EVOLUTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA
Higher Education system drives and is being driven by Globalization. With the continuing
liberalization of Indian economy the Indian Industry is facing pressure to compete locally as
well as globally. This has necessitated the need of Highly skilled workforce which is their
basic asset. Hence Higher Education system becomes the most critical process for our
country. This system creates workforce which drives the nation as it is this system that
produces future entrepreneurs !oliticians "usinessmen E#ecutives teachers etc.
Therefore the higher education system should be focus on$
%. !roviding the right kind of environment which facilitates and enable the individuals such
that they can develop their potential to the expected and desired level&
'. "uilding strong and impeccable characters which can ensure well being of the human
(. )triving to promote e*uality and social +ustice and to reduce social and cultural
,. -ostering est attit!des " val!es and practices in the teachers and students&
.. "ringing the universities closer to the community through e#tension of knowledge and
ailit# for research and problem/solving.
Non$For%al&Distance For%al Ed!cation
Indian Higher Education system is ma+orly guided by 0G1 and 2inistry of H34. In addition
there are regulatory bodies like 5I1TE 4E 21I 61I 61TE etc which have been given the
role of defining the resource re*uirements in any Institution for delivering 7uality education
at the least of levels. These norms are defined for minimum Infrastructural and Human
resources re*uired for successful delivery of the 4egree84iploma program.
Role o' Universit# Grants Co%%ission (UGC)
!ost independence Indian Government immediately focused on strengthening of Higher
education system in the country. 1onsidering the financial constraints of the states
Government of India established the 0niversity Grants 1ommission in the year %9.:. The
primary ob+ectives of 0G1 are $
%; To disburse financial grants to the 0niversities
'; To improve the standards of Higher Education and make recommendations to the
0niversities < 1entral Government as and when re*uired
(; To act as a nodal agency between 0niversities < 1entral government.
5fter receiving the financial grants )tate Governments started establishing 0niversities in
their respective states. With increase in universities a peculiar problem was observed that of
disparity in terms of duration and eligibility criteria. 0niversities in some part of the country
started "achelor=s 4egree program of ' year duration and other=s or ( year or more duration.
In order to bring parity in the degree programs across the country 0G1 created a
>nomenclature= containing name minimum duration and eligibility criteria for various
recognized degree programs. This nomenclature was updated after receiving and weighing
proposals from 0niversities.
*hat is a Universit#+
5s given in the 0G1 5ct %9.: 0niversity is an Institution established or incorporated by or
under a 1entral 5ct a !rovincial 5ct or a )tate 5ct. )o the only way to establish a 0niversity
is through vidhan )abha or ?ok )abha 3oute. However there is an e#ception in case of
@4eemed to be 0niversityA institutions. There is a provision in the 0G1 5ct that any institute
who has grown and matured in terms of Infrastructure and 7uality Education may apply to
0G18H34 and get the status of an 0niversity. Here the Institute is only considered to be a
0niversity because of its capabilities and resources available at the institute. 5 university can
affiliate colleges within their territorial +urisdiction. However !rivate 0niversities cannot
affiliate colleges for . years and subse*uently they can do so after obtaining approval from
*hat is a Reco,ni-ed De,ree+
5ny 4egree which is listed in the 0G1 nomenclature and is granted by a 0niversity
established by a 1entral 5ct a !rovincial 5ct or a )tate 5ct is called a recognized 4egree.
This will also be true for Institutes that are granted the status of @4eemed to be 0niversityA
*hat is the Role o' Re,!lator# .odies li/e AICTE+
7uality of Education delivery depends upon the resources used to effect the delivery. These
include Infrastructural resources like 1lass 3ooms ?aboratories and E*uipments ?ibrary
etc. These also include Human resources like Teachers and technicians etc. To ensure a
basic standard of education *uality regulatory agencies like 5I1TE 4E1 etc. were
established by the Govt. of India to define norms for the resources re*uired to successfully
conduct a course of study. -or e.g 5I1TE will define the minimum resources re*uired to
Teach ".Tech B2echanical; degree in any college. Cnce the college is found to be having
resources as per norms it is approved by 5I1TE to conduct that program. This primarily
ensures that a student gets all the minimum resources for studying a particular program in
the college campus itself.
Hall%ar/ o' 0rivate Universities1
In order to spread Higher Education to all part of the country Govt. of India invited
participation of "usiness houses Entrepreneurs to contribute towards the social cause.
!rivate 0niversities and higher education institutes ushered a new economic development at
the beginning of the millennium. These universities were e#pected to be characterized by$
%. Independent and self controlled sponsoring body
'. ?east Government control and hence open to innovation and change whenever re*uired.
(. 5imed towards globally acceptable and market driven courses and academic e#cellence
through integrated delivery modules.
,. Efficient management and optimum use of resources to ma#imize profit.
"0T some of these private universities got drifted from the social cause and started running
the 0niversity as a business house churning 4egrees as their product. The 7uality of
manpower coming out of such 0niversities became a threat to the well/being of the society.
The main ob+ection that is currently being raised against private 0niversities8institutes is
against the @sellingA of degrees of *uestionable standard by non recognized institutions and
even by some recognized universities.
In the interest of the 6ation the activities of such institutions immediately need to be
controlled. 0nfortunately the relevant laws are ambiguous on this point. The %9.: 0niversity
Grants 1ommission 5ct or the %99( 5ll India 1ouncil for Technical Education for e#ample
do not prohibit the operation of such private institutions. )o what best we see is a notification
issued by these agencies to alert public at large against taking admission into such
0niversities8Institutions which are violating the regulations specified by 0G182in.of H34.
The ob+ective of Higher Education system must be to create human beings who are
actualized and therefore intelligent. We may take degrees and be mechanically efficient
without being intelligent. Intelligence is not mere information& it is not derived from books nor
does it consist of clever self/defensive responses and aggressive assertions. E#aminations
and degrees have become the criterion of intelligence. Education should help us to discover
lasting values so that we do not merely cling to formulas or repeat slogans& it should help us
to break down our national and social barriers as well. 0nfortunately some of the actors in
the present system of higher education is creating workforce that is subservient mechanical
and deeply thoughtless.
We must identify and take a leaf from premier institutions of Higher learning which has
resulted in an India which the third largest pool of technical manpower in the world its
scientists and engineers are sought after throughout the world. Imagine if all institutions
involved in Higher Education in India assume this level of commitment < responsibility we
will see India as the leading economy of the world.