Forensic Science

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Historical Development of Forensic Science in India and World.

 Introduction Crime in some form or the other has existed since the beginning of human race. With the advancement in science and technology the concept of crime as well as the methods adopted by criminals in its commission have undergone a phenomenal change. On one hand the intelligent criminal has been quick to exploit science for his criminal acts, on the other hand the investigator  is no longer able to rely on age old art of interrogation and methods to detect crime. In this context forensic science has found its existence. he applica applicatio tion n of sci scienc encee and technol technology ogy to the detect detection ion and invest investiga igatio tion n of cri crime me and administration of !ustice is not new to India. "lthough our ancestors did not know forensic science in its present form, scientific methods in one way or the other seem to have been foll ollowed owed in the inves nvesti tiga gattion ion of cr crim ime. e. Its det detai aile led d re reffer eren ence ce is found ound in  Kautilya's # Arthashastra,$  Arthashastra,$ which was written about %&'' years ago. Indians studied various patterns of the  papillary lines, thousands of years ago. ago . It is presumed that they knew about the persistency and individuality indivi duality of fingerprints, fingerprints, which they used as signatures. signatures. he Indians knew for long that the handprints, known as the (Tarija ( Tarija$,$, were inimitable.)  he use of fingerprints as signatures by illiterate people in India, introduced centuries ago, was considered by some people as ceremonial only, till it was scientifically proved that identification from fingerprints was accurate.

 Meaning  *orensic science is the scientific method of gathering and examining information about the past. his is especially important in law enforcement where forensics is done in relation to criminal or  civil law, but forensics are also carried out in other fields, such as astronomy, archaeology,  biology and geology to investigate ancient times.  times. % "ccording to +all illon, -he word -forensic means -pertaining to the law/ forensic science resolves legal issues by applying scientific principles to them.

#$!%&'(', Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Texicology:Principle and Practice. Practice. 5  5)& E*., R++* E%+-!+$ I'*!( P-). L)*., 2011: D+&! () . 2. 1 !",

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B.R. D$., Forensic Science in Criminal Investigation and Trials. 4)& E*. U'!-+$%( L( P3!%&!' C6. P-) L)*, 2012: D+&!.



Historical Development of Forensic Science in India and World.

California Criminalistics Institute defines *orensic 0cience and *orensic 0cientists as, -*orensic 0cience is the application of the methods and techniques of the basic sciences to legal issues. "s you can imagine *orensic 0cience is a very broad field of study. Crime 1aboratory 0cientists, someti som etimes mes cal called led *or *orens ensic ic 0ci 0cient entist istss or, mor moree pro proper perly ly,, Cri Crimin minali alists sts,, wor work k wit with h phy physic sical al evidence collected at scenes of crimes.

 Ancient History +istory considers "rchimedes as the father of forensic science. +e had found out that a crown was not made of gold, 2as it was falsely claimed3 by its density and buoyancy. "fter "rchimedes, another early forensic science application was done by 0oleiman, an "rabic merchant of the 4th century. +e used fingerprints as a proof of validity between debtors and lenders. In seventh century 5C, an Indian 6edicine reatise, Agnivesa reatise,  Agnivesa Charaka Cha raka Samhita S amhita was  was composed that laid down the duties and privileges of a physician. It also gave a detailed description of  various poisons, symptoms, signs and treatment of poisoning. Shushruta Samhita was Samhita was composed  between %'' and &'' " and its chapters concerning forensic medicine were so carefully written that they are in no way inferior to modern knowledge on the sub!ect.& In the 4''s, the Chinese also used the fingerprint concept. In the )'''s, 7uintilian, a prosecutor  in the 8oman courts, used a similar method to solve murders. he first document that mentions the use of *orensics in legal  matters is the book Xi book Xi Yu Yuan an Ji  Lu 2translated as -Collected Cases of In!ustice 8ectified3 written in )%9: by Chinese author  0ong Ci.9

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'6)+ 1 () . . 4 T+($! T+($! R#, # R(-!83($, ‘istory and !evelopment of Forensic Science in India" , J63$'( 6 P6%)$(*3()+ M+*!!'+, 6. 4;, N6. 4, O)6+$<D+++$, 2000, . 04.


Historical Development of Forensic Science in India and World.

 1540s- Pathology: In the );9'<s the *rench doctor "mbroise =are laid the foundations for modern forensic  pathology through his study of trauma on human organs after he systematically studied the effects of violent death on internal organs. "lso, two Italian Italian   surgeons, *ortunato *idelis and =aolo >acchia, studied the changes that occurred in the structure of the body as the result of disease. In the late ):th century, writings on these topics began to appear. hese included, ( A Tr Treatise eatise on Forensic Meicine an !u"lic #ealth$ #ealth$ by  by the *rench  physician *rancois Immanuele *odere and (The (The Com%lete System o& !olice Meicine  by  by the ?erman medical expert @ohann =eter *rank .

1800s- To Toxicology: xicology: Matheiu Orfila is known as the father of modern toxicology. In the early part of the

)Ath century he established in =aris methods of scientific chemical analysis of poison, which are in use even today. In India during the nineteenth century, when the cases of death due to poisoning posed a

 problem to the law enforcement agencies, a need was felt for isolating, detecting and estimating various poisons absorbed in the human system. he first Chemical Bxaminer$s 1aboratory was, therefore, set up for this purpose at the then 6adras =residency, under  the epartment of +ealth, during ):9A. 1ater, similar laboratories were set up at Calcutta 2):;&3, followed by one each at "gra 2):93 and 5ombay 2):4'3. hese laboratories were equipped to handle toxicological analysis of viscera, biological analysis of stains of   blood, semen, etc. and chemical analysis of food, drugs, and various excisable materials to provid providee scientific scientific support to the criminal !ustice delivery system within their limited limited means.;

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Historical Development of Forensic Science in India and World.

Bugene *rancois Didocq pioneered the first use of ballistics and began taking plaster casts of shoe imprints. +enry ?oddard at 0cotland Eard perfected the science of ballistics and  pioneered the use of bullet comparison in ):&;. +e developed a comparison microscope micro scope for for compar comparison ison of crime and test fired fired bullets to determ determine ine wheth whether er or not a  particular weapon was used in the offence. In India in )A&' an "rms Bxpert was appointed and a small ballistic ballistic laboratory laboratory was set ,

up under the Calcutta =olice to deal with the examination of firearms.  "s the menace of  firearms grew, other 0tate CIs also established small ballistics laboratories to help them in the criminal investigation.

18#$- %nthro&ometry:

"lpho "l phons nsee 5e 5ert rtil illo lon n of *r *ran ance ce wa wass fi firs rstt to ev evol olve ve a sc scie ient ntif ific ic sy syst stem em of per perso sona nall identification. In ):4A, he developed the science of "nthropometry, a systemic procedure of taking a series of body measurements to facilitate distinguishing one individual from another anot her.. Wit ith h the invention invention of pho photog tograp raphy hy,, he was the fir first st to use it in cri crimin minal al investigation. In )::), he began to take standard pictures of all *rench criminals and file them in the 5ureau of Identification, then in =aris. +is efforts have earned him the distinction of being known as the *ather of Criminal Investigation. In India, while some progress was made in the identification of poisons, the identification of people, specifically criminals, was still being done in a rather haphaFard manner. =olicemen would try to memoriFe convict$s face so that they could recogniFe him if he got invol involved ved in anothe anotherr crim crimee later later.. With the intr introducti oduction on of photogr photography aphy,, the Crim Criminal inal Investigation epartment 2CI3 maintained records of every known criminal including a detailed description of his appearance. With the invention of 5ertillon$s anthropometric system in ):4A, India, along with the other countries of the world, adapted 5ertillon$s

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Historical Development of Forensic Science in India and World.

system of personnel identification and thus an "nthropometric 5ureau, for maintaining anthropometric records of criminals, was established in ):A% at Calcutta. 4

18$!- 'inger&rints:

0ir William +erschel was one of the first to advocate the use of fingerprinting in the identification of criminal suspects. While working for the Indian Civil 0ervices, he began to use thumbprints on documents as a security measure to prevent the thenGrampant repudiation of signatures in ):;:. *rancis ?alton undertook the first systematic study of  the fingerprints. +e developed a methodology of classifying the fingerprints for filing  purposes. In ):A%, he published a book on fingerprints giving a sound statistical proof of  uniqueness of individualiFation through fingerprints fingerprints..: +e had calculated that the chance of a Hfalse positiveH 2two different individuals having the same fingerprints3 was about ) in 9 billion. @uan Ducetich, Ducetich, an "rgentine chief police officer, created the first method of  recording the fingerprints of individuals on file. In ):A%, after studying ?alton$s pattern types, Ducetich set up the world$s first fingerprint bureau. In In Indi dia, a, +en +enry ry ap appr proa oache ched d th thee ?o ?ove vernm rnment ent to se seek ek app appro roval val fo forr re repl plac acin ing g th thee anth an thro ropom pomet etri ricc da data ta by fi fing nger erpr prin ints ts fo forr th thee id iden enti tifi ficat catio ion n of hab habit itual ual cr crim imin inal als. s. ?overnment readily agreed, and the first fingerprint bureau in the world was officially declared open at Calcutta in @uly ):A4, although the collection of record slips had started a few years earlier. hus, the personnel identification solely on the basis of fingerprints commenced in India. •

1$01- (erology:

arl a rl 1a 1and ndst stei einer ner in )A )A') ') di disc scov overe ered d th that at bl blood ood co coul uld d be gr grou ouped ped in into to di diff ffer eren entt categories. *ollowing this, in )A)', r. 1eone 1attes of Italy devised a relatively simple  procedure for determining the blood group of dried bloodstains and immediately adopted this technique for criminal investigation. 7 S3$(

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Historical Development of Forensic Science in India and World.

In India, when the science of examining human blood developed, it became possible to examine blood and seminal stains in criminal investigations. 8ealising the importance of  *orens *or ensic ic 0er 0erolo ology gy,, an ins instit titute ute nam named ed as (0e (0erol rology ogy ep epart artmen ment< t< was est establ ablish ished ed in Calcutta in )A)'.A hough the scientific techniques for serological examination were at the inf infancy ancy sta stage, ge, thi thiss ins instit titute ute pro provid vided ed val valuab uable le sci scient entifi ificc sup suppor portt by ana analyF lyFing ing  biological materials for crime investigations. "fter independence, the department was renamed as (Office of the 0erologist and Chemical Bxaminer to the ?overnment of  India<.

1$10- Princi&le of )xchange:

Bdmund 1ocard is responsible responsible for the famous (=rinciple (=rinciple of Bxchange Bxchange<, <, which form formss the  basis of forensic examination of physical evidence. Its states that -every contact leaves a trace.)'  hi hiss is als also o kno known wn as the 1ocard 1ocard Bxc Bxchang hangee =ri =rinci nciple ple and has for formed med the foundation of trace evidence collection and analysis for over a century and still plays a central role in %)st century forensic science.

1$84- *+% &rofiling:

In )A:9, 0ir "lec @effery developed a science of J" profiling and found that every human being has a unique J" structure. +e realiFed the scope of J" fingerprinting, which uses variations in the genetic code to identify individuals. he method has since  become important in forensic science to assist police detective work, and it has also  proved useful in resolving paternity and immigration disputes. In India, in response to the rising demands of providing high technology to the crime investigation process, the first *orensic J" yping facility was established at C*01, Calcutta, during )AA:. he implementation of this state of the art technique represents

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Historical Development of Forensic Science in India and World.

significant advancements in the forensic biology in the country. he J" yping Knit at C*01, Calcutta is equipped with the most contemporary techniques of J" typing, namely,, =olym namely =olymeriFe eriFe Chain 8eacti 8eaction on 2=C83 based metho method, d, 1ocus 0pecific 8estricted 8estricted *ragment 1ength =olymorphism technique, etc. his laboratory, after being functional, has been referred many crime cases pertaining to murder, rape, rape and murder, paternity disputes, organ transplant, exchange of babies in hospitals h ospitals etc.))

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