Group: Jinan Bayram
Lebanese University Faculty of Arts
Subject: Materials of Design
What is glass?
Glass is a chemically inert, brittle, hard but transparent construction
Foamed or cellular glass is used for vapour proof insulation and in spun
form glass fibers are used as acoustic and thermal insulation.
Obviously, there are many different types and colors of glass, these
Transparent glass, of different thickness and properties. E.g. 4
millimeter, 6 millimeter, 10 millimeter, toughened, laminated, solar
Translucent glass, which allows light but limited vision. E.g. Arctic,
crossed reeded, sand blasted, large Flemish, small Flemish, broad
reeded, narrowed reeded, Pacific, spotlyte, stippolyte.
Opaque glass, which won’t let light through but can be used
as a hard decorative surface resistant to scuffing and
scratching and also gives a high gloss uniform finish.
Glass is held in position by putty, clips or beading or with
aluminum section having the aluminum beads clipped into
the aluminum section.
When using a putty system the glass is laid on a back putty
and held with glazing sprigs. This gives the glass an even bed
in which to sit. Finishing putty is then applied over the top.
This is the putty that can be seen. Putty also seals the edge
of the glass to the window and eliminates drafts at this point.
When using beads or the aluminum system the glass sits in
either a glazing compound or in neoprene gaskets to give a
secure, even and draft free bed. This also stops any rattling.
Often interior design is focused on seeking
emptiness. When we clean up the house we
seek it to be empty, of impurities, of what is
unnecessary and of what is superfluous.
Glass is an element that helps us to achieve
this goal of creating an empty space. It’s
transparency let’s light through, giving us the
feeling that a space it is empty and spacious,
transforming what could be a dark and
gloomy interior. It’s the optimal solution for
room that receive too little light.
When it comes to interior design, glass has many
Glass Stairs made popular by architect Peter
Bohlen's for the iconic Fifth Avenue Apple Store in
New York, have started to show up in many a
residence. An all-glass stair has treads (steps), a
stringer (diagonal support) and a rail of glass.
While this stair is actually cantilevered from a
support (likely a piece of steel) hidden in the wall,
the stair is essentially all glass.
Glass Bathrooms are controversial. Privacy
becomes an issue when the material you are
trying to use is transparent. There are today
glass walls that can change its opacity in the
same way you turn a light on or off. With a flick of
a switch these transparent walls become
Murano glass paper weights
Murano glass is glass made on the Venetianisland of
Murano, which has specialized in fancy glass wares for
centuries. Murano’s glassmakers led Europe for
centuries, developing or refining many technologies
including crystalline glass, enamelled glass (smalto),
glass with threads of gold (aventurine), multicolored
glass (millefiori), milk glass (lattimo), and imitation
gemstones made of glass. Today, the artisans of
Murano are still employing these centuries-old
techniques, crafting everything from contemporary
art glass and glass figurines to Murano glass
chandeliers and wine stoppers, as well as tourist
Today, Murano is home to a vast number of factories
and a few individual artists' studios making all manner
of glass objects from mass marketedstemware to
original sculpture. The MuseodelVetro (Glass Museum)
Laminated glass is made of two or more layers of glass with one or more
"interlayer’s" of polymeric material bonded between the glass layers.
Laminated glass is produced using one of two methods:
Poly Vinyl Butyral (PVB) laminated glass is produced using heat and pressure
to sandwich a thin layer of PVB between layers of glass. On occasion, other
polymers such as Ethyl Vinyl Acetate (EVA) or Polyurethane (PU) are used.
This is the most common method.
For special applications, Cast in Place (CIP) laminated glass is made by
pouring a resin into the space between two sheets of glass that are held
parallel and very close to each other.
Laminated glass offers many advantages. Safety and security are the bestknown of these -- rather than shattering on impact, laminated glass is held
together by the interlayer, reducing the safety hazard associated with
shattered glass fragments, as well as, to some degree, the security risks
associated with easy penetration. But the interlayer also provides a way to
apply several other technologies and benefits, such as coloring, sound
dampening, resistance to fire, ultraviolet filtering, and other technologies
that can be embedded in or with the interlayer.
Laminated glass is used extensively in building and housing products and in
the automotive and transport industries.
This can be classified into two categories:
Heat-transmitting Glass: Heat-resistant glass is high in silica and
usually contains boric oxide. It expands little when heated, so it can
withstand great temperature changes without cracking. This contains
flames and inflammable gas for a short period of time but does not
prevent the transmission of heat to the other side of the glazing.
These include wired glass and reinforced laminated glass. This type
of glasses is widely used in cookware and other household
equipment, and in many types of industrial gear.
Fire-insulating Glass: This contains flames and inflammable gas for
a longer period of time and prevents not only the transmission of
flames and smoke, but also of heat to the other side of glazing.
Self-cleaning glassis a specific type of glass with a surface which
keeps itself free of dirt and grime through natural processes. The first
self-cleaning glass was based on a thin film titanium dioxide
coating. The glass cleans itself in two stages.
The "photo catalytic" stage of the process breaks down the organic
dirt on the glass using ultraviolet light (reflected from the glass)even
on overcast days and makes the glass hydrophilic (normally glass is
hydrophobic). During the following "hydrophilic" stage rain washes
away the dirt, leaving almost no streaks, because hydrophilic glass
spreads the water evenly over its surface
Bullet-proof glass is thick, multilayer laminated glass. This glass can
stop even heavy-caliber bullets at close range. Bullet-resisting glass is
heavy enough to absorb the energy of the bullet, and the several plastic
layers hold the shattered fragments together. Such glass is used in bank
teller windows and in windshields for military tanks, aircraft, and special
Sand Blasted Glass
Sand blasted glass is produced by spraying sand at high velocities over
the surface of the glass. This gives the glass a translucent surface, which
is usually rougher than that obtained by etching. During sandblasting,
only the areas that are to remain transparent are masked for protection.
The depth and degree of the translucency of the sand-blasted finishing
vary with the force and type of sand used. Sand-blasted glass can be
used in numerous interior design applications in both residential and
commercial settings: doors, shower screens, partitions and interior
screens, furniture, etc.
screens, furniture, wall paneling, etc.).
Wired glass is a product in which a wire mesh has been inserted during
production. It has an impact resistance similar to that of normal glass,
but in case of breakage, the mesh retains the pieces of glass. This
product is traditionally accepted as low-cost fire glass. In the production
of wire glass, a steel wire mesh is sandwiched between two separate
ribbons of semi-molten glass, and then passed through a pair of metal
rollers which squeeze the "sandwich of glass and wire" together.
Colored Structural Glass
Colored structural glass is a heavy plate glass, available in many colors.
It is used in buildings as an exterior facing, and for interior walls,
partitions, and tabletops.
and this would impede the possibility to produce optically ideal car
Flat glass is the basic material that goes into all types ofglass that we
see (and see through) every day: All flat glass is made in the form of flat
sheets. But some of it, such as that used in automobile windshields, is
reheated and sagged (curved) over moulds. It is used to make
windscreens and windows for automobiles and transport, and
windows and façades for houses and buildings. It is also used, in
much smaller quantities, for many other applications like interior
fittings and decoration, furniture, "street furniture" (like for bus stops),
appliances and electronics, solar energy equipment, and others.
Annealed glass is the basic flat glass product that is the first result of
the float process. It is the common glass that tends to break into
large, jagged shards. It is used in some end products -- often in doubleglazed windows, for example. It is also the starting material that is
turned into more advanced products through further processing such as
laminating, toughening, coating, etc.
Roots of the name “Triplex” date back to World War I when war industry needed
glass characteristic of more strength properties and safer for the people round
about even in case of crashing. One British company engaged in production of
glass provided a very interesting and still useful solution for safe and strong
glazing. This company, which is now well known under the name of “Pilkington”,
has invented a three-layer glass consisting of two external glass sheets with a
plastic PVB film between them.
Such composition of glass, when two external glasses and a plastic film between
them are used, provides glass with unique qualities. First of all glass becomes
very strong and can withstand greater loads in all directions comparing with
usual glass. Another important quality of such glass is that if a glass is damaged
minimally, usually only the layer on that side of glass where the mechanical
contact is encountered cracks, this means that under certain circumstances
glass specialists could repair such glass in such a manner that no signs of the
previous crack would be seen. Another important property included in
international requirements for car windscreen performance is that in case of
severe damage when even both glass layers are fragmented, the glass still
remains at the glazing place and a minimum amount of fragments is overspread.
“Triplex” glass is manufactured in a manner similar to parts from carbon fibre. Both
glass layers and elastic PVB film between them are glued (heated up) in a high
temperature environment under vacuum in a special furnace called autoclave.
Only at high temperature and vacuum gluing of glasses and a PVB film into a
solid “Triplex” glass is successful so that no air bags would form between the
layers and the glass would be characteristic of ideal optical properties.
We should also mention the fact that thinner glass sheets may be used in case of
An insulated glass unit (IGU) combines multiple glass panes into a single window
system. Most IGUs are double glazed (two panes of glass) with three panes
(triple glazing) or more becoming more common due to higher energy costs.
The panes of glass in IGUs are separated by a spacer and a still layer of air or
gas. The glass is then fitted into window frames, which is made wider to
accommodate the two panes.
The benefits of double glazing
Double glazed windows are an ideal energy efficient choice with the added benefit
of minimising noise. The sealed air gap between the two panes acts as an
added layer of insulation. This added thermal resistance reduces the amount of
heat escaping in winter and keeps your home at a more comfortable
temperature. Double glazing has the reverse effect in summer, preventing
unwanted heat from coming into the home. This extra insulation lessens your
reliance on artificial heaters and air conditioners and can ultimately reduce your
When you are close to a window, your comfort is also affected by the temperature
of the glass. With double glazing it’s harder for the unwanted outside
temperature to transfer through, leaving the inside pane close to room
temperature. Double glazing also reduces condensation which can result in the
unhealthy formation of mould.
Sealed double glazing is effective at reducing medium to high frequency noise
such as the human voice. A difference in glass thickness between the inner and
outer panes will improve sound reduction even further.
Double glazed windows are considered a safer option when compared to standard
single pane windows. Two sheets of glass are a lot harder to break than one and
for even greater security you can specify toughened or laminated glass.
This is a special laminated glass designed and manufactured for
security purposes. The inter-layer is embedded with a very thin wire
and then “sandwiched” between two or more sheets of glass. The
wire forms an electrical circuit which activates an alarm when the
glass is forced
Reflective Glass is an ordinary float glass with a metallic coating to
reduce solar heat. This special metallic coating also produces a
mirror effect, preventing the subject from seeing through the glass. It
is mainly used in façades. Reflective glasses are mainly
manufactured by two different process such as Production Pyrolitic
(On-Line) and Vacuum (magnetron) Process (off-line).
This is float glass with a specially-designed coating which reflects a
very low percentage of light. It offers maximum transparencyand
optical clarity, allowing optimum viewing through the glass at all
times. The clarity of vision makes anti-reflective glass suitable for all
applications where glass should be transparent such as exteriors,
shop-fronts, commercial frontages and glazingwhere vision is
important, particularly at nighttime. This glass can also be used in
interiors for high quality picture framing, display cabinets, interior
display windows and dividing screens
Tempered (toughened) Glass
Toughened glass is made from annealed glass treated with a thermal
tempering process. A sheet of annealed glass is heated to above its
"annealing point" of 600 °C; its surfaces are then rapidly cooled while the
inner portion of the glass remains hotter. The different cooling rates
between the surface and the inside of the glass produces different physical
properties, resulting in compressive stresses in the surface balanced by
tensile stresses in the body of the glass.
These counteracting stresses give toughened glass its increased mechanical
resistance to breakage, and are also, when it does break, what cause it to
produce regular, small, typically square fragments rather than long,
dangerous shards that are far more likely to lead to injuries. Toughened
glass also has an increased resistance to breakage as a result of stresses
caused by different temperatures within a pane.
This type of glass is mainly intended for glass façades, sliding doors,
building entrances, bath and shower enclosures and other purposes that
require superior strength and safety.
Glass that has a low-emissivity coating applied to it in order to control heat
transfer through windows. Windows manufactured with low-E coatings
typically cost about 10–15% more than regular windows, but they reduce
energy loss by as much as 30–50%.
A low-E coating is a microscopically thin, virtually invisible, metal or
metallic oxide layer deposited directly on the surface of one or more of the
panes of glass. The low-E coating reduces the infrared radiation from a
warm pane of glass to a cooler pane, thereby lowering the U-factor of the
Body-tinted glass is a normal float-clear glass into whose melt colorants are added for
tinting and solar-radiation absorption properties. This reduces heat penetration in
buildings. Colouredglass is an important architectural element for the exterior appearance
of façades. Body-tinted glass is also used in interior decoration.
Production is the same as in float glass production. The only variation is the colorants
mixed at the beginning with the standard raw materials. Different additives may produce
differently colored glasses.
Acid-etched Glass is produced by acid etching one side of float glass. Acid-etched glass
has a distinctive, uniformly smooth and satin-like appearance. Acid-etched glass admits
light while providing softening and vision control. It can be used in both residential and
commercial settings (doors, shower screens, furniture, wall paneling, etc.).
The term stained glass can refer to the material of colored glass or the craft of working with
it. Although traditionally made in flat panels and used as windows, the creations of modern
stained glass artists also include three-dimensional structures and sculpture.
"Stained glass" has been applied almost exclusively to the windows of churches,
cathedrals, chapels, and other significant buildings.
Fiberglass, (also called fibreglass and glass fiber), is material made from extremely fine
fibers of glass. It is used as a reinforcing agent for many polymer products; the resulting
composite material, properly known as fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) or glass-reinforced
plastic (GRP), is called "fiberglass" in popular usage.
Bent glass is a normal glass that is curved with a special process. It can be used for
external sites such as facades, shop fronts and panoramic lifts. This glass is also
commonly used for internal sites for showcases, shower doors and refrigerator cabinets
And there’s many other types…………