing on different elements that works towards achieving quality. Schemes vary in cost and depth depending on the size of the operation, their objectives and current situation. The process normally consists of: Application to the quality organisation Visit and assessment Goal setting Regular assessment Award Ongoing reassessment

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Figure 7.8: Key areas of ‘hospitality assured’ quality scheme The Customer Promise

Customer Research

Business Planning

Operational Planning

Customer Satisfaction Improvement

Training and Development

Service Recovery

Service Delivery

Standards of Performance

Resources

Source: HCIMA
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Quality tools

2.9 Service recovery and complaint handling One of the goals of any organisation is to minimise the number of complaints it receives. How ever when complaints do occur:
Deal with it appropriately Ensure the customer leaves happy Ensure as on organisation to learn and prevent it from re-occurring.

Steps for dealing with complaints
Taking the complaint seriously Taking the customer to quieter area Listen careful whilst being sympathetic Get all the facts Make notes Appologise sincerely Provide options Use customer name throughout Assess level of complaint Get customers opinion on how it should be solved Thank Follow up Inform manager on complaint Follow up with letter
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Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage

Quality monitoring and measurement

3.

Quality monitoring and measurement 3.1 Internal customer questionnaires

3.2 face-to-face feedback 3.3 Focus groups 3.4 Observation 3.5 Critical logs 3.6 Management of information 3.7 External methods 3.8 Secondary data

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Quality monitoring and measurement

When an organisation has implemented quality tools to achieve quality products and services it is vital to measure the organisation’s success. Leaders committed to quality must make sure that tools are in place to measure their staff’s efforts at providing great service to guests. Monitoring can be carried out in many ways, whilst one way which it is done is either through research conducted internally or externally.
Internally Externally

Customer questionnaires Face-to-face feedback Focus groups Observation Critical log books Management information

Mystery guests External surveys Secondary data

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Quality monitoring and measurement

3.1 Internal customer questionnaires Customer questionnaires are one of the most frequent research methods adopted by food and beverage operations. 3.1.1 The customer questionnaire process Create questionnaires Distribute questionnaires Collect questionnaires Process data Analyse data Communicate data to departments
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Quality monitoring and measurement

Tool
Customer questionnaire or feedback form

How it works
Forms are placed on tables or in bill folds for customers to fill out. Required to provide feedback on areas such as service, atmosphere, food and beverage

Advantages
Easy and affordable to create. Many customers would prefer to write than speak out. Can follow up in some cases Easy to organise and evaluate feedback.

Disadvantages
Low response rate Unhappy customers have normally left the premises by the time the data is collected Customers don’t have time to complete Bad feedback does not reach management

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Quality monitoring and measurement

Questions that should be addressed when preparing a questionnaire: What do we want to find out? Who are we targeting to fill out these? How will we reach them? What questions should we ask? How many questions should we ask? Do we want to collect any other information? For example name, address or should it be anonymous? Do we want them to rate service and products or give real opinion? Where will we distribute or place them? How do we achieve a high response rate? How many do we want each day? What's our target? Who will manage it? How will we communicate the findings to our manager?

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Quality monitoring and measurement

3.2 Face- to-face feedback Face-to-face feedback is normally carried out by the waiter or the manager in a rather informal manner. The method is quick and cost effective. It is important to frequently check customer satisfaction throughout the meal as if they are dissatisfied. Whatever feedback is received must be passed on to the relevant manager. 3.3 Focus groups A focus group is s set of people invited to a session by the restaurant or hotel, to gather opinions and suggestions. It normally includes individuals that can provide the best, reliable information for the desired topic. It usually is hosted by the general Manager or an employee of the Sales/marketing department, and the meeting is likely to be recorded.

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Quality monitoring and measurement

Aim
To determine satisfaction levels of customers

Focus group members
Existing restaurant customers

To research
Opinions on likes and dislikes in relation to the: •Menu •Service •Design How the restaurant can improve? •What is their perception or opinion on the restaurant? •What type of food they like? •What is important to them when eating out? •Where do they currently dine out and why? •What are their favourite dishes on the current menu? •What new would they like to see o the menu •Are the prices reasonable? •Are the portion sizes suitable? •Do they go to other places for dishes that we don’t offer?

To increase business of Non-customers through identifying their opinions, dining habits and specific needs

Non-customers/competitor customers/potential customers

Customers To gather opinions on customers to use in creating a new menu

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3.4 Observation Within the organisation there is a wealth of information that can be used to improve quality whilst observation is an effective way of doing so. Examples
Employees chatting

Potential reason
Overstaffed, or poor scheduling of resources understaffed

Effects
Waste High labour cost Bad impression for diners Customer complaints Discounts Slow service Employee stress Customers become dissatisfied Customers arriving go elsewhere Loss of revenue Poor image Hard to attract customers

Employees rushing around

Queuing at a buffet Empty restaurant during peak time

Poor controlling of customer traffic Poor marketing Poor product and service Better competition

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Quality monitoring and measurement

3.5 Critical logs Departmental log books provide information activities which take part within the organisation. These log books are found in departments and are a tool for supervisors and managers to exchange information between shifts. The logs consists of items such as complaints and issues, maintenance defects etc.

3.6 Management of information Information is in most case logged by computers or past records and can be used effectively to provide a better service to customers. The following is an example of a restaurant receipt (figure 7.9) from a regular, local customer Mr. Bridges.

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Quality monitoring and measurement

Jimbaran restaurant at The Splendid Hotel Dubai

Table: 24
Server: Rashid No of Covers: 2 Quantity 1 1 1 1 2 1 Payment Method Number Customer Name

Date: 22.01.08

Time: 18.47

Item Soup Caesar salad Seafood platter Cheesecake Coffees Sincere wine American Express 87664456696xxxxxx John H. Bridges

Charge 20Dhs 20Dhs 100Dhs 30Dhs 30Dhs 80Dhs 280Dhs

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Quality monitoring and measurement

3.7 External methods Mystery guests or mystery shoppers are employed by companies to visit their premises to conduct an evaluation of their products or services. These visits are normally contracted out and are carried out but an external professional company

3.7.1 Mystery guests Meeting with owner or operator to discuss the requirements Mystery guest company creates measurement tool Mystery guest makes reservation like a normal customer Mystery guest carries out visit and audits services and products Completes a formal report and delivers findings

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Quality monitoring and measurement

Advantages Unbiased Conducted by experienced individuals Accurate Can be used as an development tool Employees are unaware of the mystery shopper

Disadvantages Can be costly

Many large chains use survey results to compare performance between units.

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Chapter 7– Service quality in food and beverage

Quality monitoring and measurement

3.7.2 External surveys Professional companies can also be contracted to carry out surveys with members of the public: Specific needs and wants Likes and dislikes Eating and dining preferences Dining habits Preferred restaurants Reasons for eating out 3.8 Secondary data Food beverage operations can also monitor consumer trends to help them cater to needs by viewing the following resources Academic books and journals Industry magazines Industry websites Industry reports
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Chapter 7 – Introduction to food & beverage

Summary

The importance of quality

Quality tools

Measurement

Leadership

Internal

External

Meeting needs, wants and expectations Standards of performance

Questionnaires

Mystery guests

Face to face feedback

External surveys

Quality human resources

Focus groups

Quality sourcing

Observation

Quality schemes

Critical logs

Service recovery and complaint handling

Management information

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Chapters
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Introduction to food & beverage Food production Purchasing food & beverage Food service delivery Beverages Menu planning Service quality in food & beverage Conference & banqueting

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Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting

Objectives

In this chapter you will learn to :-

● Describe how the conference and banqueting department is structures ● Explain the stages in the customer inquiry process ● Identify and appraise the tools departmental managers use to maintain standards, minimize expenses and maximize sales

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Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting

Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B)

1.

Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B) 1.1 Benefits 1.2 Challenges 1.3 Personnel 1.4 Conference and banqueting sales

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Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting

Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B)

● Very diverse with many different events types ● Can be small or large in customer numbers ● Pre-planned ● Can be profitable ● Competitive due to many establishments having large available spaces ● Often seasonal ● Can be delivered in a variety of locations ● Empty space is expensive
Conference Formal Seminar Meetings Exhibitions Presentations and lectures Workshops
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Banqueting Relaxed Religious festivals Annual work parties Family celebrations Themed dinner and lunches Weddings

Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting

Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B)

Fig 8.1 Event types
Forum Convention Seminar

Symposium

Retreat

Event types

Congress

Trade show

Exhibition Interview

Panel

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Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting

Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B)

Suitable venues to host events include :

● Conference centres ● Exhibition halls ● Hotels ● Large restaurants and bars ● Community centres ● Office cafeterias ● Ballrooms ● Church has ● Sports halls

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Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B)

1.1 Benefits

● Can better utilize space and assets ● Can capitalize on annual events ● Can show case facilities ● Can receive additional revenue streams ● Potential for leads and follow on business ● Can attract local business ● Can provide better service as all brooked in advance ● Can achieve saving through bulk purchasing

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Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting

Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B)

1.2 Challenges

● Empty space is cost ● Pressure to fill space daily ● Competitive ● Large quantities of inventory and equipment ● Additional storage requirements ● Difficult to manage expectations because of large quantities ● Large quantities of casual labour

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Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting

Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B)

1.3 Personnel
Position Conference and Banqueting(C&B) manager Responsibilites Overall management of department Fully accountable for profitability of department Promoting department Recruitment of employees Attending meetings Dealing with complaints Planning and forecasting Administration Meeting customers Discussing menu options Creating menus Preparing the food Seving the food Overseeing and manageing events Training employees Booking casual staff Managing stock Managing customers' expectations Delivering standards
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C&B chef

C&B Assistant manager & supervisor

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Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting

Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B)

C&B sales manager

C&B sales executive

Event co-ordinator

Waiters

Porters

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Creaing sales & marketing plan for department Implimenting plan Competitor analysis Managing employees Motivating employees Yeild amangement Training Visiting clients and compenies Making presentations Showarounds Following up leads Taking reservations Creating contacts Maintain the booking dairy Banquet event sheets to departments Billing & deposits Setting-up functions Mise en place Serving customers Dealing with customer enquiries Moving furniture Setting-up furniture and equipment Assisting waiters Breaking down rooms Cleaning Page 329
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Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting

Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B)

1.4 Conference and Banqueting sales Fig 8.2 Who are the customers?
In-house customers Internation al companies Local businesses

Internal company events and functions

C&B Department Charities

Local residents

Event planners

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Characteristics of conference and banqueting (C&B)

1.4 Conference and Banqueting sales continued ... Due to the competitive nature of the sector, various techniques have to be employed to fill Conference and Banqueting space. Some approaches include :

● Employing a sales team ● Creating a database of customers ● Contacting potential customers ● Creating brochures detailing facilities available ● Employing an experienced C&B team ● Featuring C&B facilities on hotel or establishment’s webpage ● Advertising facilities in local media ● Sending information and visiting local businesses ● Promoting facilities internally in lifts and bedrooms ● Creating own events internally

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Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting

The event process

2.

The event process 2.1 Enquiry 2.2 The brochure or CD-Rom 2.3 The appointment and customer visit 2.4 The quotation and contract stage 2.5 Food, beverage and service 2.6 The event 2.7 Room set-up 2.8 Equipment 2.9 Follow-up and evaluation

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Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting

The event process

Fig 8.3 The conference and banqueting process

1. Enquiry

5. Follow up

2. Visit

4. Event
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3. Quotation

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Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting

The event process

2.1 Enquiry When customers contact the hotel to make an enquiry:

● Thank person for calling ● Take down personnel information, name, company, contact number and e-mail ● Establish what type of event is required ● Establish what date and time is required ● Check diary and determine availability
Trend : Most banqueting diaries are now computerized and are able to provide information to include: ● Up-to-date availability of each room ● Specifications of each room ● Capacities for each room ● Past history of company or customer, room preferences and event type ● Room coasts based on supply, demand and day ● Future availability and usage per room, day and month ● Usage per company, event type and room type
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Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting

The event process

2.2 The brochure or CD-Rom To promote the conference and banqueting facilities the sales office send out information packs (collateral) to acquaint customers with service available. This includes:

● The service team’s roles and responsibilities ● Testimonials from customers ● Photographs of events ● Blue point of room dimensions ● Examples of room set-up ● People capacity per room ● Equipment available ● Menus ● Packages available ● Contact details ● Business card of C&B sales person

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The event process

2.3 The appointment and customer visit If the enquiry is for a large event or a new customer/company the sales assistant will attempt to secure an appointment and encourage the customer to visit the hotel to showcase the event facilities. The first impression of the customer must be positive. The sales executive should be prepared for the appointment in the following ways:

● Have a quiet place to discuss the customer’s needs and requirements ● Key staff available to discuss particular needs (E.g. a chef should be on hand to offer advice and suggestions with menu planning for the event. ● It is important to have rooms set-up for display. If a customer is coming to discuss a meeting then a meeting room should showcase for the customer what can be expected. You should never try to show an empty room to a customer as this may lose you the sale ● Have a presentation packs prepared, containing menus, seating layouts, photographs and room details ● Accommodation for the attendees should be prepared & rooms should be available to display. ● Relevant paperwork on hand such as, a customer checklist ● It’s important to introduce the person to the employee who will manage their event.
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The event process

2.3 The appointment and customer visit continued ... During the appointment general information is obtained or confirmed from the customer.

● Contact details : (telephone, e-mail, fax, address, direct line) ● Date and arrival time ● Customer information : numbers and demographics (gender, age, nationality, profession) ● Customer with any special needs or requirements ● Event type : seminar, anniversary party ● Room set-up style : (classroom, workshop, round tables) ● Food requirements : (menus, meal times, special diets) ● Beverage requirement : (during the event, cash bar in the evening) ● Equipment requirements ● Budget per person ● Billing information ● Bedroom requirements ● Car parking requirements
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2.3 The appointment and customer visit continued... Specific needs will be also expected for different events. (E.g. wedding)

● Flowers ● Speeches ● Master of ceremonies ● Dance floor ● Disk jockey (DJ) ● Seating plans

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The event process

2.4 The quotation and contract stage The customer is sent a proposal detailing all the function’s requirements with pricing. The customer would either make changes or sign the paperwork and return it to the hotel. This signature creates a confirmed booking and contract between the customer and the establishment. The customer pays a deposit to secure the booking depending on the contract. The banqueting event order After the contract has been confirmed C&B sales creates a ‘ Banquet event order’. This is an international document to communicate the event’s details to the relevant department.

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The event process

2.5 Food, beverage and service Food In C&B menus are normally table d’hote due to frequency of large numbers. Producing food for banqueting events has many advantages. It is shown below:

Restaurants Large menu Uncertainty about which menu item will be selected Uncertainty about definite numbers that will visit restaurant

Events (C&B) Small menu No uncertainty - all menu items fixed

No uncertainty - numbers confirmed No uncertainty - customers arrive as Uncertainty about what time customers will come organized Food wastage after service No food wastage

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The event process

2.5 Food, beverage and service continued ... Beverage Beverage requirements varies according to the type of the event. (E.g. conference – tea, coffee & mineral water). Bars may be available during the evening for delegates to relax and network, and are available in different formats. They can be in a fixed bar or set up in another room to ease queuing. A cash bar - where each guest pays at the time the drink is served. A hosted bar – drinks are charged on a consumption basis. Companies frequently use this method & the bill is sent directly to the company after the event. The event organizer signs a bill at the end of the event to confirm consumption. If it’s a wedding sometimes the host pays a part of the bar bill in advance. During a banquet events a table service can be provided whereby customers are offered a variety wines, sprits, beers and soft drinks served at the table.

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The event process

2.5 Food, beverage and service continued ... Service A variety of service methods include:

● Plated service ● Silver service ● Buffet service ● Family service ● Large events will be run using a more formal system where employees follow instructions by the head waiter or Maitre d’.

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The event process

2.6 The event Hotel executives meet weekly discuss forthcoming events on a week by week basis. Each department is issued with an event sheet to:

● Communicate information ● Follow-up on any particular event needs ● Address any questions ● Resolve any last minute prolems

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The event process

Fig 8.7 The event process
1. Set up event 8. Breakdown event 2. Welcome guests

7. Signature and billing

3. Run through event details for the day

6. Check satisfaction 5. Deliver event
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4. Brief staff

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The event process

Step 1. Set-up event 2. Welcome guests 3. Run through events 4. Brief staff

5. Deliver event

6. Check satisfaction 7. Billing 8. Breakdown event

Action The team will set up the event in advance of the customer and their guests arriving. (preparing furniture, laying tables, setting-up coffee stations, registration tables, bars and equipment. Sales assistant/staff member managing the event greets the customer on arrival. The C&B employee should check whether there's any last minute changes. All service staff are briefed on details to include: The company and type of event Chronology of event For the organizer, host and any VIPs to be identified Any special requests Allocation of tables Menu information Standards The event commences are planned. Service staff follow banquet event order and any instruction from event supervisor. Duties include: Serving food and beverage Dealing with customer requests Monitoring equipment Clearing tables It is checked throughout the event and at the end. Any fedback from the customer is noted and communicated to service and other staff involved. Organizer or host signs the bill to agree all consumption and charges. Bill is settled depending on the contract . Employees breakdown the event to include : Collapsing furniture Clearing tables Polishing cutlery Cleaning Re-setting for next day's event or sales promotion
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Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting

The event process

2.7 Room set-ups
U-Shape Classroom Banquet

Hollow square

Lecture or Theater (chairs only)

Horse shoe

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The event process

2.7 Room set-ups continued ...
Herringbone Workshop Circle

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The event process

2.8 Equipment Rental advantages

● No strong space required ● No cleaning and maintenance required ● No depreciation ● Less management overall ● Less risk of theft ● No training required ● Modern equipment provided
Trend. C&B is the renting not only of equipment but also crockery. Cutlery, glassware and linen. The same advantages apply.

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The event process

2.9 Follow-up and evaluation A key part of C&B is to monitor customer evaluation after the event has taken place. Any feedback received should be communicated to the departments involved and used for future planning.

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Chapter 8 – Conference and banqueting

Summary

Conferencing and Banqueting The event process Objectives and structure Benefits and challenges

Enquiry

Quotation and contract

Personnel

Event

Sales

Follow-up

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