Published on June 2016 | Categories: Types, Research | Downloads: 49 | Comments: 0 | Views: 646
of 4
Download PDF   Embed   Report

Research in Econimics



hospitals are usually funded by the public sector, by health organizations (for profit or nonprofit), health insurance companies, or charities, including direct charitable donations. Historically, hospitals were often founded and funded by religious orders or charitable individuals and leaders a health care institution providing patient treatment by specialized staff and equipment. An institution for the treatment, care, and cure of the sick and wounded, for the study of disease, and for the training of physicians, nurses, and allied health care personnel.
A hospital is a facility which provides health care, surgery, and other medical treatment which cannot be completed in a clinic or doctor’s office. A hospital contains the more expensive, high-tech equipment that physicians’ offices may not have onsite, due to financial or space limitations. Also, a hospital is equipped to treat very ill patients on an in-patient basis, meaning that overnight care is provided. Hospitals also provide a number of services such as trauma care and labor & delivery for mothers and their families.

Categories of hospital
Psychiatric hospital
Psychiatric hospital (a hospital for mentally incompetent or unbalanced person)

Psychiatric hospitals, also known as mental hospitals, are hospitals specializing in the treatment of serious mental disorders. Psychiatric hospitals vary widely in their size and grading. Some hospitals may specialize only in shortterm or outpatient therapy for low-risk patients. Others may specialize in the temporary or permanent care of residents who, as a result of a psychological disorder, require routine assistance, treatment, or a specialized and controlled environment. Patients are often admitted on a voluntary basis, but people who psychiatrists believe may pose a significant danger to themselves or others, may be subject to involuntary commitment.

Teaching hospital
teaching hospital (a hospital where students learn medical skills)

A teaching hospital is a hospital that provides clinical education and training to future and current doctors, nurses, and other health professionals, in addition to delivering medical care to patients. They are generally affiliated with medical schools or universities (hence the alternative term university hospital), and may be owned by a university or may form part of a wider regional or national health system.

Children’s hospital
Children’s hospital (a hospital providing care exclusively for children)

A children's hospital is a hospital which offers its services exclusively to children (including teenagers). The number of children's hospitals proliferated in the 20th century, as pediatric medical and surgical specialties separated from internal medicine and adult surgical specialties. Children's hospitals are characterized by greater attention to the psychosocial support of children and their families.

General hospital
General hospital (a hospital which offers a wide range of services)

A general hospital is a type of medical facility which is set up to deal with many kinds of disease and injury.

Sanatorium, a medical facility for long-term illness, typically tuberculosis

A sanatorium (also spelled sanitorium and sanitarium) has different meanings depending on the region of residence. Historically for Americans and most European countries it is a medical facility for long-term illness, most typically associated with treatment of tuberculosis (TB) before antibiotics. A distinction is sometimes made between "sanitarium" (a kind of health resort, as in the Battle Creek Sanitarium) and "sanatorium" (a hospital).

What is the role of the pharmacy in the hospital?
Hospitals and other institutions and facilities, such as outpatient clinics, drug-dependency treatment facilities, poison control centres, drug information centres, and long-term care facilities, may be operated by the government or privately. While many of the pharmacist’s activities in such facilities may be similar to those performed by community pharmacists, they differ in a number of ways. Additionally, the hospital or institutional pharmacist: • has more opportunity to interact closely with the prescriber and, therefore, to promote the rational prescribing and use of drugs; • in larger hospital and institutional pharmacies, is usually one of several pharmacists, and thus has a greater opportunity to interact with others, to specialize and to gain greater expertise; • having access to medical records, is in a position to influence the selection of drugs and dosage regimens, to monitor patient compliance and therapeutic response to drugs, and to recognize and report adverse drug reactions; • can more easily than the community pharmacist assess and monitor patterns of drug usage and thus recommend changes where necessary; • serves as a member of policy-making committees, including those concerned with drug selection, the use of antibiotics, and hospital infections (Drug and Therapeutics Committee) and thereby influences the preparation and composition of an essential-drug list or formulary; • is in a better position to educate other health professionals about the rational use of drugs; • more easily participates in studies to determine the beneficial or adverse effects of drugs, and is involved in the analysis of drugs in body fluids; • can control hospital manufacture and procurement of drugs to ensure the supply of high-quality products; • takes part in the planning and implementation of clinical trials.

How important is the pharmacist in the health care system?
The role of pharmacy in the healthcare of Americans has become more significant in the past two years, according to Larry Merlo, president and chief operating officer of CVS Caremark and chairman of the board of directors of the National Association of Chain Drug Stores (NACDS).

Speaking a the NACDS Regional Chain Conference in Naples, Fla., Merlo pointed out that the following have emphasized the importance of the community pharmacy: • Medication therapy management (MTM) programs. • Fostering viable pharmacy reimbursement in federal and state government programs. • Shaping drug disposal policy. • Preventing co-pay increase in the military's TRICARE program. Allowing e-prescribing for controlled substances. Merlo also pointed to the public policy victories of NACDS that are advancing pharmacy, and described opportunities to further raise awareness among decision-makers of the value of pharmacy services. "From my role as chairman, I see an organization that is making a huge transition. In recent years, we have emerged as an association that knows how to win. Now, we are growing into an association that is winning consistently," Merlo said of NACDS' public policy advocacy. However, there are still moves that can be made, added Merlot, who pointed to pharmacy's potential for patient care, particularly as it relates to boosting medication adherence, or patients' taking their medications correctly. Science is backing the power that pharmacy holds in caring for Americans' health, he explained. "The research and science of pharmacy care over the past two years has expanded our position pretty dramatically. Investments being made by many pharmacy and healthcare companies are helping illustrate and further quantify the value of pharmacy care. We should be pleased and proud with what the research is showing--with scientific rigor. The conclusions have been clear; increasing efforts to promote pharmacy care can save the healthcare system significant dollars while improving health outcomes." But there's still plenty of work ahead. He explained that pharmacies will need to come up with new tools and programs (and technology) to engage and educate people about the importance of taking medications. "All of the studies I cited show the evolution of the pharmacist from not just a dispenser of products, but to a provider of services," he said. "And we as an industry must ensure that we are recognized by payors' reimbursement policies--not just for the products we sell--but for the services we provide."

Pharmacists play a vital role in health care system through the medicine and information they provide. While responsibilities vary among the different areas of pharmacy practice, thebottom line is that Pharmacists help patients get well. Pharmacist responsibilities include a range of care for patients, from dispensing medications to monitoring patienth e a l t h a n d p r o g r e s s t o m a x i m i z e t h e i r r e s p o n s e t o t h e m e d i c a t i o n . P h a r m a c i s t s e ducate consumers and patients on the use of prescriptions and over-the-countermedications, and advise physicians, nurses, and other health professionals on drugselection and utility. Pharmacists also provide expertise about the composition of d r u g s , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r c h e m i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l , a n d p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s a n d t h e i r manufact ure and use. They ensure drug purity and strength and make sure that drugsdo not interact in a harmful way. Pharmacists are drug experts ultimately concernedabout their patients’ health and wellness. The World health organization (WHO) report on “The role of the Pharmacist in t h e h e a l t h c a r e s y s t e m ” states that the competence of the Pharmacist is already proven and control.

Top Government Hospitals in Philippines
Amai-Pakpak Medical Center Amang Rodriguez Medical Center
Caraga Regional Hospital Gov. Celestino Gallares Memorial Hospital Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital Las Piñas District Hospital Mariano Marcos Memorial Hospital and Medical Center Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center Ilocos Training and Regional Medical Center Bicol Medical center

Private Hospitals
1. East Avenue Medical Center 3. 'Amang' Rodriguez Medical Center 2. Philippine Children's Medical Center 4. Manila Doctors Hospital 5. Makati Medical Center 6. Arguelles Medical 7. Lung Center of the Philippines 8. Capitol Medical Center 9. National Kidney and Transplant Institute 10. Bicol Medical Center 11. Asian Eye Institute 12. Philippine Heart Center 13. Asian MD Multispecialty Clinic 14. Emerson Health Care Center

Potential responses to the Medicare pricing mechanism
This article describes the Medicare pricing mechanism and explores potential responses to the reliance on the patient and related medical condition as the unit of payment. The analysis suggests that, although the provisions of PL 98-21 may benefit the Medicare program, the pricing system may jeopardize the financial viability of hospitals, increase inequities that emanate from differential pricing policies and, when viewed from the perspective of beneficiaries, reduce access to in-hospital care and the use of service once admitted.

Sponsor Documents

Or use your account on


Forgot your password?

Or register your new account on


Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password.

Back to log-in