II Abstract This Analytical Report is about a bout the history of fingerprints and scanning technology. I discuss how the fingerprinting has been used as identification in law enforcement agencies through the world. I also talk about how fingerprint scanning was influenced British police in early nineteenth century and still remain most wildly used fingerprinting method today. The fingerprinting identification is used by law enforcement agencies since early nineteenth century. In early days, the methods of fingerprint were using ink and paper to capture the fingerprints. This method has become outdated with the advancement of technologies. Currently law enforcement agencies have started using biometric scanners and live scan technology. The biometric scanner police officers use today, it can take up to seven to ten minutes to retrieve suspect criminal record. But without Rapid ID mobile application, they will be able to retrieve it even faster.
Introduction Introduction What is Fingerprint ? A fingerprint is a mark made on surface by person’s naked fingertip. It is used to identify individuals from the unique pattern of loop, whorls and arch. The fingerprinting identification is also known as dactyloscopy. Fingerprints were taken hundreds of years ago, but they did not have the technology that we have today. In China, ink was used to copy fingerprints and was used by parents to recognize their children. It wasn’t until late nineteenth-century nineteenth -century when fingerprints were used to identify the criminals for the first time. The governments have used fingerprinting method for more than a century to accurately identify the criminals from fingerprints left at the crime scene.
History of Fingerprints The beginning of fingerprints goes back to early as ancient time. In early days, they t hey used fingerprints to recognized one another and basis for deciding if someone is belonged or not. Modern fingerprint identification dates from 1880, when Henry Faulds and William James published letters describing the uniqueness of the fingerprints. Later that year, their observation was proved by the English scientist Sir Francis Galton, who designed the first elementary system for sorting fingerprinting patterns into arches, loops and whorls. It wasn’t until 1897, when the world’s first fingerprint Bureau was established in Calcutta, India. Working in this fingerprint Bur Bureau eau were Haque and Bose. Haque and Bose were fingerprints experts who improved Galton system and developed the fingerprint classification system eventually named after London police commissioner, Sir Edward R. Henry. The Henry system ffor or fingerprint classification was officially introduced at New Scotland Yard in 1901. This system was adopted as a personal identification by law enforcement agencies around a round the world. This is the still most widely used fingerprint method.
Juan Vucetich, an Argentine Police Official also developed a classification system based on Sir Galton pattern pattern types. His system was named the Vucetich system. This classification system was published in a book named “Dactiloscopía Comparada” in 1904. This system is still used by many Spanish-speaking countries. The first use of fingerprint identification in United States originated in 1902. During the early 20 th century, numerous law enforcement agencies around the country started using fingerprinting systems and National Bureau of Criminal Identification started to collect fingerprints cards from these agencies. FBI collected over one hundred h undred millions fingerprint cards by 1946. The Identification division of the FBI maintained these fingerprint files manually. By the 1970’s, computers have been developed and FBI wanted to automate the process of searching and matching the fingerprints. In 1980, the first computer database of fingerprints was developed by the Japanese National Police Agency. The database came to be known as Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS). In 1983, FBI used AFIS to create National Crime Information Center. This was used for collecting information about criminals between the local and federal government. By 1990, all fingerprints match were processed on the computer and the response time were cut from 14 days to 1 day. Today, there are approximately seven hundred million individual fingerprints entered in AFIS. AFIS.
AFIS The Automated Fingerprint Identification System is an automated identification process used by various countries around the world. AFIS gather digital fingerprints with fingerprint scanners. Computer algorithms then search for patterns based on database.. The USA IAFIS IAFIS (Integrated (Integrated Sir Henry’s System to find match stored in the database Automated Fingerprint Identification System) store all fingerprint data collected in the country and is managed by the FBI’s information service division. This system includes criminal history and mug shots of an individual. IAFIS IAFIS lets lets local, state and federal agencies to have access to the database information. IAFIS IAFIS also also collects fingerprints for the social services programs and licenses. One out of every six American has a fingerprint record in IAFIS .
Uniqueness of Fingerprints Fingerprints Fingerprint identification identification is based on persistence and individuality. Persistence refers to the fact that the basic traits of the fingerprint do not change over time. Individuality: the fingerprint is unique to an individual. individual. In the history of fingerprinting,, no two fingerprints have been found identical in computer fingerprinting comparisons. Various studies show that the fingerprints of an identical twins or even triplets are very different.
Types of Fingerprints There are three types of fingerprints that can be claimed from a crime scene. These types are as follows:
Latent Prints - are the marks that are left at the crime scene which are not visible to the naked eye. These types t ypes of prints are made only of only the oil and sweat on the surface of the skin. To expose latent prints, a technician uses the chemicals or the powder techniques. Patent Prints - made of blood, ink or dirt and are visible to human eye. Example of patent prints would be an impression from flour and wet clay. Plastic Prints - have three-dimensional characteristics. This occurs when an individual presses a finger into soft medium such as dust, soap or a wax.
How Fingerprint Scanner Works? The older methods of fingerprint were using ink and paper to capture the suspect fingerprints. This method has become outdated with the advancement of technologies. Currently there has been a shift to biometric scanners and live scan scan technology. A fingerprint Scanner performs two different types of task. First, it needs to scan an image of your fingerprints. Then your fingerpr fingerprints ints are saved into a database so the law enforcement agent can check if you have any past criminal history. In past few years, law enforcements have started using portable fingerprints scanners. These scanners are connected wirelessly to a laptop via Bluetooth. The scanners are also connected to IAFIS IAFIS servers servers to check if that person has any past criminal history (Officer Johnson). The two main type of fingerprint scanners available today are Optical scanners and capacitance scanners.
Types of Fingerprints Scanners Optical Scanner – This scanner has two basic job, first it needs to get an
image of a finger then it decides if the pattern of ridges and valleys matches the any patterns that was stored in the server. This scanner uses chargecoupled device (CCD) to capture images. The CCD is a sensor that is also used in many digital cameras. Scanner – This fingerprint scanner produce an image of ridges Capacitance Scanner that form fingerprint. While optical scanner uses light to produce an Image, capacitance uses electric current. Capacitance scanners are bit like a touchscreen in smartphones and tablets. The advantage of Capacitance Scanner is that requires a real fingerprint shape.
Pros and Cons of Fingerprint Scanners Pros
Fingerprints are harder to fake than identity cards. You can lose your password but you are not going to lose your
fingerprints. Passwords can be guessed but fingerprint can never be guessed. Cons The Optical Scanners can present major security risk. This type of scanners can be fooled easily by showing an image of fingerprint instead of a real fingerprint. Capacitance Scanners can also be fooled by a mold of a finger made
out of silicone or gelatin.
Future of Fingerprints In past few years, Fingerprints scanners have started popping up all over the place. With the advancement of technology, scanners have become very cheap and many companies have already started integrating it with the laptops and cell phones. There are many software’s that take advantage of fingerprints in laptops. It allows user to login in securely without having to enter password. Today, fingerprint scanners are used as biometric identification. In coming years, fingerprints scanners are going to be integrated with an ATM machine, checkout counters and door locks.
Conclusion The fingerprint identification has served law enforcement e nforcement agencies for past ce century. ntury. The fingerprinting has come a long way since government implemented as mean of identification. Recently, many agencies have have begun using biometric biometric and live scan devices. This scanner allows officers to scan suspect fingerprint and pull up criminal history from IAFIS servers within minutes. The current fingerprint scanners used by police officer can retrieve history of an individual within twenty minutes. I recommend that we develop an application that can retrieve fingerprint faster than the current technology and also our application needs to be cheaper compare to what’s in the market right now. now .
Glossary Biometric Scanner: Scanner: Is a Fingerprint scanner device that measurement of person’s unique physical Identification. Biometric Fingerprint scanning provides an identification of person based on recognition of those unique patterns and ridges in a fingerprint. Charge-Coupled Device (CCD): are the sensors used in digital cameras and video cameras to record or take moving images. images. The CCD captures light and converts the light into digital data. The CCD is also considered the digital version of film. Database: is a collection of data stored in digital form. It is organized for convenient access. Database has many different features like security management and feature to make it easy for storing and retrieving data. IAFIS: stand for Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System. IAFIS is an automated fingerprint identification that is used by FBI. IAFIS is largest biometric database in the world. Live Scan: is a fingerprint technology used by law enforcements to capture fingerprints and palm prints electronically. Live scan is considered to be most critical step in an automated fingerprint authentication system. Software: is a computer program that provides instruction telling a computer what to do.
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