Hardware Requirement

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Hardware Requirement •32-bit Intel based processor, at least an Intel or compatible 80386, 80486, or Pentium-class microprocessor is required.

MHz •400 recommended

Pentium is for a graphical

interface and 200 MHz for text. •Normally 64MB RAM for Text, and 192 MB for graphical. (Linux can run on as little as 12 MB RAM). •At least 2GB free hard disk space for a standard installation, including applications; 3 to 6 GB or more is recommended for a full installation (all applications).

 

Installation Methods 

Red Hat Installation CD-ROM.



NFS Image.



Kick Start



FTP



HTTP

 

Red Hat Installation through CD

•  To boot from a CD-Rom or DVD-Rom, you may first have to change the boot sequence setting in your computer’s BIOS so that the computer will try to boot first from the CD-Rom.

 

NFS Image • NFS (Network File Sharing): It is a common method to share files.

• An image of an operating system is taken already which is connected remotely to install the image in a system. •   The

image

system

is

first

mounted

and

operating system path is given to get into the installation.

 

Kick Start Installation •  Till now we have seen attended installation, where the user have to interact with the system. • The kick start installation is known as unattended installation where the user appearance is not necessary.

•  The system will automatically install the operating system into the machine including the device installation, hard disk partition, assigning of ip address etc.,

 

Red Hat Installation

Press Enter, to install in Graphical mode.

 

Red Hat Installation

 Type linux text,, to text install in  Text mode.

 

Red Hat Installation

 Type linu askmethod to either throug HTTP, Hard di NFS.

 

Red Hat Installation

 Type linux text askmethod to install either through FTP, HTTP, Hard disk and NFS.

 

Installation Setup Screen  The Installation Mode is selected here

Type Linux Text and press enter for Text mode Installation Just press enter for  graphical mode Installation.

 

Hardware Detection

Hardware detection process

 

Select the Installation language.

 

Redhat Installations

Select the type of keyboard layout.

 

Redhat Installations Select the appropriate type of  installation.

 

Redhat Installations Select the appropriate NFS type installation.

 

Redhat Installations

Select this option to assign an dynamic ip address.

 

Redhat Installations Enter the appropriate ip address

 

Redhat Installations Enter the information of  server ip address and directory.

 

Redhat Installations

 The AnacondaRed Hat Installer begins the Installation.

 

Redhat Installations

Hardware detection process

 

Redhat Installations

 

Redhat Installations

 The Red Hat Linux Welcomes you.

 

Select the Partitioning Type

Select this for simpler automatic partitioning.

Click here for manual partitioning. Raid and LVM also can be configured (Disk Druid tool can be used only while installation)

 

Redhat Installations

Click here to create new partition in the free space

 

Creating Partition for /boot directory

Select the file system type here. ( ext2, ext3 for

Enter the mount points here.( /boot )

normal partition and swap for swap partition) Enter the size of the partitions here.

 

Creating Partition for / directory

Select the file system type here. ( ext2, ext3 for

Enter the mount points here.( / )

normal partition and swap for swap partition) Enter the size of the partitions here.

 

Creating Partition for swap directory

Enter the mount points here.(swap)

Enter the size of the partitions here.

 

Redhat Installations

 The final view all the mounting point.

 

To Set Boot Loader  Click here to change the default boot loader

GRUB and LILO are the Red Hat Linux boot loaders. GRUB is the Default Loader of Red Hat Linux 8.0  

 The default boot operating system can be changed or added here

 

Redhat Installations

eth0 means first Ethernet card its address getting from Hostname DHCP. also getting from DHCP server..

 

Firewall Configuration

No firewall option allows all network services to your machine No firewall option allows all network services to your machine

 

Redhat Installations

Activate your SELINUX options

Enable firewall option allows specific network services to your machine

 

Redhat Installations

 

Redhat Installations

Choose the default language for the system.

 

Redhat Installations  Time zone is selected here.

 

Redhat Installations

Enter the password for the root (Super User)

 

Redhat Installations Its reading package information's.

 

Redhat Installations Select customize  This is used to select options to customize the default package. the package selections

 

Package Selection  The Packages to be installed are selected here. Even the office (Like MS-Office in windows) Packages are available inbuilt in Red Hat installation CD

 

Package Selection Checking and installing the packages.

 

Beginning of Installation

Click next to begin the actual installation which begins writing the operating system in the hard drives.

 

Installing Packages

Creating the file system in the installation partition.

 

Installing Packages

 The installation image is copied to the hard drive.

 

Installing Packages

Initializing the installation process

 

Installing Packages

Preparing for the installatio installation n process

 

Installing Packages

Installation of  packages under progress

Installation of  tzdata packages

 

Installing Packages

Installation of  packages under progress

 

Installing Packages

Installation of  packages under progress

 

Installation of  packages under progress

 

Installing Packages

Installation of  packages under progress

 

Installing Packages

Installation of  packages under progress

 

Installing Packages

Performing the post install configuration.

 

Reboot the System

 The Red Hat Installation is completed successfully. Remove any Installation media and boot disks. And reboot the system.

 

Rebooting

 

GRUB boot loader

Highlight the operating system and press enter to boot.

 

Loading Kernel

 

Initializing hardware devices

 

Initializing services

 

Welcome to Red Hat Setup

 The Red Hat setup agent will proceed some More basic configurations Before the system is ready to use.

Welcome to Red Hat Linux Setup agent

 

License agreement

 

Setting date and time

 

Graphics configuration

Select the Colour depth-the number of  distinct colours required supporting the video card Installed

Select the screen resolution suiting your monitor and display card

 

Red Hat Login

 To register the system to Red Hat enter theand Login name password.

 

Red Hat Login

If you don’t have redhat login select this a option to create new login.

 

Red Hat Login

Enter this option to know the details

 

Red Hat Login

 The update agent registers the machine with Red Hat network So that the latest Software packages Get updated automatically

Click here to register with the Red Hat network

Click here to skip registration

 

System user creation.

Create non administrative user to access the system.

 

Sound Card Configuration

Sound getting Configured

 Tests sounds for the 3 channels in sound card can be heard by

automatically

selecting play test sound

 

 To Install additional softwares

Click here to install any additional software.

 

Finishing Setup  The Red Hat setup agent Finishes the setup

 

Login Screen

 

Login Screen

Red Hat supports many languages, the language can be selected before login.

 

Login Screen

 The kind of  desktop can be selected here.

 

Login Screen

 The system can be rebooted using the option.

 

Login Screen

 The system can be restarted using the option.

 

Login Screen

Enter the user Name

 

Login Screen

Enter the user Password.

 

Loading the user settings.

 

Red Hat Startup Screen

 

Now the Red Hat Linux is ready for use.

 

Kernel initialization • As boots, kernel are getoccurred. initialized and systems the following functions • Device device

detection: drivers

kernel and

will

locate

compile it

to

the the

corresponding devices. • Mounts root file system: After the device detection the kernel will mount the root file system as read only. • Load initial process: The very first process (init)

is then loaded.  

• Init :

Initial process

• It is the superior of all processes. • As soon as init process is loaded the control is passed from kernel to this process.

• /etc/inittab : • File which contains the information on how init should setup the system in every run level, as well as the run level to use a default.

 

Run levels • init 0 : Shutdown the system or halt • init 1 : Single-user mode. • init 2 : Multi-user mode with out networking support. • init 3 : Multi-user mode with networking support. • init 4 : Unused. • init 5 : Graphical user interface. • init 6 : Reboot the system.

 

Run level configuration file

Get in to the inittab file, the init configuration file.

 

Run level configuration file

 The default run level can be changed here.

 

CONSOLES • Text-mode login at virtual console • Multiple non-GUI logins are possible • Default consoles are in text mode • Available through CTRL-ALT-F[1-6]

• Graphical login • Graphical console comes through CTRL-ALT-F7

 

X Window System • It is the foundation for the graphical user Interface of Red Hat Linux. • X applications communicate with a display via. The X protocol. • X is OS Independent. • It is available on many platforms.

 

X Protocol • It hides the individual details of the OS and the underlying hardware.



X protocol is a asynchronous network communication communicat ion between X client and X Server.

protocol

for

the

c ommunicated cated between X • It defines how the graphical primitives are communi client and server.

 

  Environments •  The X Window System of Red Hat provides two Desktop Environments Environments.. • GNOME (GNU Network Object Modules Environment). • KDE (K desktop Environmen Environment). t).

 

GNOME • It is the default desktop environment for Red Hat Linux. • It is Power full and easy-to-use desktop environment consisting primarily of a panel and a set of GUI tools. • GNOME is free and hence its source code can be downloaded form the GNOME Web Site:

www.gnome.org.. www.gnome.org  

GNOME Interface •  The GNOME Interface consists of a Panel and a Desktop. • Panel appears as a long bar b ar across the bottom of screen.

• Panel holds Menus, Programs and Applets. •  The Remainder Screen is the Desktop. Here you can place directories, files or programs.

 

GNOME Desktop

 

GNOME Menus

 

GNOME Menus

 

KDE • KDE provides an alternative desktop environment with full set of  integrated network and internet applications. • Along with GNOME features, It also includes •

Konsole

:

Highly configurable graphical terminal.



Konqueror

:

A file manager and web browser.



Kmail

:

A graphical email client.



Kdevelop

:

Integrated development.

 

 

KDE Desktop

 

KDE Desktop

 

KDE Desktop

 

KDE Desktop

 

Starting X Window •  The X window start automatically, If so then

a Graphical login screen is prompted by the Display manager.

• Alternatively use startx to get in to X window

from non-windowing console.

 

Start X

 To get in to X window from run level-3

 

Start X

 

Desktop Selection Select failsafe in case of any graphical failure

To get in to GNOME desktop.

To get in to the  previously used desktop

To get the default desktop. To get in to KDE desktop.

 

KDE MODE If you click yes the KDE desktop is set as default desktop for future sessions (or) login

If you click No, only the current session is set to

KDE.

 

Switchdesk

 To change the desktop environment.

 

Switchdesk To switch from kde to gnome desktop

 

Switchdesk

Thus we switched into GNOME desktop

 

Linux File System Directories Directory

Function

/

Begins the file system structure – called the root.

/boot

Hold the kernel image files and associated boot information and files.

/home

Contains user’s home directories.

/s b i n

Holds administration-level commands commands used by the root user.

/dev

Holds file interface for devices such as the terminal and the printer.

/etc

Holds system configuration files and any other   system files.

and

any

/etc/opt

Holds system configuration files for application in /opt

 

Linux File System Directories Directory

Function

/etc/X11

Holds sys systtem co configurati ation fifiles ffo or th the X Window System and its applications.

/bin

Holds the essential user commands and utility

/lib

programs. Holds essential shared libraries and kernel modules.

/l /lib ib/m /mod odul ules es Hold Holds s the the kern kernel el mod modul ules es.. /mnt

Used to hold directories for mounting file systems like CD-ROMs or floppy disks that are mounted only temporarily.

/opt

Holds added software applications (for example, KDE on some distributions).

 

Linux File System Directories Directory

Function

/p r o c

Process directory, a memory-resident directory containing files used to provide information about the system.

/tmp

Holds temporary files.

/u s r

Holds those files and commands used by the system; this directory breaks down into several subdirectories.

/v a r

Holds files that vary, such as mailbox and FTP files.

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