Hiv and Aids Notes

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HIV/AIDS Questions
1) What does secondary immunodeficiency mean?
The immunodeficiency is acquired as a result of infection, virus, cancer treatment , ect. Person is not born with it.
2) How are the demora!hics of H"# infection chanin in $orth %merica?
The chanin demora!hic of the infection indicate that the !erce!tion that H"#&%"'( is only a !roblem for homose)ual
white men is false.
*) 'oes everyone infected with H"# have %"'(? "s everyone who has %"'( infected with H"#?
+veryone who has %"'( has H"# in,ection- however, not everyone who has H"# has %"'(.
.) When is a !erson infected with H"# considered to have %"'(?
% dianosis of %"'( requires that the !erson be H"# !ositive and have either a /'.0 T1cell count of less than
222cells&mm or an o!ertunistive infection.
3) When can a !erson infected with H"# transmit the virus to other !eo!le?
The !erson with H"# infection can transmit the virus to others at all staes of disease, but the recently infected !erson
with a hih viral load and those at end stae without dru thera!y can be !articularly infectious.
4) "f a !atient is dianosed with havin %"'( and his or her /'. count oes bac5 over 222 cells&mm
*
or his or her
o!!ortunistic infection is successfully treated does the !atient still have %"'(?
The !atient will always have %"'( after bein dianosed.
6) Why is the /'.0 Tcell a s!ecific taret for H"#?
The /'.1 Tcell is the bodies defense aainst infection and H"# turns these cells into H"# 7factories8 that no loner wor5
as defense cells.
9) What must ha!!en for H"# to enter the /'. cell?
"t must enter the blood stream.
:) Why is H"# considered a retrovirus?
"t uses reverse transcri!tase to bind to bind to the host cells '$% chanin the host cell?
12) Where are the en;ymes reverse transcri!tase and interase found? What is the function of each of these en;ymes in
the H"# infection !rocess?
They are found in the H"# virus. <T coverts H"# '$% into human '$% and interase inserts the viral '$% into the host
cell.
11) What drus have an effect on reverse transcri!tase? What is the mechanism of action for these drus? What !art of
the H"# !atho!hysioloy is affected by interase inhibitors? What !art of H"# !atho!hysioloy is affected by !rotease
inhibitors?
$<T"s and $$<T"s inhibit reverse transcri!tase they wor5 by bloc5in <T from interactin with the viral '$%. The
!rotease inhibitors 5ee! the new viral cell from bein able to attach to the host cell wall and bud off into circulation.
12) What is the most im!ortant health care intervention for !revention of H"# transmission?
Teachin everyone about the transmission routes and ways to !revent contact with body fluids.
1*) What are the * main modes of H"# transmission? "s H"# transmitted by casual contact li5e sharin eatin utensils,
lasses, towels, linens or toilet facilities?
(e)ual, !arenteral, and !erinatal transmission. $o cannot be transferred by air.
1
1.) What are the only absolutely safe methods of !reventin H"# infection from se)ual contact? "f !atients are receivin
drus for %"'( can they still transmit H"# via se)ual contact?
%bstinence and mutually monoamous se) with a noninfected !artner.
13) What are considered safer se) !ractices? What teachin needs to be done if !atients are usin condoms as !rotection
from H"#?
%bstinence, be faithful, and condoms. =se condom or late) barrier durin anal, oral, and finer contact.
14) How can !arenteral transmission of H"# be !revented?
Pro!er cleanin of needles.
16) How can !erinatal transmission of H"# be !revented?
/ontinue thera!y durin !renancy.
19) What is the main way health care wor5ers are infected with H"# when they are wor5in? What is the best way health
care wor5ers can !revent becomin infected with H"#? What are some recommendations to !revent H"# transmission
to health care wor5ers?
$eedle stic5s. >est !revention is consistent use of standard !recautions for all !atients.
1:) Who should be tested for H"# infection?
%ll se)ually active !eo!le.
22) What are the first sins and sym!toms of H"# infection? What are other clinical manifestations of H"# infection?
(wollen lym!h nodes and infection. ?ther manifestations include immunoloic, inteumentary, res!iratory,
astrointestinal, /$(, o!!ortunistic, and malinancies.
21) What is often the first sin of H"# infection in women?
@ynecoloic !roblems, es!ecially !ersistent or recurrent vainal candidiasis.
22) What effect does !renancy have on the course of H"# infection?
Aore ris5 of !remature delivery, low birth rate, and transmission of the disease to infant.
2*) What blood tests are used to dianose H"# infection? What are some non1blood based tests for H"# infection?
>lood tests include lym!hocyte count, antibody tests, and viral load testin. (ome other tests includin testin stool,
s5in, lym!h nodes, and other orans.
2.) What can cause false neative H"# lab results?
7Window !eriod8 when a !erson is first infected but has not started ma5in antibodies.
23) What does a !ositive test result for H"# antibodies mean?
Person is infected with the virus but doesnBt necessarily have %"'(.
24) 'o %"'( !atients with T> always have a !ositive PP' test? Why or why not? What would you do if an H"# !ositive
!atient has niht sweats, a low rade fever, couh, and a neative PP'?
26) What does viral load testin refer to? "f a !atientBs viral load is low can they transmit H"#?
Aeasures the !resence of H"# viral enetic material or other viral !roteins in the !atientBs blood. Ces but the chance is
not as reat.
2
29) What !ersonal factors affect the rate at which H"# infection becomes %"'(? What else affects the rate of H"#
conversion to %"'(?
Drequency of re1e)!osure to H"#, !resence of other (T's, nutritional status, and stress. Dor !eo!le who have been
transfused with H"#1contaminated blood, %"'( often develo!s quic5ly.
2:) What is the difference between a !athoenic infection and an o!!ortunistic infection? 'o o!!ortunistic infections and
!athoenic infections !ose a threat to heath care wor5ers?
Pathoenic infections are caused by virulent oranisms and occur even amon !eo!le whose immune systems are
functionin normally. ?!!ortunistic infections are those caused by oranisms that are !resent as !art of the bodyBs
normal environment and are 5e!t in chec5 by normal immune function. ?!!ortunistic infections do not !ose a threat to
health care wor5ers however when infected with a !athoenic infection !recautions need to be ta5en in order to !revent
the s!read.
*2) @ive e)am!les of !roto;oal infections that are common in %"'( !atients. "dentify the !rimary siteEs) of infection for
each of these.
Pneumocystis ,iroveci !neumonia1 res!iratory, to)o!lasmosis ence!halitis1neuro, cry!tos!oridium1 @"
*1) @ive e)am!les of funal infection that are common in %"'( !atients. "dentify the !rimary siteEs) of infection for each of
these.
/andida albicans1 @", cry!tococcosis1Emeninitis) neuro, histo!lamosis1 beins in res!iratory tract F s!reads.
*2) @ive e)am!les of bacterial infections that are common in %"'( !atients. "dentify the !rimary siteEs) of infection for each
of these.
Aycobacterium avium1res!iratory or @", tuberculosis1 res!.,
**) @ive e)am!les of viral infections that are common in %"'( !atients. "dentify the !rimary siteEs) of infection for each of
these.
/ytomealovirus1 eye,res!.,@", /$(- Her!es (im!le) #irus1 !erirectal, oral, and enital areas- #aricella1;oster virus
Eshinles)1 nerve anlia
*.) Why do %"'( !atients have an increased ris5 of ettin cancer? @ive e)am!les of the ty!es of cancers seen in %"'(
!atients. What is the most common cancer that occurs in %"'( !atients?
The wea5ened immune res!onse increases the ris5 for some cancers. These include Ga!osiBs sarcoma, lym!homas,
invasive cervical cancer, lun cancer, @" cancers, and anal cancers. Gar!osiBs sarcoma is most common.
*3) What are some endocrine com!lications associated with %"'(?
'ecreased testosterone F estroen, increased cortisol or decreased cortisol, reduced e)ocrine function and reduced
endocrine function.
*4) 'escribe %"'( dementia com!le).
Aanifestations of the central nervous system, itBs a result of infection of cells within the /$( by H"#, %'/ causes
conitive, motor and behavioral im!airments.
*6) 'escribe %"'( wastin syndrome.
"t may be a result of altered metablolism from cancer or infection. 'iarrhea, malabsor!tion, anore)ia, and oral and
eso!haeal lesions can all contribute to e)treme weiht loss.
*9) What would indicate H%%<T thera!y is effective in an %"'( !atient?
Aeasured by reduced viral load and im!roved /'.0 T1cell counts.
*:) 'o any of the H"# drus 5ill the virus? Why are multi!le drus used to treat H"#? What are the drawbac5s of havin to
ta5e multi!le drus?
"t only inhibits viral re!lication and does not 5ill the virus. Treatment with only one dru !romotes dru resistance and
does not im!rove the duration or quality of life. <esistance to all of the drus is a drawbac5, es!ecially when doses are
missed.
.2) What is critical about H%%<T thera!y? Why?
$ot missin any of the doses because the blood dru concentration become lower than what are needed for inhibition of
viral re!lication.
.1) What are some nursin dianoses that would be a!!ro!riate for %"'( !atients? What would be the !rimary nursin
dianosis? "dentify nursin interventions for each of these nursin dianoses
*
.2) How can infection be !revented in %"'( !atients at home? "n the hos!ital?
'o not share !ersonal toiletries, bath daily, clean toothbrush wee5ly, avoid eatin salads, do not reuse cu!s and
lasses without washin. Place !atient in !rivate room when !ossible, do not use su!!lies from common areas, limit
the number of health care !ersonnel enterin and leavin !t room.
.*) What are the !rimary nursin interventions for a nursin dianosis of disturbed thouht !rocesses in an %"'( !atient?
%ssess for a neuroloic baseline to com!are, then reorient the !atient when necessary.
.

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