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Content

Afnan Hajyahia

GRE Subject Tests: Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology
Content Specifications
I. BIOCHEMISTRY — 36%
A.

B.



Chemical and Physical Foundations



Structural Biology: Structure, Assembly, Organization and Dynamics



Thermodynamics and kinetics




https://www.khanacademy.org/testbioenergetics/v/thermodynamics-vs-kinetics

Redox states





http://mtweb.mtsu.edu/nchong/Chapter%2014-CHEM1010-MSJ.pdf

chemical bond

Chemical reaction mechanisms


http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Kinetics/Rate_Laws
/Reaction_Mechanisms/Reaction_Mechanisms

Macromolecules (e.g., nucleic acids, polysaccharides, proteins and


Nucleic acids



Polysaccharides



Proteins



Lipids

Supramolecular complexes (e.g., membranes, ribosomes and
multienzyme complexes)


C.

Supramolecular chemistry

Catalysis and Binding



Chemical interactions and bonding






Solubility equilibrium

Solute-solvent interactions




buffer solution

Solutions and equilibria




Redox

Water, pH, acid-base reactions and buffers


small molecule

complex lipids)

prep/mcat/biomolecules/principles-of-



Small molecules

Enzyme reaction mechanisms and kinetics




Enzyme kinetics

Ligand-protein interaction (e.g., hormone receptors, substrates and
effectors, transport proteins and antigen-antibody interactions)


Protein–protein interactions

D. Major Metabolic Pathways



F.

Carbon, nitrogen and sulfur assimilation

Regulation and Integration of Metabolism



Covalent modification of enzymes



Sulfur assimilation



Allosteric regulation



Nitrogen assimilation



Compartmentalization



Carbon assimilation



Hormones



Anabolism



Catabolism


http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/anabolism-and-


G.

Methods



catabolism-reactions-definitions-examples.html#lesson



http://quizlet.com/7590330/synthesis-of-macromolecules-dna-rnaand-proteins-flash-cards/alphabetical

E.





Energy transformations at the substrate level








electron transport chain (ETC)



Electron transport chains in mitochondria

Proton and chemical gradients
electrochemical gradient

Energy coupling (e.g., phosphorylation and transport)


http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Energy_coupling



http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lecturesf04am/lect04.htm

Isotopes

Separation techniques (e.g., centrifugation, chromatography and
electrophoresis)

Substrate-level phosphorylation



Electron transport







Microscope (history/types)

Isotopes


Bioenergetics (including respiration and photosynthesis)



Biophysical approaches (e.g., spectroscopy, x-ray, crystallography,
mass spectroscopy)

Synthesis and degradation of macromolecules


regulatory enzyme



separation process

Immunotechniques


Protein immunoblotting

Afnan Hajyahia

GRE Subject Tests: Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology
II. CELL BIOLOGY — 28%
Methods of importance to cellular biology, such as fluorescence probes (e.g., FRAP, FRET and GFP) and imaging, will be covered as appropriate within the context of the content
below.
A.

Cellular Compartments of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes: Organization,
Dynamics and Functions



Extracellular matrix (ECM)

Cellular membrane systems (e.g., structure and transport across



role &importance

membrane)



molecular component



Nucleus (e.g., envelope and matrix)


Cell nucleus



Structures (Nuclear envelope and pores/ nuclear lamina/



Chromosomes/ Nucleolus)


Function (Cell compartmentalization/ Gene expression/



Dynamics and regulation (Assembly and disassembly)

Mitochondria and chloroplasts (e.g., biogenesis and evolution)


Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory

Cell adhesion and junctions


Cell adhesion



Process eukaryotes

Signal transduction





Signal transduction

Receptor function


Processing of pre-mRNA)



Extracellular matrix (including cell walls)


Membrance transport/transport types



Cell Surface and Communication

http://www.benjamintseng.com/documents/BiochemPrep2.pdf





B.

Signal transduction(receptor)

Excitable membrane systems


Membrane potential (also transmembrane
potential or membrane voltage)

C.

Cytoskeleton, Motility and Shape


Cytoskeleton



Eukaryotic cytoskeleton /comparison



E.

Cell Division, Differentiation and Development



Regulation of assembly and disassembly of filament systems




Microtubule / Regulation of microtubule dynamic

Motor function, regulation and diversity



Motor proteins / function



D. Protein, Processing, Targeting and Turnover



Translocation across membranes




Posttranslational modification




Posttranslational modification (PTM)

Intracellular trafficking




Membrane vesicle trafficking

Secretion and endocytosis




Protein targeting or protein sorting

http://medcell.med.yale.edu/lectures/files/secretion_endocytosis

Protein turnover (e.g., proteosomes, lysosomes, damaged protein
response)



Protein turnover



Cell cycle, mitosis and cytokinesis


Cell Cycle



Mitosis



Regulation of the cell cycle



Cell cycle checkpoints

Meiosis and gametogenesis


Gametogenesis



Meiosis

Fertilization and early embryonic development (including positional
information, homeotic genes, tissue-specific expression, nuclear and
cytoplasmic interactions, growth factors and induction,
environment, stem cells and polarity)


Prenatal or antenatal development

III. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENETICS — 36%
A.

Genetic Foundations





Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance


Non-Mendelian inheritance (types)



Mendelian inheritance





Transformation



Transduction (Generalized transduction, Specialized



http://tinyurl.com/nj6dhcc



http://tinyurl.com/qjqqw4y

Mutational analysis
Mutation testing

Genetic mapping and linkage analysis


Genetic linkage (linkage map, Parametric and nonparametric linkage analysis)

B.



Chromatin and Chromosomes


http://www.diffen.com/difference/Chromatin_vs_Chromosome



Karyotype (Observations on karyotypes)



Karyotypes



Translocations, inversions, deletions and duplications



Aneuploidy and polyploidy



Structure



Epigenetics

Genome structure





Bioinformatics

Proteomics




transposable element (Class I & Class II)

Bioinformatics




Disease gene identification

Transposable elements




Interspersed repetitive DNA

Gene identification




Genome mapping (Genetic Mapping VS Physical Mapping)

Repeated DNA and gene families




Structural genomics

Physical mapping


Recombination and complementation





Genomics

Transformation, transduction and conjugation

transduction, medical application)



C.

Proteomics (Complexity of the problem)

Molecular evolution


Molecular evolution(Forces in molecular evolution)

D. Genome Maintenance



F.



DNA replication




DNA damage and repair



DNA modification



Positive and negative control of the operon



DNA replication (DNA polymerases, Replication process,
Regulation)



Gene Regulation



Promoter recognition by RNA polymerases
RNA polymerase (Control of transcription,action)





Epigenetics

Attenuation and antitermination
Antitermination





DNA recombination and gene conversion




Gene conversion(Allelic gene conversion , ectopic gene



E.



Genetic recombination(Mechanism)





Gene expression(Mechanism, Regulation of gene





Gene expression profiling
Post-transcriptional modification (mRNA processing)

G.



non-coding RNA



Small interfering RNA



microRNA

Viruses



Translation


Gene duplication (Mechanisms of duplication)

Small non-coding RNA (e.g., siRNA, microRNA)

Genetic code

RNA processing






Transcription/transcriptional profiling






The genetic code

trans-acting

Gene rearrangements and amplifications

expression)



cis-Regulatory Elements ( examples)

Trans-acting regulatory factors

Gene Expression


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12213655

Cis-acting regulatory elements

conversion)


http://tinyurl.com/o9pyo2h

Translation (biology)

Genome replication and regulation


Viral replication



http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17969453



Virus assembly



Virus-host interactions


Virus (microbiology)

Afnan Hajyahia

GRE Subject Tests: Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology
H. Methods



Restriction maps and PCR






Nucleic acid blotting and hybridization


Southern blot



northern blot



http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7567/

DNA cloning in prokaryotes and eukaryotes




Protein–DNA interactions

Transgenic organisms




sequence analysis

Protein-nucleic acid interaction




http://www.eplantscience.com/index/genetics/genetic_engineering_and_biotechnology_recombinant_dna/cloning_in_bacteria_and_eukaryotes.php

Sequencing and analysis




http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/probe/docs/techpcr/

genetically modified organism (GMO)

Microarrays


microarray



http://www.aun.edu.eg/gembc/s/A.PDF

Afnan haj yahia

| [email protected]

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