Published on May 2016 | Categories: Documents | Downloads: 28 | Comments: 0 | Views: 652
of 205
Download PDF   Embed   Report



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the multinational corporation. For other uses, see Honda (disambiguation).

Honda Motor Company, Ltd.
Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki-gaisha 本田技研工業株式会社


Public (TYO: 7267) & (NYSE: HMC)


 



Founded Founder(s)

24 September 1948

 

Soichiro Honda

Takeo Fujisawa

Headquarters Area served Key people

Minato, Tokyo, Japan Worldwide

 

Satoshi Aoki (Chairman)

Takanobu Ito (CEO)


       

Automobiles Motorcycles Scooters ATVs Electrical Generators Water pumps Lawn and Garden Equipments Tillers

   
Revenue Operating income Net income Total assets Total equity Employees Subsidiaries

Outboard motors Robotics Jets

Jet Engines

▲ US$ 120.27 Billion (FY 2009) ▲ US$ 2.34 Billion (FY 2009) ▲ US$ 1.39 Billion (FY 2009)



▲ US$ 124.98 Billion (FY 2009) ▲ US$ 40.6 Billion (FY 2009)


 


Honda Aircraft Company


Honda Worldwide

Honda Motor Company, Ltd. (Japanese: 本田技研工業株式会社 Honda Giken Kōgyō Kabushiki-gaisha?, Honda Technology Research Institute Company, Limited) listen (help·info) (TYO: 7267) is a Japanese multinational corporation primarily known as

a manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles. Honda is the world's largest manufacturer of motorcycles as well as the world's largest manufacturer of internal combustion enginesmeasured by volume, producing more than 14 million internal combustion engines each year.[3] Honda surpassed Nissan in 2001 to become the second-largest Japanese automobile manufacturer.[4][5] As of August 2008, Honda surpassed Chrysler as the fourth largest automobile manufacturer in the United States.[6] Honda is the sixth largest automobile manufacturer in the world. Honda was the first Japanese automobile manufacturer to release a dedicated luxury brand, Acura, in 1986. Aside from their core automobile and motorcycle businesses, Honda also manufactures garden equipment, marine engines, personal watercraft and power generators, amongst others. Since 1986, Honda has been involved with artificial intelligence/robotics research and released their ASIMOrobot in 2000. They have also ventured into aerospace with the establishment of GE Honda Aero Engines in 2004 and the Honda HA-420 HondaJet, scheduled to be released in 2011. Honda spends about 5% of its revenues into R&D.[7]

1 History

• • • • o o o o o o o • o o • o o o o • o • • • • • • •

2 Corporate profile and divisions 3 Current market position 4 Leadership 5 Products 5.1 Automobiles 5.2 Motorcycles 5.3 Power Equipment 5.4 Engines 5.5 Robots 5.6 Aircraft 5.7 Mountain bikes 6 Motorsports 6.1 Automobile 6.2 Motorcycles 7 Electric and alternative fuel vehicles 7.1 Compressed natural gas 7.2 Flexible-fuel 7.3 Hybrid electric 7.4 Hydrogen fuel cell 8 Marketing 8.1 Sports 9 Facilities (partial list) 10 U.S. Honda models 11 Sales 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References

15 External links


This section requires expansion.

From a young age, Honda's founder, Soichiro Honda (本田 宗一郎, Honda Sōichirō) had a great interest in automobiles. He worked as a mechanic at a Japanese tuning shop, Art Shokai, where he tuned cars and entered them in races. A self-taught engineer, he later worked on a piston design which he hoped to sell to Toyota. The first drafts of his design were rejected, and Soichiro worked painstakingly to perfect the design, even going back to school and pawning his wife's jewelry for collateral. Eventually, he won a contract with Toyota and built a factory to construct pistons for them, which was destroyed in an earthquake. Due to a gasoline shortage during World War II, Honda was unable to use his car, and his novel idea of attaching a small engine to his bicycle attracted much curiosity. He then established the Honda Technical Research Institute in Hamamatsu, Japan, to develop and produce small 2-cycle motorbike engines. Calling upon 18,000 bicycle shop owners across Japan to take part in revitalizing a nation torn apart by war, Soichiro received enough capital to engineer his first motorcycle, the Honda Cub. This marked the beginning of Honda Motor Company, which would grow a short time later to be the world's largest manufacturer of motorcycles by 1964. The first production automobile from Honda was the T360 mini pick-up truck, which went on sale in August 1963.[8] Powered by a small 356 cc straight-4 gasoline engine, it was classified under the cheaper Kei car tax bracket.[citation needed] The first production car from Honda was the S500 sports car, which followed the T360 into production in October 1963. Its chain driven rear wheels point to Honda's motorcycle origins.[citation needed] "Honda" in Japanese is 本田, which literally means "root field" or "original field".


profile and divisions

Honda headquarters building in Japan

Honda is headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. Their shares trade on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange, as well as exchanges in Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Kyoto, Fukuoka, London, Paris and Switzerland. The company has assembly plants around the globe. These plants are located at China, United States, Pakistan, Canada, England, Japan, Belgium, Brazil, New Zealand, Indonesia, India, Thailand, Turkey and Perú. As of July 2010, 89 percent of

Honda and Acura vehicles sold in the United States were built in North American plants, up from 82.2 percent a year earlier. This shields profits from the yen’s advance to a 15-year high against the dollar.[9] Honda's Net Sales and Other Operating Revenue by Geographical Regions in 2007[10]

Geographic Region Japan North America Europe Asia Others

Total revenue (in millions of ¥) 1,681,190 5,980,876 1,236,757 1,283,154 905,163

American Honda Motor Company is based in Torrance, California. Honda Canada Inc. is headquartered in the Scarborough district of Toronto, Ontario, and is building new corporate headquarters in Markham, Ontario, scheduled to relocate in 2008;

their manufacturing division, Honda of Canada Manufacturing, is based in Alliston, Ontario. Honda has also created joint

ventures around the world, such as Honda Siel Cars and Hero Honda Motorcycles in India,[12] Guangzhou Honda and Dongfeng Honda in China, and Honda Atlas in Pakistan.


market position

With high fuel prices and a weak U.S. economy in June 2008, Honda reported a 1% sales increase while its rivals, including the Detroit Big Three and Toyota, have reported double-digit losses. Honda's sales were up almost 20 percent from the same month last year. The Civic and the Accord were in the top five list of sales.[13][14] Analysts have attributed this to two main factors. First, Honda's product lineup consists of mostly small to mid-size, highly fuel-efficient vehicles. Secondly, over the last ten years, Honda has designed its factories to be flexible, in that they can be easily retooled to produce any Honda model that may be indemand at the moment. Nonetheless, Honda, Nissan, and Toyota, were still not immune to the global financial crisis of 2008, as these companies reduced their profitability forecasts. The economic crisis has been spreading to other important players in the vehicle related industries as well.[15][16] In November 2009 the Nihon Keizai Shinbun reported that Honda Motor exports have fallen 64.1%.[17] At the 2008 Beijing Auto Show, Honda presented the Li Nian ("concept" or "idea") 5-door hatchback and announced that they were looking to develop an entry-level brand exclusively for the Chinese market similar to Toyota's Scion brand in the USA.[18] The brand would be developed by a 50-50 joint-venture established in 2007 with Guangzhou Automobile Industry Group.[19][20]


   

1948–1973 — Soichiro Honda 1973–1983 — Kiyoshi Kawashima 1983–1990 — Tadashi Kume 1990–1998 — Nobuhiko Kawamoto

  

1998–2004 — Hiroyuki Yoshino 2004–2009 — Takeo Fukui since 2009 — Takanobu Ito

[edit]Products [edit]Automobiles
For a list of vehicles, see List of Honda vehicles. Honda's global lineup consists of the Fit, Civic, Accord, Insight, CR-V, and Odyssey. An early proponent of developing vehicles to cater to different needs and markets worldwide, Honda's lineup varies by country and may feature vehicles exclusive to that region. A few examples are the latest Acura TL luxury sedan and the Ridgeline, Honda's first light-duty pickup truck. Both were engineered primarily in North America and are exclusively produced and sold there. The Honda Civic is a line of compact cars developed and manufactured by Honda. In North America, the Civic is the secondlongest continuously running nameplate from a Japanese manufacturer; only its perennial rival, the Toyota Corolla, introduced in 1968, has been in production longer.[21] The Civic, along with the Accord and Prelude, comprised Honda's vehicles sold in North America until the 1990s, when the model lineup was expanded. Having gone through several generational changes, the Civic has become larger and more upmarket, and it currently slots between the Fit and Accord.

2008 Honda Accord (USA spec)

Eight Generation Honda Civic (Philippine Version)

The 2006 Ridgeline was a reintroduction of the concept of a Uni-Body truck. Earlier examples of this concept are the Subaru Brat and Baja,Volkswagen Rabbit pick-up, and Dodge Rampage/Plymouth Scamp.

Honda increased global production in September 2008 to meet demand for small cars in the U.S. and emerging markets. The company is shuffling U.S. production to keep factories busy and boost car output, while building fewer minivans and sport utility vehicles as light trucksales fall.[22] Honda produces the Insight, a hybrid electric vehicle that competes with the Toyota Prius Its first entrance into the pickup segment, the lightduty Ridgeline, won Truck of the Year from Motor Trend magazine in 2006 (also in 2006, the redesigned Civic won Car of the Year from the magazine, giving Honda a rare double win of Motor Trend honors). In the U.S., five of EPA's top ten most fuel-efficient cars from 1984 to 2010 comes from Honda, more than any other automakers. The five models are: 2000-2006 Honda Insight(53 mpg combined), 1986-87 Honda Civic Coupe HF (46 mpg combined), 1994-95 Honda Civic hatchback VX (43 mpg combined), 2006- Honda Civic Hybrid (42 mpg combined), and 2010- Honda Insight (41 mpg combined).(mpg revised in accordance with 2008 regulation change)[23]

[edit]Motorcycles This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(May 2010) For a list of motorcycle products, see List of Honda motorcycles. Honda is the largest motorcycle manufacturer in Japan and has been since it started production in 1955.[24] At its peak in 1982, Honda manufactured almost 3 million motorcycles. By 2006 this figure had reduced to around 550,000 but was still higher than its three domestic competitors.[24] During the 1960s, when it was a small manufacturer, Honda broke out of the Japanese motorcycle market and began exporting to the U.S. Taking Honda’s story as an archetype of the smaller manufacturer entering a new market already occupied by highly dominant competitors, the story of their market entry, and their subsequent huge success in the U.S. and around the world, has been the subject of some academic controversy. Competing explanations have been advanced to explain Honda’s strategy and the reasons for their success. The first of these explanations was put forward when, in 1975, Boston Consulting Group (BCG) was commissioned by the UK government to write a report explaining why and how the British motorcycle industry had been out-competed by its Japanese competitors. The report concluded that the Japanese firms, including Honda, had sought a very high scale of production (they had made a large number of motorbikes) in order to benefit from economies of scale and learning curve effects. It blamed the decline of the British motorcycle industry on the failure of British managers to invest enough in their businesses to profit from economies of scale and scope.

2004 Honda Super Cub

The second explanation was offered in 1984 by Richard Pascale, who had interviewed the Honda executives responsible for the firm’s entry into the U.S. market. As opposed to the tightly focused strategy of low cost and high scale that BCG accredited to Honda, Pascale found that their entry into the U.S. market was a story of “miscalculation, serendipity, and organizational learning” – in other words, Honda’s success was due to the adaptability and hard work of its staff, rather than any long term strategy. For example, Honda’s initial plan on entering the U.S. was to compete in large motorcycles, around 300 cc. It was only when the team found that the scooters they were using to get themselves around their U.S. base of San Francisco attracted positive interest from consumers that they came up with the idea of selling theSuper Cub. The most recent school of thought on Honda’s strategy was put forward by Gary Hamel and C. K. Prahalad in 1989. Creating the concept ofcore competencies with Honda as an example, they argued that Honda’s success was due to its focus on leadership in the technology of internal combustion engines. For example, the high power-to-weight ratio engines Honda produced for its racing bikes provided technology and expertise which was transferable into mopeds. Honda's entry into the U.S. motorcycle market during the 1960s is used as a case study for teaching introductory strategy at business schools worldwide. It created the first luxury Japanese car (1985 Legend) and motorcycle (2006 Gold Wing bikes) equipped with an airbag, as well as the first mid-size pickup truck with independent rear suspension (2006 Ridgeline).



Production started in 1953 with H-type engine (prior to motorcycle).[25] Honda power equipements reached record sales in 2007 with 6,4 million units.[26] By 2010 (Fiscal year ended March 31) this figure had decreased to 4,7 million units.[27] Cumulative production of power products has exceeded 85 million units (as of September, 2008).[28] Honda power equipement include: Engine Tiller Lawn mower Riding mower

Trimmer Mower Blower Sprayer Hedge trimmer Snowthrower Generator, welder Water-pump Power-carrier Outboard engine Inflatable boat Electric 4-wheel Scooter Compact Household Cogeneration Unit


Engi nes
This section requires expansion.

Honda Outboar d motor o n a ponto on boat

Honda engine

s power ed the entire 33-car startin g field of the 20 10 Indian apolis 500[29] and for the fifth consec utive race, there were no engine related retirem ents during the runnin g of the Memor ial Day Classi c.[30]

Honda , despit e being known as an engine compa ny, has never built a V8 fo r passe nger vehicle s. In the late 1990s, the compa ny resiste d consid erable pressu re from its Americ an dealer s for a

V8 engine (which would have seen use in top-oftheline Honda SUVs and Ac uras), with Americ an Honda reporte dly sendin g one dealer a shipm ent of V8 bevera ges to silence them.


Rob ots

ASIMO at Expo 2005

ASIM O is the part of Honda' s Rese arch & Develo pment robotic s progra m. It is the eleven th in a line of succes sive builds startin g in

1986 with H onda E0 mo ving throug h the ensuin g Hon da E series and theHo nda P series. Weighi ng 54 kilo grams and standi ng 130 centim eters tall, ASIM O resem bles a smalla strona ut wea ring a backp ack, and

can walk on two feet in a manne r resem bling human locom otion, at up to 6 km/h (3.7 mph). ASIM O is the world's only human oid robot able to ascen d and desce nd stairs indepe ndentl y.[32] H oweve r,

human motion s such as climbin g stairs are difficult to mimic with a machi ne, which ASIM O has demon strated by taking two plunge s off a stairca se. Honda' s robot ASIM O (see below) as an R&D project

brings togeth er experti se to create a robot that walks, dance s and naviga tes steps. 2010 marks the year Honda has develo ped a machi ne capabl e of readin ga users brainw aves to move ASIM O. The system

uses a helmet covere d with electro encep halogr aphy and nearinfrare d spectr oscopy sensor s that monito r electric al brainw aves and cerebr al blood flow— signals that alter slightly during the human though t

proces s. The user thinks of one of a limited numbe r of gestur es it wants from the robot, which has been fitted with a Brain Machi ne Interfa ce.[33]


Aircr aft
Main article: Honda HA420 Honda Jet

Honda has also pionee red new techno logy in its HA420 Honda Jet tha t allows new levels of reduce d drag, increa sed aerody namics and fuel efficien cy thus reduci ng operati ng costs.



Mou ntain bike s
See also: Honda RN-01 Gcross Honda has also built a Dow nhill ra cing bike, known as the Honda RN-01. Honda has taken on severa l people to pilot the bike, among them

is Gre g Minna ar. The team is known as Team G Cross Honda . The key feature of this bike is the gearbo x, which replac es the standa rd Der ailleur found on most bikes.


Mot ors port s

Honda has been active in motors ports, like Motorc ycle Grand Prix, Super bike racing and others.


Auto mobi le
See also: Honda Racin g F1

Rubens Barrich ello drivi

ng for Honda

Honda entere d Form ula One a sa constr uctor for the first time in the 19 64 seaso n at the Ge rman Grand Prix wi th Ron nie Buckn um at the wheel. 1965 s aw the additio n of Rich ie Ginthe r to the

team, who scored Honda' s first point at the Bel gian Grand Prix, and Honda' s first win at the Me xican Grand Prix. 1 967 sa w their next win at the Ital ian Grand Prix wi th Joh n Surtee s as their driver. In 196 8, Jo Schles

ser wa s killed in a Honda RA302 at the Fre nch Grand Prix. This racing traged y, couple d with their comm ercial difficult ies selling autom obiles in the United States, prompt ed Honda to withdr aw from all interna

tional motors port that year. After a learnin g year in 1965, Honda power ed Bra bhams domin ated the 1966 French Formul a Two c hampi onship in the hands of Jack Brabh am an d Den ny Hulme. As there

was no Europ ean Cham pionshi p that seaso n, this was the top F2 champ ionship that year. In the early 1980s Honda returne d to F2, supplyi ng engine s to Ron Tauran ac's R alt tea m. Tauran ac had design ed the Brabh

am cars for their earlier involve ment. They were again extrem ely succes sful. In a related exercis e, John Judd's Engine Develo pment s com pany produc ed a turbo "Brabh amHonda " engine for use in Indy Carrac

ing. It won only one race, in 1988 for Bo bby Rahal at Pocon o. Honda returne d to Formul a One in 1983, initially with anothe r Formul a Two partner , the Spi rit tea m, before switchi ng abruptl

y to Willia ms in 1984. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Honda power ed cars won six consec utive F ormula One C onstru ctors Cham pionshi ps. Wil liamsF 1 won the crown in 198 6 and 1987. Honda switch ed allegia

nce again in 1988. New partner s Team McLar en wo n the title in 198 8, 198 9, 199 0 and 1991. Honda withdr ew from Formul a One at the end of 1992, althou gh the related Mugen Honda compa ny mainta ined a

presen ce up to the end of 1999, winnin g four races with Li gier an d Jord an Grand Prix. Honda debute d in the CA RT IndyCa r World Series as a works supplie r in 1994. The engine s were far from compe titive at

first, but after develo pment, the compa ny power ed six consec utive drivers champ ionship s. In 2003, Honda transfe rred its effort to the rival IR L Indy Car Series. In 2004, Honda power ed cars overw helmin gly

domin ated the IndyCa r Series, winnin g 14 of 16 IndyCa r races, includi ng the Ind ianapo lis 500, and claime d the IndyCa r Series Manuf acturer s' Cham pionshi p, Drivers ' Cham pionshi p and Rookie of the

Year titles. In 2006, Honda becam e the sole engine supplie r for the IndyCa r Series, includi ng the Indian apolis 500. In the 20 06 Indian apolis 500, for the first time in Indian apolis 500 history , the race was run

without a single engine proble m.[34] During 1998, Honda consid ered returni ng to Formul a One with their own team. The project was aborte d after the death of its technic al directo r, Harv ey Postlet hwaite. Honda

instea d came back as an official engine supplie r to Briti sh Americ an Racing (BAR) and Jordan Grand Prix. Honda bought a stake in the BAR team in 2004 before buying the team outrigh t at the end of 2005,

becom ing a constr uctor for the first time since the 1960s. Honda won the 20 06 Hunga rian Grand Prix wi th driver Jenso n Button. It was annou nced on 5 Decem ber 2008, that Honda would be exiting

Formul a One with immed iate effect due to the 2008 global econo mic crisis.


team was sold to former team princip al Ros s Brawn, renam ed Bra wn GP an d subse quentl y Merc edes GP.[36] Honda becam

e an official works team in the Brit ish Tourin g Car Cham pionshi p in 2010.


Moto rcycl es
Main article: Honda Racin g Corpor ation

Honda CBR10 00RR s port bike

Honda Racing Corpor ation ( HRC) was formed in 1982. The compa ny combi nes partici pation in motorc ycle races throug hout the world with the develo pment of high potenti al racing machi nes. Its racing

activiti es are an import ant source for the creatio n of leadin g edge techno logies used in the develo pment of Honda motorc ycles. HRC also contrib utes to the advan cemen t of motorc ycle sports throug ha range of

activiti es that include sales of produc tion racing motorc ycles, suppor t for satellit e teams, and rider educat ion progra ms. Soichir o Honda , being a race driver himself , could not stay out of interna tional motors

port. In 1959, Honda entere d five motorc ycles into theIsle of Man TT rac e, the most prestig ious motorc ycle race in the world. While always having powerf ul engine s, it took until 1961 for Honda to tune their chassi s well

enoug h to allow Mike Hailwo od to claim their first Gr and Prix vi ctories in the 125 and 250 cc classe s. Hailwo od would later pick up their first senior TT wins in 1966 and 19 67. Honda' s race bikes were known

for their "sleek & stylish design " and exotic engine config uration s, such as the 5cylinde r, 22,000 rpm, 125 cc bike and their 6cylinde r 250 cc and 380 cc bikes. In 1979, Honda returne d to Gra nd Prix

motorc ycle racing with their exotic, monoc oqueframed , fourstroke NR500 . The NR500 feature d elonga ted cylinde rs each with 8 valves and with conne cting rods in pairs, in an attemp t to comply with the FI M rule

s which limited engine s to four cylinde rs. Honda engine ered the elonga ted cylinde rs in an effort to provid e the valvein ant tw ostroke racers. Unfort unatel y, it seeme d Honda tried to accom plish too

much at one time and the experi ment failed. For the 1982 seaso n, Honda debute d their first two stroke race bike, the NS500 and in 198 3, Honda won their first 500 cc Grand Prix W orld Cham pionshi p

with Fr eddie Spenc er. Since then, Honda has becom ea domin ant marqu e in motorc ycle Grand Prix racing, winnin ga plethor a of top level titles with riders such as Val entino Rossi and Mi ck Dooha n.

In mot ocross , Honda has claime d six motocr oss world champ ionship s. In the Wo rld Endur o Cham pionshi p, Honda has captur ed six titles, most recentl y with St efan Merrim an in 2003 and with Mi ka

Ahola i n 2007 and 2008. In obs erved trials, Honda has claime d three world champ ionship s with Belgia n rider E ddy Lejeun e.


Elec tric and alte rnat ive fuel vehi cles

2009 H onda Civic GX hoo ked up to Phill refuelin g system

Top: Brazilia n flexibl e-fuel H onda Civic. Below:

U.S. Ho nda Civic Hybrid.

2010 H onda Insight hybrid electric vehicle( Second generati on).

Honda FCX Clarity h ydrogen fuel cellvehi cle


Com pres sed natu

ral gas
The H onda Civic GX is the only purpos e-built natural gas vehicle (NGV) comm ercially availab le in some parts of the U.S.[37]


Honda Civic GX first appear ed in 1998 as a factory modifi ed

Civic LX that had been design ed to run exclusi vely on co mpres sed natural gas. The car looks and drives just like a conte mporar y Hond a Civic L X, but does not run on gasolin e. In 2001, the Civic GX

was rated the cleane stburnin g interna l combu stion engine in the world by the U. S. Enviro nment al Protect ion Agenc y (EPA ).[39][40] First leased to the City of Los Angele s, in 2005, Honda started

offerin g the GX directly to the public throug h factory trained dealer s certifie d to service the GX. Before that, only fle ets we re eligible to purcha se a new Civic GX. In 2006, the Civic GX was releas ed in

New York, makin g it the secon d state where the consu mer is able to buy the car.[41] Home refueli ng is availab le for the GX with the additio n of the Phi ll Home Refueli ng Applia nce.[42]


Flexi blefuel

Honda' s Brazili an subsidi ary launch ed flexi blefuel ve rsions for the Ho nda Civic a nd Ho nda Fit in late 2006. As others Brazili an flexfuel vehicle s, these model s run on any blend of hydr ous et hanol

(E100) and E2 0-E25 gasolin e.[43][44] Initially , and in order to test the market prefere nces, the carma ker decide d to produc ea limited share of the vehicle s with flexfuel engine s, 33 percen t of the Civic produc tion and 28

percen t of the Fit model s.[43][44] Also, the sale price for the flexfuel versio n was higher than the respec tive gasolin e versio ns, around US$1, 000 premiu m for the Civic, and US$65 0 for the Fit, despit e the

fact that all other flexfuel vehicle s sold in Brazil had the same tag price as their gasolin e versio ns.[44]


July 2009, Honda launch ed in the Brazili an market its third flexible -fuel car, the Ho

nda City.[47] During the last two month s of 2006, both flexfuel model s sold 2,427 cars agains t 8,546 gasolin epower ed autom obiles,


ping to 41,990 flexfuel cars in 2007,


reachi ng 93,361

in 2008.


to the succes s of the flex versio ns, by early 2009 a hundre d percen t of Honda' s autom obile produc tion for the Brazili an market is now flexible -fuel, and only a small percen tage of gasolin e

versio n is produc ed in Brazil for export s.[51] In March 2009, Honda launch ed in the Brazili an market the first flexfuel m otorcy cle in the world. Produc ed by its Brazili an subsidi ary Moto Honda

da Amazô nia, the CG 150 Titan Mix is sold for around US$2, 700.[52]


Hybr id elect ric
In late 1999, Honda launch ed the first comm ercial hybrid electric car sol d in the U.S. market , the Ho

nda Insight , just one month before the introdu ction of the To yota Prius, and initially sold for US$20 ,000.[55]


firstgenera tion Insight was produc ed from 2000 to 2006 and had afuel econo my of

70 mil es per US gallon (3.4 L/ 100 k m; 84 mp g-imp) for the EPA's highwa y rating, the most fuelefficien t massproduc ed car at the time.[55]


al global sales for the Insight amoun ted to only around 18,000

vehicle s.[56] Honda introdu ced the secon dgenera tion Insight in its home nation of Japan in Februa ry 2009, and releas ed it in other market s throug h 2009 and in the U.S. market in April 2009. At

$19,80 0 as a fivedoor hatchb ack it will be the least expen sive hybrid availab le in the U.S.[57] Honda expect s to sell 200,00 0 of the vehicle s each year, with half of those sales in the United States.

Since 2002, Honda has also been selling the Ho nda Civic Hybrid (2003 model) in the U.S. market ,.[55] It was followe d by the Ho nda Accord Hybrid, offered in model years 2005 throug h 2007. Sales of the Ho nda

CR-Z began in Jap an in Februa ry 2010, becom ing Honda' s third hybrid electric car in the market .[59]


Hydr ogen fuel cell
In Tak aneza wa, Japan, on 16 June 2008, Honda Motors produc ed the first assem

bly-line FCX Clarity, a hybri dhydro gen fu el cell vehicle . More efficien t than a gaselectric hybrid vehicle , the FCX Clarity combi nes hy drogen and ox ygen fr om ordinar y air to genera te elec tricity f or an electric motor. The vehicle itself

does not emit any po llutants and its only by produc ts are heat and water. The FCX Clarity also has an advant age over gaselectric hybrid s in that it does not use an inte rnal combu stion engine to propel itself.

Like a gaselectric hybrid, it uses a lithiu m ion battery to assist the fuel cell during accele ration and captur e energy throug h rege nerativ e brakin g, thus improv ing fuel efficien cy. The lack of hydrog en filling

station s throug hout develo ped countri es will keep produc tion volum es low.


da will releas e the vehicle in groups of 150. C aliforni ais the only U.S. market with infrastr ucture for fueling such vehicle , though

the numbe r of station s is still limited. Buildin g more station s is expen sive, as the Cal ifornia Air Resou rces Board (CARB ) grante d $6.8 million for four H2 fueling station s, costing $1.7 million USDe ach.[61]


Mar keti ng
Honda' s official slogan is "The Power of Dream s". They have never used this slogan to sell their produc ts. Mr. Honda' s belief is that well built produc ts will sell thems elves. In 2003,

Honda releas ed its Cog adverti semen t in the UK and on the Int ernet. To make the ad, the engine ers at Honda constr ucted a Rub e Goldb erg Machi ne ma de entirel y out of car parts from a Europ e Domes tic

Market Honda Accord (upon which the USDM Acura TSX is based) . To the chagri n of the engine ers at Honda , all the parts were taken from two of only six handassem bled pr eproduc tion m odels of the Accord

. The adverti semen t depict ed a single cog which sets off a chain of events that ends with the Honda Accord movin g and G arrison Keillor speaki ng the tagline , "Isn't it nice when things just... work?" It took 606

takes to get it perfect .[63] In 2004, they produc ed the Ha te Somet hing advert, usually immed iately followe d by a shorte ned versio n of the 2005/2 006 Im possibl e Dream advert.

A post 2005 style Honda dealers hip inMonct on, Canada

In 2006, Honda releas ed its Choir adverti semen t, for the UK and the interne t. This feature d a 60person choir who sang

the car noises as film of the Honda Civic are shown. In Decem ber 2005, Honda releas ed The Impos sible Dream a twominute panora mic adverti semen t filmed in New Zealan d, Japan and Argenti na which illustrat

es the founde r's dream to build perfor mance vehicle s. While singing The Impos sible Dream (The Quest) ,a man reache s for his racing helmet , leaves his trailer on a minibik e, then rides a succes sion of vintag

e Honda vehicle s: a motorc ycle, then a car, then a power boat, then goes over a waterf all only to reappe ar piloting a hot air balloo n, with Garris on Keillor saying "I couldn' t have put it better myself " as the

song ends. The song is from the 1960s musica l "Man Of La Manch a", sung by And y Willia ms. For the last severa l years in the United States, during model closeout sales for the current year before the start of

the new m odel year, Honda' s adverti sing has feature d an ani mated charac ter kno wn simply as Mr. Opport unity, voiced by Rob Paulse n. The casual looking man talks about variou s deals offered by Honda and ends

with the phrase "I'm Mr. Opport unity, and I'm knocki n'", followe d by him "knocki ng" on the televisi on screen or "thump ing" the speak er at the end of radio ads. Also, comm ercials for Honda' s

interna tional hatchb ack, the Jazz, are parodi es of wellknown pop culture image s such as Tetr is and Thoma s The Tank Engine . In late 2006, Honda releas ed an ad with A SIMO explori ng a museu m, looking

at the exhibit s with almost childlike wonde rment (sprea ding out its arms in the aerosp ace exhibit, waving hello to an astr onaut suit that resem bles him, etc.), while Garris on Keillor rumina tes on progre ss. It conclu

des with the tagline : "More forwar ds please ". Honda also spons ored IT V's cov erage of For mula One in the UK for 2007. Howev er they had annou nced that they would not contin ue in 2008 due to the

spons orship price reques ted by ITV being too high. In May 2007, focuse s on their strengt hs in racing and the use of the Red H badge —a symbol of what is termed as "Hond ament alism". The campa ign

highlig hts the length s that Honda engine ers go to in order to get the most out of an engine , wheth er it is for bikes, cars, power boats — even lawnm owers. Honda releas ed its Hon damen talism campa ign. In the TV

spot, Garris on Keillor says, "An engine er once said to build somet hing great is like swimm ing in honey" , while Honda engine ers in white suits walk and run toward sa great light, battlin g strong winds and

flying debris, holdin g on to anythi ng that will keep them from being blown away. Finally one of the engine ers walks toward s a red light, his hand outstre tched. A web addres s is shown for the Honda mental ism websit e. The

digital campa ign aims to show how visitors to the site share many of the Honda mental ist charac teristic s. At the beginn ing of 2008, Honda releas ed the Proble m Playgr ound. The advert outline s

Honda' s enviro nment al respon sibility, demon stratin ga hybrid engine , more efficien t solar panels and the FC X Clarity, a hydrog en power ed car. The 90 secon d advert feature s large scale puzzle s, involvi ng Ru

bik's cubes, large shape s and a 3dimen sional puzzle. On 29 May 2008, Honda , in partner ship with C hannel 4, broadc ast a live ad vertise ment. It showe d skydi vers ju mping from an aeropl ane over Spain

and formin g the letters H, O, N, D and A in midair. This live adverti semen t is genera lly agreed to be the first of its kind on British televisi on. The advert lasted three minute s. The next flight of one of the two

planes involve d resulte d in a fatal crash as the plane broke apart in midair.[64] In 2009, Americ an Honda releas ed the "Drea m the Impos sible Docum entary Series, "a collecti on of 5-8 minute web vignett es that

focus on the core philoso phies of Honda . Curren t short films include Failure : The Secret to Succe ss, Kick Out the Ladder and Mobilit y 2088. They feature Honda emplo yees as well as Dan ica Patrick , Christ

opher Guest, Ben Bova, Chee Pearlm an, Jo e Johnst on and Orson Scott Card. The film series plays at dream s.hond


Spor ts
In Austral ia, Honda adverti sed heavily during most motor racing

telecas ts, and was the official spons or of the 2006 FIA Formul a1 telecas t on broadc aster chann el "Ten". In fact, it was the only manuf acturer involve d in the 2006 I ndy Racing Leagu e seas on. In a series

of advert s promot ing the history of Honda' s racing heritag e, Honda claime d it "built" cars that won 72 Formul a1 Grand Prix. Scepti cs[who?] have accuse d Honda of interpr eting its racing history

rather liberall y, saying that virtuall y all of the 72 victorie s were achiev ed by Honda power ed(eng ined) machi nes, where as the cars thems elves were design ed and built by Lotus F1, Willia ms F1, and McLar en F1 teams, respec

tively. Howev er, former and current staff of the McLar en F1 team have reiterat ed that Honda contrib uted more than just engine s and provid ed variou s chassi s, tooling , and aerody namic parts as well as fundin

g. Ayrt on Senna, arguab ly the greate st F1 driver of all time, repeat edly stated that Honda probab ly played the most signific ant role in his three world champ ionship s. He had immen se respec t for founde r,

Soichir o Honda , and had a good relatio nship with Nobuhi ko Kawa moto, the chairm an of Honda at that time. Senna once called Honda "the greate st compa ny in the world". As part of its market ing campa

ign, Honda is an official partner and spons or of the Na tional Hocke y Leagu e, the An aheim Ducks of the NHL, and the arena named after it: Hon da Center . Honda is also a spons or of Maj or Leagu

e Soccer . The "Hond a Player of the Year" award is presen ted in United States soccer . The "Hond a Sports Award" is given to the best female athlete in each of twelve college sports in the United States. One of

the twelve Honda Sports Award winner s is chose n to receiv e the Ho ndaBroder ick Cup, as "Colleg iate Woma n Athlete of the Year."


Faci litie s (par tial list)
Main article: List of Honda

facilitie s


U.S. Hon da mo dels

The and p in th secti have exten dispr cove the U Pleas this a discu on th Cars Accord



Civic Hybrid













Sale s
Calenda Total U.S. r Year sales
























See also
Japanese Car portal Tokyo portal Companies portal

A c u

r a

D o n g f e n g H o n d a A u t o m o bi le C o m p a n y — j oi n

t v e n t u r e

H o n d a a d v a n c e d t e c h n ol o g y

H o n

d a A ir c r a ft C o m p a n y

H o n d a A ir p o rt

H o n d a A tl a

s C a r s P a ki st a n

H o n d a A u t o m o bi le ( C hi n a ) C o m p

a n y — i m p o rt e r o f c a r s in t o C hi n a

H o n d a B a ttl e o

f t h e B a n d s

H o n d a C a n a d a I n c.

H o n d a F . C . (

F o o t b al l ( s o c c e r) cl u b )

H o n d a H e a t ( R u g b y u

ni o n cl u b )

H o n d a T y p e R

Li st o f H o n d a a s s e m bl y

pl a n ts

Li st o f H o n d a e n gi n e s

Li st o f H o n d a m o t o r

c y cl e s

Li st o f H o n d a tr a n s m is si o n s

Li st o f H o n d a

v e hi cl e s

R P A ( R u bi n P o st a e r a n d A s s o ci a t e s )


Not es

c d e

Brea kdow n of Hon da Corp orati on's key earni ngs and inco me metri cs via Wiki nves t

^ "C omp any Profil e for Hon da Moto

r Co Ltd (HM C)". Retri eved 2008 -0929.

^ Mill er, Edw ard (200 8-0418). " FIRS T MOT ORC YCL E AIRB AG EAR NS TAK ATA AND HON DA 2008 AUT OM

OTIV E NEW S PAC E INN OVA TIO N PAR TNE RSH IP AWA RD". Hon da.c om. Retri eved 2009 -0728.

^ "H onda overt akes Niss an to beco me Japa n's

seco ndlarge st carm aker. Late st Car New s from 4Car ". Cha nnel m. Retri eved 2009 -1122.


^ "T he Histo ry of Hon da". Cars -

direc tory. net. Retri eved 2009 -1122.

^ [1]

^ Ta ylor, Alex III (200 8-0307). " Ame rica's Most Admi red Com pani es: Hon da". CNN Mon ey.c om. Retri eved 2009


^http ://wo rld.h onda .com /hist ory/c halle nge/ 1962 auto prod uctio n/tex t/05. html

^ [2]

^ Br eakd own of net sales and other oper ating reve nue by

geog raphi cal mark ets from com pany 20Fs

^ Ma ngio n, Patri ck (0827). " Mark ham save s Hon da deal" . Yor kregi on.c om: p. 1 I t was origi nally plan ned to be

locat ed in Ri chm ond Hill, Onta rio, but dela ys led them to look else wher e.

^ Sh are Mant han : http:/ /ww arem anth /inde p/ind iancom pani

es/4 9auto/ 2150 herohond a

^ To m Krish er, Asso ciate d Pres s (200 8-0703). " Why Hon da is grow ing as Detr oit falls behi nd / No. 2 Japa

nese auto mak er opte d to focu s on small , popu lar cars - not gas guzzl ers". Sfgat m. Retri eved 2009 -1122.

^ "T opic Galle ries". chica gotri bune .com .

Retri eved 2009 -1204.

^ Th e Asso ciate d Pres s (200 8-1222). " CBC New sMon ey Toyo ta slash es profit forec ast amid slum p". Cbc. ca. Retri eved

2009 -1122.

^ "C BC New sWorl dHon da slash es profit forec ast". Cbc. ca. 2008 -1217. Retri eved 2009 -1122.

^ "20 09/1 1/27 14:2 5Toyo ta's

Dom estic Outp ut Dow n 10.7 % In Oct; Hon da Dow n 35.8 %". Nni.n ikkei. . 2009 -1127. Retri eved 2009 -1204.

^ "20 08 Beiji ng Auto Sho w:

Gua ngzh ou Hon da Li Nian ". Edm unds .com

^ "H onda joint vent ure looks to stren gthe n Chin a R&D oper ation s". M arket Watc h. 17 July 2007

^ Wa ng,

Wei wei (21 Janu ary 2009 ). "G uang zhou Hon da adop ts new bran d strat egy to grab mark et shar e".C hina Econ omic Net

^ "T oyot a Coro lla Histo

ry". Toyo ta Moto r Corp .

^ htt p://w ww.d etne ws.c om/a pps/ pbcs .dll/a rticle ? AID= /200 8102 8/AU TO0 1/81 0280 408/ 1148 /&so urce =nlet terbusi ness

^ Sc ott Dog gett " EPA Lists Top 10 Most FuelEffici ent Cars From 1984 to Pres ent" Gree n car advis or Edm unds , Jun 10, 2010

^ab Alex ande r, Jeffr ey

W. (200 9). J apan 's Moto rcycl e War s: An Indu stry Histo ry. UBC Pres s. p. 22 5.IS BN 9 7807 7481 4546 .

^ "H onda Worl dwid e| Time line Pow er Prod

ucts" . Worl d.ho nda. com. Retri eved 2010 -0812.

^http ://ww w.wo rld.h onda .com /inve stors /ann ualre port/ 2007 /pdf/ ar20 07.p df

^http ://ww w.wo rld.h onda .com

/inve stors /ann ualre port/ 2010 /pdf/ hond a201 0aralle.pdf

^ "H onda Worl dwid e| Pow er Prod ucts | Over view" . Worl d.ho nda. com. Retri eved 2010 -0812.

^ "H onda Raci ng Engi nes". Raci ng.h onda .com . Retri eved 2010 -0927.

^ "In dy 500". India napo lis Moto r Spee dway .

^ Ne ws, Auto moti ve

(200 8-1017). " Gree n-car era pose s test for Hon da | The Car Tech blog CNE T Revi ews" . Revi ews. cnet. com. Retri eved 2009 -1122.

^ Fre quen tly

aske d ques tions abou t ASI MO [ 3]. Retri eved 28 Febr uary 2007 .

^ "Ja pan Plan s Mind readi ng Devi ces? " Gad getre publi c. 23 April 2010 .

Web. 3 May 2010 . <http ://ww dgetr epub m/ne ws/it em/1 938/ digit allife/ja panplan smind readi ngdevic es/>.

^ "La st Lap Victo ry for Fran chitti

Seal s 2007 Indy Car Title" . Retri eved 2008 -0114.

^ "H onda confi rm imm ediat e F1 pull out". Retri eved 2008 -1205.

^ "Br awn GP arriv es". Retri eved

2009 -0306.

^ Ch ristin e Gabl e and Scott Gabl e. "2 008 Natu ral Gas Vehi cles (NG Vs) Avail able" . Abou m: Hybri d Cars & Alt Fuel s. Retri eved

2008 -1018.

^ "20 09 Hon da Civic GX Natu ral Gas Vehi cle". Hon da. Retri eved 2008 -1018.

^ "Si xth Bian nual Rep ort On The Early Actio n Com

pact For Nort heas t Texa s", p.5.

^ "N atura l Gas Myth s", Myth 2.

^ "H onda Pres s Rele ase", 19 Octo ber 2006

^ "F uelM aker Corp orati on Worl

d Lead er in Conv enie nt OnSite Refu eling Syst ems" . Web. archi ve.or g. 2008 -0215. Archi ved from the origi nal o n 2008 -0215. Retri eved 2010 -0927.

^ab Ricar do Ghig onett o (Nov emb er 2006 1). " Hon da apre sent a tecn ologi a Flex" (in Port ugue se). Hon da (Bra zil). Retri eved 2009 -0416.




celo Mour a (Jan uary 2007 ). "T este s: Hon da Civic EXS Flex x Hon da Civic EXS" (in Port ugue se). Revi sta Quat ro Rod as. Retri eved 2009


^ Luí s Felip e Figu eired o (200 9-0209). " Hon da Fit LXL Flex, um japo nês vers átil" ( in Port ugue se). Web Moto rs. Retri eved 2009 -0416.

^ Alb erto Polo Juni or (200 6-1212). " Vers ão Flex do Hon da Fit cheg a na sext a por R$ 46.3 40" (i n Port ugue se). Inter pres s Moto r. Retri eved 2009


^ "H onda start s buildi ng flexfuel City seda n in Brazi l". Auto blog Gree n. 2009 -0729. Retri eved 2009 -0803.

^ "T abel a 08 Vend as

Atac ado Merc ado Inter no por Tipo e Emp resa Com bustí vel Flex Fuel 2006 " (in Port ugue se) (PDF ). ANF AVE AAsso ciaçã o Naci onal dos Fabri cant

es de Veíc ulos Auto moto res (Bra zil). Retri eved 2009 -0416. See Tabl e 08 for flexfuel sale s and Tabl e 07 for gaso line sale s.

^ "T abel a 08 -

Vend as Atac ado Merc ado Inter no por Tipo e Emp resa Com bustí vel Flex Fuel 2007 " (in Port ugue se) (PDF ). ANF AVE AAsso ciaçã o Naci onal dos

Fabri cant es de Veíc ulos Auto moto res (Bra zil). Retri eved 2009 -0416. See Tabl e 08.

^ "T abel a 08 Vend as Atac ado Merc ado Inter no por Tipo e

Emp resa Com bustí vel Flex Fuel 2008 " (in Port ugue se) (PDF ). ANF AVE AAsso ciaçã o Naci onal dos Fabri cant es de Veíc ulos Auto moto res (Bra zil).

Retri eved 2009 -0416. See Tabl e 08.

^ "A utov eícul os Prod ução em 2009 " (in Port ugue se). ANF AVE AAsso ciaçã o Naci onal dos Fabri cant es de Veíc

ulos Auto moto res (Bra zil). Retri eved 2009 -0416. Up to Febr uary 2009 . See "Pro duçã o por Tipo, Emp resa e Com bustí vel " Tabl es 6 (gas oline ) and 7 (flexfuel).

All gaso line vehi cles were expo rted (see Tabl e 01 Expo rtaçã o de Auto veíc ulos por Emp resa, Tipo e Mod elo 2009 ).

^ "H onda lanç a prim eira moto bico

mbu stível do mun do" (i n Port ugue se). G1 Port al de Notíc ias da Glob o. 2003 -0311. Retri eved 2003 -0311.

^ Ag enci a EFE (200 3-0311). " Hon da

lanç ará moto flex aind a nest e mês no Brasi l" (in Port ugue se). Folh a Onlin e. Retri eved 2003 -0311.

^ "H onda lanç a no Brasi l prim eira moto flex

do mun do" (i n Port ugue se). UNI CA. 2003 -0311. Retri eved 2003 -0311.



rling, Dani el and Deb orah Gord on (200 9). T wo billio n cars: drivi

ng towa rd sust aina bility. Oxfo rd Univ ersit y Pres s, New York. pp. 28, 64– 65, and 168– 168.I SBN 9780-195376 64-7



y Garr ett (200 6-08-

27). " The Onc e and Futur e Mile age King" . The New York Time s.

^ "H onda Insig ht: Ame rica's most affor dabl e hybri d at $19, 800". Hon da. Moto r Auth

ority. 2009 -0310. Retri eved 2009 -0321.

^ "H onda Anno unce s Addit ional Detai ls on New Smal l Hybri d Vehi cle Hon da Pres s Rele ases ". Corp orate

.hon da.c om. 2008 -0520. Retri eved 2010 -0927.

^ "H onda CRZ Hybri d Now On Sale in Japa n; Targ eting 1,00 0 Units Per Mont h". G reen Car Con

gres s. 2010 -0227. Retri eved 2010 -0313.

^ Fa ckler , Marti n (200 8-0617). " Late st Hon da Runs on Hydr ogen , Not Petr oleu m". New York Time s.

Retri eved 2008 -0617.

^ Cli ve Tho mps on (200 9-0416). " Batte ries Not Inclu ded". New York Time s. Retri eved 2009 -0419.

^ Se basti an Blan co (200

9-0416). " CAR B grant s $6.8 millio n for four hydr ogen refue ling stati ons". Auto blog gree n. Retri eved 2009 -0617.

^ "Li ghts! Cam era! Reta ke!". Tele grap h.

Retri eved 2008 -0105.

^ Ma rk Swe ney. "Plan e used in Hon da skydi ving ad cras hes in Spai n| Medi a". guar dian. co.u k. Retri eved 2010 -0927.


Ref ere nce s
Wikinews has related

news:Honda demonstr mind-reading robotic technology

" M o v e O v e r, V ol v o : H o n d a S e ts N e

w S a f e ty S t a n d a r d f o r It s el f" , a n a rt ic le in t h e " N e w

s " s e ct io n o f t h e M a r c h , 2 0 0 4 is s u e o f M o t o r T r e

n d , o n p a g e 3 2

2 0 0 4 A n n u al C o r p o r a t e R e p o rt

T h e st o r y o f H o n d a' s e n tr y a n d g r o w t h in t h e A m e

ri c a n m a r k e t is d o c u m e n t e d in T e rr y S a n d e r s' fil m

T h e J a p a n P r oj e ct : M a d e in J a p a n . H o n d a

H o n d

a' s M id lif e C ri si s: H o n d a' s sl ip pi n g m a r k e t p o si ti o n a n d

vi e w s o f F u k ui T a k e o ( C hi e f E x e c u ti v e m a g a zi n e ,

D e c e m b e r 2 0 0 5 is s u e )

H o n d a' s C o r p o r a t e H is

t o r y


Ext ern al link s

Wikimedia Commons ha media related to: Honda

H o n d a W o rl d w id e si t e

H o n d

a P r e s s Li b r a r y ( J a p a n e s e , b u t w it h g r a p hi c al ti

m el in e s o f c a r a n d bi k e m o d el s )

H o n d a A u t o m o bi

le s a t t h e O p e n D ir e ct o r y P r oj e ct

H o n d a M o t o r c

y cl e s a t t h e O p e n D ir e ct o r y P r oj e ct







Categ ories: Comp anies listed on the Tokyo Stock Excha nge | Comp anies listed on the New York Stock Excha nge | Honda | Hond a vehicle s | Aut omotiv e compa nies of Japan | Boat builder s | Car manuf

acturer s | Co mpani es based in Tokyo | Com panies establi shed in 1948 | Lawn and garden tractor s | Mo ped manuf acturer s | Mot or vehicle engine manuf acturer s| Motor vehicle manuf acturer s of Japan | Motor cycle

manuf acturer s of Japan | Scoot er manuf acturer s | Tra ctor manuf acturer s of Japan | Truck manuf acturer s | Mar ine engine manuf acturer s | Ind yCar engine manuf acturer s

New feat ures

Log in / crea te

acco unt


Discus sion



View history


Main page

Conten ts

Featur ed content

Current events

Rando m article

Donate Interact ion

About Wikipe dia

Comm unity portal

Recent change s

Contac t Wikipe dia

Help Toolbo x Print/ex port Langua ges

Aleman nisch


Azərba ycanca


Белару ская

Белару ская (тараш кевіца)

Българ ски




Deutsc h


Españo l

Espera nto


Françai s



Հայեր են

Hrvatsk i

Bahasa Indone sia



Қазақш а

Latvieš u

Lietuvi ų


Макед онски


Bahasa Melayu

Nāhuat l

Nederl ands


Norsk (bokmå l)

Norsk (nynors k)



Portug uês

Român ă

Русски й

Саха тыла



Simple English

Sloven čina

Sloven ščina

Српски / Srpski


Svensk a


• •



Україн ська


Tiếng Việt


This page was last modifie d on 25 October 2010 at 00:16.

Text is availabl e under the Cre ative Commo ns Attributi onShareAl ike

License ; addition al terms may apply. See Ter ms of Use for details. Wikiped ia® is a register ed tradema rk of the Wiki media Foundat ion, Inc., a nonprofit organiz ation.

Contact us














Sponsor Documents

Or use your account on


Forgot your password?

Or register your new account on


Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password.

Back to log-in