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about gps system



Salalah College of Technology


Student name: Ibraheem Al- Junaibi
Teacher Name:

The Global Positioning System is a series of satellites owned by the
US government that broadcasts signals that GPS receivers on the
surface of the planet can use to determine position through
triangulation. The term GPS is often used to refer to a GPS receiver,
such as those used in cars and sometimes found in mobile phones.

Parts of GPS
There are mainly three parts of a GPS system
1. The Space part
2. The Control part
3. The User part

First Part of GPS is The Space part
This part consists of 24 satellites, manufactured by Rockwell
International, which are launched into space by rockets, from Cape
Canaveral, Florida. They are about the size of a car, and weigh about
19,000lbs. Each satellite is in orbit above the earth at an altitude of
11,000 nautical miles (12,660 miles), and takes 12 hours to orbit one
time. There are 6 orbital planes each having 4 satellites. The orbits
are tilted to the equator of the earth by 55° so that there is coverage of
the polar regions. The satellites continuously orient themselves to
ensure that their solar panels stay pointed towards the sun, and their
antennas point toward the earth. Each satellite carries 4 atomic

The Second Part of GPS is the Control Part
This part consists of 5 worldwide unmanned base-stations that
monitor the satellites to track their exact position in space, and to
make sure that they are operating correctly. The stations constantly
monitor the orbits of the satellites and use very precise radar to
check altitude, position and speed. Transmitted to the satellites
are ephemeris constants and clock adjustments. The satellites in turn,
use these updates in the signals that they send to GPS receivers.

The Third Part of GPS is the User Part
This part consists of user receivers which are hand-held or, can be
placed in a vehicle. All GPS receivers have an almanac programmed
into their computer, which tells them where each satellite is at any
given moment. The GPS receivers detect, decode and process the
signals received from the satellites. The receiver is usually used in
conjunction with computer software to output the information to the
user in the form of a map. As the user does not have to communicate
with the satellite there can be unlimited users at one time.

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation
system made up of a network of 24 satellites placed into orbit by the
U.S. Department of Defense. GPS was originally intended for
military applications, but in the 1980s, the government made the
system available for civilian use. GPS works in any weather
conditions, anywhere in the world, 24 hours a day. There are no
subscription fees or setup charges to use GPS.


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