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New realities, new possibilities:
The changing face of Indian higher education

Contents
Foreword Executive summary Introduction New demand and supply realities New possibilities New possibilities – Diversity 2 4 6 13 30 33

2

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

New possibilities – Collaboration Agenda for the Government Glossary Acknowledgements About FICCI

59 90 96 100 102

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

1

Foreword
Dear readers, The Indian higher education sector is going through an epochal change given the emerging new realities and new possibilities to deal with the issues of expansion, inclusion and excellence. The government interventions are towards removing the existing entry and operational barriers and facilitate autonomy, accountability and collaborations. However, diversity and diversification of higher education, a critical aspect, has not received due recognition and needs to be debated and included in the reform roadmap. The Indian higher education system is divided into two broad categories: one for scholarly pursuits and achievements in universities/ colleges and the other for work– force requirements in technical institutions, polytechnics etc. It is now increasingly being recognized that this dichotomy should be erased and shifted away from undue emphasis on “manpower– oriented” planning (annual turn out of graduates, growth rate, gross enrollment ratio, employability etc) and adopt a more holistic approach to higher education at every level, not just at the university or college level. Further, there is also a growing acknowledgement by the government to collaborate with the Indian private education providers, industry as well as foreign education providers to achieve the ambitious targets set for the nation. ICT is also being integrated into the higher education interventions for reaching out to the masses with quality programmes. Unfortunately, in spite of having well defined statutory bodies at the central and state levels, a coherent set of meaningful policy guidelines have eluded the Indian higher education sector, so far. Hopefully, if the legal instruments that are sought to be created emerge through the legislative process, and perhaps go through the judicial scrutiny, and if implemented in their true letter and spirit, we can hope to see some significant improvement in quality of higher education being imparted. In the meantime stakeholders concerned about the future of higher education in India should seek to understand the basic rationale behind these measures and help to address them in their own domains of involvement in whatever way possible. Since the nation’s economic future and global stature are intricately associated with the credibility of higher education system, one can only hope that there is sufficient wisdom in the society not to let the present state of entropy to persist. Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) as a change agent has been working diligently towards influencing the government to bring about requisite policy changes for providing the right impetus to the growth of higher education sector. The FICCI– Ernst & Young Study has done a reality check on the drivers of change and the possibilities in the higher education sector in the coming decade that would help take quality higher education to the masses. We are grateful to Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India and all partners and Sponsors for their support in organizing the FICCI Higher Education Summit 20010 titled Renovations in Indian Higher Education: Renewed Focus on Autonomy, Accountability & Partnerships on 11 and 12 November 2010 in FICCI, New Delhi. We are sure that the deliberations in the conference will help us in coming up with concrete recommendations that will be submitted to the Government at the highest level for consideration.

Warm regards, Prof M Anandakrishnan Chairman FICCI Higher Education Committee

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Dear readers, The higher education system in the country is poised at a crucial stage in its growth. On one hand, it can empower our youth, unleash the potential presented by India’s demographic advantage and propel India into the ranks of the developed nations of the world. However, on the other hand, if the higher education system does not reform and upgrade itself, our demographic dividend could turn into a demographic disaster. This report highlights the changing face of higher education. Over the last few years the sector has seen tremendous growth. The number of institutes has doubled over the last ten years backed by strong private sector participation. The Government is in the midst of introducing large–scale reform, to improve quality and establish a streamlined regulatory mechanism. Student demand is also changing, focusing on global quality as well as employability linked education. All these factors in conjunction, have considerably changed the characteristics of the India higher education sector, and have created tremendous opportunities and possibilities for the system to reinvigorate itself. The stage is

set for increased collaboration between Government, private players, industry and international educational players in the field of higher education which can significantly improve access, equity as well as quality. Promoting diversity in the higher education sector, wherein centres of excellence co–exist with large mass based institutes, is important keeping in mind the different realities of India. The use of technology to expand reach could also emerge as a game–changer in its ability to provide good quality and affordable higher education to the large numbers of people who are denied access. Through this report, we have tried to put forth some of these possibilities which can bring about a quantum change in the higher education system. I hope this report provides insights on the directional change which Indian higher education is undergoing and ideas for accelerating the growth of Indian higher education.

Warm regards, Amitabh Jhingan Partner, Education sector leader Ernst & Young

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

3

Executive summary
The Indian higher education system has established itself as one of the largest in the world, in terms of number of institutions and student enrolment. Higher education spends in India are currently estimated at INR46,200 crores and are projected to grow to nearly INR150,000 crores in the next 10 years, reflecting an average growth rate of 12.8%. Against the backdrop of this high growth, the nature of demand for higher education is witnessing a change. Changing macro–economic trends are influencing the composition and preferences of students, leading to new demand–side realities. These include increasing spends on education, new categories of students, willingness to pay for academic quality, increasing demand for global education and demand for employability–linked education. With substantial participation from the private sector and growing interest from foreign players, supply of higher education has increased substantially. The Government has also augmented supply through enhanced funding and by setting up new institutes. While the increased supply is a step in the right direction, there is a need to align supply to the changing needs of students. The report highlights how this alignment can be brought about through diversification and collaboration in the higher education space. While the Government continues to be the cornerstone of the higher education system, it needs to play a much larger role in facilitating the new possibilities to effectively cater to the emerging demands of students. Other areas like privatization and globalization also require incentives from the Government to steer the India’s higher education system into the league of the best in the world. These possibilities also provide the means to build a more robust higher education system by addressing the primary challenges of access, equity and quality.

4

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

The Government can play a much larger role in facilitating the new possibilities to effectively cater to the emerging demand scenario. It needs to further encourage private sector investments in higher education to meet the funding gap. It also needs to promote diversity by encouraging vocational and distance education as well as teaching universities.

The lack of faculty is emerging as the biggest challenge to the continued growth of the sector and faculty development needs to be taken up on a national mission mode. Structural changes such as fee rationalization, introduction of robust governance mechanisms and regulatory reforms also need to be expedited.

Drivers New category of customers • New category of customers • Increasing spends on education • Demand for academic quality • Increasing demand for global education • Demand for employability linked education • Rapid Privatization • Globalization • Increasing Government investments

Possibilities Diversification • New modes of delivery • New types of institutes • New types of courses

Collaboration • Foreign players • Industry • Government

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

5

Introduction

6

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

The Indian Higher Education system has over 26,000 institutes across varied fields of study

Form of existence

Universities and university–level institutions

Central Universities Deemed Universities Institutions of National Importance Institutions established under State legislations State Private Universities State Universities

40 130 33 5 53 243

Colleges

Autonomous colleges 25,951 Affiliated colleges

Field of study

General
Arts

UG

Grad

PG

• BA • BSc • BCom
Science

• MA • MSc • MCom

• PhD • DPhil

• BBM • BIT • BHM • BEd • MBBS • M.Tech • MBA • MS/MD • MDS

Commerce

Professional

Engineering

• BE • B.Tech

Management • BDS

Medical

Others

Sources: MHRD: Annual Report 2009–10

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

7

It is one of the largest in the world, in terms of number of institutions as well as student enrolment

India has one of the largest higher education systems in the world
Student enrollment in higher education (in million)
25.35 17.76 13.64 India 9.37 Russia 4.57 Brazil India

Number of higher education institutions
~26,000 ~6,706 USA ~4,000 China

China

USA



India’s higher education system is the largest in terms of number of institutions and third largest in terms of enrollment

Increase in student enrolment in higher education
Enrolment in higher education per year (in million)
13.6



5.9% CAGR 8.4 6.6
3.6 4.9

11

There are ~13.6 million students undergoing higher education in India, nearly half of these students have joined the system over the last decade

1985–86 1990–91 1995–96 2000–01 2005–06 2008–09

Growth in number of higher education institutions
Year-wise number of universities and colleges in India
25,951



11,146 3,277 93
1970–71

4,738 123
1980–81

5,748 184
1990–91

578
1950–51

1,819 28 45
1960–61

266
2000–01

504
2009–10*

Higher education in India has seen an unprecedented boom in the number of colleges and universities in the last decade. The number of universities and colleges have almost doubled, led by massive participation by the private sector Since 1950–51, the number of universities has increased from 28 to 504, while colleges have grown from 578 to 25,951 during the same period



Number of Universities

Number of colleges

Sources: MHRD: Annual Report 2009–10; Making the Indian higher education system future ready FICCI Higher Education Summit 2009

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Current estimates indicate the spends on higher education in India to be nearly INR46,200 crores…

Higher education spending in India
Total spends on higher education in India ~INR46,200 crores

Private institutions account for majority of the spend
Public institutes 8% Private institutes 92%

Professional courses dominate the landscape
General courses 40%

Professional courses 60%

Majority spends in public are in the area of general courses while spends in private institutions are dominated by professional courses

Share of general and professional courses in public institutions
Professional courses 38%

Share of general and professional courses in private institutions
Professional courses 62%

General courses 38%

General courses 62%

Sources: EY Analysis

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

9

These spends are expected to grow on the back of several drivers like increasing GER, services– driven economy, favorable demographics…

1. Increasing GER

While India’s GER in higher education is low as compared to other countries, it has increased from 7% in 2001 to 12% in 2010 As per the estimates of the National Knowledge Commission, the GER is expected to rise to 15.5% by 2012

2. Move to a services driven economy

The shift towards a services economy is creating a large demand for skilled work force which in turn will drive enrollments in higher education The demand for educated workforce (graduates and above) is expected to increase from around 41 million in 2007 to nearly 58.5 million by 2012





3. Favorable demographics
Population aged 15-24 (in lacs)

India 929.8 1015.4 448.8 429.4 29.2 28.2 6.9 5.4 2005

2339.8 2188.1

Europe

USA

Australia

Singapore

2010



India has the largest target population for higher education in the world. Currently, the Indian population in the relevant age group to enroll into a higher education course is more than that of Europe, USA and Australia combined

Sources: Netscribes Higher Education Report, 2009

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

… and high expenditure on higher education

4. High expenditure on higher education
Routine expenditure (in %)
Food Transport Education Clothing Durables Housing Health Others 5 4.7 4.7 9.8 10.5 7.4 6.9 Education Travel Others 7.8 3.9 9.3 51.1

Non-routine expenditure (in %)
Ceremonies Medical 27.4 51.5

• •

Education is the third largest expenditure group for an average Indian household Nearly 55% of the Indian middle class households have started saving for higher education of their children

Sources: The Max New York Life – NCAER: India Financial Protection Survey; Pawan Agarwal: Envisioning the Future 2009; EY Analysis

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

11

On the back of favorable drivers the spends on higher education are projected to grow over INR150,000 crores in the next 10 years

Spends in the higher education segment are expected to increase to INR155,015 crores by 2020
Estimated size of higher education segment (INR crores)

155,015
2.8% CAGR 1

87,024 46,231

2010

2015

2020



If we assume the standard population growth rate, a GER of 20% in 2020 and a 5% inflation in fee levels, the higher education segment spends would reach INR155,015 crores in 2020

However it requires an investment of INR360,640 crores to create the additional capacity
Investment requirements over the 2010–2020 period ~INR360,640 crores

• •

The expansion of higher education system will require considerable investment to create additional capacity. Keeping in mind the target GER of 20% and taking into account the prescribed infrastructure for educational institutes, we would need to invest INR360,640 crore

Sources: EY Analysis

12

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

New demand and supply realities
New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education 13

New Demand realities

There are various demand–side trends shaping the higher education system in India

Changes in the composition, characteristics and preferences of students coupled with various macro–economic trends are transforming the face of Indian higher education

1

Increasing spends on education

5 Demand for employability-linked education New categories of students

2

New demand realties

Increasing demand for global education

Willingness to pay for academic quality 3

4

Sources: EY Analysis

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Increasing spends on education

Rising GDP and consumer expenditures have led to an increase in per capita spends on education

Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita has been rising
Gross domestic product per capita (1999-2000 prices) INR per annum
30,532

During the period 1981–08, GDP per capita has increased by almost 300% (at constant prices) from INR10,409 in 1981 to INR30,532 in 2008. In CAGR terms, this translates to a rise of 3.92% during the period.

10,409 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

As a result, per capita expenditure on goods and services has been increasing
Private final consumption expenditure per capita (1999–2000 prices) INR per annum
17,138

In per capita terms, consumer expenditure on goods and services, including education, has also been increasing. During the period 1981–08, household expenditures have increased by over 200% (at constant prices) from INR8,268 in 1981 to INR17,138 in 2008. In CAGR terms, this translates to a rise of 2.64% during the period.

8,268 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

At the same time, per capita value and percentage spends on education have also been rising
Private final consumption expenditure on education per capita (1999–2000 prices) INR per annum
437 1.46% 121 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2.55%

Private final consumption expenditure on education (as a % of total private final consumption expenditure) per annum

During the period 1981–08, consumption expenditures on education (at constant prices) have increased from Rs.121 in 1981 to INR437 in 2008. In CAGR terms, this translates to a rise of 4.70% during the period.

Share of education as a percentage of total household consumption expenditure has been increasing steadily from 1.46% in 1981 to 2.55% in 2008.

Sources: Central Statistics Organization (2008 and 2009), International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook Database, October 2010, MHRD

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

15

New categories of students

A significant part of the incremental demand for higher education is set to emanate from traditionally under–served sections (1/2)

Enrollments from the rural population are expected to rise
Number of rural enrollments in higher education Rural enrollments in higher education have been rising at a CAGR of 6.14% since 1994 and are expected to reach ~11.1 million in 2020

11,051,264

9% R 5. CAG

8,204,179

6,090,574 4,297,227 3,107,534 2,233,824

1994

2000

2005

2010 (E) 2015 (F) 2020 (F)

Rural enrollments as a percentage of total enrollments are increasing
Rural enrollments as a percentage of total enrollments
41.00% 39.41% 40.77% 42.18%

38.40%

38.60%

Rural enrollments have increased from around one– third of total enrollments in 1994 to approximately two–fifths currently. This percentage is expected to go up to 42.18% in 2020.

1994

2000

2005

2010 (E) 2015 (F) 2020 (F)

GER in rural areas is expected to reach 12.84% in 2020
GERs for rural India in the Indian higher education segment
20.00 15.49 12.59 8.85 4.66 10.08 5.58 7.51 12.00 9.27 6.76 12.84

Although GERs in rural areas have been much lower than the total GERs, they have been rising steadily and are expected to reach 12.84% in 2020.

1994

2000

2005

2010 (E) 2015 (F) 2020 (F) Rural

Total

Sources: UGC: Higher Education in India 2008; 11th Five Year Plan Volume II * 2004–05, EY Analysis

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

New categories of students

A significant part of the incremental demand for higher education is set to emanate from traditionally underserved sections (2/2)

A growing number of women are expected to enroll in higher education institutes
Number of women enrolled in higher education Over 6.1 million women are enrolled in higher education institutes currently. This number is expected to grow at a CAGR of 7% to reach 12.14 million in 2020

7% CAGR 8,655,820
6,171,480

12,140,235

2010 (E)

2015 (F)

2020 (F)

Proportion of women amongst the total student population is expected to rise
Women entering higher education as a percentage of total number of students
39.93% 43.01% 46.33%

Out of the total student population for higher education in 2020, almost half are estimated to be women.

2010 (E)

2015 (F)

2020 (F)

GER of women is expected to reach 19.26% in 2020
GERs for women in the Indian higher education segment
20.00 19.26 15.49 12.00 9.96 13.85

While the GER of women in higher education is currently at 9.96%, it is expected to rise to 19.26% in 2020.

2010 (E)

2015 (F) Total Women

2020 (F)

Sources: UGC: Higher Education in India 2008; 11th Five Year Plan Volume II * 2004–05, EY Analysis

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

17

New categories of students

A number of mid–career professionals are also returning to colleges for advanced degrees, spurring the demand for executive education

Demand for executive education programs from working professionals 1.
The demanding work–culture and rapid developments in management are leading professionals to stay abreast of latest trends and developments within their industries and to continually improve their skill–sets. Many professionals who joined the industry straight after securing a professional degree, return to colleges to garner additional qualifications to take them to the next step in their careers

2.

3.

These trends have led many senior professionals to opt for executive education, during the course of their careers.

4.

A large number of institutes have launched courses in the last decade to cater to this trend.

Institutes offering executive education programs: Year of Introduction
2000 2004 2005 2005 2006 2008 2009 2009 2010

Institute and program name
ISB Great lakes IIM A IIM L IIM C IIM L ISB IIM B IIM I PGP PGPM PGPX WMP PGPX IPMX PGPMAX EPGP EPGP

Type
Full -time Full -time Part-time Part-time Full -time Full -time Part-time Full -time Full -time

Course Duration (months)
12 12 12 36 12 12 15 12 12

Min. experience
2 years (preferred) 2 Yrs. Age:27 3 Yrs. 5 Yrs. 6 Yrs. 10 Yrs. 7 Yrs. 5 Yrs.

Sources: Interviews; Institutes’ websites

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Willingness to pay for academic quality

Despite the rise in fees of academic programs, number of applications for quality programs have been rising

Even though the cost of high–quality programmes have been rising…
Cost of programmes INR lakhs
CAGR 25.7% CAGR 36.6% CAGR 29.6% CAGR 34.1% CAGR 45.6% CAGR 32.0% CAGR 11.6% 21.5

13 10 8 10.95

13.5

13.7 12.4

2.55

2.1

3

3

3.42 2.06

IIM Lucknow

IIM Kozhikode

IIM Indore

IIM Bangalore 2005 2010

IIM Calcutta

IIM Ahmedabad

ISB

…the number of applicants with respect to capacity still remain very high
IIMs
99% 83%

ISB

1%

17%

Accepted candidates/seats (as a % of total number of applicants)

Rejected applicants (as a % of total number of applicants)

Source Leveraging Public Private Partnerships for India’s Education Sector; Institute websites, www.livemint.com,; Indian Higher Education Envisioning the Future, Pawan Agarwal

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

19

Willingness to pay for academic quality

Rise in incomes and availability of loans have contributed to consumers’ willingness to pay

Willingness to pay is being driven by several factors Growth in the number of high income households
Number of households (million), % of total number of households
2001–02 65.2, 35% 41, 18% 2009–10

13.8, 7%

48.7, 21%

109.2, 58%

140.7, 61%

High income households – Households earning over INR1,80,000 p.a. (2001–2002 prices) Middle income households – Households earning between INR45,000 – INR1,80,000 p.a. (2001–2002 prices) Low income households – Households earning less than INR40,000 p.a. (2001–2002 prices)

Greater availability of student loans
Growth in student loan accounts and portfolio in India
120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 1990–91 1995–06 2000–01 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06 Amount outstanding (INR million) Number of loan accounts (in thousands) 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

A number of schemes have been launched by banks to tap the potential of the education loans segment. Several banks have entered into tie–ups with educational institutes to provide student loans without any collateral. Education loans disbursed by Indian banks rose by 51% to INR15,000 crore for the FY 2007 and rose by 34% to INR20,000 crores in FY 2008

Source: National Council for Applied Economic Research: Website; Indian Higher Education Envisioning the Future, Pawan Agarwal

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Increasing demand for global education

There has been an increasing trend of students wanting to study abroad

Factors influencing students to study abroad 1. 2. 3. 4.
Capacity constraints in domestic institutes offering quality programs Aspiration to study from a top–ranked global university

Increasing income levels and ability to spend Opportunity to migrate to a high–wage country in search of higher salaries post qualification

Number of Indians applying for education abroad
A third of the total GMAT test takers in the world are from Asia... …and almost two-fifths of total test-takers in Asia are from India.

China 30% United States 49% Asia 88,267 33% India 39%

Europe 9% Australia and Pacific Islands 0% Mexico, Caribbean and Latin America Canada 3% Africa 3% 3%

South Korea 9% Taiwan 6% Others Japan 9% Thailand 4% 3%

The number of Indians taking the GMAT has been increasing significantly year–on–year
GMAT tests taken by Indian citizenship 2005–2009

.7% CAGR 17

28,570

30,633

21,481 16,541 13,544 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Source: International Finance Corporation: Website; 2009 World Geographic Trend Report for GMAT Examinees; 2009 Asian Geographic Trend Report for GMAT Examinees

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

21

Increasing demand for global education

Making India the second largest source of international students

Number of Indians studying overseas After China, the highest number of students going overseas to study are from India
Number of students studying overseas
150,194 109,577 94,446 66,475 53,417 159,779

1990–00

2000–01

2001–02

2002–03

2004–05

2005–06

Out of the 160,000 students studying overseas in 2005–06, 50% were in the United States
Percentage of Indian students studying in foreign countries 2005-06
Other countries 13% Singapore 3% Canada 4% UK 15% Australia 17%

English speaking countries such as US, Australia, UK, Canada and Singapore are the most popular destinations for students to study.
USA 48%

This trend has led a number of non–English speaking countries such as Germany, Holland and France to also offer programs in English. While students generally prefer United States and Germany for post–graduate courses, other countries are witnessing a rise in undergraduate and non–degree enrollments.

Source: Making the Indian higher education system future ready – FICCI Higher Education Summit 2009, Foreign education providers in India – UKRERI, Indian Higher Education Envisioning the Future, Pawan Agarwal

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Demand for employability–linked education

Better job prospects and salaries from professional courses have led to a rise in demand for employability linked education

Students rank placements as one of the key criterions for institute selection
Respondents to student survey conducted by a popular online forum in 2009 ranked placements as the most important criterion in selecting a business institute.

Career and earning prospects of graduates are directly proportional to the relevance of education to the industry
This is evidenced by the fact that 80% of the graduates in general streams (BSc/ BA) are perceived to be unemployable by the industry.

Consequently, professional courses that provide better job prospects and salaries have been in demand
Skilled manpower shortages in specific industries are leading to the demand for courses within corresponding domains:
Sectors facing manpower shortage Incremental skilled Shortfall in highly manpower requirement skilled manpower (in lakhs till 2022) (estimated actuals till 2022) 33 53 350 120 173 30 3,30,000 5,30,000 17,00,000 1,10,00,000 13,00,000 10,00,000

Courses in demand Engineering, MBA – Marketing, Telecom Management BCA, MCA, Programming, BPO/KPO Management, Foreign Language Auto Financing and Insurance, Engineering, Sales and Marketing MBBS, MD, BDS, MSc/ Bsc – Nursing, MBA – Healthcare Logistics, Retail Management, MBA – Operations, Fashion Film/TV Production, Direction, Mass Communication, Animation Risk Management, Structured Finance, Credit Evaluation, Insurance Real Estate Management, Sales and Marketing, Civil Engineering, Architecture BA, LLB, LLM BEd/BT, Med, MSc, PhD Merchandising, Fashion Design, Jewelry/Accessory Design Hotel Management, Tourism

Electronics and IT Hardware IT and ITES Auto Healthcare Organized Retail Media and Entertainment Banking, Insurance and FS Real Estate and Construction Legal Services Education Textile, Apparel and Jewelry Tourism and Hospitality

42.5 490 N.A. 86 309

7,00,000 15,00,000 1,50,000 80,00,000 10,00,000

36

9,00,000

Sources: National Skill Development Corporation; India Today: Website; Education Times: Website; EY Analysis, Indian Higher Education Envisioning the Future, Pawan Agarwal

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

23

New Supply realities

Several changes in supply side characteristics are shaping the higher education segment

New supply side realities

Rapid increase in private sector participation

Indian players going abroad and entry of foreign players into India

Rapid Privatization

Globalization

New supply realities

Increasing Government investments
Government increasing investments in higher education and opening new institutes

Sources: EY Analysis

24

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Rapid privatization

There has been a rapid increase in private sector participation

The share of unaided private higher education institutions in the country has grown significantly in the last few years

Unaided private higher education institutions as a percentage of total institutions
63.21% 42.60%

2001

2006

Number of professional unaided private higher education institutions
1,617 1,150 736 204 Pharmacy Engineering Management 1999–00 Computer applications 669 682 780 999 174 233 Medicine (MBBS)

There has been a rapid growth in the number of professional private higher education institutions

2006–07

Percentage share of public and private institutions in professional courses (2006-07)
5 9 36 38 50

95

91 64 62 50

This growth is reflected in the dominant share of unaided private higher education institutions in professional courses

Pharmacy

Engineering

Management Private Public

Computer applications

Medicine (MBBS)

Sources: XIth Five Year Plan; AICTE and other Professional Councils of Education

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

25

Rapid privatization

While established players are expanding many new players have announced entry plans

Established Indian education players
• • • • • • •
VIT university is planning to open a campus in Chennai by 2012 Amity University is planning a campus in Gwalior and Manesar and a campus in either US, Australia or Middle East Symbiosis is planning a medical college in Pune and an offsite campus in Noida Thapar University is planning a 22 acre campus in Chandigarh GD Goenka Group has partnered with Lancaster University to foray into higher education segment through the G. D. Goenka World Institute NIIT has recently launched the NIIT University Centum Learning, a Bharti associate company is planning to open 20 college campuses in three years

New players
International for–profit education players



Large foreign education players like Apollo Global, Laureate International Universities and Devry Inc are eyeing an entry into the higher education sector in India

Indian corporates

• • • •

Reliance group is planning to set up a ‘world–class’ university in either Mumbai or Delhi Reliance ADAG is planning a university in Bhopal The B.K. Modi led Spice Global group is planning a 100 acre university in Uttar Pradesh Future group has recently launched the Future Innoversity

Sources: dnaindia.com, vccircle.com, economictimes.indiatimes.com, livemint.com, buseniss–standard.com, timesofindia.indiatimes.com, indiamag.in

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Globalization

A large number of foreign universities have also announced plans to enter India

Foreign players are entering the segment via collaborations…
1. Collaborations



Foreign players have established significant presence via large number of collaborations with Indian institutes. Some of the recent collaborations are:

• • • • •

Nottingham Trent University (UK) and Prin.L.N. Welingkar Institute of Management Development & Research (Mumbai) for Bioinformatics programme International Hotel Management Institute (Switzerland) and Kohinoor — IMI Khandala School of Hospitality Management (Pune). London School of Economics & Political Science (UK) and City School of Social and Managerial Sciences (Chennai) Warwick University (UK) and ITM, Gurgaon

While Carleton University, Sheridan College, Pickering University and Quest University are some of the other players who are eager to forge tie ups with Indian institutes through collaborations

… and are now also announcing plans to open campuses in India
2. Campuses



News articles have indicated that foreign players are also planning to open campuses in India. Some of the recent examples are:

• • • •

York University, Schulich School of Business — Planning a 100 acre campus in Mumbai Georgia Tech — Plans to set up a 250 acre campus in Hyderabad Duke University, Fuqua School of Business — Planning to open a 25 acre campus in India Virginia Tech University — Plans to build a 30–acre campus in Chennai

Around 161 foreign educational providers are engaged in about 230 academic
collaborations with 143 Indian institutes

Sources: UKIERI: Foreign Education Providers in India 2008, economictimes.indiatimes.com, business–standard.com, timesofindia.indiatimes.com, studycanada.learnhub.com

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

27

Globalization

At the same time Indian higher education players are establishing campuses abroad

BITS Pilani – Dubai Manipal University – Malaysia, Nepal Dubai, Antigua SP Jain Centre of Management – Dubai, Singapore, Sydney Amity University – Singapore, London, San Francisco

Established Indian players are leveraging their strong brand name and competencies by
establishing presence abroad

Sources: Business Standard: Website, Institute websites

28

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Increasing Government investments

The Government is committing large amounts of funds to the HE sector and also setting up new institutes

Increasing investments on higher education by the Government
Total Central Government expenditure on higher education (INR billion)
196.2 135.4 46.4 89.0 2008–09 113.2 2009–10 93.7 13.4 2007–08 Plan 2005–06 Non-plan 99.6 16.7 2006–07 Plan Non-plan 83.0 107.1

Total State Government expenditure on higher education (INR billion)
3.2% CAGR 1 116.2

9.6% CAGR 2
80.4 38.2 42.2 2006–07 117.4 41.3 76.1

137.1

69.6 34.2 35.4 2005–06

115.2 21.8 2007–08

• •

The Central Government’s proposed expenditure in 2009–10 is substantially higher than 2008–09 There has also been a substantial increase in State Government expenditure on higher education

The Central Government plans for setting up new institutes
Planned Central Government institutes

Planned Central Government institutes



The Central Government has announced plans of opening 16 central universities, 14 innovation universities and new IITs and IIMs The Central Government‘s focus is towards opening new institutes of academic excellence


16 central universities 14 innovation universities 8 IITs 7 IIMs

Sources: Union Budget: 2005–06, 2006–07, 2007–08, 2008–09, 2009–10; MHRD: Analysis of Budgeted Expenditure on Education, 2003–2004 to 2005–2006, 2005–06 to 2007–08

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

29

New possibilities

30

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

India’s higher education system is bogged down by the fundamental challenges of inadequate access, inequity and poor quality

Inadequate access
Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) (percentage) 2007
82% 75%

India’s GER for higher education at 12% is significantly below the global GER average of 26% in 2007
23% 12%

26%

Global average

USA

Russia

China

India

Access

Availability of suitable number of institutions across regions to fulfill demand Provision of suitable infrastructure, trained faculty and effective pedagogy in higher education institutions aimed at delivering expected outcomes

Equal opportunity for all sections of society to participate in higher education

Equity

Quality

Inequity

Poor quality
SJTW Top-500 universities rankings, 2010

There are large equity variations in the country across states, areas, gender and communities:

USA UK 38 23 17 6 2

154

State
Bihar — 5.7 Uttaranchal — 15.1

Area
Rural — 7.5 Urban — 23.8

Canada Australia Brazil Russia

Gender
Female — 10.6 Male — 14.4

Communities
SC/ST/OBC — 7.3 Others — 17.2

India 2 China 22

Despite having one of the largest higher education systems in the world very few Indian institutes are of world class quality

Sources: EY Analysis, UNESCO Global Education Digest 2009, UGC: Higher Education in India 2008, 11th Five Year Plan Volume II * 2004–05, Academic Ranking of World Universities: Website

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

31

The changing realities are leading to the emergence of new possibilities which could assist in solving the key challenges facing HE

Realities
• • • •
New category of customers Increasing spends on education Demand for academic quality Increasing demand for global education

• • • •

Demand for employability linked education Rapid privatization Globalization Increasing investments

Possibilities
Diversity Collaboration

• • •

New modes of delivery New types of institutes New types of courses

• • •

Foreign players Industry Government

Solving the problems of poor access, equity and quality

Diversity in the system will help improve access and reduce inequity by reaching out to a larger population through innovative modes of delivery and Diversity would make the system more relevant via new types of institutes and courses thus attracting more students



Collaboration with foreign players and industry will provide the system with a global and industry orientation thus improving quality and Public private collaborations can significantly improve the quality of existing public institutes while also increasing capacity





Sources: EY Analysis

32

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

New possibilities: Diversity
New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education 33

Encouraging diversity in India’s higher education system will help resolve the issue of poor access and inequity

Diversity provides a means of tackling the issue of inadequate access and inequity facing the higher education system by:
1 Improving supply across inaccessible parts of the country 2 Increasing availability of relevant courses for under–served sections 3 Meeting diverse student needs

Diversity in higher education

Vocational and new age courses

Study centers and technology enabled modes of delivery

New types of courses

New modes of delivery

Diversity

New types of institutes
Premium, mass and specialized institutes

There is a need to evolve operating models and academic programs that truly cater to
the diverse needs of the Indian youth
Sources: EY Analysis

34

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

New modes of delivery

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

35

Promoting new modes of delivery/distance education will yield several benefits to the higher education system

Perceived benefit

Impact • •
Study centers: Have the opportunity to deliver classroom teaching outside university campuses Technology enabled learning: Has the potential to reach out to students across inaccessible parts of the country

Improving access

Reaching out to diverse student needs



New modes of delivery are ideal to cater to the demand for part time education

Financially efficient means to increase access



New modes of delivery eliminate the need for heavy investments in infrastructure and are financially efficient thus allowing the poorer sections of society access to higher education at affordable costs

Use of innovative delivery modes like online, mobile, study centers provide an
opportunity to increase GER rapidly & reduce inequity in the system

Sources: EY Analysis

36

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Distance education has evolved from the traditional text book correspondence courses to study centers and technology aided learning

Modes of delivery in distance education have evolved from the traditional methods of correspondence to study centers and now even education even via mobile phones

TV, Mobile etc. Study centre, online Correspondence courses using text books and printed study material
New modes of delivery and access potential Emerging modes of delivery like online, TV and mobile have the potential to reach out to a larger student population thus increasing the access potential

New modes of distance education
Study Centers Overview Courses based on face–to–face tutoring, laboratory and hands on experience IGNOU, SMU, PTU, MDU Technology aided learning Courses based on self instructional material delivered using various technologies like online, mobile, TV etc. IGNOU, Symbiosis, NPTEL

Key Players

Sources: EY Analysis

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

37

Study centers

Players delivering courses via study centers have established strong presence via large distribution networks and portfolio of courses

Name Sikkim Manipal University (SMU)

Distribution network 750 LCs (learning centers)

Regional strength East

Number of programs offered 40

Course portfolio

• • • • • • • • • • • •

IT Management Allied Health Sciences IT Management Hospitality Fashion Media IT Management Law Diverse: Sciences, art, fashion design etc. IT Management Accounting Science / Arts / Education Wide range of courses through 21 Schools of Studies

Punjab Technical University (PTU)

1,200 LCs

North

100+

Maharishi Dayanand University (MDU)

759 LCs

Haryana

24

Annamalai University

83 LCs

South India

401

ICFAI

Own LC network

South India

125

• • • • •

Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU)

3,000 LCs

Pan India

338

IGNOU and SMU are considered to be the leading distance education players in
the country

Sources: SMU, PTU, MDU, Annamalai, ICFAI and IGNOU websites, HT Media Limited

38

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Study centers

IGNOU is the world’s largest university with over 2.4 million students and has grown using the study centre model

Background
Overview

• •

IGNOU was established in 1985 by an Act of the Parliament as a Central University. It has also constituted the Distance Education Council (DEC) in India IGNOU operates through 21 Schools of Studies in 61 regional centers, 3000 learner support centers and 60 overseas centers in 36 countries

Network



Enrollment



It has more than 2.4 million students enrolled from India and overseas

Study Centre Model of IGNOU
IGNOU’s Study Centre Model has been successful in decreasing learner isolation as well as providing academic, administrative and informative support to the students



Course–specific academic counseling: IGNOU provides face to face sessions between learners & counselors at Study Centres (SCs) to clarify doubts & answer academic queries. Besides academic counseling, SCs also conduct practical sessions to provide hands–on–training. Assessment: Assignments form the continuous evaluation part of assessment, where student submits the assignment responses at the SC as per the assignment date given by the study centre. IGNOU also conducts term–end examination at SCs to measure student performance. Responsiveness: Counselors at IGNOU study centers shoulder the responsibility of providing timely and quality feedback to students via written or verbal evaluations on assignments, and overseeing students’ laboratory work. Academic facilities: Besides the faculty support, IGNOU SCs are also equipped with audio–listening, video–viewing, and tele–conferencing facilities







Sources: IGNOU: Profile 2010; IGNOU: Website

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

39

Study centers

While Sikkim Manipal University is the largest private sector provider of distance education

Background
Overview



Established on the Public–Private–Partnership model between the Manipal Education Group and the Government of Sikkim, Sikkim Manipal University (SMU) is the first Indian university to be built on the PPP model. Operates through a network of more than 750 learning centres in the country and 25 overseas centres in 25 countries. Academic content & teaching is defined by SMU and infrastructure is provided at local level by these learning centres. With more than 400,000 students on its rolls, SMU provides distance education courses through Sikkim Manipal University Distance Education (SMU–DE).

Network

• •

Enrollment



Study Centre Model of SMU
SMU’s Study Centre Model provides a range of support services to the students including the online delivery of lectures through VSAT



Basic support services: The study centres offer the basic support services to students in terms of providing the course material, conducting practical sessions, providing assessment and feedback, etc. Counseling: Apart from basic academic inputs, counselors at learning centres provide guidance on career, course and all issues pertaining to the overall growth of the individual. Industry/Alumni interaction: Learning centres provide industry experts for interaction on a weekly basis whereby students are given a complete insight on the vital aspects of working in their chosen field. In addition, SMU–DE has a 1.5 lakhs strong alumni base who come in to assist students with lectures, counseling, guidance and job opportunities VSAT delivered lectures: To overcome the huge shortage of good faculty at various learning centers, SMU–DE provides interactive classes through VSAT. Thus, VSAT creates a unique interactive environment enabling teacher–led training to a large number of students in different learning centres and geographically dispersed sites.







Creating classroom environment through EduNxt
• •
To make the whole self–learning system enjoyable and not time bound, SMU has introduced EduNxt– Technology enabled Internet based learning platform. Mock tests, videos, presentations and case studies are updated real time on this platform helping students to stay in sync with the industry. Students can also access faculty mentors, industry experts, virtual classrooms, self–learning materials and over a million books and journals over the Internet.

Sources: SMU: Prospectus – Fall 2010; SMU: Website

40

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Study centers

Both have grown by providing a diverse range of academic programmes and are announcing large expansion plans

Indira Gandhi National Open University Academic programmes

IGNOU offers assortment of programmes on varied subjects and disciplines such as teaching, management, communication, languages, tourism and journalism in different structures including certificate courses of six month duration, one–year diploma courses, degree and PG diploma courses IGNOU offers a wide variety of courses ranging from an affordable MBA to a premium Bachelors Degree



Diploma programmes
INR1,600– 20,000 INR2.1 lakhs Diploma in Computer Generated Imagery

Bachelor degree programmes
INR850–26,750 INR4.5 lakhs

Master degree programmes
INR21,000 MBA in Banking & Finance INR2.4 lakhs

• •

Management • Legal Process Outsourcing

• •

Commerce Hospitality and Hotel Administration



3D • Animation and Visual Effects



MBA in Aviation Business Management

Future plans
Expand overseas presence



In order to further expand its overseas presence, IGNOU plans to open study centers in Africa and six European nations, including Germany and France.

Sikkim Manipal University Academic programmes

Offers more than 40 different programmes across 11 disciplines including IT, management, journalism and mass communication, fashion design and applied biotechnology at Diploma, Graduate, PG Diploma and PG Degree levels

Diploma programmes
INR20,900 Information Technology INR71,000 Hospitality and Catering Management

Bachelor degree programmes
INR44,700 Information System INR1.0 lakhs Hospitality and Catering Management

Master degree programmes
INR42,800 Information Technology INR1.0 lakhs Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs

Future plans
Expand local presence



SMU targets to expand its study centre base from 250 districts to cover 500 districts by next two years.

Sources: IGNOU: Profile 2010; SMU: Prospectus – Fall 2010, Press Trust of India, United News of India

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

41

Technology aided learning

Several players are also starting to deliver courses via technology aided modes of deliveries

Key players

Technology aided modes of delivery Online TV Radio Mobile Other

Offering

NPTEL

Content on engineering related subjects Online courses with IIM–C, IIT–D, MDI, IIFT Several post–graduate diploma programs & certificate programs Online BBA / MBA, PG – Diploma (Management and language programs) Online, TV, Radio, Mobile phones and tele–education

Macmillan India Symbiosis

Amity University

IGNOU

While the internet is well established as a delivery model, TV and mobile phones are fast
emerging as new modes of delivery

Sources: NPTEL, IGNOU,, Symbiosis Centre for Distance Learning websites, develop.emacmillan.com

42

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Technology aided learning

MHRD has started the NPTEL program to provide content in engineering by partnering with leading educational institutes

Overview

NPTEL (National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning) a project funded by the MHRD was conceived in 1999 to pave the way for introducing multimedia and web technology to enhance learning of basic science and engineering concepts

Program partners
Seven IITs and the Indian Institute of Science have worked together to develop web and video based material for basic undergraduate science and engineering courses in order to enhance the reach and quality of technical education.

Current program
Courses The NPTEL program has currently developed 255 courses in the fields of technical education (Mechanical / Civil engineering, biotech etc.) with 130 video based courses and 125 web based ones. Currently four courses have been developed by IISC rest have been developed by the IITs

Infra and pricing

Web–based and video courses are available to download from the NPTEL website. For the video courses DVD’s are provided while the You Tube NPTEL channel is also running. All courses are priced at INR200 (exclusive of postal charges).

Enrollments

NPTEL has around 4,400 videos on You Tube in 120 courses and 2.6 million viewers (channel) and about 23 million (uploads) so far

Future plan

Currently, Phase 2 of NPTEL program is being implemented and it plans to launch over 950 new courses across 15 disciplines by 2012, out of which 500 will be video–based

Sources: NPTEL Website

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

43

Technology aided learning

Macmillan Publishers has also partnered with leading education institutes like IIM and IIT to provide online courses in management

Overview

Macmillan Publishers India Ltd. has partnered with leading Indian institutes like IIM–C, IIT–D, MDI Gurgaon and IIFT to provide online management development programs

IIM–C
Overview Macmillan has partnered with IIM–C to provide a course in Corporate Finance for working professionals

Course details

Three–month course with a fee of INR6,742

IIT–D
Overview Macmillan has partnered with IIT–D to provide courses in Finance for non–finance executives, International Finance and Supply Chain Management

Course details

Each course is priced at INR8,824 and ranges from 2–3 months

MDI Gurgaon
Overview Macmillan has partnered with MDI Gurgaon to provide course in E–business and Customer Relationship Management

Course details

Each course is priced at INR5,393 and is 2 months in duration

IIFT
Overview Macmillan has partnered with IIFT for a course in Export–Import trade

Course details

Program is participatory in nature, with no grading

Sources: develop.emacmillan.com

44

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Technology aided learning

Symbiosis Centre for Distance Learning has successfully used the online model to achieve huge growth

Background
Overview



Established in 2001 and part of the Symbiosis Society, Symbiosis Centre for Distance Learning (SCDL) ranks among the country’s leading private sector providers of open and distance learning Has enrollments of over 2,00,000 students based in India and 41 other countries

Enrollment



Academic programs
SCDL offers nearly 136 courses across various streams Diploma in Computer Generated Imagery Corporate Programs

• • • •

Management Information Technology Education, Humanities & Social Sciences Law

• •

Post Graduate Diploma in Business Administration Management Development Program

Online correspondence model of SCDL
SCDL offers numerous low–cost student support services through its distance learning model



Blended learning methodology: SCDL provides students with access to all the three forms of learning, namely, published/printed self–learning material, e–learning and pre–recorded DVD lectures and faculty interaction. Call centre: SCDL is one of the few institutes to have its own full–fledged call centre in Asia. The call centre as well as the student care centre resolve any query related to SCDL and its courses. Virtual classrooms: SCDL has expanded its distance learning model by introducing the virtual classrooms and online faculty chat sessions, which allow the students to be in constant contact with the faculty and get their queries resolved. Students can see and refer to all the questions and answers asked in a particular session, which adds as a supplementary aid to their learning. e–Learning facilities: SCDL has successfully leveraged the content and brand equity of Symbiosis Society to provide a highly interactive e–learning content to its students, through case studies and practical examples. Other e–learning facilities provided by the SCDL include submission of assignments and receiving of feedback, on–demand examinations, syllabi, counseling, fee payments etc. Facilitates placement: SCDL facilitates the placement process by uploading the manpower recruitment request of various companies on its own website.









Sources: SCDL: Website; The Times of India website

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

45

Technology aided learning

Mobile and tele–education are also emerging as new technology aided modes of delivery being pioneered by IGNOU

TV and radio
Overview Gyan Darshan and Gyan Vani are IGNOU’s initiatives (in collaboration with other bodies) in TV and Radio which have been operational from 2000 and 2003 respectively. Gyan Darshan is a bouquet of four channels on vocational, technical and higher education and sustainable development while Gyan Vani has 37 operational radio channels imparting educational courses.

Program

Mobile phones
Overview Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) has collaborated with Nokia in order to offer certificate programme in English via mobile phones to start from January 2011 The program will initially start in six districts of Maharashtra. After six months, depending on the response, program will be launched at a national level. The six months programme is a broken up into three levels that include English in daily life, English in education and joining the workforce. The fee of the programme is INR1,900. The course will be in English offered mainly through SMS.

Coverage

Delivery and price

Tele–education
Overview IGNOU and TCIL have set up a pan African e–network for connecting Indian institutes to 53 countries of Africa for providing tele–education. The network worth INR5,429 million was inaugurated by the Government of India on February 26, 2009 . The programmes under this network are vocational as well as academic, including masters in business administration, human resources, marketing, tourism management and environment studies and various other professional degrees. Over 600 students have enrolled for these courses

Program

Enrollment

Sources: Indiaenews.net, updates.highereducationinindia.com, timesofindia.indiatimes.com

46

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

New types of institutes

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

47

Promoting new types of institutes will yield several benefits to the higher education system

Perceived benefit
Fulfilling demand for affordable education

Impact •
New types of institutes can cater to the large demand for quality affordable education

Reducing student export



High quality institutes which collaborate extensively with foreign institutes can cater to the growing demand for global education

Meeting industry needs



New types of institutes can cater to industry needs for qualified job ready students

New models of institutes are coming up to serve the diverse needs of the students and
the industry

Sources: EY Analysis

48

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Premium, mass and specialized institutes are opening up to provide best–in–class standards of education

Higher Education Institutes

Premium

Mass

Specialized

Overview

Premium HEIs have evolved over the last decade and are comparable to the best in the world. They target students planning to go abroad for higher education

Mass HEIs have evolved from the need to provide affordable education to the masses

Specialized HEIs have evolved from the growing demands from the economy for niche skills

Value Proposition

Such institutes justify their premium fee structure by offering their students with the best of global standards in terms of infrastructure, curriculum, faculty, systems and processes

Such institutes derive high demand for their courses by offering them at an affordable price point to the students

Such institutes offer only specialized courses to cater to specific sector / field

Key players

Jindal Global Law School, Indian School of Business

Centum Learning

University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, FHRAI Institute of Hospitality Management

Sources: EY Analysis

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

49

Premium

Premium HEIs position themselves as global brands offering high quality education at a premium fee

USP of premium institutes
Globalized content and Best of Faculty



Premium HEIs leverage their international partner network to bring globalized content for its students. These institutes recruit the best of faculty from across the globe to design and deliver the programmes. These institutes employ a host of global teaching methods such as class presentations, group assignments, on field research and field visits, video conferences, web based learning, live simulation exercises, etc. These institutes have collaborative arrangements with global education institutes and industries which provide international exposure in terms of internship and job offers. Another USP of these institutes is the world class facilities supporting the institute such as multi–media classrooms, Wi–Fi campuses, state of the art auditoriums, well stocked libraries etc.

Methodology of teaching



International exposure to students



World class infrastructure and latest technology



Jindal Global Law School – Commanding a Premium for Quality
Overview Jindal Global Law School (JGLS) has positioned itself as India’s first global law school. The institute focuses on providing globalized legal and policy education in the country Course offering and fees

• • •

5–Year B.A. LL.B. (Hons.) Programme: INR5.0 lakhs per year 3–Year LL.B. Programme: INR6.0 lakhs per year 2–Year LL.M. Programme: INR4.0 lakhs per year

Focus on teaching quality and content JGLS’s faculty–student ratio of 1:10 is among the best in the country. The institute has faculty members drawn from various globally acclaimed institutes with good academic records, work experience and educational qualifications.

Collaborative arrangements



JGLS has international collaborations with Harvard Law School, Yale Law School, United Nations University and several other reputed law schools and universities worldwide.

Sources: The Pioneer: Website; Jindal Global Law School : Website

50

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Mass

Mass institutes are offering a range of affordable courses targeted at price–sensitive students

USP of mass institutes
Focus beyond traditional knowledge



Traditional knowledge imparted through the regular curriculum is generally perceived to be insufficient to address the staffing needs of various industries. Hence, mass institutes focus on providing job–oriented skills and knowledge to its students. Mass institutes offer their courses at an affordable price, thus, generating greater demand. In addition, they also address the skill gap and enhance the career prospects of students.

Methodology of teaching



International exposure to students



The presence of a very strong network enables mass institutes to reach the target audience.

Centum Learning — Scalable business model built on domain expertise
Overview Centum Learning (CL), a Bharti Group firm, has interests in higher education and vocational training. With a capital efficient model, the company offers affordable courses in sales, supervision and customer services, especially for sectors such as retail, automobile and telecom. Employability focus The company’s course materials and practices have a strong focus on employability and applicability . The company has formed a JV with National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) to provide job– oriented skills to 11.5 million people by 2022. Course offering and fees

• • • •

2–Year MBA Programme: INR25,000–50,000 per year 3–Year BBA Programme: INR15,000–30,000 per year 1–Year Diploma Programme: INR12,500–INR25,000 per year Corporate Readiness Programme : INR70 per hour

Pan India reach



The company has a pan India presence reaching some of the remote and rural parts of India through its network of 130 Centum Learning Centers spread across 90 cities. It plans to increase this number to 500 over the next five years.

Sources: India Today: Website; Centum Learning: Website

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

51

Specialized

Specialized HEIs provide specializations in industry needed subjects and produce ready talent

USP of specialized institutes
Domain specific curriculum



Specialized HEIs offer sector focused programmes developed with practical inputs from industry experts in relevant domains

Industry based faculty



These institutes draw faculty from various industry associations and leading companies in the relevant sector, thus, supplementing the curriculum with the latest knowledge trends These institutes have built a dynamic interface with core sector companies. They nurture industry ready talent and cater to the high demand of specialized workforce for the sector

Industry ready talent



University of Petroleum and Energy Studies – Addressing the ‘Specialization’ Gap
Overview Areas of specialization



University of Petroleum and Energy Studies (UPES) offers domain specific subjects of petroleum and energy studies to cater to the needs of oil and gas, power and other core sectors. The university claims to be Asia’s first and only Energy & Core Sector university offering such programs.



Key areas of specialization offered by UPES are:

• • • • • • •

Upstream asset management (Oil & Gas) Gas engineering (Oil & Gas) Petroleum refinery engineering (Oil & Gas) Pipeline engineering (Oil & Gas) Health Safety & Environmental Engineering (Oil & Gas) Nuclear energy (Power)



Strong industry–based faculty and pedagogy



UPES’ faculty is composed from world–renowned domain experts, as well as academicians and lecturers from GCC countries. To provide hands–on experience to its students, UPES conducts study tours/industry visits, summer internships, industry based dissertations and innovative project work.

In addition, UPES also offers niche programmes in sectors such as information technology, logistics and supply chain, electronics and legal studies, etc.



Sources: University of Petroleum and Energy Studies: Website

52

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

New types of courses

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

53

Offering quality skill–based courses within higher education can yield several benefits

Various studies suggest that mainstream higher education has had mixed success in improving employability of students. The unmet demand for a skilled educated workforce opens doors for including quality skill–based educational courses into the formal education space.

Perceived benefit
Provide employable skill–sets

Impact •
Providing job–focused/specialist training in specific sectors and functions, can help improve the employability of graduates.

Enhance access



By providing skill–based educational courses within the formal higher education space, institutes can provide options to students looking for more industry–relevant education, thereby enhancing access.

Sources: Indian Higher Education Envisioning the Future, Pawan Agarwal

54

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Players can offer a diverse mix of courses in the vocational and new–age segments

Overview

Vocational education refers to job-specific education/training meant to enhance the skill levels of learners and improve their employability
Key courses Operational training IT BFSI Retail Aviation Hospitality Media Others

New-age courses refer to skill-based programs designed to offer specialist training in new-age careers and sectors such as sports, aesthetics, social service, entrepreneurship etc.
Key courses Fine arts Fashion designing Jewellery designing Animation Graphics Fabric designing Interior Designing Retail designing Landscaping

Functional training Finance and Accounts Sales training Management training

Others Sports management Event management Wealth management Rural management Entrepreneurship

Soft-skill training Language training IT BPO finishing school /

Sources: EY Analysis

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

55

Vocational courses

While a number of universities are offering courses across the vocational higher education space…

Presence of key universities across segments

IT

BFSI

Retail Aviation Hospitality

Media Finance & Sales Mgt Language IT/ Accounts Training Training Training BPO

Manipal Amity Symbiosis

Key players

IGNOU ICFAI Annamalai Manav rachna PTU Lovely JNU

Sources: Institutes’ websites

56

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Vocational courses

…a few institutes have also been able to provide quality vocational education

MICA



Mudra Institute of Communications, a renowned education provider for the marketing communications industry, provides diploma programme in communications

Whistling woods



Whistling woods, Asia’s largest film, television, animation and media arts institute offers a 2–year MBA in Media and Entertainment and a 2–year diploma in Filmmaking

ICA



Institute of Computer Accountants, a leading accounts and finance education provider, offers courses in finance and investment, financial planning and networking and infrastructure management

AHA



Air Hostess Academy provides courses in aviation and hospitality management

Aptech



Aptech, a leading provider of computer education, offers a wide range of degree and diploma programmes for 12th pass/college students and engineers

Frankfinn



Frankfinn, a leading provider of aviation, hospitality and travel education, provides a one year diploma in Aviation, Hospitality and Travel Management among other courses

Sources: Institutes’ websites

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

57

New age courses

Similarly a growing number of universities and institutes are providing new–age courses

Universities
Amity University



Amity University offers courses in interior design, fashion, fine arts, social work, performing arts and physical education Manipal University offers courses in jewellery design and social work

Manipal University



Annamalai University



Annamalai University offers courses in physical education and sports sciences, music and dance, animation Jawaharlal Nehru University offers courses in cinematic, visual and performing arts Kerala University offers courses in painting, sculptures and applied arts

Jawaharlal Nehru University Kerala University





NIIT



NIIT offers Bachelors and Masters degree programmes in IT in association with Kuvempu University of Karnataka Indian Institute of Hardware and Technology (IIHT), one of the leading IT training organizations, has tied up with Sikkim Manipal University to offer a Bachelors degree in Infrastructure Management Services Millennium Academy of Professional Studies (MAPS), promoted by Educomp Solutions, offers an MBA degree from a UGC recognized NAAC ‘A’ Grade University

IIHT



MAPS



Institutes
NIFD



National Institute of Fashion Design (NIFD) has collaborated with Annamalai University to offer a Bachelors of Science degree in fashion design. Maya Academy of Advanced Cinematics (MAAC) offers a Bachelors degree in 3D animation and visual effects. The institute has tied up with IGNOU to offer the programme. Pearl Academy, in association with IGNOU, offers a wide range of Bachelors degree courses in areas such as fashion merchandising and production, textile design and fashion design.

MAAC



Pearl Academy of Fashion



Sources: Institutes websites; Cygnus Industry Monitor – Higher education July 2010

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

New possibilities: Collaboration

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

59

Collaborations can emerge as a key to rapidly improving the quality of India’s higher education institutes

Collaborations provide a means of tackling the quality issues facing the higher education system by:
1 Improving linkages with the industry 2 Providing a global orientation 3 Improving quality of public institutes

4

Improving research

5

Improving curriculum content and design

6

Helping in training of faculty

Collaborations in higher education
Course delivery Curriculum design and validation Faculty training Research Professional training & certification Design of curriculum Continuing education Industry internships Research

Foreign players

Industry

Collaborations

Government

Public-private partnership

Sources: EY Analysis

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Collaboration with foreign players

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

61

Promoting collaborations with foreign players will yield several benefits to the higher education system

Perceived benefit
Access to international best practices

Impact •
Collaborations with foreign players will improve quality of Indian institutes by providing access to international best practices and systems

Richer learning experience for students



Institutes can collaborate with foreign players through twinning arrangements and student exchange programs to provide their students with global experience Collaborations will allow Indian institutes to get their faculty trained at foreign institutes while also giving Indian institutes access to international faculty

Training of faculty and access to international faculty



Sources: EY Analysis

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

There are more than 143 Indian institutes and 161 Foreign Education Providers (FEPs) engaged in collaboration

Higher educational institutes from UK and USA have entered into maximum number of collaborations with Indian institutes
Number of foreign players collaborating with Indian institutes Country-wise distribution of collaborating foreign players
Others 16% Switzerland 3% Germany 2% France 1% Canada 7%
13

11 16

55 4 25

UK 34%

Australia 8% USA 29%

Maharashtra, Delhi and Tamil Nadu account for nearly half of the total institutes from India with foreign collaboration
Number of Indian institutes collaborating with foreign players State-wise distribution of collaborating institutes in India
Others 16%
4 6 22 7 3 1 25 3 18 4 21 15 1 12 1

Maharashtra 17%

Uttar Pradesh 5% West Bengal 8% Delhi 15%

Andhra Pradesh 10% Karnataka 13% Tamil Nadu 15%

Sources: UKIERI: Foreign Education Providers in India 2008

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While private HEIs account for majority of the collaborations from India, most of the foreign partners are public institutes

T ypology of collaborating Indian institutes
Autonomous aided Others, 3% colleges/institutes, 5% Private company institutes, 5% State/government managed institutions 5% Deemed Universities 3% State Universities 2% Private non-affiliated institutions 48%



Nearly 83% of Indian institutes collaborating with foreign universities/institutes are in the private sector Only 3 State Universities and 4 Deemed Universities are found to be collaborating with foreign partners



Private sector institutions affiliated to State or other university 29%

Typology of collaborating foreign players
Others 9%

Private 34%

Public 57%

However, Public foreign Universities/Institutes dominate the landscape, accounting for more than half of the total collaborating foreign players

Sources: UKIERI: Foreign Education Providers in India 2008

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Collaborations between Indian and foreign universities deliver 641 programmes across disciplines

A majority of courses are being offered in the field of Management and IT
Discipline-wise distribution of collaborative programmes
Others 18.1% Management/Business administration 26.5%

Applied science 4.8% Applied arts 7.0% Engineering and Technology/Computer application Information Technology 22.6%

Hotel management/ House keeping 20.9%

Most courses offered by Indian institutes collaborating with foreign institutes are at the undergraduate degree level
Distribution of levels of programmes on offer
Ph.D./M.Phil. 1%

Certificate 13%

PG Diploma 8%

UG Degree 36%

UG Diploma 19%

PG Degree 23%

Sources: UKIERI: Foreign Education Providers in India 2008

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

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Indian institutes are collaborating with foreign institutes across multiple areas

Key areas of collaboration with foreign players

Course delivery

Course design/ validation/ monitoring

Areas of collaboration

Research

Faculty training/ exchange

Sources: UKIERI: Foreign Education Providers in India 2008

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Course Delivery

Courses are currently being delivered via five key partnership models

Important forms of delivery of collaborative education in India

An Indian HEI enter’s into an arrangement with a foreign institute to offer academic programmes in India or abroad towards the award of degrees/diplomas, either individually or jointly, using the resources of both 1 Link programmes

2

In link programmes, students enrolled in the host country in one programme are enrolled in the home country for another programme through the completion of the previous programme, heading for higher qualification

Twinning arrangement

A higher education institute of one country (home) decides on the course design, curriculum, examination and other procedures of the educational programmes delivered 5 in an educational institute of another country (host), which is not owned by the institutes of the home country.

Forms of delivery of collaborative education Study centre

Franchising mode 3

Under Franchising mode, a certain higher education institute (Franchiser) of one country authorizes another institute (Franchisee) in another country to provide its courses under its supervision

Distance learning arrangement

4 Under this mode, the learner is provided with course materials via post or web-based solutions, by the institute of one country which is self-administered by learners at home or administered through the institute in another country.

In all these modes, programmes of the foreign institutes move partly or fully to
host institutes.

Sources: UKIERI: Foreign Education Providers in India 2008

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Course Delivery

Twinning and link programmes offer student mobility and thus, have emerged as the most preferred forms of delivery

1. Twinning gives an institute a means of providing its students with a foreign degree
Case Study (S. P. Jain Institute of Management and Research and Schulich School of Business)

• •

S. P. Jain Institute of Management and Research (SPJIMR) has launched a 2–year MBA programme with Canada–based Schulich School of Business (SSB) through a twinning arrangement As a part of the programme, students complete the first year at SPJIMR in Mumbai and the second year at SSB in Toronto. Of the 10 courses offered in the two terms, SSB faculty conducts eight courses while SPJIMR faculty teach the remaining two. Besides giving students the access to 18 specialisation, the programme involves an eight–month real world strategy field study course where students provide concrete strategic guidance to companies on a real time basis. The programme enrolls 30 students and costs around INR14,72,000. It has been approved by the All India Council for Technical Education and will lead to students getting a Canadian degree after two years.





2. Link programmes not only provide exposure to two different learning environments but also help students in getting dual degrees
Case Study (Birla Institute of Technology (BIT), Ranchi and University of Leeds)

• •

Under its collaborative agreement with the University of Leeds, the Birla Institute of Technology (BIT), Ranchi offers BE linked with ME in various engineering disciplines to be earned in the University of Leeds. The students can do the 3rd and the 4th years of the BE programme at the University of Leeds. They will study 2 years at BIT and if they go to the University of Leeds after the 4th semester for another 2 years, they will get an ME from the University of Leeds. The major advantage is that in 4 years, the student can get a BE from Birla Institute of Technology and an ME from the University of Leeds.



Sources: Interviews, UKIERI: Foreign Education Providers in India 2008; BIT Ranchi: Website

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Course Delivery

In addition, FEPs are also collaborating with Indian HEIs via franchising, distance learning arrangements and study centers

3. Franchising is a form of international outsourcing in which some of the activities, normally provided by the franchiser, are contracted out to local partner institute
Case Study (The Educational Institute of American Hotel & Lodging Association)



The Educational Institute of American Hotel & Lodging Association has been operating in India through franchising with many educational institutes of India such as Lakshya Bhartee Institute of International Hotel Management (LBIIHM); College of Hospitality & Tourism Studies; Institute of Advanced Management; Academy of Culinary Education.

4. Distance learning arrangements with foreign institutes have made learning more accessible and flexible
Case Study (Jadavpur University and Staffordshire University)

• • •

Staffordshire University, in partnership with Jadavpur University, offers M.A. in sustainable development in India. This unique part–time master’s degree is delivered by an online distance learning mode, and can be accessed by computers with Internet access at home or elsewhere. Staff from Staffordshire and Jadavpur interacts with their students to support learning and monitor progress of the latter through workshops arranged at Jadavpur University.

5. Foreign institutes also operate in India by setting up study centers
Case Study (Bhartiya Vidya Bhawan and Marshall University )



Bhartiya Vidya Bhawan is a recognised study center of the Marshall University. MBA courses offered in Bhartiya Vidya Bhawan are validated and designed by the Marshall University and the faculty of that University have been involved in the course delivery and in the process of selection of students.

Sources: Jadavpur University: Website; UKIERI: Foreign Education Providers in India 2008

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Course design/validation/monitoring

Foreign institutes are also playing a key role in designing, validating and monitoring courses of Indian institutes

Areas of partnership
Course design

Cases in India

Indian institutes are increasingly using curriculum designed by foreign institutes to provide their students with global content



The MBA and Ph.D programmes offered by Academy of Business Management are designed by the King’s International University of Science and Technology (USA) The courses of Pearl Academy of Fashion are validated by 4 foreign institutes: Nottingham Trent University (NTU), LDT Nagold, International College of Professional Photography and London College of Fashion. The University of Cambridge International Examination (CIE) monitors the courses offered in Maya Academy of Advanced Cinematics. (MAAC) to ensure that MAAC meets the expected standards of international best practices

Course validation



The foreign partner acts as an awarding institute and judges whether a programme delivered by an Indian institute is of appropriate quality and standard



Course monitoring



The foreign partner monitors the delivery of courses to ensure that quality standards are adhered to, and also ensures that students receive the most appropriate form of assessment



Sources: UKIERI: Foreign Education Providers in India 2008

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Faculty training/exchange

Indian HEIs are also increasingly collaborating with foreign institutes for faculty training and exchange programs

Areas of partnership
Faculty training

Cases in India

Indian institutes are collaborating with foreign institute for faculty training. This enables the faculty to learn global teaching practices Faculty exchange programs provide development and service benefits to individual faculty members through their participation in academic and research programs of the foreign institute Students also benefit from the direct access provided by the presence of international faculty at host institutes



The Administrative Staff College of India (ASI) has arrangements with John Hopkins University (JHU), USA for faculty training

Faculty exchange





Indian School of Business (ISB) has entered into a collaboration with MIT Sloan School of Management (MSSM) for faculty exchange. Under the partnership, ISB will send up to two professors a year to MSSM and two to four professors from MSSM will teach at ISB.





Sources: ISB website; UKIERI: Foreign Education Providers in India 2008

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

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Research

To raise the standards of research, Indian HEIs are collaborating with foreign institutes through multiple avenues

Type of Research partnership
Ph.D. Exchange Program

Cases in India
The program enables Ph.D. students from foreign universities to conduct research at an Indian university and vice–versa Amrita University and multiple US universities





Ph.D students from US universities come to India to conduct research and teach for a period of 3 months

Joint Research by faculty



Indian institutes also collaborate with foreign partner institutes to expand opportunities for international mobility of faculty to conduct research

Amrita University and the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology (Calit2)



Faculty from US universities visit India to conduct research

Joint Research though Project Work



Joint research projects offer students an opportunity to interact on high–value assignments with international peers and faculty. In addition, students gain exposure to new methodologies and systems

Amrita University with multiple foreign universities



Final year engineering students from Amrita university and US universities simultaneously work on research projects

Sources: EY–EDGE 2008: Globalizing Higher Education in India

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

The collaboration between ITM and Warwick university illustrates the opportunity to leverage the academic expertise of foreign institute

University of Warwick

The Institute of Technology and Management (ITM) has tied up with the UK-based University of Warwick to offer the first year of Warwick’s bachelors and masters degree programs in Electronic Engineering and Electronic & Communication Engineering at ITM

Institute of Technology and Management, Gurgaon

Students enrolled for the degree can complete their first year in India and the remaining two years (in case of bachelors degree) or three years (in case of masters degree) at the University of Warwick

The collaboration is unique as the University of Warwick is responsible for a majority of academic aspects Role of University of Warwick
• • • • • • • Selection of Faculty Approval of Syllabi Development of curriculum Prescription of lectures Examination arrangements Assessment Moderation/Determination of examination results

Role of ITM
• Assists University of Warwick in recruitment and selection of students

Sources: UKIERI: Foreign Education Providers in India 2008, The Tribune

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

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Collaboration with industry

74

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Promoting collaborations with the industry will yield several benefits to the higher education system

Perceived benefit
Improving quality

Impact • •
Collaborations with industry helps improve quality and the value proposition of institutes by providing a industry orientation to courses and curriculum Collaborations will also help improve the quality of research Allows institutes to develop more relevant curriculum to make graduates industry–ready

Improving employability of graduates



Catering to the manpower requirements



Industry players also have the opportunity to collaborate with higher education institutes to meet their needs of manpower requirements

Sources: EY Analysis

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

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Educational groups have been collaborating with leading Indian companies through various partnership models

The university and industry can establish interface at varying levels with different degrees

1

5

Customized professional training & certification

Research

Academia-Industry collaboration models 2 Continuing education Design of curriculum 4

Industry internships

3

Sources: EY Analysis

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Customized professional training & certification

Professional training provides an incentivized framework within which the employer as well as the education provider stand to gain

HEI’s conduct customized programmes for a company to train and provide its employees with certification in specialized domains.

Customized professional training and certification

Benefit to industry Cost-effective training “Job-ready” entry level candidates Geographical spread

1 Customized professional training and certification

Benefit to to institute Predictable cash flows Source of diversification Better capacity utilization

Case study (ICICI Manipal Academy ) The Academy provides fully residential programmes to train selected probationary officers of the ICICI Bank ICICI handles the admissions while Manipal University invests in infrastructure and charges a fee per student ICICI provides students with a monthly stipend during classroom training and internship

Case study (Accenture & XLRI HR Academy) The Academy offers a 24-month programme for 34 university graduates who have joined Accenture as trainees in the HR department The graduates will be employed with Accenture as they undergo the programme conducted jointly by Accenture and XLRI, with courses developed jointly by the two organizations On successful completion of the programme, trainees will receive the Accenture and XLRI Certification in Human Capital Management

Sources: Accenture India: Website

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Continuing Education

With industry demanding ever increasing level of skills in employees the need for continuing education has been increasing

HEI’s conducts programs, specifically for working professionals, like Executive Education and Management Development Programs that are sponsored by the employer
Continuing education

Benefit to industry Attraction/Retention tool Skill enhancement for key employees identified for growth

2 Continuing education

Benefit to to institute Predictable cash flows Branding tool Effective capacity utilization

Case study (BITS Pilani and Bharat Forge) As a means of providing continuing education for employed professionals, Bharat Forge has collaborated with BITS Pilani to offer its employees a three year customized work integrated learning BS Manufacturing Engineering degree program

Case study (MDI and Maruti Suzuki India) MDI entered into a partnership with Maruti Suzuki India (MSI) for training its executives. Under the agreement, MDI would undertake competency development programmes for different levels of executives at Maruti. On the other hand, MSI would identify the requirements of executives and participate in final placements for employing students graduating in various programmes at MDI

Sources: BITS–Pilani: Website; MDI: Website

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Industry internships

Industry internships gives students an opportunity to complement their academic study with meaningful industry experience

An approved and monitored work experience is provided in a company that is related to an academic field of study and meets specific learning goals.

Industry internships

Benefit to industry Student projects in line with company requirements Access to potential job candidates

3 Industry internships

Benefit to to institute Provides industry-orientation Helps placement activities

Case Study (BITS Pilani Practice School ) The Practice School is a unique feature of the Integrated First Degree and Higher Degree programmes at BITS Pilani. It is a seven and half months, structured and evaluative internship where students work on real time projects. The Practice School programme has two components: Practice School-I: Two months internship offered during the second year of the degree Practice School-II: Five and a half months internship offered during the final year of the degree. Practice School is different from the traditional internship since a resident faculty member is stationed at the industry site to monitor and evaluate the work of the students. At the end of each Practice School course students are awarded grades based on their total performance and these grades are directly incorporated in the students’ degree transcript. Students are also offered stipends along with the housing and other facilities during the internship. BITS Pilani has a tie-up with a large number of companies for the Practice School Programme such as Morgan Stanley, HSBC, Credit Suisse etc. Every year over 1400 students at BITS Pilani undergo this internship and on successful completion of the programme, students receive a degree which carries the tag ‘With Practice School’. In the past, a large number of these students have been offered Pre Placement Offers (PPOs) during the internship. The relevance and popularity of Practice School is evident from the fact that till date nearly 15,000 students have participated in this programme.

Sources: Interviews; BITS Pilani: Website

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Design of curriculum

As HEIs face greater challenges in producing industry ready talent, design of curriculum by industry experts is a rising trend

Industries demand a closer alignment of university learning curriculum to real work tasks to better meet the needs of organizations and learners

Design of curriculum

Benefit to industry Goodwill Entry-level candidates educated in specific areas not covered by generic programs

4 Design of curriculum

Benefit to to institute Makes curriculum relevant Helps create new courses/programs

Case Study (Zensar Technologies and UOW, Australia) Zensar Technologies has collaborated with Australia’s University of Wollongong (UOW) for course design The course is based on the use of UOWs ICT degrees that will be supplemented with Zensar’s proprietary curriculum so that graduates will be project ready to work at the Zensar centre when they complete their degrees

Case Study (IGNOU and Accenture) Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) has launched a diploma programme in business process outsourcing (BPO) in association with Accenture IGNOU has worked closely with Accenture to develop the course and its deployment strategy. Students who successfully complete the programme and pass all term-end examinations will be eligible to apply for employment with Accenture and other BPO companies

Sources: Zensar Technologies: Website, IGNOU: Website

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Research

There is a continuous convergence of interests between industry and academicians in the area of research

Companies sponsor fresh research talent in universities in terms of tuitions and/or stipend or finance a research project of a student

Research

Benefit to industry Provides access to cutting edge research that can lead to competitive advantages Academia brings long-term focus to R&D Institutes are single point source to tap multi-disciplinary knowledge Cost benefits Sponsored research Companies sponsor fresh research talent in universities in terms of tuitions and/or stipend or finance a research project/final thesis of a student Case Study (BITS Pilani and HP Labs India) BITS, Pilani and HP Labs India jointly offer a unique PhD fellowship for research in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) This fellowship was instituted to attract candidates of exceptional abilities for research in selected areas. It offers candidates an opportunity to work in the highest academic standards with HP Labs.

5 Research

Benefit to to institute Aligns institute with industry needs Provides ability to attract top faculty and students Source of revenue Relationships that can be leveraged for other needs (e.g. placement) Joint R&D Joint IP creation; Sponsored laboratories with academic and industry researchers; Funded Centres of Excellence

Case Study (IIT Kanpur and TCS) TCS and IIT Kanpur entered into a collaboration for a post-graduate course on 'Storage Computing Architecture'. The partnership covers joint research projects that are relevant to address the technology and business needs of the booming global storage industry, including TCS customers in this space The collaboration also included setting up of a storage computing laboratory at IIT Kanpur

Sources: HP Labs: Website; TCS: Website

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Collaboration with Government

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Public–private partnerships (PPPs) leverage on competitive advantages of both parties to improve access and quality

By collaborating together in the form of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), both the Government and private players can address the challenges they face, and contribute towards the growth of the higher education sector

Perceived benefit
Supplement public funding

Impact •
The gap in funding can be bridged by supplementing public expenditure with private sector financing

Improved efficiency



Resource sharing and the use of latest technologies in design, development and operations, will lead to a more cost–effective and efficient higher education system

Accountability and autonomy



Public–private partnerships can help to ensure institutional autonomy by minimizing political and bureaucratic interferences. Further, through a clear division of roles and responsibilities, autonomy can be ensured

Sources: Indian Higher Education Envisioning the Future, Pawan Agarwal

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Various business models can be deployed by private players to collaborate with the Government

Under PPP models, the Government remains accountable for service, quality, price and cost–effectiveness, while private players assume responsibility for the design, finance, building and operation of facilities – with risk and revenue sharing among participants. Business Models
Basic infrastructure model Outsourcing model

Private sector

Invests in infrastructure Institute

Private sector

Invests in infrastructure Runs operations and maintenance Institute

Runs operations and maintenance

Makes annual payments to the private sector Equity/hybrid model

Government

Pays the private sector for specified services Reverse outsourcing model Runs operations and maintenance

Government

Private sector

Invests in infrastructure Runs operations and maintenance Institute

Private sector

Institute

Invests in infrastructure

Invests in infrastructure

Government

Government

Sources: FICCI Higher Education Summit 2009, Indian Higher Education Envisioning the Future, Pawan Agarwal

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

There are various forms of collaborations that can be explored by private players and the Government

The forms of PPPs that can be explored in the higher education sector are as follows:

1

Service delivery initiatives

2

Infrastructure PPPs

Private players can be engaged by public colleges/ universities for: • Management of college/universities • Delivery of education • Before and after college care • Provision of information/testing services • Private sector review • Management of non-core functions

Public private partnerships for infrastructure can be broadly for the following: • Private finance initiatives, including finance, construction and maintenance of core and non-core educational assets • Private leasing of public college/ tertiary institution facilities • Equipment and maintenance of IT laboratories -

3

Strategic Partnerships

4

Demand side finance initiatives

Public and private players can collaborate on for several initiatives including: • Research PPPs • Curriculum development • Quality assurance • Adopt-a-college initiatives • On-job-training/internships • Public/private tertiary institution affiliations • Social marketing

To ensure equity and broaden access to include all sections of the population, the public sector may undertake cross-subsidisation through the provision of the following: • Publicly financed vouchers and scholarships • Publicly provided student loans • Subsidies for private institutions

Sources: Public–Private Partnerships in Education – ADB November 2006

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

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Service Delivery Initiatives

Service delivery initiatives can help improve the management and quality of education imparted

Under this form, a more efficient partner provides management support to the other partner to improve the quality of education service delivery. The service provider may be engaged temporarily through a management service contract, on a commission–fee basis or a particular service may be fully outsourced, as required. Service delivery initiatives enable public institutes to procure services that may not be available to them, while focusing on areas where they demand a competitive advantage.
Illustrative partnerships

Delivery of education
Sikkim Manipal University is an innovative PPP between the Government of Sikkim and the Manipal Education and Medical Group (MEMG), where the Government provided the land and hospital for the institute and the Manipal group is responsible for the delivery of education. Representatives from the Government form the senior management of the university.

Provision of information/testing services
Prometric carries out the computerized Common Admission Test (CAT), the selection test for admissions to the Indian Institute of Management. Meritrac and Everonn have been chosen as the delivery partners for the current year.

Other service delivery arrangements
• • • •
Management of colleges/universities Before and after college care Private sector review Management of non–core functions

Sources: Business Standard: Website

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Infrastructure PPPs

Infrastructure PPPs can help bridge the gap in capacity and funding faced by the Government

Under this arrangement, the private sector player is engaged on a long–term contract by the public sector for the provision of services, which are generally delivered through a special purpose vehicle (SPV). • Private finance initiatives is one arrangement that involves the construction of infrastructure and assets through private funding. Such arrangements have the essentials in place to ensure that the quality of infrastructure and building facilities meet minimum quality standards. Private leasing may involve leasing of public premises for retail operations, catering etc.
Illustrative partnerships



Private finance initiatives

Out of the 1000 polytechnics proposed to be set up by the Government by 2011–12, 400 polytechnics will be set up through private funding, while 300 will be set up with partial funding of INR3 crore per polytechnic from the Government, with the remainder coming in from private sources. The Planning Commission plans on setting up 2,50,000 vocational schools in the next five years through PPPs The Government has proposed to set up twenty new Indian Institutes of Information Technologies (IIITs) with partial funding from private sources, under the PPP mode

• •

Private leasing
Numerous food and beverage players, bookstores and retail outlets operate out of several campuses.

Other infrastructure PPPs
Other infrastructure PPPs may include maintenance of and provision of equipment for IT laboratories and development of hostels etc.

Sources: Indiaedunews: Website

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Strategic Partnerships

Strategic partnerships can be explored to leverage on key strengths of each player

Strategic partnerships refer to alliances between public and private players to combine their respective strengths and capabilities through a contractual relationship. Alliances offer the opportunity for players to focus on areas where they enjoy a competitive advantage while leveraging on the assets or expertise of the other party in the arrangement.
Illustrative partnerships

Research PPPs
Science parks are set–up by public–private players to support research. The Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation, Government of Gujarat has partnered with EMPI Vittal Centre to launch the Gujarat Vittal Innovation City with the objective to create India’s first planned Innovation Zone by integrating industry and academia with R&D, incubation and community. Partnerships can also be formed with the objective of providing funding for research wherein private players provide funds for research of new products, or for applied research, while public agencies provide funds for basic or applied research to private universities. The proposed Indo–German Science and Technology Centre (IGSTC) is an example of such an arrangement where the centre shall provide resources and facilitate industry participation in joint research and development projects.

Curriculum development
Sahyog Foundation, a non–profit organization funded by a group of non–resident Indians, has received a grant from the Orissa State Government to set up two medical colleges and in Keonjhar in Orissa. The foundation is working out a tie–up with Harvard University for curriculum development, student and faculty exchange programs between the two institutes

Adopt–a–college initiatives
Under the Government’s plan to upgrade 1397 ITI’s into centers of excellence, ~ 200 companies, including prominent names such as Videocon, Suzlon, Taj Group, Hindustan Unilever, Tata Chemicals, Hindalco, Educomp Solutions, Hyundai Motors, India Cements and Ispat Industries adopted ~ 300 ITIs in the country

Public/private tertiary institute affiliations
The Andhra Pradesh Government has set up a number of institutes in collaboration with prominent institutes. For example, the International Institute of Information Technology has been established by IBM, Motorola, Signal Tree, Oracle and Satyam, Indian School of Business with The Wharton School, the Kellogg School of Management and London School of Business and the Master of Science in IT Programme (MSIT) in collaboration with the Carnegie Mellon University

Other collaborative arrangements
• • •
Provision of on–the–job training/internships Private sector involvement in quality assurance Partnerships for delivery of programs

• •

University–owned companies that produce products for the private sector Publishing and knowledge networks for the production and distribution of knowledge products

Sources: PPP in India: Website; Rediff: Website

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Demand Side Finance Initiatives

Demand–side finance initiatives can be provided by the Government to ensure equity

Demand–side finance initiatives refer to financial support offered directly to the recipient of education. The purpose behind offering support to students vis–à–vis colleges is to empower the student to choose the course, medium or institution of education. Demand–side finance initiatives are generally offered by the Government in the form of subsidies, scholarships and student vouchers to ensure that all sections of society are able to benefit from the education programs offered by the private sector.
Illustrative partnerships

Publicly financed vouchers and scholarships
For the years 2008–09, Government earmarked an expenditure of INR450 million on scholarships in higher education with an objective of covering 2% of the student population in colleges and universities. The schemes for higher education are as under:



The Central Sector Scheme of Scholarship for College and University Students provides financial assistance to deserving students from low income families pursuing higher education to partially meet their day–to–day expenses. Under the Scheme of Scholarship to students from non–Hindi speaking states for post–matric studies in Hindi, the Government provides a scholarship ranging from INR300 to INR1000 per month for meritorious students studying at a post–matric to PhD level with Hindi as one of the subjects. The Government also has a scholarship scheme for students with disabilities.





Publicly provided student loans
Under the Central Scheme to provide Interest Subsidy (CSIS), the Government of India provides full interest subsidy during the moratorium period for deserving students from economically weaker sections of society under the Educational Loan scheme of the Indian Banks Association, for pursuing technical and professional courses from recognized institutes in India.

Subsidies for private institutes
Explicit subsidies comprising of direct transfer payments and Implicit subsidies in the form of concessional land and tax exemptions are provided by the Government to private institutes. Explicit subsidies formed over 40% of total public expenditure on higher education

Sources: PPP in education, Lessons learned from the Punjab Education Foundation – ADB; Empowering girls around world with an Indian scholarship – Indiaedunews: Website; MHRD: Website; Public Subsidies in Education in India – Jandhyala B G Tilak

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Agenda for the Government
90 New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

The regulatory landscape is undergoing a significant transformation with a number of new regulations in the pipeline (1/3)
New regulations
Foreign Education Institutions Bill, 2010

Current state
No formal framework for foreign universities

Proposed change
Allowing foreign institutes to provide degrees independently

The National Accreditation Regulatory Authority for Higher Educational Institutions Bill, 2010 Prohibition of Unfair Practices in Technical, Medical Educational Institutions and Universities Bill, 2010

Accreditation of institutes / courses not mandatory

Mandatory requirement for institutions and courses to be accredited

No comprehensive law to check malpractices in institutes

Comprehensive disclosures and list of malpractices identified

The Educational Tribunals Bill, 2010

Rising disputes, which are handled by the current legal system leading to delays

Introduction of dedicated Tribunals at the State/Central level to handle Education Disputes

Sources: EY Analysis

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

91

The regulatory landscape is undergoing a significant transformation with a number of new regulations in the pipeline (2/3)

Foreign Education Institutions Bill, 2010
Overview Seeks to regulate the entry and operation of foreign institutions (FEIs) to India

Details

• • • •

Applies to all FEI’s who offer or propose to offer education services in India leading to the award of a degree, diploma or certificate program Applied to conventional methods of teaching including classroom teaching, but does not include the distance education format Applied to collaborations, partnerships or twinning programs of FEIs with Indian partners The FEI to operate in India must have a track record of at–least 20 years. The FEI must also seek approval and be notified as a qualified Foreign Education Provider (FEP) FEPs are prohibited from utilizing surplus generated in India for purposes other than for development of the Indian institutes



The Educational Tribunals Bill, 2010
Overview To set up Educational Tribunals for effective and expeditious adjudication of disputes in the higher education system

Details



The Bill seeks to set up specialized tribunals at the Centre (National Educational Tribunal) and the State (State Educational Tribunal) level for adjudicating matters relating to disputes in educational institutes. It covers disputes between teachers and other employees of higher education institutes and other stakeholders (students, universities, institutes and regulatory authorities)



Sources: Foreign Education Institutions Bill, 2010, The Educational Tribunals Bill, 2010

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

The regulatory landscape is undergoing a significant transformation with a number of new regulations in the pipeline (3/3)

The National Accreditation Regulatory Authority for Higher Educational Institutions Bill, 2010
Overview Accrediting and rating all higher educational institutes in India and establishing a statutory authority for the said purpose

Details

• • •

Mandatory requirement for accreditation of academic quality of every higher educational institute, programme of study and their infrastructure Central and State universities, deemed universities, colleges and even polytechnics to be covered by the rating agencies Establishment of the National Accreditation Regulatory Authority for Higher Educational Institutions

Prohibition of Unfair Practices in Technical, Medical Educational Institutions and Universities Bill, 2010
Overview Seeks to prohibit higher education institutes from undertaking unfair practices

Details

• • • • • •

Prohibits any payment towards admission fee and other charges other than those fees declared in the prospectus Prohibits accepting any fee without the issue of proper receipt in writing to the student Prohibits capitation fee either directly or indirectly to any other trust owned or controlled by promoters of the institute Makes provision for refund of a certain percentage of the fee deposited, if one subsequently withdraws from the institute Seeks to curb malpractices such as over–pricing of prospectus and barring misleading or non factual advertisements by institutes etc. Proposed imposition of civil and monetary penalties, which may extend up to INR50 lakh for violation of provisions of this Act or an order made by the concerned State Education Tribunal

Sources: The Prohibition of Unfair Practices in Technical, Medical Educational Institutions and Universities Bill, 2010, The National Accreditation Regulatory Authority for Higher Educational Institutions Bill, 2010

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Agenda for the Government

Agenda

What the Government can do
For India to meet its GER targets as well as to increase the quality of higher education institutes, a quantum increase in funding is required. Attracting interest from high quality private players is an imperative and the Government needs to facilitate such investments through a multi–pronged strategy: Allowing Section 25 Companies to set up universities and colleges to provide an alternative structure which supports better governance while preserving the not–for–profit status of higher education Introducing innovative PPP models for high quality private players to set up new institutes and participate in quality improvement of existing public higher education institutes Providing weighted tax deductions to donations made to all recognized universities For healthy development of a higher education system as large as that of India, which caters to multiple kinds of students, it is imperative to encourage diversity in the system The Government must actively promote teaching based universities as well as vocational institutes along with research universities At the same time, the regulatory system must also encourage distance education by allowing all universities to establish distance education norms Vocational education should be encouraged by facilitating mobility between vocational education and mainstream higher education through a system of credit transfers while also creating a quality accreditation mechanism for vocational education Shortage of adequately trained faculty is the biggest challenge to the growth of the Higher Education Sector. The Government must take up faculty development under a National Mission mode to develop the faculty pool and upskill existing faculty The National Mission must encourage teaching as a vocation, provide incentives to students to take up teaching in both public & private institutes and support their further education in leading institutes of the world The rationalization of fee structures to internationally accepted levels would facilitate self sustenance of universities and reduce strain on public funding The creation of a robust financing structure to enable student loan coverage needs to be a precursor to such fee rationalization The Government needs to expedite the steps it is taking to improve student financing and fee rationalization, ensuring coverage of students across private and public institutes

Encourage private sector • investments in the higher education sector






Encourage Diversity in the Higher Education system



• • •

Establish National Mission on Faculty Development

• • •

Strengthen education • financing and simultaneously introduce • fee rationalization



94

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Agenda
Bring about greater transparency and disclosure in the system

What the Government can do

The Higher Education sector suffers from archaic governance mechanisms and disclosure levels are extremely low, limiting the ability of students to make informed choices The Government must make it mandatory for all colleges and universities to furnish standard returns and the same should be published online through a common web–site. To ensure implementation of the same, strict penalties must be enforced for non–disclosure / wrong disclosures Collaborations in the areas of course delivery, student and faculty exchange, joint research as well as joint curriculum development need to be encouraged The Government should promote such collaborations by creating enabling mechanisms such as facilitation of credit transfers The availability of good quality digital content is critical to the growth of technology enabled education which has the potential to rapidly increase GERs The Government should incentivize development of such content by reputed institutes while also implementing a strong system of quality control and peer / student evaluation of the same. A dedicated cell should be established to support translation of the same to local languages The proposed regulatory reforms have the potential to bring about transformational change to the higher education scenario in the country. Passage and implementation of the same should be expedited



Encourage collaborations • with global institutions



Support development of high quality digital content to facilitate technology enabled education

• •



Ensure regulatory reforms are expedited



New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

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Glossary

96

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Glossary

AHA AICTE ASI BFSI BITS CAGR Calit2

Air Hostess Academy All India Council for Technical Education The Administrative Staff College of India Banking and financial services Birla Institute of Technology and Science

HEI HM ICA ICFAI

Higher Education institute Housekeeping Management Institute of Computer Accountants The Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India Institute of Clinical Research India Information and Communication Technologies Indira Gandhi National Open University Indo–German Science and Technology Centre The Indian Institute of Foreign Trade Indian Institute of Information Technology The Indian Institute of Management Indian Institute of Technology The Indian School of Business Industrial Training Institute Institute of Technology and Management Jindal Global Law School John Hopkins University Jawaharlal Nehru University Lakshya Bhartee Institute of International Hotel Management Learning Centers Maya Academy of Advanced Cinematics Management Development Institute

ICRI Compound Annual Growth Rate ICT The California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology University of Cambridge International Examinations Central Scheme to provide Interest Subsidy Central Statistics Office IIM DE DEC FEP FHRAI Distance Education IIT Distance Education Council ISB Foreign Education Providers ITI Federation of Hotel & Restaurant Associations of India Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry Faculty of Management Studies Financial Times Financial year The Gulf Cooperation Council Gross domestic product Gross Enrollment Ratio Guest Services Management LC MAAC MDI ITM JGLS JHU JNU LBIIHM

IGNOU IGSTC

CIE

CSIS

IIFT IIIT

CSO

FICCI

FMS FT FY GCC GDP GER GSM

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

97

MDU MHRD

Maharishi Dayanand University Ministry of Human Resource & Development Mudra Institute of Communications

SCDL SEC SJTW

Symbiosis Centre for Distance Learning Socio–Economic Classes Shanghai Jiao Tong University Sikkim Manipal University S. P. Jain Institute of Management and Research Special purpose vehicle Schulich School of Business The State University of New York The Telecommunications Consultants India Limited Times Higher Education Undergraduate University Grants Commission UK–India Education and Research Initiative University of Wollongong University of Petroleum and Energy Studies Unique Selling Proposition Vellore Institute of Technology

MICA MSSM NCHER

SMU MIT Sloan School of Management SPJIMR The National Commission for Higher Education and Research SPV NCTE NIFT NIIT National Council for Teacher Education SSB National Institute of Fashion Technology SUNY National Institute for Information Technology Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning Nottingham Trent University Oberoi Centre of Learning and Development Postgraduate Pre Placement Offer Public–Private–Partnership Punjab Technical University Study Centers TCIL

NMIMS

THE UG UGC UKIERI UOW UPES

NPTEL

NTU OCLD

PG PPO PPP PTU SC

USP VIT

98

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

99

Acknowledgements
Dr. Deepak Chandra, Deputy Dean, The Indian School of Business Dr. M.L. Shrikant, Director, S.P. Jain Institute of Management & Research Dr. Rajan Saxena, Dean, Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies Malyaj Varmani Head of UKIERI and Scholarships, The British Council

Mr. J.S. Neerav, Vice Chairman, Thapar University Dr. Rajan Saxena, Dean, Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies Mr. R.P. Agrawal, Chairman of Board of Governors, IIT Delhi Professor B.N. Jain, Vice Chancellor, BITS Pilani

100

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

Team
Ernst & Young team
Amitabh Jhingan Bharat Gulia Chandni Kripalani Dhruv Gupta Ankit Gupta

FICCI team
Shobha Mishra Ghosh Rajesh Pankaj Sarita Chauhan

New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

101

About FICCI
Established in 1927, FICCI is the largest and oldest apex business organisation in India. Its history is closely interwoven with India’s struggle for independence and its subsequent emergence as one of the most rapidly growing economies globally. FICCI plays a leading role in policy debates that are at the forefront of social, economic and political change. Through its 400 professionals, FICCI is active in 38 sectors of the economy. FICCI’s stand on policy issues is sought out by think tanks, governments and academia. Its publications are widely read for their in–depth research and policy prescriptions. FICCI has joint business councils with 79 countries around the world. A non–government, not–for– profit organisation, FICCI is the voice of India’s business and industry. FICCI has direct membership from the private as well as public sectors, including SMEs and MNCs, and an indirect membership of over 83,000 companies from regional chambers of commerce. FICCI works closely with the government on policy issues, enhancing efficiency, competitiveness and expanding business opportunities for industry through a range of specialised services and global linkages. It also provides a platform for sector specific consensus building and networking. Partnerships with countries across the world carry forward our initiatives in inclusive development, which encompass health, education, livelihood, governance, skill development, etc. FICCI serves as the first port of call for Indian industry and the international business community.

Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry Federation House, Tansen Marg New Delhi–110 001 Tel: +91–11–23738760–70; ext 316, 513 Fax: +91–11–23320714, 23721504 Email: [email protected]ficci.com

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New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education

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