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state DEGREE

that IN

Project in partial

titled &






SERVICES DEGREE COURSES” is an original work done entirely by me. This is the research work completed by my own effort and all the research was as transparent as my own presentation of the copy.

M D ZIAUL ISLAM Bachelor Degree in Tourism & Hospitality Service

AKNOWLEDGEMENT A sincere effort has been made to present every aspect of the departmental work in a systematic manner so that this project work will serve my academic pursuit. I am extremely grateful to my revered teacher and guide Mr. Nityananda Singhari who has been my source of inspiration and guidance and extending me in my sorts of official assistance of this project work. I owe a lot to my esteemed H.O.D. Miss Nisat Spiti Mohanty and teacher Mr. Nityananda Singhari who have been kind enough to inspire me in my venture by sharing their knowledge and valuable time in correction of my errors. Last but not the least; I am thankful to my parents and friends who have sincerely looked into the preparation of this project.

MD ZIAUL ISLAM Roll no: 12BTH08024









OPPERATION” endorses effort of his hard work.

by” MD ZIAUL ISLAM”, is a fruitful He maintain the sacredness and

uniqueness of the project by his, own effort’ “MD ZIAUL ISLAM” is a bonafied research scholar of BIJU PATTNAIK COLLEGE OF HOTEL MANAGEMENT TOURISM. This Project has been presented BACHLOER by the student IN for the partial AND fulfillment of DEGREE TOURISM HOSPITALITY

SERVICES Course. No port of the work has been submitted for any degree by him. The assistance obtain in any form during the research has duly been acknowledged.

I wish him all the success in future research and future time.

Course: Place:





CONTAINS SL. NO chapter name

page nos. 1 chapter-1

Hotels: 01






Introduction 16




beverage service

Types 17



Outlets 21 service





Relationship 25


food and beverage services with other departments. 03

chapter-3 History 27



Supervision 32 hierarchy • Qualities 34 and





Of restaurant staff

Attributes 38




Staff 40


Format 41




Types 42



Menu 50

Cover 56

Briefing 57


chapter-4 Restaurant 59


Equipment 60



required for operation • A 63 a guest to seat • How to proved water and meal to 64 Guest • Billing 65 Conclusion 66 Bibliography 67 My 68 own view system in restaurant flow chart showing how to ask


The history of hotels is intimately connected to that of civilizations. Or rather, it is a part of that history. Facilities offering guests hospitality have been in evidence since early BIBLICAL times. The Greeks developed thermal baths in villages designed for rest and recuperation. Later, the Romans built mansions to provide accommodation for travellers on government business. The Romans were the first to develop thermal baths in England, Switzerland and the Middle East. Later still, Caravanserais appeared, providing a resting place for Caravans along Middle Eastern routes. In the middle Ages, monasteries and abbeys were the first establishments to offer refuge to travelers on a regular basis. Religious orders built inns, hospices and hospitals to cater for those on the move. From antiquity to the Middle Ages: Inns multiplied, but they did not yet offer meals. Staging posts were established for governmental transports and as rest stops. They provided shelter and allowed horses to be changed more easily. Numerous refuges then sprang up for pilgrims and crusaders on their way to the Holy Land. Traveling then became progressively more hazardous. At the same time, inns gradually appeared in most of Europe. Some of them

have remained famous, for example, l' Auberge des Trios Rios in Basle, which dates from the middle Ages. Around 1200, staging posts for travelers and stations for couriers were set up in China and Mongolia. 2 In Europe, or more precisely in Belgium, l' Auberge Cour Saint Georges opened in Gant, while the Angel Inn was built at Grantham in Lincolnshire, England. The start of the hotel industry: In France, at the beginning of the fifteenth century, the law required that hotels keep a register. English law also introduced rules for inns at that time. At the same time, around 1500 thermal spas were developed at Carlsbad and Marienbad. During this epoch, more than 600 inns were registered in England. Their architecture often consisted of a paved interior court with access through an arched porch. The bedrooms were situated on the two sides of the courtyard, the kitchen and the public rooms at the front, and the stables and storehouses at the back. The first guide books for travelers were published in France during this period. An embryonic hotel industry began to develop in Europe. Distinctive signs were hung outside establishments renowned for their refined cuisine. At the end of the 1600s, the first stage coaches following a regular timetable started operating in England. Half a century later, clubs similar to English gentlemen's clubs and Masonic lodges began to appear in America.

In Paris in the time of Louis XIV, the Place Vendome offered the first example of a multiple-use architectural complex, where the classical façades accommodated boutiques, offices, apartments and also hotels.

3 In the nineteenth century, hotels take over the town: The industrial revolution, which started in the 1760s, facilitated the construction of hotels everywhere, in mainland Europe, in England and in America. In New York first of all, and then in Copenhagen, hotels were established in city centers. At the beginning of the 1800s, the Royal Hotel was built in London. Holiday resorts began to flourish along the French and Italian Riviera. In Japan, Ryokan guest houses sprang up. In India, the government-run Dak bungalows provided reliable accommodation for travelers. The Tremont House in Boston was the first deluxe hotel in a city centre. It offered inside toilets, locks on the doors and an "à la carte" menu. The Holt Hotel in New York City was the first to provide its guests with a lift for their luggage. In 1822, in Venice, a certain Giuseppe Dal Niel transformed an old palace into a hotel and gave it his name, "Le Danieli". As trains began to

replace horse-drawn transport, highway inns for stage coaches started to decline. During this period, the Shepheards Hotel in Cairo was founded, the result of a complete transformation of an ancient city-centre harem.

4 L'Hôtel des Bergues was built in the spring of 1834 on the shore of the Lake of Geneva. One of its founders, Guillaume Henri Dufour, became a famous Swiss general. In 1840, l'Hôtel des Trios Couronnes was established in Vevey in Switzerland and the Baur au Lac in Zurich fully refurbished since 1995. In New York, the New York Hotel was the first to be equipped with private bathrooms. The "Bayerischer Hof" was built in Munich in 1841, followed in 1852 by the "Vier Jahreszeiten”. These two famous establishments were completely renovated after the Second World War. Le Grand Hotel Paris: The inauguration of the Grand Hotel in Paris took place on 5 May 1862 in the presence of the Empress Eugenie. The orchestra, directed by Jacques Offenbach, played the Traviata. This building was designed by the architect Alfred Armand, in order to "show the élite of travelers from all over the world the progress made under the Second Empire by the sciences, arts and industry".

The exterior façades with their high arched doors and their Louis XIV windows were in the style required for the surroundings of the Opera. The greatest names in painting and decoration participated in the completion of this hotel, the grandest in Europe in its dimensions, luxury and installations. The first hydraulic lift was installed in this hotel. "Lighting was supplied by 4000 gas jets; heating by 18 stoves and 354 hot air vents. 5 In 1890, the entire hotel was equipped with electric lighting. Due to the installation of steam central heating in 1901, baskets of wood were no longer sold on the floors. Some years later the hotel was renovated. Further renovation took place in 1970 and 1985. In 1982, it became a member of the Intercontinental chain. Since 1992 the hotel has been equipped with a central Building Management System. In June 2003, Le Grand Hotel Paris has re-opened its doors following an eighteen-month multi-million dollar renovation. The Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City was the first in that period to provide lifts for its guests. 1869 saw the inauguration, near Cairo, of the Mena House, an oasis of calm and luxury, at the foot of the famous pyramids of Cheops, Chephren and Mikerinos. In 1870, the Palmer House Hotel in Chicago was the grandest of all hotels. Its structure, the first of its kind, was fire-resistant.

In 1873, the Palais de Wurttemberg in Vienna was transformed into a superb luxury residence for the notables of the epoch, l'Hôtel Imperial. Kings and queens became regular visitors to what is without doubt the finest example of the refined architecture of the Ringstrasse in Vienna. It is said that Richard Wagner directed the first productions of "Tan Hauser" and "Lohengrin" there. Two years later in 1875, the Grand Hotel Europe opened its doors in St Petersburg. This prestigious place

6 where Tchaikovsky spent his honeymoon and where Shostakovich played a sonata for Prokofiev in his suite. In 1880, the Saga more Hotel on Lake George in the state of New York was the very first to provide electricity in all its rooms. The first school for hoteliers was founded in Lausanne, Switzerland in 1890 by J. Tschumi, Director of the Beau Ravage in Lausanne, and A.R. Armleder, the "father" of the Richmond in Genève. In Monte Carlo, l'Hôtel Hermitage opened its doors in 1896, offering its guests the refined and luxurious atmosphere enjoyed by the rich at the close of the nineteenth century. Shortly afterwards, the Victoria Hotel in Kansas City offered bathrooms with every room. The Netherland Hotel in New York City then became the first to provide all its guests with their own telephone. In Athens in 1874, Stathis Lampasas, a chef by profession, realized his dream by building l'Hôtel Grande Bretagne. Athens was suffering at that time from a shortage of water. It is said that the

personnel bought water from carriers in the street to bring to the 80 bedrooms and ... the two bathrooms. Of course, the establishment has undergone several renovations since that time. In 1894, the Grand Hotel became the first Italian hotel to boast an electricity supply. The Swiss hotelier Caspar Badrutt opened the famous Palace de Saint Moritz in 1896. In 1898, César Ritz, from the Valais in Switzerland, who became, to quote the famous phrase of King Edward VII, the "king 7 of hoteliers and hotelier to kings", opened the hotel which bears his famous name in the Place Vendome in Paris. The twentieth century: the age of prosperity: The early years of the twentieth century were rich in new hotels which rapidly became prestigious. Eduard Niiermans, the "architect of palaces", transformed the Villa "Eugenie", the summer residence of the Emperor Napoleon III and his wife Eugenie de Montijo, in 1900. In 1905, he built l'Hôtel du Palais in Biarritz. In 1913 his "Négresco" was opened in Nice, in the presence of seven kings! In Madrid, King Alphonse XIII was anxious that the capital should have a luxurious and prestigious hotel, and as a result the Ritz was inaugurated in 1910. Seville paid its own homage to the king by opening a splendid establishment, constructed by the architect José Espiau, the Alphonso XIII. Not to be outdone, Barcelona inaugurated its own Ritz in

1919. This was equipped with an unheard of luxury at that time, bathrooms with hot as well as cold water! We could also cite, among many other hotels built in the same period, the Ritz and Savoy in London, the Beau Rivage Palace in Lausanne, le Négresco in Nice, the Plaza in New York, the Métropole in Brussels, the Plaza-Athenée and l'Hôtel de Crillon in Paris, the Taj Mahal in Bombay and so on. The latter was renovated in 1972 by the Inter-Continental chain.

8 The prosperous nineteen-twenties saw a veritable boom in the hotel industry. Numerous hotels were established in this decade. In 1923, the architects Marchisio and Prost constructed a hotel in some wonderful gardens in the heart of Marrakech in Morocco, and for decades it was considered the most beautiful hotel in the world: La Mamounia. Winston Churchill helped to forge its reputation by becoming a frequent guest. Hotels were built not only in cities, but also in the mountains. The first ski resorts in Switzerland (Saint-Moritz, Gstaad, Montana, etc.) welcomed tourists (often English ones) to some very comfortable establishments. The worldwide depression which followed in 1929 did not prevent the construction of the famous Waldorf Astoria in New York. This was the greatest hotel edifice of those troubled times.

After the war, the fifties saw the second boom in the hotel industry. The Club Méditerranée (G. Trigano) created the now famous, but then revolutionary concept of the club village. These years were also notable for the construction of the first casino hotels. This was also the time when the airline companies began to develop their own hotels. In the sixties, new tourist resorts flourished around the

Mediterranean. From Spain to Greece and from the Balearics to Yugoslavia, numerous city and beach hotels opened their doors to summer guests hungry for relaxation and a good dose of sunshine. Portugal and the Scandinavian countries soon followed their lead. 9 Hotels for business people 1970 saw the beginning of the construction of hotels for business people. This movement was supported by several factors. First of all, there was the will of the airline companies to extend their efforts in the domain of hotels. Then there was the sudden prosperity, due to black gold, of Middle Eastern countries which attracted business people from the entire world. This engendered an important business travel trend - not limited to this region alone - which initiated the development of hotels primarily designed for business people in Middle-Eastern cities like Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Riyadh and Jeddah, to mention only the most important. Hotel chains, attentive to their customers' wishes, started to offer an increasingly varied range of services. Their rooms became more spacious and the cuisine more refined.

Gradually, too, various first class hotels (among them former palaces and city centre hotels) which had fallen into disrepair began systematic renovation programmers. The end of the seventies, when China opened its doors to foreign tourists, also saw the first congresses of international hotel experts. The third hotel industry boom: The third boom in the hotel industry began in 1980, marked by more inventive marketing and the development of hotels increasingly adapted to a particular type of clientele. 10 This trend prompted the construction of hotels near airports, hotels for conferences, health hotels, ski holiday hotels, holiday villages and marina hotels. The first Property Management Systems (Fidelio, Hogatex, etc.) appear in the hospitality market. In Istanbul in 1984, work began on the renovation and transformation into a hotel of the prestigious sultans' residence, the Ciragan Palace in Istanbul. The resulting hotel is no less prestigious than the Ciragan Palace was. Managed by the Kaminski chain, it opened its 322 rooms to guests in 1991. The first administrative hotel management systems, offering hotels greater independence from human resources, then appeared on the market. The hotel industry was becoming more and more competitive. Business travelers and retired people became important target customers.

In the eighties, too, the Far East began to prepare itself to welcome both business people and the tourists who were beginning to discover the countries of the rising sun, such as China, South Korea, Thailand and Japan. The international chains (American for the most part) prepared expansion plans for Europe, the Middle and Far East which were mainly aimed at congress participants and business people. The nineties: technology starts to make an impact: The early nineties were characterized by a recession in the hotel business, without doubt caused by reductions in multinationals' travel budgets and the growing crisis in the Gulf. 11 The Gulf War helped to create great insecurity for both individuals and business. 1991 is considered to be the black year of the hotel trade. It forced hoteliers to become more creative in finding ways of attracting guests (special programmers, offers for "frequent travelers", high performance reservation systems) and thus emerge from the crisis with the minimum damage. For the first time, the environment and energy conservation played an important role in the marketing activities of numerous chains (thanks in part to the green movement) and even helped to win the loyalty of numerous clients while safeguarding assets at the same time. Reservation systems became more efficient and offered the hotelier a new dimension in the creation of customer loyalty, the database. The records of each guest's individual history have helped

create individualized marketing programmers and have enabled hotels to satisfy a guest's personal needs from the moment of his arrival. Hotel Adlon Berlin is a legend reborn. From its opening in 1907, until it was destroyed in 1945, it was a symbol of Berlin, a lavish host for royalty, heads of government, stage and screen stars, and the greats of literature and science. Now, it has been rebuilt (1997) on its original site, the corner of Unter den Linden and Parser Plats, facing the Brandenburg Gate. Outside, it is a virtual replica of the original; inside it is testimony to what smart hotel operators (in this case the Kaminski group) can accomplish with an investment of $260 million. The hotel's 337 rooms and suites are the ultimate in luxury. Interiors, designed by England's Ezra Attia and Sweden's Lars Malmquist, dazzle with marble, sandstone, 12 stained glass, gold leaf, stuccowork, cherry wood paneling, and damask draperies. This hotel is today equipped with the most advanced technology with regards to the Room Management System communicating with the Property Management System. Since 1992, the most important international chains have been vying with each other in ever greater imaginative feats related to the vital process of renovating their establishments worldwide. Technology has started to take its rightful place in hotel administration (simplification of check-in and check-out procedures, global reservation systems, marketing management etc.). In 1995, the first Hotel Room Management System is launched at the European level. It is linked to the most popular Property Management Systems to make the front desk more efficient and near to the guests.

At International Technology Forums, speakers unanimously, underlined the impact of technology on hotel rooms. Hotel chains have been searching for alliances and some of them. For example: Holyday Inn, Intercontinental, and Crown Plaza have merged to form Six continents hotels Chain; Marriot absorbed Renaissance and Ramada International; Sol Melia opened a new line of Boutique hotels, Accor signed several joint ventures in the East and the Far East, etc.) Forte acquired Meridian to reinforce its global position. Starwood’s (Sheraton) absorbed the Italian Ciga chain and Westin. The main expansion zones for the hotel industry in 1994 remained Asia (particularly China and India), the Middle East (above all, the United Arab Emirates and Egypt) and Latin America. 13 In Europe, hotel enterprises in the eastern countries (Russia, Croatia, Slovakia, etc.) decided to renovate dilapidated palaces built at the turn of the century. All the European capitals started to invest in preparations for the major event of this fin de siècle period, that is, the celebration of our entry into the third millennium. The 3 star hotel Millennium enjoying top level of On-line Room Management System is situated at the best site in Opatija at the Mediterranean coast. Opatija in Croatia corresponds, in terms of reputation, to the level of St. Moritz in Switzerland. Capitals throughout the world were busy developing the necessary infrastructure to welcome the millions of tourists for the celebration of this event.

Major hotel chains are drawing up development plans in almost all parts of Europe. These plans primarily involve the renovation of numerous prestigious hotels in both western and eastern European countries. Gradually, the great capitals of Europe have been endowed with hotels boasting three, four and five stars, offering quality services, innovative architecture, style, charm, and interior design (city Boutique hotels). Specialized hotels offer wellness programs including health and beauty centers, personalized services and treatments, anti-stress, revitalizing, regenerating programs, etc. Extravaganza: In 1995 construction began in Dubai of one of the most ambitious and prestigious tourist complexes in the region, the Jumeirah Beach 14 Hotels (JUMEIRAH Beach hotel, Burj Al Arab, etc.). These comprise several establishments capable of satisfying the needs of average tourists, business people and those who can afford real luxury. The talk now is of six- and seven-star hotels, a surprising designation which is nevertheless perfectly justified by the luxury of the bedrooms and the facilities they offer, the impeccable service, the high degree of modern technology, as well as the beauty of the surroundings and the highquality environment.

In 2004, another Emirate, Abu Dhabi, will welcome the delegates of the Gulf Council Countries. In the new Conference Palace Hotel (CPH). This superior construction has been specified "to offer the most

outstanding services with a challenging 9 star definition"… We will, of course, report on it on a later stage. On-line in seconds, work surf, communicate –everywhere: Today in 2003, travelers, mostly businessmen, carry their personal PC to make presentations, communicate with their office, via e-mails, etc. One possibility offered to them today consists in the use of so-called Pad offering, in particular,

Cable-free and universal access to Internet or intranet, wherever you happen to be Brilliant colour touch screen Ready to go in seconds (instant on)

• •










interchangeable PC cards
• • •

Unlimited flexibility by open platform Windows CE 3.0 Comprehensive office software package Virtual keyboard and handwriting recognition

For sure, new technologies are continuously offering innovative and more comfortable ways to the traveler. The 160 rooms 5 star Palafitte Hotel in Monruz Neuchatel (CH) offers the visitors of the Swiss Expo 2002 a vision of so called in-room available technologies. Conclusion:

Lodging facilities are not anymore corresponding only to the truly definition: "A lodging accommodation for travelers". Nowadays, architects, designers, developers, engineers, managers, more and more are conscious that taste of guests could be different, according to their wishes or needs. Hotel specialists permanently analyses new trends, define better criteria, present modern standards in order to improve quality of life in hotels. In the third millennium, the permanent competitive hospitality market of suppliers is definitely more and more able, combining "savoir faire" and the good use of technology to offer their guests an "A la carte" environment.



16 INTRODUCTION: Food and Beverage are the two most prominent revenue earners for any hotel apart from rooms. For a hotel essentially to an elite business clientele. They assume uphold importance since the occupancy generally remains above average. Food is provided by and in hotels through various service outlets. These service outlets have an especially this is so unique that what makes them highly competitive and mouth watering. Coming back to that later, the décor which, each one furnished is very welcoming and the same time convenient placement of furniture i.e. thoughtful interior decorating allows the service personnel to show their best skills. The quality of food and beverage as I come to understand does not very much in same line restaurants but ultimately the crucial and most talked about aspect, about food, and beverage is the service that goes along with it. A not so high quality food can be camouflaged by good food. The aim of the operation is to make the guest feel relaxed and fell at home. DEFFINATION OF FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE: By “Lilly crap”:

Food and Beverage Service is the “food flow” (from the purchasing of the foods to service to the customers) mainly concerned with the delivery and presentation of the food to the customer after completion of the food production. Sometimes, it involves transportation if there is a separation of production and service facility. 17 TYPES OF SERVICE: The Food and Beverage Service industry is vast and complex, catering to an amazing mix of clientele, ranging from the modest to the affluent. operations to be followed. The following are some of the popular types of service offered tot the guests. • Silver service • Plated-cum – silver service (a) SILVER SERVICE: This is a form of table service, where the waiter serves the food to the guest at the table. The food is picked up form the kitchen taken to the hot plate on the side station on platters and presented to the guest’s plate in a stylish and efficient manner, recreating the arrangement on the platter. (b) PLATED-CM-SILVER SERVICE: Accordingly, there are various types of service that are classified based and the sequence of

This service is offered when the menu is a table d’ dote menu. For this form of service, the main course is plated in the kitchen while the accompaniments of vegetables, potatoes and sauces are served from entrée dishes, using a service spoon and fork. (c) AMERICAN OR PRE-PLATED SERVICE: This form of service is normally found in restaurants which have a large guest turnover. kitchen and serves to the guest. 18 ENGLISH SERVICE: In this form of service, the main dish is by the waiter to the guests. Vegetables and potatoes are placed at the center of the table for guests to help themselves while sauces are served by the waiter. FRENCH SERVICE: This service involves bringing food from the kitchen in entrée dishes or oval flat and placing them on the table. GUERIDON SERVICE: The work “guerdon” means a mobile table or trolley which is brought close to the guests table. This type of service involves the use of a gueridon trolley. It requires the waiter to be a showman as well as good cook. In order words, he should be able to prepare a full meal in front of the guest or give The food is pre-plated in the

finishing touch or final touch to the food that is partially cooked in the kitchen. RUSSIAN SERVICE: This is a fairly elaborate service involving the use of a “gueridon” trolley in the restaurant. The food is taken directly on the “gueridon” trolley which is placed near guests table. BUFFET SERVICE: A buffet is a table or a counter set with all the cooked stylishly displayed. There are two forms of buffet service. • Sit down buffet. 19 • Fork buffet. Sit down buffet: The guest pickup the food from the buffet counter and sit down at a table which is preset with covers as in a restaurant. Fork buffet: This type of service does not provide any sitting


The guests use a fork and eats standing and

holding his/her plate. COUNTER SERVICE: This kind of service is offered in cafes and is very popular western countries. Here the guest sits at the serving counter

and the food is served and consumed at the counter itself. Sometime, covers are arranged at the counter. CAFETERIA SERVICE: This kind of service is very common in schools and institutions. The guest picks up a tray and selects the food from the displace counters. TAKEAWAY SERVICE: In this kind of service, this is ordered to the packed and taken away. In the USA, there are drive in takeaways, where ordered are placed, collected and paid for at successive points, thus saving time and increasing the speed of service.

20 FOOD COURT: This service is growing in popularity and probably won’t be long before food a court appears in India. This service involves the preparation of food in different kitchens each representing a different cuisine. ROOM SERVICE: This is related to service of food to guests in their rooms, by waiters who pick up the food from the kitchen. The order is received from the guest generally over the telephone by the room service department and then served in the room. BAR SERVICE:

This is similar to counter service and is predominantly used in cocktail bars, there guests sit on bar stools at the counter and a variety of beverages are served behind the bar counter.

21 TYPESOF OUTLETS IN FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE DEPARTMENT: Food and beverage service department of a hotel is the most labor intensive department. It is divided into sections Each called outlets for effective management and control. operational procedures.

outlet is headed by an outlet manager and has its own The food and beverage manager delegates authority and responsibilities to the outlet managers. Team work is the essence of a well run food and beverage service department.

The various outlets in a food and beverage service department of a hotel are as follows: BANQUET: This outlet is usually the largest revenue earning outlet in the food and beverage service department. It serves food and beverages to a gathering of people at special functions such as wedding, parties, receptions, cocktail dinners, seminars, conferences, and meetings. Banquet functions can be held at launch or dinner time and the pattern of operations may vary from one kind to another. The outlet also rents out banquet halls for exhibitions, concerts, and other programs. COFFEE SHOP: This outlet is open 24 hours for service. It is generally

serves pre-plated foods. However, in the case of Indian food, the entrée dishes are placed on the table and the service is not very elaborate and formal. Dinning in a coffee shop is a causal affair and many coffee shops have a list of enthusiastic regulars. Coffee shop in luxury hotels are often the only venues 22 where one can get a decent meal or a snack long after other restaurants have closed. Liquor is not served after licensing hours; however, this depends in the awes of the state. The menu in a coffee shop is varied. Different menus are used during different times of the day and night for example,

there are normally a breakfast menus, a launch menu, a dinner menu, a snack menu, and a midnight menu. The revenue generated from this outlet is the second highest in the food and beverage service department. from time to time to keep guest coming back. also the venue for many food festivals. ROOM SERVICE: This outlet is an integral part of the food and beverage service department. It has a small turnover in terms of revenue, but a great deal of effort and labor is necessary to run this outlet. It is regarded as a guest facility and is functional round the clock in all luxury hotels. The menu is often a simplified version of what is available to compensate for the higher overheads in terms of staff and equipments. Accuracy and promptness are of utmost importance in a room service outlet. An efficient room service outlet is one that can carry out an order accurately and with a specified time. The room service tray or trolley should be checked by the captain and the waiter before it is taken to the guest. It is however necessary to change the menu décor and ambience This outlet is

23 Clearance is one of the main indicators of efficiency of a room service outlet or of the major responsibilities of this outlet is to ensure that all trays and trolleys are cleared from guest room after the service is done. Pilferage and breakage

equipment can also be avoided by quick clearance. clearance by the staff.

A strict

vigil should be maintained by the duty captain to follow up

Good service in this outlet is usually rewarded with a substantial tip. If a tip is given, the guest should be thanked politely. One should not solicit tips. BAR: There are normally two kinds of bars in Indian hotels. One is the public bar and the other is the service or dispense bar. The public bar is located in the public area and is used for the service of paying customers, be it in house guests or nonresidents. Cocktail snacks may also be served here. Service should be fast and discreet and the bar staff should be well prepared to handle the rush hour. Good décor, ambience, efficient staff, and availability of a wide variety of beverages and snacks help to attract more customers.

The service or the dispense bar is used for dispensing drinks to other outlets of the hotel such as coffee shop, room service outlet, banquets and the specialty restaurant. It is generally located in the back area of the hotel and is open round the clock. It should be adequately equipped to meet the demands of all the outlets.

24 RESTAURANT: Restaurants are of different standards. A specialty or an “A” grade restaurant’s objectives and prices are often comparable to those of similar restaurants in luxury hotels. They offer a wide choice from an elaborate menu and a very high quality of service.


SERVICER WITH OTHER DEPARTMENTS Hotels are divided into separate departments to facilitate their efficient functioning. There are four main operational departments, besides several other non-operational departments. Every department contributes to the successful running of a hotel. All head departments are every hotel. So on a hotel how, the food and beverage service department is related with other head departments, such as:

FRONT OFFICE: The front office is the first department a guest encounters on entering a hotel. It is therefore important to create a good impression with the front office, as most guests will judge the hotel by the reception and service they receive from the front office department. When a guest enters or leaves the hotel, it is front office which handles the check in and checks out. Each personnel in this department play an active role in the smooth functioning of department to ensure maximum guest satisfaction. Customers or guests should be found all types of information about and beverage service department from front office. HOUSE KEEPING:

This department works in close coordination with the food and beverage service department. It is primarily responsible for the cleaning of the laundry, floors, and walls, glass panels, cleaning shillings, and supplying flowers. 26 FOOD PRODUCTION: This department works in close association with the food and beverage service department. It is responsible for the preparation of food served in all the outlets of the hotel. The department is divided into different sections and each section is responsible for a specific type of cuisine or preparation. This system is prevalent in India and is based on the French kitchen brigade system with some changes to suit Indian conditions. KITCHEN STEWARDING: This department plays an important role in the functioning of both the food production and food and beverage service department. It is headed by a chief kitchen steward who reports to the food and beverage manager. Kitchen stewarding staffs wash and polish all the cutlery, crockery , and glass ware. ACCOUNTS: Accounts section is the most prominent department in the hotel. It is responsible for all cash transaction. All food and beverage service cash transaction should be done in the accounts department.


FAMOUS DAVES RESTAURANT, DARGILING. 27 HISTORY OF RESTAURANTS: The restaurant is such a seemingly natural and necessary institution that you’d suspect it’s been with us for as long as man has lived in cities. But the restaurant, as we know it today, is a surprisingly recent development. That’s not to say there weren’t any commercial eating places before our time. But the menu, with its choice of dishes, is only about 200 years old. The fact is that the diner or the coffee shops in which you may have lunch today offers more of a menu selection than the best of restaurants of the world did just a few centuries back. The earliest forerunners of the restaurant were the medieval tavern and cook shop. The tavern customarily provided a daily meal, or “ordinary,” at a fixed hour and price, usually serving just one dish, much like a household cook providing dinner for a large family. Cook-shops primarily sold cooked meat for carry-out, but some did, on occasion, serve food on the premises. By the 16th century, Englishmen of all classes were in the habit of dining out often. Local taverns offered fixed price meals, wine, ale, and tobacco, and served as a meeting place and informal clubhouse to boot. Entry was generally restricted to men. Among the more famous Elizabethan taverns in London

were The Falcon, a popular haunt of actors, and The Mermaid, oft frequented by William Shakespeare. Beginning in England around 1650, the coffee house began taking over many of the tavern’s social functions. At first, the coffee house served only coffee, tea, and chocolate, all new arrivals to Europe. Then, the coffee house began providing wine, ale, and occasional hot meals. Another attraction was its 28 supply of gazettes and newsletters regularly kept on hand for coffee swillers on their way to and from work. The clientele evidently was quite varied. An early eighteenth-century writer noted: “Some shops are a resort for learned scholars and wits; others are the resort of dandies, or of politicians, or again of professional newsmongers, and many are temples of Venus.” For the first real restaurant, we must naturally turn to France. In 1765, a soup vendor named Boulanger opened a shop offering diners a choice of dishes rather than the then standard “ordinary” or “table d’hôte” dinner. The sign above Boulanger’s door read “Restaurants,” meaning “restoratives,” referring to the hot soups and broths available inside. The term restaurant or a derivative was eventually adopted by many other nations and languages, although the word was not generally used in England until the late nineteenth century.

Hungry Parisians so enjoyed the new eating place that hundreds of similar establishments began springing up around the city, one offering close to 200 different meat dishes daily. The first “luxury” restaurant to open its doors in Paris was La Grande Tavern de Lenders, founded in 1782 by Antoine Beauvilliers. He was later to write a cookbook that became a standard work on French culinary art. According to the rotund gastro no Brillat-Savarin, Beauvilliers’ establishment was the first to offer the four essentials of a fine restaurant: “an elegant room, smart waiters, a choice cellar, and superb cooking.”

29 Prior to the French Revolution, aristocrats maintained elaborate culinary staffs. When the aristocracy was driven from power, their cooks were likewise driven from the kitchen. Many sought work in restaurants or opened their own eating places. By 1804, there were well over 500 restaurants in Paris. The great culinary establishments of 19th century Paris included the Wry, whose menu listed twelve soups, twenty-four fish dishes, fifteen beef dishes, twenty mutton specialties, and scores of side dishes. In 1869, the Wry was merged with a neighboring restaurant to form the Le Grand Vhfour, which still ranks near the top among French restaurants. Another great restaurant of the era, the Cafe Anglia’s, had a chef, Adolphe Duglare, who created the famed “Three Emperors Dinner” in

1867 for three well-heeled diners: Tsar Alexander II of Russia, his son, the future Alexander III, and William I, the future emperor of Germany. Across the English Channel, by the end of the nineteenth century, the tavern had given way to the restaurant and the tea shop. The first teahouse opened in 1884, initially serving only teas. Later, it offered full meals. Teahouses became immediately popular among women, who for the first time had a place where they could eat in public without a male escort. Meanwhile, nicknamed location. In the United States, the earliest restaurants on record appeared in Philadelphia around 1680. The Blue Anchor Tavern was among the first. New York’s Fraunces Tavern, the site of George Washington’s farewell to his troops, was a popular watering hole in Revolutionary times, and still operates today. 30 The major American innovations in the field of eateries were the self-service restaurant and the automatic restaurant. The first self-service eatery in New York opened in 1885, but self-service establishments called cafeterias first became popular in San Francisco of the gold rush era. The first automatic restaurant was opened by the Horn & Hardart Baking Company in Philadelphia in 1902, using mechanisms imported from Germany. Other American the lower due classes to turned to cheap eateries “dives” their customary underground

innovations were the specialty restaurant, the steak house and seafood restaurant, for example, the Pullman diner car, and the riverboat dining room. By 1955, there were close to 200,000 eating places in the United States, one for every 800 persons, serving over 60 million meals a day with a staff of 1.3 million workers. Annual sales totaled about 9 billion dollars, making the restaurant the third largest retail business in this country. About 20 percent of all restaurant sales are now rung up on the cash registers of large American chains. These include Howard Johnson’s, McDonald’s, and other various hamburger drive-ins. Today, the last word in gastronomic excellence is the guide published by the Michelin Corporation, a French tire firm. Michelin annually rates restaurants in thousands of towns and cities, awarding each from zero to three stars according to culinary quality. One star indicates good quality in its class; two stars suggest the restaurant is well worth a detour; and three ranks the establishment among the best in the world. In a recent typical year, Michelin rated a total of 3,036 restaurants in France: 2,382 were rated but unstirred; 581 received one star; 62 received two 31 stars; and only 11 restaurants earned the highest Michelin compliment of three stars. Five of these gastronomic palaces were in Paris, among them Le Grand Vhf our and La Tour D’Argent, the oldest surviving restaurant in Paris.

Many culinary connoisseurs, however, maintain that for the best in haute cuisine you’ll have to travel to Vienne, near Lyons, where you’ll find the renowned Pyramid. Other gourmets would name Paul Bocuse’s Auberge Pont de Colognes, near Lyons, as the world’s premier restaurant, or perhaps THE Auberge de 1,111 in Illhausen, Alsace, or the Hotel Cote D’Or in Saulieu, near Dijon. France, of course, has no monopoly on fine food. (Modern French cuisine, by the way, is Italian in origin.) Many gourmets avow that Chinese cuisine is actually the worlds finest, and excellent Oriental restaurants can be found in most cities of the world. It’s been estimated that a New Yorker can dine out every night of his life until age sixty-five without visiting any establishment twice! Among New York’s restaurants, Lutece and La Grenouille have been given high marks by Michelin, and certainly rank among the finest restaurants on this side of the Atlantic. Windows on the World, located atop one of the 110-story World Trade Center towers, has been lauded for its view more than its food. Reservations for dinner at the sky-high restaurant must sometimes be made weeks in advance. And any list of Gotham’s posh restaurants must include The Palace where dinner prices are, at this writing, $75 per person, without drinks!

32 SUPERVISION RESTUARANT: Supervision means to area seen the action or work of a person. High on the list of factors that make employee happy in their jobs is the attitude of the supervision towards them. An employee considers the supervision as a part of the An management and the management in turn considers the supervisions as one who represents the working force. efficient supervision should be able to maintain a healthy relationship with his seniors’ colleagues, subordinates, and guests. His should be ale to interpret the policies of the organization, train, workers, and direct procedures to achieve positive results. ORGANISATIONAL CHART : Small restaurant: AND ORGANIZATIONAL HIERARCHY IN

Restaurant manager Senior captain Captain Senior Steward

Steward Trainee

33 Medium restaurant: Restaurant manager Senior captain Captain Senior Steward Steward Trainee Hostess

Large restaurant: Supervisor Restaurant manager Senior captain Captain Senior Steward Steward Trainee Hostess

34 QULITIES AND JOB RESPONSIBILITIES OF RESTAURANT STAFF QUALITIES OF A SUPERVISOR: Personality traits: • An efficient supervisor should: • Process a pleasing personality and good temperament. • Be a person of high integrity. • Have the ability to think independently and profit by experience. • Be able to judge things objectively. • Be honest and royal to the organization. • Have good health good manners and emotional stability.

RESTAURANT MANAGER: The restaurant manager is either the coffee shop manager, bar manager, or the specialty restaurant manager. The restaurant manager reports directly to the food and beverage

manager and has overall responsibility for the organization and administration of a particular outlet or a section of the food and beverage service department. The restaurant manager’s job includes: • Setting and monitoring the standard of service in the outlets. • 35 • Administrative duties such as setting duty charts, granting leave, monitoring staff positions, recommending staff promotions, and handling issue relating to discipline. • Training the staff by conducting a daily briefing in the outlet. • Playing a vital role in public relations, meeting guests in the outlets, and attending to guest complaints, if any. • Formulating the sales and expenditure budget for he outlet • Planning food festivals to increase the revenue of he outlet along with the chef and the food and beverage manager. • He also prepares the weekly roaster. • He is responsible for handling the guests.

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF SENIOR CAPTAIN: In French, he called “matered”. The duties and responsibilities are as follows:

Acts as the restaurant manager in his absence to carry the duties of the same. • He ensures the smooth service of outlet and extract maximum for it. • He ensures staff does its duties properly and also does staff motivation. • He takes staff briefings and handles staff as well ass guest complains. 36

He ensures that there exists proper mise-en-place and is done.

• He ensures that staff training is carried out from time to time. • He ensures that reservation is properly taken down. • He ensures safety, sanitation, and hygiene is proper. • He helps the restaurant manager for filling up of

performance appraisals.

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF CAPTAIN: In French, he is called “commis-De-Rang”. • He reports to the senior captain in reporting relationship. • His basic duties includes,

a. He handles the side station for its functioning. b. He seats the guest in case of absence of hostess. c. He takes the order of food and beverage from to guest. d. He handles guest complains. e. He ensures proper tip distribution occurs. STEWARD • He is actually the back bone of the restaurant working and does basic service. • His other duties includes 37 a. Attending the briefing. b. He is responsible for side station holding. c. He does mise-en-place setup tables. d. He brings the stores and linen for the restaurant.

TRAINEE OR COMMIS DE BARRASEUR: The trainees work closely with the waiters, fetching orders from the kitchen and the bar and clearing the side station in a restaurant. They serve water and assist to the waiter. They are mainly responsible for the mise-en-place, and staking the side board with the necessary equipment for service. HOSTESS:

It is quite common in India to utilize the service of a hostess to greet and seat guests. The hostess presents to the guests the menu card and hands them over to the station holder to continue service. She should be pleasant and well organized be able to work under stress and interact smoothly with her colleague.

38 ATTRIBUTES OF RESTAURANT STAFF: The quality of service staff in any establishment reflects the quality of the establishment. No matter how good the food and ambience are poorly trained, untidy or rude staff can antagonize customer. On the other hand, if the staffs are well trained and efficient, they can to certain extend makeup for other short comings in the services provided.

PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES: Personal Hygiene and Appearance:-

• All members of the staffs should be well groomed and clean at all times, as this gives them a sense of well being and confidence to do their job efficiently. • The hands of the waiting staff should be given special attention, as they are constantly under the scrutiny of guests. Nails should be trimmed and kept clean. Playing with ones hair and face should be avoided. • Chewing gum should be avoided in all public areas of the hotel. • Minimum jewelers should be worn by the service staff. A wrist watch, finger ring and plain earring (for girls only) should be permitted. • If any employee has a skin problem, a doctor should be consulted immediately. • Uniform should be clean and well fitting. 39 Work related attributes: Good conduct: All service staff should be well mannered and respectful to guests, and to senior members of the staff. They should be calm and pleasant, even in the most trying circumstances. They should be able to satisfactory solve any problem that may arise. Salesmanship:

The food and beverage service personnel are technical sales persons; hence they should have a thorough knowledge of the proper presentation and service of the food and beverage served in the establishment. Good memory: A good memory helps to improve performance. It also helps to the service personnel to attend to small but important details such as remembering as guests name or his/her like or dislikes regarding food and beverage. Maximize revenue:Cutting down on costs and maximize the revenue of the establishment should be of prime importance to all members of the staffs, even to those in junior positions.

40 STAFF SCHEDULING: The scheduling should be prepared at 2-3 days before it becomes effective. It must be duty authorized by the restaurant manager. Any special request for off-days, shifts, should be granted as far as possible without affecting operations.

Staff distribution must be optimal. Thus maximum and most efficient staff must be working during peak and rush hours. Overlapping, whenever necessary, should be done during peak hour. Off-days should be evenly distributed throughout the week with the same number of persons off each day, except on days of rush. Equal number of persons must be present on each shift as far as possible so as to facilitate proper rotation. Staff must be rotated through all the shifts. Weekly or fortnightly as the case may be so as to be impartial to all.

D ays names



Wed s





Mr. A


Mr. B Mr. C Mr. D Mr. E Mr. F Mr. G Off Off Off Off Off


42 TYPES OF RESTAURANTS: The world of restaurants is incredibly diverse. The options for today’s consumer can be a bit overwhelming. For a group of people, deciding on where to dine can sometimes end up being a lengthy debate. Despite the numerous styles of food and services that these restaurants create to appeal to customers, there are essentially three ways to categorize restaurants: quick service, casual dining, and fine dining.


43 Quick-service, also known as fast-food, restaurants refer to establishments whose menu items are priced relatively low and are already prepared or can be prepared quickly. Customers usually order and receive their food at the counter, or they may serve themselves, as in a cafeteria. The seating area is very casual, either benches or basic chairs and tables. Hamburgers, pizza, French fries, and tacos usually come to mind when people think about quick-service restaurants. McDonald’s, Wendy’s, and Taco Bell are a few well-known examples. However, as the market responds to the growing demand for more variety and fresher ingredients, “food on the fly” has evolved to new levels over the past few years. Gourmet breads and sandwiches, health-conscious

options, ethnic foods such as Chinese and Indian, and even sushi have entered the realm of the quick-service restaurant. Places such as Paneera Bread, Au Bon Pain, Chipotle, Panda Express, and Sakkio Japan are some examples of a growing marketplace for quick service. Many of these restaurants are either chains or franchises, but an independent fast-food restaurant can be successful in this market as long as it can

establish an edge in quality and service while staying close to the competition’s prices.


44 Casual dining lies in the middle area between quick service and fine dining. It can encompass a wide range of food and styles of service. Typically, atmosphere and service are the factors that separate casual dining from the other two groups. The atmosphere is generally comfortable, perhaps even hip and modern, but it’s not posh or sleek like the more sophisticated fine-dining establishments. Like quick-service restaurants, the dress code is consistently casual. The menu items are generally reasonably priced, ranging from inexpensive (around $5 per entrée) to moderately expensive (usually under $20 per entrée), with different levels of service. Customers generally order and receive their food at the table, or they may go to a buffet station or salad bar.

Because of its broad spectrum of food and styles of service as well as its relative good value for the price, casual dining has a tremendous appeal to a huge segment of the population. As is the case for quick-service restaurants, chain restaurants such as Applebee’s, P.F. Chang’s, Denny’s, and the Cheesecake Factory have a large share of the market in casual dining. However, many independent casual-dining restaurants are also very successful because they can provide a level of service and food quality that surpasses the chains and still maintains good value for the money. The average charge per customer at a casual-dining establishment may be higher than that of quick

service, but the food and labor costs are likely to be higher as well. Furthermore, customers at casual-dining restaurants tend to linger longer, meaning an increase in time to turn over a table for the next customer.


45 Fine-dining restaurants are the most expensive type of eating establishment. That means the clientele expects the highest quality in food, service, and ambiance. The décor may be modern and hip or more traditional, but every aspect of the establishment should be top-notch, including the tableware, linen, and the service. The wait staff should be knowledgeable in proper fine-dining service etiquette, such as serving plates from the correct side of the customer and replacing silverware after each course.


Service in a specialty restaurant is both formal and stylish. The prices tend to be high because of higher overheads. The menu may be an a la carte, buffet, or a table d hote. Waiter should be highly skilled a specialized service such as preparation of food at table flambé may have to be done. Normally every five start hotel has at least one specialty restaurant. In India multicuisine specialty restaurants are fairly popular, as they offer guests a wide variety choice of food items. These restaurants normally function during launch and dinner sessions and at times are open only for dinner. Entertainment in the form of music by a band or an orchestra may also be provided if it is an ethnic restaurant, traditional dance may also be performed. For a specialty restaurant to be profitable, it should provide not only excellent food and service but also good décor and ambience. Hence, care should be taken to enhance the décor and ambience of restaurant.


47 This is an optional outlet generally located near a swimming pool. Off let such restaurants have become popular, especially during summer. During the day, the space used by sun bathers and in the evening it used for private functions, or as a barbecue restaurants for a-la-carte guests. This is primarily done to increase the revenue of the hotel as well as to provide guests with another venue to dine. The food served in this outlet is barbecued over a charcoal grill.


48 The objective of popular catering restaurant is to provide a quick and economical meal in a clean and standardized dinning room. These restaurants are commonly used by the vast urban population of India. They are of various styles and categorize. Some restaurants served only vegetable food while some specialize in the food of a particular region such as the Punjab or Andhra. Some restaurants served food from more that one region. The entry of pizza parlors and westernized popular food into India provides the urban Indian a wider choice, in the types of popular restaurants to choice from. The numerous outlets that have sprung of allover the country in the last decade, so a new trend in the urban citizens eating habits. This has resulted in an increased awareness among the public about the availability of various type of cuisine and catering service.


49 There is a predominant American influence in fast food style of catering. Service of food and beverage in a fast food restaurant is at a faster pace, than an a-la-carte restaurant as the menu is compiled with a special emphasize on speed of preparation and service to make this type of service financially large turnover of customers is necessary. needed and high labor cost involved. The investment is rather large, due to specialize and expensive equipment

50 MENU: A menu is a list of food and beverage that can be served to a guest at a price. It helps guests to select what they would like to eat and/or drink. instrument. History of Menu: Menu is list of dishes in order it is also bill of force. Menus were fast heard of as being adopted for table used in the year 1541, when at the banquet given by “Duck Hennery of Bruins Wick”. His grace had a sheet of paper by a side to which he occasionally referred. When questioned by one of the guest about what he was looking at he answered that; it was program of what they are eating and that was helped him to reserve his appetite for those dishes he dislikes. The idea was admired so much that it become generally known and adopted. Another story is that “Count-Hugo-De-Monfrot” at a dinner given in the year 1498 was noticed to have a piece of written parchment) near his plate, which he frequently consulted and when he asked what it was explained that he had ordered the head cook to write on it the various dishes what were being sent from the kitchen. The old fashioned bills of fare/menus were usually written on large cards ornamented. Function of Menu: It is a document that controls and directs an outlets operation and is considered the prime selling

The menu in modern establishment reflects a concern for the health and well-being of the guest. The menu planner ensures a healthy and balanced 51 diet for their guests without neglecting the pleasures of enjoying good food. several purposes. • A menu informs guests as to what dishes are available and the price charged for a particular dish. • It enables guests to select dishes of there choice which they can afford.

The menu as we know it today serves

It enables the service staff to prepare their mise-en-place, take the correct order, pick and serve the correct dishes from the kitchen according to what has been ordered, and to present the correct check to the guest.

It helps the management to workout the cost of the food and analyzes the utility of a particular menu.

• It helps the cashier to price each item ordered by the guest and to prepare a sales summery which is the sales history of the outlet. • It enables the caterer to product trends and to plan the future course to action for the outlet. Types of Menu:

Basically the term menu have been categorized into two classes such as A. First class. B. Second class. First class menu: i. “Table-De-Hote” 52 It is set menu often with the choice or each course at a set price that is charged whether or not full menu is consumed. It is basically cooked in advance.


“A-La-Carte” In this type of menu each dish is priced separately. The customer can choose from the card as many or as few dishes as he or she wishes. The dish will be cooked to order and it is recognized that the customer will wait while the dish is so cooked.


“Carte-De-Joure” This menu is known as daily menu card. This menu

sometimes insert in “A-La-Carte” menu which comprises of few special dishes of the day to vary the “A-La-Carte” menu; for the regular guest. Second Class Menu:

There are some other types of menu like: i. Special party/function menu-menu planned for song, special banquets of all kinds of function.

Ethnic menu/specialty menu-ethnic, Chinese, Indian, cosher for Jews, holal for Muslims or specialty fishes, pasta, vegetables, and pan cakes.


Menu for people at work-such menu varies in standard and extend for employee to another due to company policy on the welfare of the staff and workforce. 53








relationship) to cover a given period of time that is one month or three month consist for a number of set menus for particular establishment such as industrial catering, restaurants, cafeteria, canteen, etc.

COURSES OF MENU: The French classical menu comprises a number of courses. Each has one particular type of dish easily identifiable as belonging to that course. In an Indian a-la-carte menu, the sequence is not fixed and several dishes are served simultaneously. The sequence of service in a French classical menu is termed as courses of a menu. Most western stylish of cuisine follow this pattern. The courses of a menu may be divided as follows:

Hors D’ Oeuvres-appetizer: This is a course aimed at stimulating the palate, and consists of small tasty dishes, using a large array of different items such as anchovies, olives, cheese, and smoked fish. There often referred to as starters or appetizers. Potage-soups: In a French classical menu, the soup course follows the “Hors D’ Oeuvre”. There are several verities of soups, but it broadly includes clear (consommé) and thick soups like cream, valoute, or puree and bisque or broths.

54 Oeufs-eggs: The omelet is the most popular item but there are other styles of cooking and preparation of eggs such as boiled, encocotte, poached, or scrumbled. This course is not included in the dinner menu. Farineaux-pasta: This is Italy’s contribution to the courses of the menu. It includes different types of spaghetti, lasagna, and gnocchi. Poisson-fish: The next is the fish course. It includes shellfish and sea and fresh water fish. They are cooked in different styles such as poached, grilled, baked, shallow and deep fried.

Entrée-the-first meat course: It usually comprises a dish made up of steak, cutlets, casseroles or stews. Sorbet-the rest course: Sorbet is intended as a pause or rest course in a long meal. It refreshes the palate with a water ice. Sorbet is a water ice served with Italian meringue that is favored with champagne or liqueur. Relive-the meat course: This includes large joints of meats such as a rib of beef, a joint of lamb, mutton or pork. Now a day, this course is often included in the entrée.

55 Roti-roast: This course normally consists of game or poultry and is often included in the entrée. Each dish is accompanied with its own particular sauce and salad. Legumes-vegetables: These can be served separately as an individual course or may be included along with entrée, relive or roast course. Entremets-sweet:

This could include hot and cold sweets, gateaux, soufflés, or ice cream.

Fromage-cheese: This is an alternative to the outdated savoury course, and may be served before or after the sweet course. It is usually with butter, crackers, and occasionally celery. Desserts-fresh fruits and nuts: This is a fruit course usually presented in a basket and placed on the table as part of the table décor and served at the end of meal. All forms of fresh fruit and nuts may be served in this course. Beverage-coffee: This is not a course, but may be offered at the end of meal and may include different varieties of coffee such as filter, cappuccino, and cona coffee.

56 COVER: A cover is the space allotted on the table for the cutlery, crockery, glassware and line for one person. Each cover requires 24”*18” of space. Requirement of a cover:

1. Each cover should be well balanced.

All cutleries and other table appointment should be placed at least 2” away from the edge of the table.


Knives and spoons should be placed towards the right of the plate and all forks on the left, except for the butter knife.

4. The cutting edge of the knives should always face the plate with the exception of the butter knife, the cutting edge of which is always away from the plate. The water tumbler should be at the tip of the large knife. 5. The butter dish should be on top of the forks along with a butter knife and on an under-plate.

The napkin should either be placed in the center of the cover or on the side plate.


Cruet sets should be placed on top of the cover.

57 BRIEFING: Briefing is an important tool in the hands of the restaurant supervisor. It sets a plan of action and check for the shifts. How

effectively this period of briefing is the mark of a good supervisor.

Be absolutely punctual: preferably half an hour before the restaurant opens.

2.Be impeccably groomed: shoes polished, uniform cleaned and well pressed, nails cut. 3. Take attendance and find out reasons for absenteeism. 4. Allot job responsibilities. 5. Check turnout of staffs.

See that they are carrying the following items: waiter’s cloth, ball pen with a small scribbling pad, bottle opener/can openers, handkerchief, and name plate, if used.


Give special instructions like: not available items, du jour items, omissions or additions to the menu, price increase, management policies, important functions, in the case of a restaurant where buffet layout is mad for lunch allocate staffs that are off time next day to stay back and do the set up.


Questioning: ask questions regarding service, menu, wine, cocktails, to ensure that staff has adequate knowledge.

9.Use briefing time to train staff. 58

10. job. 11. last
12. Allot

Ask for and solve problems faced by staff on their








committed faults in service when the restaurant was open

duties for doing mise-en-place for the next day, e.g.

linen exchange, butter and rolls, water, cutlery cleaning, etc. for the restaurant. 13. Give the staff pep talks from time to time to boost up

morale. Motivation of staff is important for efficient and smooth running of the restaurant. 14. Finally ask the staff to make a final check of their

station and tables; inspect them personally.


59 RESTAURANT RESERVATION: To ensure that all the details properly noted and ever one handles the reservation in a similar manner. Listen carefully to the guests request and note down to the following: • The date for which the reservation is being made. • The times specify AM/PM clearly. • The number of persons. • The billing instruction. • Indicate cut off time of reservation. • Check smoking or non-smoking area preference. • Repeats the details to the guest as a conformation. • In the cases the contact telephone number must be noted down. Incase the restaurant is full then staff must be made as follows: Say, I am afraid of sir, for the convenience as the restaurant is presently sold out. Can you please your

telephone/mobile number? So that in case of a cancellation we can call you back. After finishing the conversation in both cases immediately write down the details in the reservation dairy.

60 EQUIPMENTS AND UTENSILS REQUIRED FOR OPERATION: Electrical and electronics equipments: • Air conditioner • Fans • Lights • Music system • Refrigerator • Micro oven Wooden equipments: • Tables • Chairs • Cupboards Linens:

• Table cloths • Slip cloth • Napkins • Mats

61 China ware • China ware • Entree plate • Dinner plate • Soup cup/bowl • Dessert plate • Soup bout • Tea cup • Causer • Sugar pot • Coffee demitasse • Coffee cup • Egg cup

• Creamer • Butter dish • Cruet set • Astray

62 Glass ware: • Water goblet • Tom Colin • Hi-ball • Rolly Polly • Gimsin • Brandy balloon Table ware: • Dinner knife • Small knife • Fish knife • Dinner fork • Salad fork

• Fish fork • Cake/pastry fork • Soup spoon • Dessert spoon • Dessert fork 63 A FLOW CHART SHOWING HOW TO ASK A GUEST TO SEAT:A guest arrive Grated by hostess Address by name (if known) Enquires if the guest has reservation

Yes Checks dairy availability Escorts to relevant table Seats the guests No Enquires if table is set to satisfaction

No checks
1. Escorts to waiting area. 2. Informs of approximate waiting time. 3. Offers drinks. 4. Informs of further delay time. 5. Comes back when a table is


Presents menu and hands over to station holder Excuses herself wishing the guest a pleasant evening

64 HOW TO PROVIDE WATER AND MEAL TO GUEST: SERVICE PRINCIPLES: • After the guest has occupied his seat, all about along with water are usually served from the right side. • Soups are served from right side, unless it is when poured from a large tureen into a soup cup in which case it is down from left side. • The hot plate, empty crockery and fresh cutlery are always served from the right. • The food served at the table from a platter into the guest’s plate is down from left side. But pre-plated services are usually served from right side of the guest.

• Food is always served at the table in the sequence of children, old man , ladies, then the remaining guests in clock-wise direction. • The soiled plates should always be cleared from the right side of the guest.

65 BILLING SYSTEM IN RESTAURANT: Billing is the most important part of the restaurant. It is made by the stewards. Billing system is two types. Such as:• Direct payment system • Indirect payment system Direct payment system: It should be made by cash. When a steward give the bill to the guest, at that time the guest should pay the bill by cash. It should be done by in-house guest and walk in guest. Indirect payment system:

It should be made

by the electronics



debit/credit card). The money is debited from the guest account to restaurant (owners) account. When this type of payment should be done, at that period two money receipts should be prepared by the computerized billing machine. One for customer and another for cash counter with guest signature for auditing. It is for both in house guest and walk in guest. Sometimes guests should give the signature on the food and beverage bill. That bill send to FRONT OFFICE cash counter and this bill should be added with the room bill. It is only for inhouse guests.

66 CONCLUSION I really got an Idea of the hotel Industry is all about how to deal with the hospitality Industry, and hotel guest. Hospitality Industry is not only a business Centre, which provide all type of Services to the guest satisfaction, but also it provide all type of Amusement and entertainment to the guest.

As we discussed about the RESTAURANT OPERATION in the chapters of the project, “restaurant operation”, means dealing with the guest from his arrival to the departure. During the stay of the guest, restaurant operation means dealing with the complain efficiently and effectively and looking after all the likes and dislikes of the guest, along with proper work, for

proper restaurant managerial operation. It means all the restaurant assistant should careful about their job responsibilities to wards management to words guest also, who are regarded as our “ATITHI” in our Indian tradition.



Professional food and beverage management Food and beverage Service training manual

Brian Varghese

Sudhir Andrew



68 My own view Hotel is not only a business organization but also a service provided industry. There are various kinds of religious persons come to the hotel and get their rooms, food and beverage items with their choice. That’s why hotel is a holy place from the community point of view. It is a place where a number of foreign guests and domestic guests interact with each other and dealing their business. It mainly caters to the needs of the customers. Therefore, it is the organization which provides all types of facilities and achieves the perfect goal/great profit.

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