HOTEL INDUSTRY

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 AN ASSIGNMENT ASSIGNMENT ON 

Human Resource Practices In Hotel Industry OF SUBJECT   HUMAN RESOURCE RESOURCE PLANNING AND D DEVELOPMENT  EVELOPMENT 

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Submitted By TRISHTA JAISWAL MBA 3RD SEMESTER 

 

 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

 

INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTIO N TO HOTEL INDUSTRY One of the fastest growing sectors of the economy of our time is the hotel in indu dust stry ry.. Th Thee ho hote tell indu indust stry ry alon alonee is a mu mult ltii-bi bill llio ion n do doll llar ar an and d grow growin ing g enterprise. It is exciting, never boring and offer unlimited opportunities. The hotel industry is diverse enough for people to work in different areas of interest and still be employed within the hotel industry. This trend is not just in IIndia, ndia, but also globally. Modern hotels provide refined services to their guests. The customers or  guests are always right. This principle necessitated application of management  principles in the hotel industry and the hotel professionals realized the instrumentality of marketing principles in managing the hotel industry. The concept of total quality management is found getting an important  place in the marketing management of hotels. The emerging positive trend in the tourism industry indicates that hotel industry is like a reservoir from where the fore foreig ign n ex exch chan ange ge flow flows. s. This This na natu tura rall lly y draw drawss ou ourr at atte tent ntio ion n on HO HOTE TEL L MANAGEMENT. Like other industries, the hotel industry also needs to explore avenues for innovation, so that a fair blending of core and peripheral services is

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 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

made possible. It is not to be forgotten that the leading hotel companies of the world have been intensifying research to enrich their peripheral services with the motto of adding additional attractions to their service mix. It is against this  background that we we find the service mix more flex flexible ible in nature. The recruitment and training programmes are required to be developed in the face of technological sophistication. The leading hotel companies have been found promoting an ongoing training programme so that the personnel come to know about the use of sophisticated communication technologies.

GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF HOTEL INDUSTRY Classifications of hotels  On the basis of standards:

Like most of the countries in world, India also has hotels divided in different diffe rent categ categories ories depe depending nding on thei theirr locat location, ion, facilities facilities,, infras infrastruct tructure ure and amenities provided. All the star hotels in India are government approved with continuous control on the quality of services offered. Hotels : - The most luxurious and conveniently located hotels in  Five Star Hotels: India are grouped under Five Star Deluxe Hotel categories. Five Star  Deluxe in India are globally competitive in the quality of service provided, facilities offered and accommodation option. These are top of the line hotels located mostly in big cities. These hotels provide all the modern fa faci cili liti ties es for for acco accomm mmod odat atio ion n an and d recr recrea eati tion on ma matc tchi hing ng in inte tern rnat atio iona nall st stan anda dard rdss in ho hosp spit ital alit ity. y. In su such ch ty type pe of ho hote tell HR de depa part rtme ment nt are are

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 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

established separately and to execute and to follow the concept of HR  strictly, HR professional are hired. 

Four Star Hotels: - A rung below five star hotels are Four Star Hotels,

these the se hot hotels els pro provid videe all the moder modern n ame amenit nities ies to the tra travel velers ers wit with h a limited budget. Quality of services is almost as high as the five stars and above categories. These kinds of hotels are there for the travelers with limited budget or for the places which might not get the tourist traffic associated with larger cities. In such type of hotel concept of HR  is more or less followed. 

Three Star Hotels: - These are mainly economy class hotels located in the bigger and smaller cities and catering to the needs of budget travelers.

Lesser in amenities and facilities, these hotels are value for money and gives good accommodation and related services on the reduced price. Services would be stripped down version of higher categories of hotels but sufficient to fulfill customer basic needs. In such type of hotel concept of  HR ma may y or ma may y no nott be pres presen ent. t. If pre rese sent nt al alll func functi tion onss of HR HRD D is curtailed. 

Two Star Hotels: - These hotels are most available in the small cities and

in par partic ticula ularr are areas as of lar larger ger cit cities ies.. Cat Cateri ering ng to the bac backpa kpacke ckerr tou touris ristt traffic tra ffic,, the these se hot hotels els pro provid videe all the bas basic ic facili faciliti ties es nee needed ded for gen genera erall accommodation and offers lowest prices. In this type of hotel concept of  HR is absent. 

One Star Hotels:- The hotels with most basic facilities, small number of 

room’s locations in the far-flung areas are grouped under One Star Hotel category. These hotels are best when customer is looking for cheapest 4

 

 

 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

available accommodation option. In this type of hotel concept of HR  is alien words.

CAREERS OPPORTUNITIES IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY

Some of the careers opportunities in the hotel industry are as follows.  The industry offers more career options than most: - No matter what kind

of work we enjoy and wherever our aptitudes lie, there is a segment of the industry that can use ours talents.  Th Thee wo work rk is va vari ried ed:: - Be Beca caus usee ho hote tels ls an and d res resta taur uran ants ts are are co comp mple lete te

 production, distribution and service units, and managers are involved in a  broad array of activities.  There are many opportunities to be creative: - Hotels and restaurants

managers might design new products to meet their needs of their guests;  produce training programs for employees; or implement challenging advertising, sales promotions and marketing plans.  Hospitality jobs are not nine-to-five jobs: - Hours are highly flexible in

many positions. Many more opportuniti opportunities es are wait waiting ing in a queue. With these the role of HR is drastically change. Its fields of operation in today’s worlds knew no boundary. Each Ea ch da day y it is co conf nfro ront nted ed wi with th ne new w ch chal alle leng nges es in ne new w di divi visi sion on of ho hote tels ls.. 5

 

 

 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

Therefore before knowing the role of HR it is essentials to know different department of the hotels as well their functions.

DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS IN HOTELS The departments are classified on accounts of it function. They are as follows: •

Core Functioning Department Food and Beverage (F&D) Department:-

F & B deals mainly with food and beverage service allied activities. Different divisions are there in F & B like Restaurants, Speciality Restaurants, Coffee Shop (24 hrs.), Bar, Banquets, Room service etc. Apart from that they have Utility services (Cleaning). •

Front Office Department:-

The front office is the command post for processing reservations, registering guests, settling guest accounts (cashiering), and checking out guests. Front desk de sk ag agen ents ts also also ha hand ndle le the the dist distri ribu buti tion on of gu gues estr troo oom m ke keys ys an and d ma mail il,, messages or other information for guests. The most visible part of the front office area is of course the front desk. The front desk can be a counter or, in some luxury hotels, an actual desk where a guest can sit down and register. •

Housekeeping Department:-

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The housekeeping department is another important department in hospitality world. Housekeeping is responsible for cleaning the hotel’s guestrooms and  public areas. This department has the largest staff, consisting of an assistant housekeeper, room inspectors, room attendants, a houseperson crew, linen room attendants and personnel in charge of employee uniforms. They may also have their own laundry and valet service. Hotels with laundry and valet equipment may use it only for hotel linens and uniforms and send guest clothi clo thing ng to an out outsid sidee ser servic vicee whe where re it can be han handle dled d wit with h spe specia cializ lized ed equipment. •

Food Production Department:Food Foo d pro produc ductio tion n dea deals ls wit with h the pre prepar parati ations ons of foo food d ite items. ms. It bas basica ically lly

enga en gage ged d in prep prepar arin ing g thos thosee dish dish,, wh whic ich h are are orde ordered red by th thee gu gues estt an and d af afte terw rwar ards ds is ca cate tere red d by the the F& F&B B de depa part rtme ment nt.. Cu Cuis isin inee li like ke Indi Indian an,, Cont Co ntin inen enta tal, l, Th Thai ai,, Ital Italia ian, n, Ko Konk nkan anii (C (Coa oast stal al Se Seaa Fo Food od), ), So Sout uth h Indi Indian an,, Chin Ch ines ese, e, Me Mexi xica can, n, etc. etc. Di Diffe fferen rentt Ch Chef efss are are ap appo poin inte ted d for for th thee spec specia ialt lty y cuisine.

 Support Department (Cost Centers) •

Marketing & Selling Department:-

Sales and marketing has become one of the most vital functions of the hotel  business and an integral part of modern hotel management. It includes  packaging for selling, sales promotion, advertising and public relations. The marketing division is charged with the responsibility of keeping the rooms in the hotel occupied at the right price and with the right mix of guests.

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 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

Engineering and Maintenan Maintenance ce Department:Department:-

The energy crisis throughout the world has given a great importance to the engineering department of a hotel. This department provides on the day-today basis the utility services, electricity, hot water, steams, air-conditioning and oth other er ser servic vices es and is res respon ponsib sible le for rep repair air and maint maintena enance nce of the equipment, furniture and fixtures in the hotel. The engineering department has an important role in satisfying the guest- demand and helping to maintain the pro profit fit lev level el of the hot hotel. el. The cle cleani aning, ng, up up-ke -keep, ep, rep repair air,, rep replac laceme ement, nt, installation and maintenance of property and its furnishing, machinery and equipment are the joint responsibilities of Engineering/Maintenance and the Housekeeping Department. •

Finance, Accounting and Control Department:-

A hotel’s accounting department is responsible for keeping track of the many  business transactions that occur in the hotel. The accounting department does more than simply keep the books-financial management is perhaps a more appropriate description of what the accounting department does. Whereas the control department is concern with cost control guidelines by way of reducing in investment, reduction in operating cost, control of food service costs, control of beverage costs, labour cost control, etc. •

Safety and Security Department:-

The security of guests, employees, personal property and the hotel itself is an over ov erri ridi ding ng co conc ncer ern n for for toda today’ y’ss ho hote teli lier ers. s. In th thee pa past st,, mo most st secu securi rity ty  precautions concentrated on the prevention of theft from guests and the hotel. However, today such violent crimes as murder and rape have become a  problem for some hotels. Unfortunately, crime rates in most major’s cities are 8

 

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rising. Hence today security department also concentrate on these additional criminal activities too. •

Administration Department:-

Top To p

orga organi niza zati tion onal al

me memb mber erss

us usua uall lly y

supe superv rvis isee

th thee

Admi Admini nist stra rati tion on

Depa De part rtme ment nt in a ho hote tel. l. Th This is de depa part rtme ment nt is res respo pons nsib ible le for for al alll th thee work  work  connected conne cted with admin administra istration, tion, perso personnel nnel,, manpo manpower, wer, emplo employee’s yee’s welfa welfare, re, medical, health and security. •

Human Resource Development:-

This department has newly taken step in hotel industry and within a short span of time it has become a very important part of the organization. It plays the rol rolee of fac facili ilitat tator or bet betwee ween n the bar bargai gainab nable le cad cadre re and non non-ba -barga rgaina inable ble cadre. Thiss dep Thi depart artmen mentt is the top topic ic of our dis discus cussio sion. n. The pra practi ctice, ce, whi which ch th this is department and their staff perform, is going to be learned in the light of  following project.  

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INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT OF HOTEL INDUSTRY In hotel industry the job of HR manager can be compare with the job of  conductor, whose job is to instruct and direct all of the various musicians so that they can perform well together. But before a conductor can direct a beautiful  performance, all of the individual musicians must be able to play their  in inst stru rume ment ntss we well ll.. Wh What at kind kind of pe perfo rforma rmanc ncee co coul uld d on onee can can ex expe pect ct if th thee violinists did not know how to play their instruments or the flutists could not read music? So it is in the hospitality industry, before a manager can direct and shape employee’s individual contributions into an efficient whole, he or she must first tu turn rn em empl ploy oyee eess into into co comp mpet eten entt wo worke rkers rs wh who o kn know ow ho how w to do th thei eirr jo jobs bs.. Employees are the musicians of the orchestra that the members of the audiencethe-guests-have come to watch performance. If employees are not skilled at their   jobs, then the performance they give will get bad reviews. Just as an orchestra can have a fine musical score from a great composer and still perform poorly  because of incompetent musicians, so a hotel can have a finest standard recipes,

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servic ser vicee pro proced cedure uress and qua qualit lity y sta standa ndards rds and sti still ll have have dis dissat satisf isfied ied gue guests sts  because of poor employee employee performance. That is why properly managing human resources is so important. No other  industry provides so much contact between employees and customers and so many opportunities to either reinforce a positive experience or create a negative one. As in the five-star hotel and five-star deluxe hotel there are around lots of  employee are involved in different jobs in different fields there is dire need to look and control on them. No doubt different department’s heads are present to look the look their ir dep depart artmen mentt emp employ loyee, ee, but HR HRD D is a pla place, ce, whi which ch sup superv ervise ise and effectively communicate with these departments head and communicate with the top management. Thus there function is very large and diverse as compared with respect to different department’s heads.

 

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Fig: A Typical Organization of Personnel Department

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General Manager 

Personnel Director 

Personnel Manager 

Personnel Officer 

Personnel Research & Development Officer 

Personnel Department

Maintaining Payroll

Recruitment

Training

Training Department

Welfare

Operative Training Supervisory Training Management Training Training Instruction Training Aids & Equipments

 

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING

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Human Resource Planning (HRP) is the first aspect of human resource process. It is very commonly understood as the process of forecasting an organization’s future demand for, and of, the right type of people in the right number. It is only after this that HRM department can initiate a recruitment and selection process. HRP is the sub-system in the total organizational planning planning.. HRP is important for: ≈

The future personnel needs



To cope up with change



To create highly talented personnel





For the protection of weaker sections For the international expansion strategy of the company



It is the foundation for personnel functions

The list is infact never ending. HRP actually has become an inevitable part of  HRM process. HRP is influenced by several considerations. The more important of them are:  Type and strategy of the organization  Organizational growth cycles and planning  Environmental uncertainties  Type and quality of forecasting information   Nature of jobs being filled filled  Off-loading the work 

The HRP Process

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Environment

Organizational Objectives & Policies

HR Supply Forecast

HR Demand Forecast

HR Programming

HRP Implementation

Control and Evaluation of Program

Surplus

Shortage Fig: HRP Process

 Organization Organizational al Objectives & Policies

HR plans need to be based on organizational objectives. In practice, this implies that the objectives of the HR plan mu musst be derived fro from organi org anizat zation ional al obj object ective ives. s. Spe Specif cific ic req requir uireme ements nts in ter terms ms of num number ber and charac cha racter terist istics ics of emp employ loyees ees sho should uld be der derive ived d from the org organi anizat zation ional al objectives. 15

 

 

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 HR Demand Forecast

Demand Deman d foreca forecasting sting must consider several facto factors rs – both extern external al as well as internal. Among the external factors are competition, economic climate, laws and reg regula ulator tory y bod bodies ies,, cha change ngess in tec techno hnolog logy y and soc social ial fac factor tors. s. Int Intern ernal al factor fac torss inc includ ludee bud budget get con constr strain aints, ts, pro produc ductio tion n lev levels els,, new pro produc ducts ts and services, organizational structure and employee separations.  HR Supply Forecast

The next logical step for the management is to determine whether it will be able to procure the required number of personnel and the sources for such  procurement. This information is provided by supply forecasting. Supply forecasting measures the number of people likely to be available from within and outside an organization, after making allowance for absenteeism, internal move mo veme ment ntss an and d prom promot otio ions ns,, wa wast stag agee an and d ch chan ange gess in ho hour urss an and d ot othe her  r  conditions of work.  HR Programming

Once an organization’s personnel demand and supply are forecast, the two must be reconciled or balanced in order that vacancies can be filled by the right employees at the right time. HR programming is the third step in the  planning process, therefore, therefore, assumes greater importance.  HR Plan Implementation

Implementation requires converting an HR plan into action. A series of action  programmes are initiated as a part of HR plan implementation. Some such  programmes are recruitment, selection and placement; training and development; retraining and redeployment; the retention plan; the redundancy  plan; and the succession succession plan. 16

 

 

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 Control and Evaluation

Control and evaluation represents the fifth and the final phase in the HRP  process. The HR plan should include budgets, targets and standards. It should also clarify respo responsib nsibiliti ilities es for imple implementa mentation tion and cont control, rol, and estab establish lish reporting procedures which will enable achievements to be monitored against th thee plan plan.. Th Thes esee ma may y simp simply ly rep repor ortt on th thee nu numb mber erss em empl ploy oyed ed ag agai ains nstt establishment and on the numbers recruited against the recruitment targets. But they should also report employment costs against the budget, and trends in wastage and employment ratios.

Consequences of Inadequate Planning One example of inadequate planning is the case of an organization caught in a severe budget crisis for which management sees only one solution – to lay off large numbers of employees. Careful planning for such a crisis during better  times might have resulted in a series of alternatives, making layoffs unnecessary. Many Ma ny othe otherr prob proble lems ms ca can n oc occu curr if hu huma man n re reso sour urce cess pl plan anni ning ng are are haphazard or neglected. For example, planning should take into account staff  reductions in all parts of the organization and should be tried into any system for  transferring employees. Top management because of declining sales or increased auto au toma mati tion on,, incl includ udin ing g the the use use of co comp mput uter erss an and d la late test st te tech chno nolo logy gy,, mi migh ghtt contemplate staff reductions.

JOB ANALYSIS

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In ord order er to ach achiev ievee effe effecti ctive ve HRP HRP,, the dut duties ies inv involv olved ed and the ski skills lls required for performing all the jobs in an organization have to be taken care of. This knowledge is gained through job analysis. In simple words, job analysis may ma y be un unde ders rsto tood od as a proc proces esss of co coll llec ecti ting ng in infor forma mati tion on ab abou outt th thee jo job. b. Specifically, job analysis involves the following steps:  Collecting and recording job information.  Checking the job information for accuracy.  Writing job description based on the information.  Using the information to determine the skills, abilities and knowledge that

are required on the job.  Updating the information from time to time.

The Process of Job Analysis The following fig. represents the process of job analysis. The fig. also points out the uses of information about the jobs.

 Strategic Choices ≈

Employee Empl oyee Invo Involvem lvement: ent: Job ana analys lysis is inv involv olves es col collec lectin ting g job job-rel -relate ated d

information – duties, responsibilities, skills and knowledge required to  perform the jobs. It may be stated that in job analysis, information about a  job is collected and not about the incumbent, however, the jobholder is consulted. Employees are often asked to supply vital information about the contents of job, given their familiarity with it.

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The Levels of Details: The level of analysis may vary from detailed, as in

time and motion studies, to broad as in analyzing jobs based on general duties. The level of analysis affects the nature of the data collected. Strategic Choices   Gather Information

Process Information

Uses of Job Description and Job Specification  Personnel Planning   

Job Description

 

Job Specification

  

Performance Appraisal Hiring Training & Development Job Evaluation & Compensation Health & Safety Employee Discipline Work Scheduling  

Fig: Process of Job Analysis ≈

When and How Often: Another strategic choice relates to the timing and

frequency of conducting job analysis. Job analysis is generally conducted when wh en i) an orga organi niza zati tion on is ne newl wly y esta establ blis ishe hed d an and d th thee jo job b an anal alys ysis is is initiated for the first time; ii) a new job is created in an established company; iii) a job is changed significantly due to change in technology, methods, procedures or systems; iv) the organization is contemplating a new remuneration plan; or v) the employees or managers feel that there 19

 

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exist exi st cer certai tain n ine inequi quitie tiess bet betwee ween n job dem demand andss and the rem remune unerat ration ion it carries. ≈

Past-Oriented versus Future Oriented: If an organization is changing

rapidly due to fast growth or technological change, a more future-oriented approach to job analysis may be desired. ≈

Source of Job Data: Although the most direct source of information

about a job is a jobholder, a number of other human and non-human sources are available.

 Information Gathering This step involves decision on three issues, viz; ≈

What type of data is to be collected?



What methods are to be employed for data collection?



Who should collect the data?

For Example: In most of the hotels that I visited, the sources for collecting

information are by Observation, Interviews and Questionnaire.

 Information Processing

Once the job information has been collected, it needs to be processed, so that it would be useful in various personnel functions. Specifically, job-related data would be useful to prepare job description and job specification. (see fig). Job Analysis A Process of Obtaining all Pertinent Job Facts

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Job Description

Job Specification

A statement containing items such as Job title Location Job Summary Duties Machines, tools & equipment Materials & form used Supervision given or  received

A statement necessary to of dohuman the job.qualifications Usually contains such items as Education Experience Training Judgement Initiative Physical efforts & Physical skills Responsibilities Communication skills





















Working conditions Hazards



















Emotional characteristics Unusual sensory demands such as sight, smell, hearing.

Fig: Job Description and Job Specification in Job Analysis

Role of Human Resource Department The human resource department plays a major role in helping plan the system and in developing job description, job specification and performance standards. Specialists in that department may be assigned to conduct job analysis and wri write te job des descri cripti ptions ons in coo cooper perati ation on wit with h man manage agers, rs, sup superv erviso isors rs and employees. The human resource department is not involved in the actual writing of performance standards but play a diagnostic, training and monitoring role.

JOB DESIGN Job design is a process of determining the specific tasks and responsibilities to  be carried out by each member of the organization. In simple words, the logical

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sequence to job analysis is job design. Job analysis provides job-related data as well as the skills and knowledge expected of the incumbent to discharge the job. Job ana analys lysis, is, the then, n, inv involv olves es con consci scious ous eff effort ortss to org organi anize ze tas tasks, ks, dut duties ies and responsibilities into a unit of work to achieve certain objectives.

Feedback 

Organizational Factors Characteristics of task  Work flow Ergonomics Work practices Environmental Factors Employees abilities and availability Social and cultural expectations

Job Design

Productive & satisfying job

Behavioural Feedback  Factors Autonomy Use of abilities Variety

Fig: Factors Affecting Job Design

Factors Affecting Job Design

Job desig design n is affect affected ed by orga organizat nizationa ional, l, envir environmen onmental, tal, behaviou behavioural ral facto factors. rs. A  properly designed job will make make it productive and satisfying. If a job fails on tthis his

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count, the fault lies with the job designers who, based on the feedback, must redesign the job. (See Fig)

Techniques of Job Design

Work  Simplificatio n

Job Rotation

Job Design

High Performance Work Design

Autonomous Teams

Job Enlargemen t

Job Enrichment

Fig: Techniques of Job Design



Work Simplifica Simplification: tion: In this technique, the job simplified or specialized. A

given job is broken down into small sub-parts and each part is assigned to one individual.

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 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

Job Rotation: Job rotation implies movement of employees from job to job.

Jobs remain unchanged, but incumbents shift. With job rotation, a given employee performs different jobs, but more or less, jobs of the same nature. ≈

Job Enlargement: Job enlargement involves expanding the number of tasks

or duties assigned to a given job. Job enlargement is naturally opposite to work simplification. Adding more tasks or duties to a job does not mean that new skills and abilities are needed to perform it. ≈

Job Enrichment: Job enrichment seeks to improve both task efficiency and

human satisfaction by building into people’s jobs, quite specifically, greater  scope for per scope person sonal al ach achiev ieveme ement nt and rec recogn ogniti ition, on, mor moree cha challe llengi nging ng and respon res ponsib sible le wo work, rk, and mor moree opp opport ortun unity ity for ind indivi ividua duall adv advanc anceme ement nt and growth. ≈

Autonomous or Self-directed Teams: A self-directed work team is an intact

group of employees who are responsible for a whole work process or segment that delivers a products or service o an internal or external customer. ≈

High-Performance Work Design: It is a means of improving performance

in an environment where positive and demanding goals are set.

Role of Human Resource Department

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The human resources department’s role in job design is usually indirect, al alth thou ough gh jo job b de desi sign gn infl influe uenc nces es almo almost st every every aspe aspect ct of hu huma man n reso resour urce cess management. The department diagnoses organizational problems that suggest  job redesign, incorporate information on job design in training and management development programs, and help plan job redesign programs to ensure that sound human resources policies and practices are developed. Further, the department is needed nee ded to pre prepar paree to mod modify ify job des descri cripti ptions ons and job speci specific ficati ations ons and to modify recruitment, selection, training, compensation and other practices to be consistent with any job redesign program.

RECRUITMENT

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In simple terms, recruitment is understood as the process of searching for  and obtaining applicants for jobs, from among whom the right people can be selected. Recruitment is the process of finding qualified people and encouraging them to apply for work with the firm. fir m.

Managerial Roles Responsibility for the overall recruitment process is assigned to human resources managers. They are responsible for designing and implementing a recruitment program that will meet the hotel industry’s personnel needs while comply com plying ing wit with h all leg legal al req requi uireme rements nts.. Thi Thiss res respon ponsib sibili ility ty inc includ ludes es fin findin ding g sources of applicants; writing and placing advertisements; contacting schools; agen ag enci cies es an and d labo labour ur un unio ions ns;; es esta tabl blis ishi hing ng proc proced edur ures es to gu guara arant ntee ee eq equa uall employment opportunity; and administering the funds the firm has budgeted for  recruitment.

Factors Governing Recruitment The given fig. represents the factors that normally affect the recruitment  process. These factors add additional additional function to that that of HR manager.

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  External Forces Supply &

Internal Forces Recruitment

Demand Unemployment rate Labour Market Political-social Sons of soil Image

Policy HRP Size of the firm Cost Growth & Expansion

Recruitment

Fig: Factors influencing recruitment

 

Types of Recruitment In hotel industry, the types of recruitment are:  Internal Recruitment

Inte Intern rnal al recru recruit itme ment nt se seek ekss ap appl plic ican ants ts for for po posi siti tion onss fro from m th thos osee wh who o are currently employed. Internal sources include present employees, employee’s referrals, former employees, and former applicants.  External Recruitment

Fi Find ndin ing g qu qual alif ifie ied d ap appl plic ican ants ts fro from m ou outs tsid idee th thee orga organi niza zati tion on is th thee mo most st difficult part of recruitment. The success of an expanding hotel industry or  one with many positions demanding specialized skills often depends on the effectiveness of the organizations recruitment program. Specifically, sources exte ex tern rnal al to an orga organi niza zati tion on are are adve ad vert rtis isem emen ents ts,,

em empl ploy oyme ment nt

prof profes essi sion onal al or tr trad adee

ex exch chan ange ges, s,

asso associ ciat atio ions ns,,

co coll lleg ege/ e/un univ iver ersi sity ty/i /ins nsti titu tute te

 placement services, consultants, displaced persons, radio and television, acquisitions and mergers and competitors.

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 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

 

Recruitment Process HR practices its function in each and every stages of recruitment. The process comprises five interrelated stages, viz. (i) Planning, (ii) Strategy development, (iii) Searching, (iv) Screening, and (v) Evaluation and control. The function of HR is to make the selection procedure an ideal one. The ideal recruitment programmed is the one that attracts a relatively larger number of  qualified applicants who will survive the screening process and accept positions with the organization, when offered.

Personnel Planning

Employee Requisition

Job Analysis

Screening Job Vacancies

Recruitment Planning -Numbers -Types

Strategy Development -Where -How -When

Searching Activation “Selling” -Message -Media

Applicant Populatio n

Applican t Pool

Potentia l Hires

To Selection

Evaluation & Control

Fig: Recruitment Process

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 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

 

SELECTION Selection is a process of picking individuals (out of the pool of job applicants) with requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organization. Different hotels apply different methods and procedure for recruitment as well as select sel ection ion.. It bas basica ically lly dep depend endss on the man manage agemen mentt pol polici icies es and the siz sizee of  operation.

Selection Process Selection is a long process, commencing from the preliminary interview of the appl ap plic ican ants ts an and d en endi ding ng wi with th the the co cont ntra ract ct of em empl ploy oyme ment nt.. Fig. Fig. show showss th thee gene ge nera rali lize zed d

se sele lect ctio ion n

proc proces ess. s. In prac practi tice ce,,

th thee

proc proces esss

di diff ffer erss

am amon ong g

organi org anizat zation ionss and bet betwee ween n two dif differ ferent ent job jobss wit within hin the sam samee org organi anizat zation ion.. Selection procedure for senior managers will be long-drawn and rigorous, but it is simple and short while hiring shop-floor workers. For Example: In most of the hotels that I visited the selection procedure is

different for people in different department as well as for different post. In

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 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

Orchid Hotel, the different types of test taken are knowledge test, trade test, interviews and managerial grid for executives.

External Environment

Internal Environment

Preliminary Interview

R  A Physical Examination

Selection Test

R  A Selection Decision

Employment Interview

R  A Reference & Background Analysis

Job Offer  RA: Rejected Applicants Employment Contract

Evaluation Fig: General Selection Process

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 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

 

ORIENTATION AND PLACEMENT Orientation Orientation is called as induction. It is the planned process of introducing new employees to their jobs, their co-workers and the organization. The main purpose of induction is to relieve the new employee from possible anxiety and make him or her feel at home on the job. These

orientation

prog rogramme mess

are

carri rieed

out

form formaally

as

well

as

individually/collectively in the hotels. These programmes are carried from 1 weak – 2 weak. For Example: In most of the hotels that I visited the time spared on orientation

 programme is one week. In Orchid Hotel, the problem faced during orientation  programme is of adjusting schedules. schedules. The topics, which are covered in the induction programmes are given in the following table:

Organizational Issues •











History of employer Organization of employer Names & titles of key executives Employee’s title & department Layout of physical facilities Probationary Probationar y period



Product line or services provided Overview of production process Company policies & rules Disciplinary regulations Employee handbook  Safety procedure & enforcement



Insurance benefits











Employee Benefits •





Pay scales and pay days Vacations and holidays Rest breaks



Retirement programme

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 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

 



Training & education benefits



Employ Emp loyerer-pro provid vided ed ser servic vices es to employees





Counseling

Introduction •



To supervisor To trainers





Rehabilitation programmes To co-workers To employee counselor

Job Duties •





Job location Job tasks Job safety requirement requirementss







Overview of job Job objectives Relationship to other jobs

Placement After orientation comes placement. Placement refers to the assignment of a new employee to his or her job. The jobs of HR are simple where the job is independent, but where the jobs are sequential or pooled, HR specialists use assessment classification model for placing newly hired employees. For example the job of placing a waiter to its position is quite simpler as compared with that of the placing the employee at managerial level. The job of placing a waiter to its  position is called an independent job but the job of placing employee at managerial level can be considered as sequential or pooled job.

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Traini Tra ining ng and dev develo elopme pment nt act activi ivitie tiess are des design igned ed in ord order er to imp impart art specific skills, abilities and knowledge to employees. Effective training is basic ingredient of success in the hotel industry. The concept of training is endorsed my most managers in the hotel industry, yet

32

 

 

 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

managers often give little thought to the training function in the context of their  own business or departmental responsibilities until something goes wrong! One of th thee ma main in prob proble lems ms in ho hote tell indu indust stry ry is th that at in inve vest stme ment nt in trai traini ning ng an and d development of employees is a reactive process for many companies. Frequently, tr trai aini ning ng an and d de deve velo lopm pmen entt aris arises es as the the resu result lt of sign signifi ifica cant nt chan change ge in th thee operational environment or as a consequent of crisis such as staff turnover or  major departmental problems. Training is then used to cope with the immediate difficulty. This process may be proved costly to hotel. Whereas development refers to learning opportunities designed to help employees grow and evolve a vision about the future. Here the job of HR is to identify the training need and then accordingly to design the suitable programme for that. Training within a hotel provides the best opportunity to influence the attitude and performance of employees. The training  programmes include is such as introduction, fire, food hygiene, control of  substa sub stance ncess haz hazard ardous ous to hea health lth,, man manual ual han handli dling ng fir firstst-aid aid,, tec techni hnical cal ski skills lls,,  product knowledge, knowledge, and customer service. For Example: In most of the hotels that I visited the training methods used are

 both On-the-job as well well as Off-the-job.

Methods and Techniques of Training A mu mult ltit itud udee of me meth thod odss of trai traini ning ng are us used ed to trai train n em empl ploy oyee ees. s. Tra Train inin ing g methods are categorized into two groups and they are: 1. OnOn-the the-jo -job b tr train aining ing (OJ (OJT) T) 2. Of Off-t f-the he-j -job ob tra train inin ing g

33

 

 

 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

1. On-the-job training: On-the-job training is primarily learning by doing and, as such, is probably the most used and most abused approach to training. Like other form of training, OJT requires planning, structure and supervision to be ef effe fect ctiv ivee for for deve develo lopi ping ng a va vari riet ety y of prac practi tica call an and d cu cust stom omer er-o -ori rien ente ted d ca capa pabi bili liti ties es.. Wh When en do done ne co corre rrect ctly ly,, OJ OJT T is a sens sensib ible le an and d co cost st effe effect ctiv ivee method for training and assessing trainees’ progress in jobs such as retail sales, food and beverage operatives, and check-in and check-out positions. Some of the On-the-job methods of training are orientation training, jobinstruction instru ction train training, ing, appren apprentice tice traini training, ng, inte internshi rnships ps and assis assistants tantships hips,, job rotation etc. For example, at Domino’s Pizza, approximately 85% of employee training is OJT, delivered by store managers using extensively by Ramada Inns, Inc., which has developed an OJT training aid. It also provides trainees with a list of sequential steps that should be followed to perform the task correctly, as well as the list of tools, materials, and equipment needed to do the task. Finally, the training aid provides an evaluation form for providing feedback  to the trainees.

2. Off-the-j Off-the-job ob training: Off Off-th -the-j e-job ob tra traini ining ng all allows ows for the dev develo elopme pment nt of   broader and more conceptual skills while providing a practice environment in which error need not be so costly. There are three main forms of off-the-job training: In-house, External, and Independent. In-h In-hou ouse se off-t off-the he-j -job ob trai traini ning ng ma may y ta take ke seve several ral forma formats ts in incl clud udin ing g lectures and other classroom techniques, discussions, demonstrations, case studies and role plays, and simulations. What distinguishes in-house off-the-

34

 

 

 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

 job training from other type of off-the-job training is that in-house training is conducted away from the physical location where the job is actually carried out, but still on company premises. Like in-house off-the-job training, external off-the-job training can also take a variety of forms. Such training may be tailored to the company’s specific need or it may be offered on a more general basis; it may focus on special disciplines related to hospitality. Independent off-the-job training refers to training methods that are controlled and managed by the learner. A number of these training options which are becoming increasingly important to employees in the hotel industry are: ≈

Distan Dis tance/ ce/ope open n lea learni rning ng or tra traini ining ng (ma (may y inv involv olvee cor corres respon ponden dence ce teaching, use of television or radio, video-conferencing, etc.)



Computer-assisted learning



Interactive-video learning



A combination of the above method

 

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Perfo Pe rform rman ance ce ap appr prai aisa sall ref refer erss to the the asse assess ssme ment nt of an em empl ploy oyee ee’s ’s actu actual al  performance, behaviour on jobs, and his or her potential for future performance. It is done generally for the purpose of assessing training needs to employee, to effect his promotions and to give him pay increase, retention or termination.

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 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

Though there are different methods of performance appraisal only one method that is commonly used in this industry is Rating Scale Method. For Example: In most of the hotels that I visited the performance appraisal is

done on yearly basis but in Hotel Imperial Palace on day to day basis the briefing of employee is done. In Orchid Hotel, the rating scales method is used by the way of Questionnaire (1-10).

Challenges of Performance Appraisal  Create a culture of excellence that inspires every employee to improve or 

lend himself or herself to be assessed.  Align organizational objectives to individual aspirations.  Clear growth paths for talented individuals.  Provide new challenges to rejuvenate careers that have reached the plateau

stage.  Forge a partnership with people for managing their careers.  Empower employees to make decisions without the fear of failing.  Embed teamwork in all operational processes.  Debureaucratise the organization structure for ease of flow of information.

Performance Appraisal Process

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 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

Objectives of  Performance Appraisal

Establish Job Expectations

Design an Appraisal Programme

Appraise Performance

Performance Interview

Use Appraisal Data for  Appropriate Purposes Fig: Performance Appraisal Process

JOB EVALUATION

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 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

 

Job evaluation refers to the process of determining the relative worth of each job for purpose of establishing satisfactory wage and salary differentials. Jobs are evaluated on the basis of their content and are placed in the order of their  importance. In a job evaluation programme, the jobs are ranked and not the job holders.

Methods of Job Evaluation Job Evaluation

Analytical

PointRanking Method

Non-Analytical

Factor  Comparison Method

Ranking Method

JobGrading Method

Fig: Methods of Job Evaluation

Though there are different types of methods available but the most common method practiced in this industry is analytical method and in analytical method  point ranking methods methods is the most appropriate o one. ne.

Process of Job Evaluation

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 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

Objectives of  Job Evaluation

Job Analysis

Job Description

Job Specification

Job Evaluation Programme

Wage Survey

Employee Classification Fig: Job Evaluation Process

360 DEGREE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

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 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

 

360 degree appraisals are a powerful developmental method and quite different to traditional manager-subordinate appraisals. As such a 360 degree process does not replace the traditional one-to-one process - it augments it, and can be used as a stand-alone development method. 360 degree appraisals involve the appraisee receiving feedback from people (named or anonymous) whose views are considered helpful and relevant. 360° Feed Feedback  back  is a prov proven en me meth thod od of he help lpin ing g in indi divi vidu dual alss revi review ewss th thei eir  r 

 performance Th e

through

feedback

is

the typically

eyes

of

provided

their on

working a

form

colleagues. showing

job

skills/abilities/attitudinal/behavioural criteria and some sort of scoring or value  judgement system. The appraisee should also assess themselves using the same feedback instrument or form.

BENCHMARKING Benchmarking is the process of determining who is the very best, who sets the standard, and what that standard is. In baseball, you could argue that seven consecuti consec utive ve Wor World ld Seri Series es Cha Champi mpions onship hipss mad madee the New Yor York k Yan Yankee keess the  benchmark. It is done to motivate people to iimprove mprove toward that goa goal. l. Benchmarking is usually part of a larger effort, usually a Process Pr ocess Re-engineering or Quality Improvement initiative. Benchmarking is a management tool that is  being applied almost anywhere. Once we decide what to benchmark, and how to measure it, the object is to figure out how the winner got to be the best and determine what we have to do to get there.

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 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

FUTURE ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCE IN HOTEL INDUSTRY Service quality and productivity were the most crucial competitive issues facing the hese se fi firm rms. s. Wh Wheen

ask sked ed to diff diffeerent rent ho hote tells

rega regard rdin ing g

str treeng ngtthe hen nin ing g

compet com petiti itiven veness ess,, 50 per percen centt cho choose ose int intern ernal al man manage agemen mentt act action ions, s, inc includ luding ing educating and training employees, with publicly announcing employee policy. And all these procedure of implementing such task is over HR shoulder. To achieve a progressive, innovative culture within organization- and to cope with wi th th thee crit critic ical al ch chal alle leng nges es that that the the futu future re mi migh ghtt brin bringg- hu huma man n reso resour urce cess  professionals are likely to assume certain roles with greater frequency. These roles are following:  The Consu Consultan ltantt Advi Advisor sor Role: Role:-- In par partic ticula ular, r, the top hum human an res resour ources ces

executive will increasingly play a major role in advising the CEO and the top mana ma nage geme ment nt team team ab abou outt the the hu huma man n re reso sour urce cess im impl plic icat atio ions ns of broa broad d organi org anizat zation ional al str strate ategy, gy, bot both h nat nation ionall ally y and glo global bally. ly. Fur Furthe ther, r, the hum human an resources department will be called upon more and more advice management at all levels about the motivational, morale and legal implications of various  present and proposed practices practices and policies. Catalyst lyst Faci Facilita litator tor Role:- Th  The Cata Thee hu huma man n reso resour urce cess di dire rect ctors ors ha have ve a

unique opportunity to serve in a catalyst-facilitator role in stimulating a top manage man agemen mentt phi philos losoph ophy, y, lea leader dershi ship p sty style le and org organi anizat zation ional al cul cultu ture re and climate. It is important that management develops a clear view of these interrelated matters and that management is self-conscious about them on an ongoin ong oing g bas basis. is. In add additi ition, on, the hum human an res resour ources ces dir direct ector or can serve as a

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 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

resou res ourc rcee pe perso rson n ab abou outt thes thesee co conc ncep epts ts an and d th thei eirr li link nkss to org organ aniz izat atio iona nall outcom out comes es suc such h as eff effect ective ivenes ness, s, eff effici icienc ency, y, dev develo elopme pment nt and pa parti rticip cipant ant satisfaction.  The Diagnostic Role:- By this, they are expected to identify the underlying

causes of an organizational problem as distinct from its symptoms and to come up with solutions – or system for solving the problem- that correspond with wi th th thee diag diagno nosi sis. s. Al Alll too too ofte often, n, pro progr gram amss of va vari riou ouss ki kind nds, s, li like ke jo job b enrichment, incentives systems, quality circles and so on, are proposed by managers or human resources people. what is usually needed is an accurate description of the problem to be solved, a careful analysis of the dynamics of  that problem, and a close look at alternative solutions and their rectifications  before a program are implemented.  The Assessment Role: - One of the most difficult roles for human resources

 professionals is the assessment role, in which they assess the effectiveness of  various human resources practices and policies. A comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness of various human resources policies and practices is ca call lled ed a hu huma man n res resou ourc rces es ma mana nage geme ment nt au audi ditt or pe pers rson onne nell au audi dit. t. Th Thes esee comprehensive human resources audit may be used to analyze a wide array of  human resources practices and outcomes.

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 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

CONCLUSION From the whole project we have seen that in hotel industry the policies and functioning of each hotel is little bit similar to other hotels. Good HR policy would be the policy, which not only considers all HR functions with proper care,  but also considers all the other factors like culture of the hotel, types of  customers it receives, the nature of the business and also the place from where it oper op erat ates es.. An And d the the ho hote tels ls,, co cons nsid ider erin ing g al alll th thee ab abov ovee fact factor orss to achi achiev evee th thee or orga gani niza zati tion onal al go goal al wh whil ilee fra frami ming ng its its HR func functi tion onss is said said to ha have ve be been en following good policy. For example in Hotel Sea Princess, the employee care is given first priority. In case if some of the relative of an employee dies or suffers fr from om some some se seri riou ouss dise diseas ase, e, the the ma mana nage gerr send sendss al alll th thee co coll llea eagu gues es of th that at empl em ploy oyee ee to supp support ort him him and and thus thus ma mana nage gerr ma make kess hi hims msel elff aw awar aree of th that at employee’s condition. This makes the employee feel that management cares for  him. This will definitely motivate him to work in the interest of organization. There work environment is quite friendly and hence employees can discuss their   problems openly. In small hotels, the HR functions are not that developed. It needs more attention especially for the hotels aiming to expand their business. The hotels should neglect the fact that the frustration level in this industry is highest of all industries. The very first disappointment employee’s face that the industry is not glamorous the way it was hyped in catering colleges. Their frustration level keepss on risin keep rising g when they go throu through gh the followin following g circu circumstan mstances. ces. Employee Employeess do not have time for their personal life. They have to do overtime for many of  the reasons and for such extra time they are not even paid. For example if the waiter A’s working hours are from 6 am to 2 pm and at 1.30 pm some guests 43

 

 

 Human Resource Resource Practices In Hote Hotell Industry

arrives on the A’s table then A cannot leave unless the guest leaves the table. Thus A will be forced to do overtime till the time those guests are sitting on the table. And for this extending period A is not even paid. Also in this industry number of working days and number of working hours are higher than any other  indust ind ustry ry and als also o emp employ loyees ees are com compel pelled led to wor work k on Sun Sunday dayss and Bank  Holidays when all the others have holidays. (Source Ramada Plaza) The most frustrating part of this industry is the fact that besides going through all the frustrations employees are not paid the amount they deserve. Salary paid to them is really low when we compare it with their frustration level. Thus because of  these facts most of the employees leaves their job. And no now w wh when en our co coun unttry is tryin rying g to deve devellop to tour uris ism m for for th thee development of our economy, it has become mandatory for us to provide hotelservices up to international standards and this is possible only when our hotels are in position to cope with this frustration level of employees. They need to be given proper training and also the career opportunities for their future. And first of all they should be aware of the facts of this industry before they join in, so that after entering their frustration level would be low as they will be prepared for  everything. Thus, the responsibility of an HR manager is much higher in this industry.

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