Higher Education

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Table of Contents
Table of Contents...................................................................................................................................1
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................2
PROBLEM STATEMENT....................................................................................................................3
OBJECTIVES........................................................................................................................................3
SCOPE...................................................................................................................................................4
LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH.................................................................................................4
LITERATURE REVIEW......................................................................................................................4
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY ................................................................................9
NATURE OF RESEARCH...................................................................................................................9
POPULATION OF THE STUDY.........................................................................................................9
SAMPLE OF THE STUDY ..................................................................................................................9
SAMPLE DETAILS............................................................................................................................10
INSTRUMENT OF THE STUDY ......................................................................................................10
DATA COLLECTION........................................................................................................................10
DATA ANALYSIS .............................................................................................................................10
RESEARCH QUESTIONS.................................................................................................................10
SELECTION OF VARIABLES..........................................................................................................11
Independent Variables: .......................................................................................................................11
Dependent Variables............................................................................................................................11
INDICATORS OF QUALITY EDUCATION....................................................................................11
ANALYSIS OF DATA........................................................................................................................12
Frequency Table...................................................................................................................................12
T-Test...................................................................................................................................................18
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION..........................................................................................................20
RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................................................................................................21
REFERENCE.......................................................................................................................................22

FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN
PAKISTAN
ABSTRACT
Higher education plays a leadership role in education. The study was designed to investigate the
factors affecting the higher education in Pakistan. It was a descriptive study and conducted on the

basis of convenience in the universities of Hazara region of KPK. The sample of the study consisted
of teachers and students. A total of 88 teachers and 95 students participated in the study. A
questionnaire developed on 5 point Likert Scale was used to collect data from the respondents. T test
was used for the purpose of analysis of the data. It was found that universities were lacking trained
faculty members, equipped library, merit based admission policy, equipped laboratories and multimedia use. It was recommended that the higher education commission should introduce an academic
audit system and provide foreign training to faculty members of universities. The study also
recommended that merit based admission policy should be ensured in the universities.

INTRODUCTION
Importance of Education can never be ignored because it plays a role of backbone of every nation.
Education means the conveying of knowledge and skill from teacher to student but this process in
not taking place effectively in our country. Higher education always played a very vital role of
leadership in any society. Developing people physically, mentally and spiritually is a function of
university. Different aspects of the life of a nation such as economic, social, political and cultural are
improved and promoted.
University is such an institution that creates the desire for research and expands critical thinking. It
can achieve its motives only if it has been provided the necessary resources, and has good planning
and long-term policies. Universities being dynamic organizations perform different functions such as
research function, economic function and social function. I am conducting this study in order to
determine whether the quality of higher education in Pakistan is good enough to meet International
standards and what are the factors affecting its quality. This study shows that the quality of
education in Pakistan has a declining trend due to certain factors.
There is an increase in number of universities in Pakistan but it is constantly facing political
instability and weak economic conditions. The wealth or poverty of a nation depends upon the
quality of education and is considered as benchmark for the success in today’s globalizing world.
Therefore the countries are realizing the emerging needs of higher education and taking steps to
enhance the standard of education.

2

The better development of any society depends on the quality and standard of higher education in
that country. Higher educational institutes are responsible for producing competent people having
better knowledge and skills for playing their role in success of the nation.
Poor quality educational system is one of the reasons why poor countries like Pakistan do not grow.
Factors which have overall impact on the quality of higher education include infrastructure, quality
of faculty, quality of students, facilities, learning environment, research and planning etc.

PROBLEM STATEMENT
Problem statement of this research study is analyzing the present status of higher education and the
factors affecting its quality.

OBJECTIVES
University being a vital institution in society plays a vital role in development as well as in favor of
national interests. University not only contributes in the betterment of civilization but also set
excellent learning and teaching standards. This study determines the current status of higher
education’s quality in Pakistan. The main objectives of the study are as follows:


To analyze the quality of higher education in Pakistan.



To investigate the quality indicators of higher education in Pakistan.



To find whether the quality of higher education in Pakistan meets International standards or
not?



To investigate the reasons behind the poor quality of education in Pakistan.



To give recommendations and suggestions for enhancing the quality of higher education.

Considering this major problem of having poor quality education I have selected this topic for
research, the reasons behind this quality issue and at the end of my research study I will give some
recommendations and suggestions to improve the quality of higher education system in Pakistan.

3

SCOPE
A base for socio-economic development is provided by education. We cannot isolate our education
system from rest of the world. Graduates are not just the end products or output of education but
they are the outcome of higher education system that plays an essential role in modern economy.
Improving quality of higher education in Pakistan is much more important than increasing access to
higher education.
Education is also exchanged like other commodities in todays globalize world. Therefore it’s very
important to improve higher education so that it can meet international standards. A person is
affected mentally, physically and socially by the education system. Nowadays there is a huge
competition in the field of education therefore understanding the need of time we should focus on
the improvement of the quality of our higher education system so that it can meet international
standards.

LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH
Unfortunately higher education in Pakistan is not easily accessible for everyone. Major portion of
the population is unaware of higher education and others have no idea about international quality
standards of higher education.

LITERATURE REVIEW
In literature review knowledge from previous research studies is taken. Certain articles related with
the topic of this research study are being consulted and read. Certain reasons behind the poor quality
of higher education in Pakistan are explored. It is found that the current system of education in
Pakistan is not good. The society will develop as the standard of education will be improved.
Universities play a major role in providing skilled and competent peoples to the society who will be
very useful. Higher Education Commission is taking initiatives to improve the quality of higher
education in Pakistan but this goal is not attained due to some obstacles in their way.
There are so many factors which are negatively affecting the quality of higher education in Pakistan.
These factors are as follows:

4



Inadequate Faculty



Infrastructure Problem



Inadequate Research Activities



Budget Allocation



Out Dated Curriculum



Ill Equipped Labs And Libraries



Gap Between University And Industry



Corruption And Lack Of Accountability

Quality and the adequacy are the main determinants of the quality of higher education but
unfortunately there is a lack of highly qualified and competent faculty members in case of Pakistan.
The faculty requirement of the higher education institutes should be fulfilled and there should be
professional development of the faculty members.
So many efforts have been done to analyze the problems of education in Pakistan in past and to
formulate a strategy to overcome those problems. Many educational policies have been produced for
making the system of education better. (Khan, 1997)
South Asia has been emerged as the poorest and populous region in the world. It is facing many
problems and therefore different steps should be taken towards the development. One of the major
challenges is regarding the provision of education and technical skills to the people. (Haq, 1998)
If the basic education will not be of standard then the students will not be having potential to go for
higher education. Therefore the public schooling should be improved and the problems in basic
education system should be solved. (Gazdar, 1999)
The importance of higher education cannot be ignored in the better development of a nation.
Pakistan needs to revise its constitutional provisions in its constitutions. Problems affecting the
quality of higher education are identified. Again the identified issues behind the low quality of

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higher education are the quality of faculty, research facilities, poor infrastructure, inadequate
financing and libraries and laboratories which are not well equipped. (Isani, 2001)
Different problems in higher education system of Pakistan are quality of faculty, students, labs and
laboratories which are not well equipped. There are many other problems also in the higher
education such as weak examination systems, ineffective governance, corruption etc. as a result of
such problems the education system of Pakistan cannot meet international standards. (Iqbal, 2004)
For the purpose of achieving economic stability and economic growth higher education is very
important. The quality of education directly depends on the quality of teachers. Therefore for the
purpose of achieving overall goal development of the education staff is very important. The author
did research the development of faculty of higher education in Pakistan. Those teachers require
proper training and development through different models for staff development in Pakistan. The
author evaluated the staff development in Pakistan. He investigated the areas which require
improvement and different models for the higher education staff development. Training incentives
should be given to faculty so that they are motivated towards the training and development. (Khan
M. N., 2005)
In the entire education system school age education is also very important sub sector. Although the
high quality of competent professionals in different fields of life depends on the quality of higher
education in Pakistan but the school age education is also very important. The children envisioned to
attend the university need to be prepared very early. Therefore efforts should be done to increase the
academic performance of the students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of
student’s parents and their school age teacher’s role in preparing them for higher education.
(Yousaf, 2005)
Higher education is very important in all aspects of life. Quality products can be produced with
quality education. Higher education in public sector is performing not as much good due to lack of
funding and as a result the quality of education of such universities is affected. Now the public and
private sectors of education are in competition with each other. The study was conducted to compare
the quality of publics and private sectors. The number of institutions is increasing in both the sectors

6

of education. There is tough competition between private and public sector universities. Public
sector is not performing well due to lack of funds and inadequate facilities. (Ullah, 2005)
The objective of the study was to determine the impact of higher education on women in
understanding their rights in Pakistan. The women who acquire higher education can enjoy their
rights in the society. The higher education system need to be improved and a system should be
developed for the awareness in women. Higher education created an important role in creating the
awareness in women about their rights and responsibilities. (Yasmeen, 2006)
Research creates curiosity and a desire to know something in generated. There is a huge lack of
research in Pakistan and the reason behind this lack of funding and inadequate resources. (Memon,
2007)
Higher education institutes have some operational and infrastructural needs. Some important factors
are building, facilities of well equipped labs and laboratories, sufficient computers for the students
and easy access of internet. (Hoodboy, 2009)
Poor higher education in Pakistan will not be able to produce competent and skilled professionals.
(Shafique, 2010)
This study is about the issues of motivation of faculty members in higher education. The faculty
members can be motivated by different ways. Benefits and compensation motivates teachers but
other motivators like working environment, decision making, feed back etc are also important
factors in motivating teachers. (Rasheed, 2010)
The faculty of higher education is affected by many factors and as a result their performance can be
disturbed. The study is done to investigate the internal and external factors influencing the faculty of
higher education and its consequences. (Sarwar, 2011)
Various studies show that physical infrastructure of universities in unable to meet the requirements
of students. Most of the universities need to improve their departments and should increase the

7

facilitation for the students. For the purpose of acquiring new knowledge a dynamic research culture
is required. It is also important for the social and cultural betterment. Unfortunately Pakistan cannot
carryout sufficient research in all areas such as Science and technology, humanity and Social
science.
The universities should be accountable for providing quality education and because they are
accountable to students, employers and society. (Iqbal, 2011)
The improvement of higher education is slow because of low budget allocation. The level of public
expenditure is low ranging from 2.2 to 2.4 % of GDP from 1993 to 2007. Standards of higher
education should be followed while designing the courses and curricula. Some of the important
courses have no continuity. Modern and important courses are not given attention and therefore are
ignored and not taught.
The curricula are according to the personal choice, experience, likes and dislikes of the professors.
Linkages between the university and industry are very important. In Pakistan higher education
institutes and industries do not have linkages. Therefore such institutes are not capable to develop
practical skills. As a result the performance of the industries and institutes is not up to the
international standards. The institutes and practical life has no such linkages therefore he will face
problems in social life.
Public sector universities do not have favorable circumstances in Pakistan. So many problems are
faced by the public sector universities such as, lack of funding, and well qualified faculty
competition from the private sector universities ,bad management etc. Hence there are lots of
challenges for public sector universities. (Mangi, 2011)
When there will be no accountability unethical activities will occur in the university like corruption.
(Khan R. &., 2012)
The individual is mentally, physically and spiritually developed. The study found that education
being a life long process develops individual’s character thinking habits and personality.

8

According to Zafar Mueen the education system is directly linked with the economic growth in a
country. When the education system will be good it will produce efficient and skilled workers which
will increase the productivity and economic growth of a country. In Pakistan the education system is
not well and the economic growth is slow.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
This chapter is about the research design and methodology used for carrying out the research
activities. Methodology refers to the procedures, steps and principles that are used in a research
study.
It provides proper guidelines for collecting and processing the data. It also includes the selection of
variables. Research design guides the research process by providing the framework through which
all the work will be carried out.

NATURE OF RESEARCH
This research study is descriptive in nature descriptive research study is usually concerned with
describing a population with respect to important variables.

POPULATION OF THE STUDY
There are total 146 HEC recognized universities in Pakistan. All the faculty members and students of
these institutions are included in the population of this study.

SAMPLE OF THE STUDY
Stratified sampling technique is used to select the sample in this research study.it is difficult for a
researcher to visit all the universities therefore Universities in Hazara region of KPK are selected on
convenience basis. These are as follows:


Hazara University Mansehra



COMSATS University Abbottabad campus



University of Haripur KPK



UET Abbottabad campus

9

The total number of the participants in the study is 183.

SAMPLE DETAILS
Name of Universities

Total Students

Total teaching

Sample size of

Sample size of

enrollment

faculty

the students

teaching faculty

Hazara University Mansehra
COMSATS Institute if

6289
5481

328
381

36
31

28
33

Information Technology
UET Abbottabad Campus
University of Haripur KPK
Total

419
4200
16389

33
260
1002

3
25
95

5
22
88

INSTRUMENT OF THE STUDY
A questionnaire is used for the collection of relevant data from the respondents about the quality of
higher education in Pakistan and the factors affecting it. The questions are developed on a 5 point
Likert Scale.

DATA COLLECTION
Primary data is gathered directly from the respondents. The data is collected from a selected portion
of population about the quality of higher education in Pakistan and the factors affecting it.

DATA ANALYSIS
Data collected is tabulated and analyzed using T test.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research study is conducted in order to find answers of the following questions:


Analysis of the quality of higher education in Pakistan?



What are the quality indicators of higher education in Pakistan?



Whether the quality of higher education in Pakistan meets International standards or not?



What are the reasons behind the poor quality of education in Pakistan?
10



How the quality of higher education can be enhanced?

SELECTION OF VARIABLES
Variables mean the factors upon which our research depends and how different variables have
effects on our research. We can categorize variables in to two main categories:


Independent Variables



Dependent Variables

Independent Variables:
The key factors influencing the quality of higher education in Pakistan are taken as independent
variables. These are as follows:


The quality of faculty



Curriculum standards



Technological infrastructure available



Research environment



Accreditation regime



The administrative policies



Linkages between University and industry



Procedures implemented in institutions of higher learning

The above variables were also used by (Ullah, 2005) in his literature.

Dependent Variables
In this research study the dependent variable is Quality of higher education.

INDICATORS OF QUALITY EDUCATION
1. Quality of Staff
2. Quality of Faculty
3. Quality of Students
4. Quality of Curricula
5. Quality of Infrastructure

11

6. Quality of Management and Governance
7. Quality of Accountability

ANALYSIS OF DATA
Frequency Table
Gender
Cumulative
Valid

Male
Female

Frequency
110
73

Percent
60.1
39.9

Valid Percent
60.1
39.9

183

100.0

100.0

Total

Percent
60.1
100.0

Qualification
Cumulative
Valid

PHD
M.Phil

Frequency
24
63

Percent
13.1
34.4

Valid Percent
13.1
34.4

Percent
13.1
47.5

60

32.8

32.8

80.3

36

19.7

19.7

100.0

183

100.0

100.0

MA/MS
C
4.00
Total

Building fulfills the instructional requirements of students
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

20

10.9

10.9

10.9

49

26.8

26.8

37.7

neutral

28

15.3

15.3

53.0

Agree

51

27.9

27.9

80.9

Strong agree

35

19.1

19.1

100.0

183

100.0

100.0

Total

Repair & maintenance is conducted regularly
Cumulative
Valid

Strongly

Frequency
18

Percent
9.8

Valid Percent
9.8

12

Percent
9.8

disagree
Disagree

47

25.7

25.7

35.5

Neutral

24

13.1

13.1

48.6

Agree

60

32.8

32.8

81.4
100.0

Strong agree
Total

34

18.6

18.6

183

100.0

100.0

Classrooms are well equipped
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
Disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

30

16.4

16.4

16.4

70

38.3

38.3

54.6

Neutral

20

10.9

10.9

65.6

Agree

50

27.3

27.3

92.9

13

7.1

7.1

100.0

183
100.0
Offices

100.0

Strong agree
Total

Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

30

16.4

16.4

16.4

60

32.8

32.8

49.2

Neutral

19

10.4

10.4

59.6

Agree

55

30.1

30.1

89.6
100.0

Strong agree
Total

19

10.4

10.4

183

100.0

100.0

Laboratories
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

31

16.9

16.9

16.9

62

33.9

33.9

50.8

Neutral

18

9.8

9.8

60.7

Agree

49

26.8

26.8

87.4
100.0

Strong agree
Total

23

12.6

12.6

183

100.0

100.0

Mosques

13

Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

17

9.3

9.3

9.3

50

27.3

27.3

36.6

Neutral

22

12.0

12.0

48.6

Agree

59

32.2

32.2

80.9

Strong agree

35

19.1

19.1

100.0

183

100.0

100.0

Total

Hostels
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

20

10.9

10.9

10.9

34

18.6

18.6

29.5

Neutral

10

5.5

5.5

35.0

Agree

65

35.5

35.5

70.5

Strong agree

54

29.5

29.5

100.0

183

100.0

100.0

Total

Internet facilities
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

26

14.2

14.2

14.2

53

29.0

29.0

43.2

Neutral

21

11.5

11.5

54.6

Agree

63

34.4

34.4

89.1
100.0

Strong agree
Total

20

10.9

10.9

183

100.0

100.0

Updated books, journals and magazines
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

20

10.9

10.9

10.9

48

26.2

26.2

37.2

Neutral

27

14.8

14.8

51.9

Agree

76

41.5

41.5

93.4
100.0

Strong agree
Total

12

6.6

6.6

183

100.0

100.0

14

Qualified staff
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

19

10.4

10.4

10.4

37

20.2

20.2

30.6

Neutral

24

13.1

13.1

43.7

Agree

71

38.8

38.8

82.5
100.0

Strong agree
Total

32

17.5

17.5

183

100.0

100.0

Multimedia is used in the class rooms
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

20

10.9

10.9

10.9

62

33.9

33.9

44.8

Neutral

21

11.5

11.5

56.3

Agree

46

25.1

25.1

81.4

Strong agree

34

18.6

18.6

100.0

183

100.0

100.0

Total

Teachers encourage creative thinking and questioning in class
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

17

9.3

9.3

9.3

63

34.4

34.4

43.7

Neutral

13

7.1

7.1

50.8

Agree

64

35.0

35.0

85.8

Strong agree

26

14.2

14.2

100.0

183

100.0

100.0

Total

Job security of teachers is ensured
Cumulative
Valid

Strongly

Frequency
18

Percent
9.8

Valid Percent
9.8

disagree

15

Percent
9.8

Disagree

36

19.7

19.7

29.5

Neutral

31

16.9

16.9

46.4

Agree

82

44.8

44.8

91.3

Strong agree

16

8.7

8.7

100.0

183

100.0

100.0

Total

Admission of students is done on merit
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

15

8.2

8.2

8.2

71

38.8

38.8

47.0

Neutal

23

12.6

12.6

59.6

Agree

58

31.7

31.7

91.3

Strong agree

16

8.7

8.7

100.0

183

100.0

100.0

Total

Mid term tests are conducted for continuous assessment
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

9

4.9

4.9

4.9

29

15.8

15.8

20.8

Neutral

20

10.9

10.9

31.7

Agree

102

55.7

55.7

87.4

23

12.6

12.6

100.0

183

100.0

100.0

Strong agree
Total

Discipline of the students is maintained at campus
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

31

16.9

16.9

16.9

71

38.8

38.8

55.7

Neutral

29

15.8

15.8

71.6

Agree

43

23.5

23.5

95.1

9

4.9

4.9

100.0

183

100.0

100.0

Strong agree
Total

Students participate in co curricular activities

16

Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

25

13.7

13.7

13.7

46

25.1

25.1

38.8

Neutral

12

6.6

6.6

45.4

Agree

86

47.0

47.0

92.3
100.0

Strong agree
Total

14

7.7

7.7

183

100.0

100.0

Curricula are revised according to global emerging needs
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

18

9.8

9.8

9.8

47

25.7

25.7

35.5

Neutral

46

25.1

25.1

60.7

Agree

56

30.6

30.6

91.3
100.0

Strong agree
Total

16

8.7

8.7

183

100.0

100.0

Quality Assurance System is available
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

20

10.9

10.9

10.9

63

34.4

34.4

45.4

Neutral

30

16.4

16.4

61.7

Agree

57

31.1

31.1

92.9

Strong agree

13

7.1

7.1

100.0

183

100.0

100.0

Total

Tasks in the university are well organized
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

45

24.6

24.6

24.6

57

31.1

31.1

55.7

Neutral

31

16.9

16.9

72.7

Agree

39
11

21.3
6.0

21.3
6.0

94.0
100.0

Strong agree

17

Total

183

100.0

100.0

Research facilities are available
Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

36

19.7

19.7

19.7

61

33.3

33.3

53.0

Neutral

20

10.9

10.9

63.9

Agree

51

27.9

27.9

91.8
100.0

Strong agree
Total

15

8.2

8.2

183

100.0

100.0

Budget allocation is sufficient for all academic activities

Cumulative
Frequency
Valid

Strongly
disagree
Disagree

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

30

16.4

16.4

16.4

70

38.3

38.3

54.6

Neutral

21

11.5

11.5

66.1

Agree

51

27.9

27.9

94.0
100.0

Strong agree
Total

11

6.0

6.0

183

100.0

100.0

T-Test
One-Sample Statistics
Std. Error
N
Gender
Qualification

183
183

Mean
1.3989
2.5902

Std. Deviation
.49102
.95002

Mean
.03630
.07023

183

3.1749

1.31434

.09716

183

3.2459

1.29227

.09553

183

2.7049

1.23160

.09104

183

2.8525

1.29881

.09601

Building fulfills the
instructional requirements
of students
Repair & maintenance is
conducted regularly
Classrooms are well
equipped
Offices

18

Laboratories

183

2.8415

1.33096

.09839

Mosques

183

3.2459

1.29652

.09584

Hostels

183

3.5410

1.36969

.10125

Internet facilities

183

2.9891

1.28383

.09490

183

3.0656

1.17486

.08685

183

3.3279

1.26736

.09369

183

3.0656

1.33263

.09851

183

3.1038

1.27750

.09444

183

3.2295

1.15872

.08566

183

2.9399

1.17749

.08704

183

3.5519

1.05679

.07812

183

2.6066

1.16183

.08588

183

3.0984

1.25407

.09270

183

3.0273

1.14562

.08469

183

2.8907

1.17158

.08661

183

2.5301

1.23943

.09162

183

2.7158

1.28650

.09510

183

2.6885

1.21177

.08958

Updated books, journals
and magazines
Qualified staff
Multimedia is used in the
class rooms
Teachers encourage
creative thinking and
questioning in class
Job security of teachers is
ensured
Admission of students is
done on merit
Mid term tests are
conducted for continuous
assessment
Discipline of the students is
maintained at campus
Students participate in co
curricular activities
Curricula are revised
according to global
emerging needs
Quality Assurance System
is available
Tasks in the university are
well organized
Research facilities are
available
Budget allocation is
sufficient for all academic
activities

One-Sample Test

Test Value = 0
95% Confidence Interval
Mean
Gender
Qualification
Building fulfills the

t
38.541
36.882
32.677

df
182
182
182

Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
.000
.000

instructional requirements

19

Difference
1.39891
2.59016
3.17486

of the Difference
Lower
1.3273
2.4516
2.9832

Upper
1.4705
2.7287
3.3666

of students

Repair & maintenance is
conducted regularly
Classrooms are well
equipped
Offices

33.979

182

.000

3.24590

3.0574

3.4344

29.710

182

.000

2.70492

2.5253

2.8846

29.710

182

.000

2.85246

2.6630

3.0419

Laboratories

28.881

182

.000

2.84153

2.6474

3.0357

Mosques

33.867

182

.000

3.24590

3.0568

3.4350

Hostels

34.972

182

.000

3.54098

3.3412

3.7408

Internet facilities

31.496

182

.000

2.98907

2.8018

3.1763

35.298

182

.000

3.06557

2.8942

3.2369

35.522

182

.000

3.32787

3.1430

3.5127

31.119

182

.000

3.06557

2.8712

3.2599

32.867

182

.000

3.10383

2.9175

3.2902

37.704

182

.000

3.22951

3.0605

3.3985

33.775

182

.000

2.93989

2.7681

3.1116

45.467

182

.000

3.55191

3.3978

3.7060

30.349

182

.000

2.60656

2.4371

2.7760

33.422

182

.000

3.09836

2.9154

3.2813

35.747

182

.000

3.02732

2.8602

3.1944

33.378

182

.000

2.89071

2.7198

3.0616

27.614

182

.000

2.53005

2.3493

2.7108

28.558

182

.000

2.71585

2.5282

2.9035

30.014

182

.000

2.68852

2.5118

2.8653

Updated books, journals
and magazines
Qualified staff
Multimedia is used in the
class rooms
Teachers encourage
creative thinking and
questioning in class
Job security of teachers is
ensured
Admission of students is
done on merit
Mid term tests are
conducted for continuous
assessment
Discipline of the students is
maintained at campus
Students participate in co
curricular activities
Curricula are revised
according to global
emerging needs
Quality Assurance System
is available
Tasks in the university are
well organized
Research facilities are
available
Budget allocation is
sufficient for all academic
activities

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This study found that many factors influence the universities and results in poor quality of higher
education. It is required to regularly monitor the quality criteria and its control processes in
20

universities. Throughout the world universities have developed their economics rapidly by
cooperating with the agricultural and industrial development organizations. While in Pakistan
positive results are not shown by the development indicators.
Education system of Pakistan has many issues concerned with its quality such as quality of staff,
students, poor research facilities, laboratory and library. Hence the quality is very low in the fields of
administration, academic, research and equipment. In my opinion not only the quantity but also the
quality higher education is important for success and growth of the country.
The development and training of faculty and staff need to be ensured.
The question of quality in higher education is related to the quality of teachers, students and the
infrastructure provided. This study highlighted some of the key factors which are the level of
competence of teachers, curricula and the standards of student intake that directly relate to quality
enhancement. This study revealed that Pakistani universities have many weaknesses. The analysis of
higher education institutions indicated that there is no uniform implementation of the HEC criteria
for universities. Quality assessment needs to be ensured in these universities. The universities are
steadily moving towards improvement but there is a need of implementing quality control standards.
Some universities have a strong faculty but the physical infrastructure is less developed. On the other
handsome universities not only are violating admission standards but also have a shortage of
appropriate faculty. Therefore the responsibility lies on the shoulders of the Higher Education
Commission to maintain uniform quality standards in the universities.

RECOMMENDATIONS
After the analysis of this research study following recommendations are made.
1. A uniform admissions policy may be implemented in the universities.
2. Highly qualified faculty may be ensured in the universities.
3. A plan may be devised for non PhD faculty members of the universities so that they could be
registered in PhD programs.
4. Foreign training of all the faculty members may be planned. .
5. Multi-media use in the universities may be encouraged.

21

6. A uniform and lucrative salary package for faculty members may be introduced to attract
highly qualified teachers in the universities.
7. All the research facilities should be provided.

REFERENCE
Ahmed, R., & Corresponding, M. (2011). Strategic Analysis of Public Sector Universities in
Pakistan, 656–668.
Analysis, S., The, O. F., Higher, P., & Environment, E. (n.d.). Analysis of higher education in
Pakistan, 110–158.
Bilal, M., & Khan, I. (2012). ISSUES AND PROSPECTS BEHIND THE DEPRESSED HIGHER
EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN, 2015, 157–172.
Challenges in Higher Education: Special reference to Pakistan and South Asian Developing
Countries: Syed Zubair Haider 1 The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. (n.d.)., 4(2),
1–12.
Country Report on Decentralization in the Education System of Pakistan : Policies and Strategies By
Dawood Shah Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad. (2003)., (June).
Education Reform In Pakistan – Challenges and Prospects Pervez Hoodbhoy. (n.d.)., 1–31.
Enrollment, I. H. E. (2009). Pakistan ’ s Higher Education System — What Went Wrong and How to
Fix It, (Winter), 581–594.
Gazdar, H. (1999). Universal Basic Education in Pakistan : A Commentary on Strategy and Results
of a Survey, 1999.
Husain, I. (2001). Inaugural Address delivered at the Conference on Education held at Woodrow
Wilson Center, Washington D.C. on April 15, 2005. 1, (Spdc 2003), 1–18.
Kazmi, S. W. (1990). Role of Education in Globalization : A Case for, 90–107.
Memon, G. R. (2007). Education in Pakistan : The Key Issues , Problems and The New Challenges,
3(1), 47–55.
Mughal, M. A. (2011). Education System in Pakistan. SSRN Electronic Journal, 1–9.
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1913888
Nasir, Z. M., & Nazli, H. (1994). Education and earnings in pakistan, (1991), 1–25.
Sarwar, S. (2011). Internal and External Influences on the University Teachers in Semester System,
1(April), 11–22.
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Ullah, M. H. (2005). Comparison of the quality of higher education in public and private sector
institutions in pakistan

23

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