How To Build Your Own Computer.doc

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How To Build Your Own Computer
The Components Required For The Computer(This is to be looked
at and finalised last)
ideo Card:
Flopp! "ri#e:
Hard "ri#e:
""$ROM % C"$ROM:
Heat &in' % Fan:
"ri#e Cables:
Audio Cables:
&ound Card:
Other thin(s required
Anti$static (lo#es % or somethin( li'e that
&tep b! step (uide on how to build !ou own
(Remember to read the notes)
&tep *) The thin(s required
Before moving on, there are a number of very important rules you should
remember before buying.
Remember to get every single thing required; you don't ant to be
!aught ithout a floppy drive or drive !ables ould you.
Remember Billy's "#$#% &'s' (rite don the &la!e, the &rodu!t, the
&age, the &ri!e, and the &hone number on a &ie!e of &aper. )f you have
had a !heaper quote on the e*a!t same produ!t or !ommodity, then tell
him so. +e ill often ask his boss and mat!h your pri!e. ,on't be
afraid to quibble over pri!e; they don't kno you, and get a hundred
!alls a day like yours. -emory, motherboards, and .&/'s are !ommon
things that you should try to bargain for (any !ommodity item). -ake
sure they have your produ!t in sto!k, and ask hen they ill be
shipping your stuff. 0n or about the day you e*pe!t delivery (and not
after), !all and ask about your order. ) don't kno ho many times )
have !alled and found out that my order has not even been shipped yet.
"o do not presume everything is okay; it's better to !he!k in.
*) Case1 -ake sure you buy a !ase hi!h ill fit the spa!e you intend
to use it in.
1 -ake sure it has a poer supply.
1 &ay attention to the form fa!tor' 2T or 2T3.
1 )f you do a lot of upgrading, you should get a !ase that is
designed ith this in mind, su!h as easily removed
motherboard mounting plates, drive ra!ks, et!.
1 2lso, !he!k the sturdiness of the !ase. "ome !heaper !ases are
a!tually quite flimsy inside.
+) Motherboard1 )t needs to fit in the !ase you !hoose and support all
hardare you intend to use.
1 ,e!ide hat you ill use the !omputer for; in this !ase
edu!ation and gaming. "o the motherboard ill have to
be !ompatible ith fast pro!essors and R2-.
1 (R#&#2T) -ake sure the motherboard is !ompatible ith
everything else you buy, in a ay it is the !ore of the
!omputer, stuff this up and the hole !omputer is
1 -ake sure that you buy from a reputable, stable vendor.
1 4et a motherboard that supports 2&4 video !ard.
,) Processor1 4et the fastest you !an afford. )n my !ase ) ould like
54+6()f that is possible).
1 0n all "o!ket 7 pro!essors, inspe!t the .&/ for bent pins.
1 ,on't tou!h the pins.
-) RAM1 Try to get the best type of R2- out at the moment, hi!h is
1 8eep in mind that it you are getting a more modern 599-+6 bus
speed board, you must get &.599 ",R2-, as regular ",R2-
ill not be stable enough.
1 )f you have a motherboard that !an take both #,0 and ",R2-,
remember that if you use #,0 in the system, any ",R2-
being used ill be automati!ally sloed don to the #,0's
sloer speed.
1 (hen handling the R2-, avoid tou!hing the !onta!ts.
.) ideo Card1 )f you are doing any graphi!al ork or games ith this
system, you should buy a mid to high end video
1 )t is better to get one from a ma:or manufa!turer in
multimedia su!h as ,iamond, but more generi! !ards,
su!h as Trident, are usually good for multi1purpose use.
1 4et a 5;-B 2&4 video !ard, possibly a voodoo <.
/) Flopp! "ri#e1 -ake sure it looks good and the pins are all inta!t.
1 ,on't be !aught dead ith a =.>=? [email protected]
0) Hard "ri#e1 Aor pri!e and !ompatibility, )'d sti!k ith ),#. (ith
),#, though, make sure the drive is /,-2.
1 But, if speed is your biggest !on!ern, go for the ".")
interfa!e. 8eep in mind though that ith ".") you ill
have to pur!hase the additional hardare ne!essary for
the ".") bus.
1 -any !onsider beteen = and 7 gigs standard, but keep in
mind that most people find that they fill their
drive up faster than they ould e*pe!t.
1 )f you ill be doing a lot of gaming, image editing or
internet surfing, get a large drive. )n my !ase ) ould
like about B155 gigs.
1) C"$ROM1 -ake sure it has a driver installation disk.
1 These drives are so !heap no, get a fast one' >C3 or faster.
1 0h, and make sure it is 2T2&) !ompatible ),#. "ome drives
look like ),# drives, although they really use a
proprietary interfa!e, su!h as that used on some older
.reative multimedia kits.
1 )f you prefer more up to date te!hnology then upgrade to ,$,1
2) ""$ROM1 2 lot faster than .,1R0-'s.
1 2s its name suggests it !an also play ,$,'s.
1 ,$,1R0-'s are very versatile, they !an be used for playing
.,'s, $.,'s as ell as ,$,'s.
*3) Heat &in' % Fan1 4et a heat sink and fan rated for the pro!essor
you intend to use.
1 )f it is not already atta!hed to the .&/, you may
need to pi!k up heat sink !ompound.
1 +eat sink !ompound isn't needed on all systems due
to !lips on many heat sinks that atta!h them to
tabs on the .&/ so!ket.
1 )f your motherboard has a .&/ fan poer lead, get
a fan that atta!hes to this. This ay you don't take
up a poer supply lead.
**) "ri#e Cables1 -ake sure you have all !ables for !onne!ting the hard
drive, floppy drive, .,1R0-, and ,$,1R0- to the )D0
on the motherboard or )D0 !ard.
1 These !ables usually are supplied ith the
motherboard or drive itself, but not alays, and
maybe not in the quantity you need.
*+) Audio Cable1 /sually, supplied ith the .,1R0-, it !onne!ts your .,1
R0- to your sound !ard dire!tly.
*,) &crews1 -akes sure you have enough s!res. /sually, an ample amount
is supplied ith your !ase.
1 -ake sure the s!res are the right si6e.
1 There are different si6es used for !onne!ting !ard than for
!onne!ting drives, and if you try using a large s!re
on the drive, you'll !ra!k the drive.
*-) &ound Card1 2 <, sound !ard that gives ,$, quality sound.
&tep +) Remo#in( the s!stem case)
45 !ou ha#e a plain$6ane case)
5. This is a very easy step. Basi!ally, you are :ust taking the !over
off of your ne !ase.
>. )f you have a plain1:ane !ase, you take a s!redriver and remove
the si* s!res on the ba!k of the !ase that lie on the edge of the
!ase. "ave the s!res for later and put them in a pla!e here they ill
not be s!attered and !an be easily found.
<. 2fter they are removed, the entire !ase !over !omes off in one
C. (ith this design, the front of the !ase does not move. 0nly the top
and sides !ome off as a !over.
45 !ou ha#e a newer case7 and possibl! a more e8pensi#e case)
5. (ith this design, you usually take hold of the bottom of the front
of the !ase and give it a ni!e solid yank.
>. The front then pulls off.
<. )t is in the author's e*perien!e that this usually requires a fe
tries and some mus!le.
C. Then, the sides lift and slide off.
=. 2nd you :ust lift the top off.
;. Eour !ase, then, !omes off in four pie!es.
9ote: Other such cases come apart the same wa!7 but a5ter !ou ta'e the
5ront o557 the top and sides come o55 to(ether) :ach case is a little
di55erent in how it comes apart)
&tep ,) Case preparation)
5. 2t this point, you should have the ne !ase in front of you ith the
!over removed. Before you !an use it for a ne system, you must prepare
it for use.
>. %o that the !ase is open, no is a good time to go through the
s!re supply provided ith the !ase. These are usually held in a small
plasti! bag nestled inside the !ase.
<. )nside this bag you should find'
F .hassis s!res 1 this is the type used to tighten don !ards,
F "maller s!res 1 :ust like the !hassis s!res, :ust ith a
smaller diameter. )t is used to fasten the motherboard in.
F "tandoffs 1 these are s!res that are used to hold the
motherboard about 5DG? from the motherboard mounting plate.
Their ends have a threaded opening in them hi!h a!!ept the
smaller !hassis s!res. )f you have an 2T !ase, you may find
small hite standoffs. These serve the same fun!tion as the
metal standoff, but are simply pun!hed through the board and
slid into slots on the !ase. They are rather !lumsy to use !ompared
to the metal standoffs, but they get the :ob done. This is hat
they may look like'
F (ashers
Clean the case)
5. )f the !ase is ne, this should be no big deal.
>. But, if the !ase has been used before, it !ould probably stand a
!leaning. .lean out the inside ith a rag and !ompressed air.
<. -ake sure the fan in the poer supply is free of furry dust. 2lso
take a rag and ipe it off.
4nspect the power suppl!)
5. -ake sure it is tightly atta!hed to the !ase.
>. -ake sure it is free of dust.
<. -ake sure it is set to the proper voltage of your area1 559$ for
/.". and >C9$ (The author thinks) for outside !ountries.
4nspect the power switch)
5. -ake sure the poer sit!h is se!urely tightened and !orre!tly
!onne!ted to the poer supply.
>. (ith most 2T !ases, the poer sit!h is already !onne!ted to the
poer supply by four ires.
<. )n 2T3 !ases, the poer sit!h ill have one loose ire !oming off
of it. This ire ill then !onne!t to the &oer "it!h !onne!tor on the
C. The poer supply should be atta!hed to the poer sit!h already and
the !onne!tors should be !overed ith ele!tri!al tape.
4nstall the 5eet)
5. These are little tabs inserted into holes at the bottom of the !ase.
>. The !ase sits on these tabs hen on your desk. )f the !ase has been
used before or it is a more e*pensive !ase, this may not need to be
4nstall the case 5an)
5. "ometimes, you may ant to install a separate fan that s!res onto a
ra!k ne*t to the vent on the front of the !ase. This helps in!rease
!ir!ulation of air through the system.
>. -ake sure the fan is set to dra air into the !ase, not blo out.
<. -any !ases already have this installed, so you may not need to orry
about it.
Con5i(ure the ;:")
5. The H#, on the !ase operates !ompletely separate from the a!tual
speed of the system, so you !an set that no.
>. )t is done ith :umpers on the ba!k of the H#,. Eou ill need the
little manual that !ame ith the !ase to do this right.
4nstall &lot <uards)
)ts really up to you if you ant to do this no. Eou might ant to ait
until you have all e*pansion !ards in pla!e.
Remove ,rive Aa!e &lates.
Eou !an do this later if you ant, but the prote!tive fa!e plates ill
need to be removed from the front of the !ase before you !an install
&tep -) Con5i(ure the motherboard)

5. )ts time to get your motherboard ready to install. The first step is
to !onfigure it. This is mu!h easier than trying to !onfigure it hen
already installed in the !ase.
>. The first thing is to be able to read the manual and understand hat
it is saying. )f there are any ords or !on!epts in the manual hi!h
you do not understand, look them up.
<. This is very important, as not really understanding hat is going on
!an lead to dumb mistakes.
C. "e!ond, you need to kno ho to manipulate a :umper. Airst
understand that a motherboard is very !onfigurable. This is done so
that it !an ork ith different pro!essors, et!.
=. The settings the board uses are governed by hi!h !ir!uits are
!arrying ele!tri!ity. %o, e have the :umper, hi!h is nothing more
than a pair of pins, ea!h !arrying an ele!tri! !urrent.
;. (hen these pins are left in a non1!onne!ted state, then the small
plasti! !ap is not pla!ed over them and the !ir!uit is broken. Thus,
hatever setting that parti!ular :umper !ontrols is off. This state is
!alled ?un!apped? or simply ?off?.
7. %o, if you pla!e the !ap over the to pins, then the !ir!uit is
!omplete, and the !onfiguration of the board !hanges a!!ordingly. That
is the theory behind a :umper.
G. .onfiguring your motherboard usually requires setting :umpers on the
motherboard a!!ording to the .&/ you plan on putting on it. ) say
?usually? be!ause not all boards use :umpers. "ome make use of ,)&
"it!hes. 0ther neer boards are :umperless, making use of a system
!alled "oft-enu, in hi!h the settings that are normally set ith
:umpers or ,)&s are set in a spe!ial .-0" type program.
B. )f the motherboard you are installing is :umperless, you !an
basi!ally skip this step be!ause it ill have to be done later. Eou
might ant to read through it, though, be!ause even the ?:umperless?
design has a fe :umpers and you ill need to kno hat you are doing
even ith the :umperless design.
59. There are fe things to be !areful of. (hen setting the pro!essor
speed via the :umpers, use the pro!essors TR/# speed. )f your !hip is
rated ith the &1rating system, it does not run at this speed. The &1
rating is simply a !omparison to the )ntel !hip. "u!h an e*ample is the
.yri* ;*G;-31><<. This !hip has a &1rating of ><<-+6, but a!tually runs
at 5G7.=-+6.
55. (hen playing ith the board, be !areful ith it. )t is usually best
to pla!e it on the stati! bag it as in hen setting the :umpers.
5>. 2lays pla!e the board on a flat surfa!e, not !arpet or anything
like that. 2nd alays ground yourself before handling the board. (hen
handling the board, handle it by the edges only hen at all possible.
Here is the basic procedure:
Read the -anual. 2lays. Read the listings for settings and lo!ate all
:umpers on the motherboard itself and hat settings they !ontrol.
"et the voltage settings. -ost older !hips use one single voltage. The
neer !hips e use today use a split voltage. -ost neer motherboards
provide :umpers for the !ore voltage and )D0 voltage. "et them to mat!h
your intended .&/. )f you are using an older !hip ith one voltage,
:ust set both voltages to be the same. Aor more information on
pro!essor voltage and a table of !ommon .&/ voltages, see &ro!essor
$oltage. "ome boards are designed to dete!t the voltage automati!ally
and then use the !orre!t voltage. )n this !ase, you ill not have to
orry about it.
"et the pro!essor speed. This is not usually done ith a single :umper.
)t is, instead, done by setting the system bus speed and a multiplier.
The multiplier is the number hi!h hen multiplied by the system bus
speed gives the pro!essor speed. There is a separate :umper for ea!h of
these settings. .onfigure these to mat!h the intended .&/. )f you kno
hat you're doing and ould like to over!lo!k the !hip a tad, set these
:umpers a little differently. 4enerally, though, ) ould re!ommend
a!tually getting the system orking before trying to over!lo!k it. )f
your manual lists settings by .&/, :ust do hat it says. Eou !an
sometimes infer from the manual hi!h sit!hes !ontrol voltage,
multiplier, et!. 2lso, at!h for !hips that use different multiplier
settings than they a!tually use. Aor e*ample, many ><<-+6 !hips use a
<.=* multiplier, but sin!e some boards don't offer this option, they
interpret the 5.=* multiplier to be <.=*. "o, set the bus speed first.
-ost .&/'s are designed to operate on the ;;-+6 bus, although many
!hoose to operate higher than this. 2fter this, set the multiplier.
This ill depend on the .&/ you are using. Aor e*ample, let's say you
are installing a &entium ))1>;;. Eou set a bus speed of ;;-+6. )n order
to run the pro!essor at its intended speed of >;;-+6, you must set a
C.9* multiplier. ;;-+6 3 C.9 I >;;-+6 .
9otes: *) 9ow7 in the real world7 6umpers can be more than two pins)
&ometimes a particular 6umper7 labelled =P* or somethin( similar7 can
consist o5 three or more pins) 4n this case7 the manual will tell !ou
which pins to uncap and which to cap in order to set a particular
settin() As lon( as !ou understand the manual7 !ou>re in (ood shape)
+) You need to ha#e the manual 5or !our board a#ailable) 45 !ou do not
ha#e the manual7 lo( on to the manu5acturer>s web site and see i5 !ou
can 5ind this in5o there) You can also tr! their tech support #ia
phone) 4n some cases7 too7 some o5 the 6umper settin(s are printed onto
the sur5ace o5 the motherboard) 45 !ou don>t ha#e an! o5 this in5o7 !ou
are 6ust out o5 luc') ?n5ortunatel!7 !ou must ha#e some 5orm o5
documentation a#ailable simpl! because motherboards ha#e so man!
settin(s to ad6ust)
,) Motherboard manuals come in two main 5ormats) &ome are 5riendl! 5or
hardware bu55s b! listin( a separate 6umper or "4P switch 5or CP? core
#olta(e7 4%O #olta(e7 multiplier7 and s!stem bus speed) The! then tell
!ou the settin(s 5or each o5 these) This 5ormat is better because o5
the increased control) Other manuals list the settin(s ne8t to a list
o5 commonl! used CP?>s7 showin( the common settin(s 5or each) @hile
this 5ormat is easier 5or the end user 5or eas! setup7 it is tou(her i5
!ou li'e increased control o5 the settin(s7 5or o#ercloc'in( 5or
e8ample) The best manuals do both: list the 6umper settin( indi#iduall!
as well as pro#ide a list o5 processors and the 6umper settin(s 5or
This is appro8imatel! what a motherboard will li'e:

&T:P . : 4nstall the CP?
Typi!ally, a hard disk !ontroller ill be pla!ed in the farthest right
!ard slot, to be !losest to the drives. There are to !ommon interfa!es
for .&/'s, "o!ket 7 and "lot 5. "o!ket 7 is the most !ommonly used. 2ll
&entiums use it, along ith all .yri* and 2-, !hips. "lot 5 is the
"ingle #dge .onta!t ("#.) interfa!e used by the &entium )) family of
pro!essor. Therefore, depending on the pro!essor you ill be using, the
.&/ installation ill be different. Therefore, this step ill be
divided into to se!tions.
&oc'et 0)
5. 2lmost all "o!ket 7 systems make use of the 6ero1insertion for!e
(J)A) so!ket. Therefore, this pro!edure is relevant ith that setup.
>. .he!k the pins. Turn the !hip over and inspe!t the pins. 2re they
bentK They should all sti!k straight up. )f many of them are bent, then
it is best to request a repla!ement pro!essor. )f only a !ouple are
bent and the bend is not that mu!h, then you may be able to use a
s!redriver to gently bend the pins ba!k into pla!e. ,o so $#RE
<. 0rient The .hip. This involves lo!ating &in 5 on both the !hip and
the so!ket. This is easy to do. The !hip is alays marked at &in 5. The
mark may be a little dot on one !orner, a slightly not!hed !orner, or a
mark at one of the pins under the !hip. 0n the so!ket, there is usually
a not!h on one !orner, or a big ?5?. These !orners ill be mat!hed up
for !orre!t installation. "ee this pi!ture of the !hip in the so!ket.
%oti!e ho the !orner of the .&/ is not!hed and dotted, and that there
is an arro on the motherboard pointing to that parti!ular !orner of
the so!ket.
C. 0pen J)A "o!ket. This is done by grabbing the lever on one side of
the so!ket and opening it. &ull the lever from the !losed, level
position, to the open, verti!al position. Eou may need to pull the
lever out a bit before it ill open. ,o this sloly and don't for!e it.
Eou don't ant to break the so!ket. 0n the ay up, you may e*perien!e a
little more for!e. This is normal. The top part of the J)A so!ket ill
slide over a bit.
=. )nsert &ro!essor. Bearing in mind the orientation determined in "tep
5, insert the !hip into the so!ket. (ith a J)A so!ket, the !hip should
install very easily. )t should almost fall into the so!ket ith all
pins lining up. That's hy they !all it the Jero )nsertion Aor!e
so!ket. )f not, the so!ket is probably not open all the ay. )f you do
not have a J)A so!ket (4od [email protected]), you need to e*er!ise e*treme !are.
Hay the !hip on the so!ket. -ake sure all pins line up. Then, sloly
push the !hip into the so!ket. /se your thumb and push on one side of
the !hip until it starts to go in. Then pro!eed to another side and
repeat. ,o this around the !hip several times until it is !ompletely
;. (hen done, there should be basi!ally no gap beteen the bottom of
the pro!essor and the so!ket.
7. ) .lose J)A "o!ket. Lust !lose the lever. Eou ill probably feel
some resistan!e. This is normal and it should !lose anyay. )f you
really need to lean on it, though, !he!k to be sure the !hip is
installed !orre!tly. (hen don, make sure the lever snaps into pla!e.
Eou're done.
9ote: 4nstallin( the CP? is a prett! strai(ht$5orward process) The real
ris' is to the CP?) "oin( this step too 5ast or carelessl! can result
in dama(e to the processor) There5ore7 don>t (et ner#ous) 4t is an eas!
step7 but do it with care)
&lot *)
5. 0nly &entium ))'s and the .eleron pro!essor use "lot 5. The slot is
basi!ally like a long &.) slot, although it is not hite. )t runs
parallel to the ",R2- slots. 0n ea!h of the four !orners of the slot
ill be a re!eptor for a s!re. %o that e have it spotted, let's
install the !hip.. )nstall the &entium )) Ra!k. Basi!ally, this ra!k
serves as a guide1rail and support for the .&/ to rest in. "in!e the
&entium )) pro!essor sti!ks up high off the board and is rather slim,
it ould simply be too loose in the slot ithout the rails. The rails
usually !ome ith the motherboard. They ill be about the height of the
pro!essor and have to built1in s!res on one end.
<. &osition a rail on ea!h end of the "lot.
C. /se a s!re to tighten it into pla!e onto the motherboard re!eptors.
=. ,o this for ea!h side of the "lot.
;. (hen done, you should have one rail on ea!h end of the slot.
7. )nstall the .ooler onto the &ro!essor. )t is mu!h easier to do this,
usually, before you push the !hip into its slot.
G. )nsert the &ro!essor. )t is time to insert the &entium )) pro!essor
into the "lot. The pro!essor has one !ard1like edge at the bottom of
the bla!k !artridge. This edge is keyed so that it !an only insert into
the slot the !orre!t ay.
B. "o, push the pro!essor into the guide rails and don all the ay to
the surfa!e of the slot.
59. -ake sure the !ooler(or fan) is fa!ing the side near the
motherboard's !hipset.
55. (hen you get to the bottom, you ill feel some resistan!e. This is
5>. (ork the pro!essor in until the little levers at the top of the
guide rails !li!k into pla!e, lo!king the !hip in.
9otes: *) All coolers are a little di55erent in the wa! the! attach to
the CP?7 but most use the little holes on the metal side o5 the
processor to loc' into place)
+) @ith some coolers7 !ou will need to use a support to 'eep it o55 the
motherboard) This support comes with the rac' setup7 and !ou onl! use
it when needed)
&T:P / : 4nstall the Heat &in'
%o that the .&/ is installed in the motherboard, you need to install
the heat sink and fan. 2lthough you !an perform this step before
installing the !hip, by doing that you risk damage to the pins on the
The folloing pro!edure is for a "o!ket 7 pro!essor. 0n a &entium ))
pro!essor, the fan is atta!hed before .&/ installation. "imply lo!k the
fan into the small holes on the metal side of the pro!essor.
5. 2tta!h the fan to the heat sink. This step is often already done for
you, but if not, you must do it yourself. This is done using the four
s!res that !ame ith the .&/ fan.
>. 2pply the +eat "ink .ompound. -ost setups use heat sink !ompound.
2pply :ust enough to !over the surfa!e of the !hip. )f you have
portions of the !hip higher than others, apply !ompound only to the
raised areas. The layer should be thin. -ore on't hurt anything, but
ill be a mess hen you press the heat sink don. 0n some setups, you
!an skip heat sink !ompound. )nstead, some !lips hold the heat sink
don. (hile, in some !ases you !an skip heat sink !ompound, keep in
mind that even this setup !an benefit from the in!reased !onta!t
provided by heat sink !ompound. -ore on this ne*t step.
<. 2tta!h The +eat "ink. &la!e the heat sink squarely on top of the
pro!essor, pressing don lightly. -ost neer heat sinks use a set of
!lips on ea!h side to fasten itself don. These !lips atta!h to a pair
of tabs on ea!h side of the so!ket. )t ill probably take a little bit
of for!e to bend the !lip don over the tab. 0ther heat sinks rap
around the pro!essor, then :ust sit on top, the !ompound being the only
real atta!hment.
C. ,ouble1.he!k .onta!t. Eou need to make sure all areas of the !hip
are in !onta!t ith the heat sink. The best ay to do this is to
temporarily remove the heat sink again and see if there are any areas
of !ompound that remain smooth be!ause it didn't tou!h the !hip. 2pply
a little more !ompound to any su!h areas, then refasten the heat sink.
Repeat this until all areas are in !onta!t ith the pro!essor.
=. .lean The -ess. )f you applied too mu!h !ompound, some ill have
oo6ed out the sides. (ipe this up. 2fter that, you're done.
&T:P 1 : 4nstall Memor!
Eou should no install your memory modules D R2-, better knon as ")--s
or ,)--s. Eou probably already took !are of all this, but you need to
make sure you have the right kind of memory for your motherboard. 2lso,
make sure the banks are full on your board. 0n a &entium system, 7>1pin
")--s must be installed in pairs. ,)--s !an be installed alone. 0n CG;
!lass ma!hines, 7>1pin ")--s !an be installed alone hile <91pin ")--s
must be installed in groups of four.
5. ,e!ide hi!h slots you are going to use and orient the ")-- over it.
>. The ")-- is keyed so that it ill only go in the right ay. "tudy
the ")-- and you ill see hat ) mean, and obviously, if it on't ork,
turn it around.
<. )nstall the -odule. (ith ")--s, you need to sti!k it in at an angle,
about C= degrees.
C. (ith ,)--s, they go straight in.
=. Ho!k the module in pla!e.
;. 0bviously, ")--s don't sit in the motherboard at a C= degree angle.
Rotate it to the verti!al position. This may require a bit of mus!le,
but do not for!e it. )f it is too hard, it is probably installed
7. (hen it is verti!al, you should see the little plasti! or metal
!lips snap into pla!e, thereby holding the ")-- in pla!e.
G. (ith ,)--s, all you have to do it !lose the levers on either side of
the ,)--. )f they do not !lose, it is be!ause the ,)-- is not inserted
all the ay into the slot.
B. %o :ust repeat these steps for ea!h of your memory modules.
59. (hen you are done, double1!he!k your ork.
This is appro*imately hat the R2- ill look like'

This is appro*imately hat the R2- slots ould look like'

&T:P 2 : 4nstall the Motherboard
5. 0n!e the !ase is positioned !orre!tly for ork, lo!ate the holes on
the motherboard and the holes on the !ase. Eou might ant to hold the
board :ust above the !ase motherboard plate and see hi!h holes on the
!ase line up ith holes on the motherboard.
>. %o gather your spa!ers. M "!re them in to the holes in the !ase
or mounting plate that line up ith holes on the motherboard. Eou !an
tighten them ith a <D5;? nut driver.
<. Aor the holes on the motherboard that line up ith an eyelet hole on
the !ase (a hole that is very long so that you !an slide things in it),
install a plasti! stand1off on the motherboard.
C. The stand1offs should poke through the motherboard and e*pand to
keep them in pla!e. The little disk on the other end of the stand1off
ill later be used to slide into the eyelet holes.
=. )f your !ase does not provide eyelet holes, do not orry about this
step. "ome !ases use only the metal spa!er s!res to hold the
;. %o slide the board into the !ase. -ake sure it sits on the spa!ers
and that all the spa!ers line up ith an available hole on the
motherboard. )f you have any stand1offs installed, make sure the little
disks on them are pla!ed into the ide end of the eyelet hole, then
slided over to the narro part, thus lo!king them in.
7. 0n!e the stand1offs are lo!ked in, all spa!ers should line up. )f
you have a !ase ith a deta!hable motherboard mounting plate, simply
pla!e the board over the previously pla!ed spa!er s!res on the plate,
and make sure they all line up ith holes through the motherboard.
G. )nspe!t the s!res you ill use to tighten the board don. )f the
head of the s!res are too ide, and you think they might !onta!t any
!ir!uitry on the motherboard, pla!e a plasti! asher over ea!h hole.
B. Tighten the board don.
59. )nstall the s!res into ea!h of the spa!ers underneath, through the
board and the ashers if you used them.
55. Tighten them don by hand first, then finish them ith a
s!redriver. -ake sure you do not tighten them too mu!h. Eou don't ant
to !ra!k your board. Lust make them snug so that the board doesn't
iggle around in the !ase.
5>. )nstall motherboard mounting panel if your !ase uses one. This
usually involves inserting a rail on the bottom end of the plate into a
tab or guide on the !ase.
5<. Then, like a hinge, raise the top until the plate is verti!al ith
the board inside the !ase. This removable plate is then !losed by
lo!king in a spring loaded handle, or simply s!reing it in. 0n other
!ases, the plate may slide in a different ay, then get s!reed into
pla!e. These plates are then easily removed later if you ever need to
remove the motherboard.
5C. ,ouble .he!k your ork. .he!k to be sure that the ba!k of the
motherboard is not tou!hing any part of the !ase or mounting plate.
5=. -ake sure the slots and !onne!tors line up ith the holes on the
ba!k of the !ase.
5;. 2nd definitely be sure that the board is rigid and tight. )f you
press don on the board at any point, it should not bend don.
&T:P *3 : 4nstall the 4%O Connectors A Mouse
%o that the motherboard is in pla!e, you !an start !onne!ting all the
parts of the !omputer to it. The first step is to install the )D0
!onne!tors, su!h as your parallel and serial ports. %ote that if you
are installing an 2T3 motherboard, these !onne!tors are built into the
motherboard, and you do not have to do this step.
5. "tudy the "etup and determine mounting te!hnique. 2T style boards
almost alays !ome ith slot inserts that have the parallel and serial
ports mounted on them. These are :ust s!reed onto a !ouple of your
e*pansion slot bays on the ba!k of the !ase. (hile this is easy, it
steals the slots aay from the motherboard slots, keeping you from
using those slots later for e*pansion !ards. To get around tying up
these slots, you !an remove the a!tual ports from the metal plate and
install them into the dedi!ated port holes on the ba!k of the !ase, if
your !ase has them. These holes are lo!ated above the regular !ard slot
bays and are usually !overed ith a metal !ap hi!h ill need to be
pried out ith a s!redriver.
>. )f you are installing ports on the metal insert, you !an no s!re
these inserts into one of the available slots on the ba!k of the !ase.
)t is best to !hoose a slot near the top hi!h ill not be used for
anything else and provides a short enough distan!e so that the )D0
!ables !an rea!h the motherboard.
<. )f you are installing the ports into the dedi!ated slots on the
!ase, you should no !hoose hi!h slots you ill use, making sure you
!hoose those that fit your )D0 ports, su!h as B1pin or >=1pin. Then
remove the !over from these slots. "ome !ases hold these !overs on ith
a s!re. (ith others, the !over is a metal pun!h, here you !an remove
it ith a s!redriver and bending it until it snaps off.
C. )f the ports are installed in a metal insert, un1install them no.
Then install them into the appropriate !ase slot. Eou !an tighten them
in ith he*agonal nuts, :ust like those used on the metal insert.
=. #ither ay you installed the ports, they are installed no. 2ll you
need to do is !onne!t them to the motherboard. /sing the board's
manual, determine hi!h !onne!tors are for the ports, usually labelled
&R%T, for printer or H&T5, then .0-5 and .0->. -ost likely, the B1pin
!onne!tor !onne!ts to the .0- 5 !onne!tor on the motherboard. &ay
attention to pin 5 on the !onne!tors. -ake sure the red side of the
ribbon !able is lined up ith pin 5.
9ote: 45 !ou are usin( a serial mouse7 it will simpl! plu( into the 2$
pin connector !ou 6ust installed) 45 !ou will be usin( a P&%+ mouse
with this s!stem7 then this connector is attached the same wa!) 4nstall
the insert near the P&%+ connector on the motherboard) The connect the
P&%+ cable to the connector7 usuall! consistin( o5 a 5ew pins stic'in(
strai(ht up o55 the board)
&T:P ** : Connect The Motherboard to the Case
)n this step, you ill !onne!t the motherboard up to the poer supply
and all of the various !ase !onne!tions.
5. .onne!t the poer to the motherboard. 0n an 2T system, find the to
large ;1ire leads from the poer supply labelled &G and &B. These to
!onne!tors ill !onne!t to the large 5>1pin poer !onne!tor on the
motherboard, usually right behind the keyboard !onne!tor.
>. -28# "/R# T+# BH2.8 ()R#" 2R# )% T+# -),,H#, R)4+T %#3T T0 #2.+
0T+#R. This is very important, be!ause forgetting it has fried many
motherboards. Eou may need to play ith them to get them in, due to the
funny little tabs pla!ed on one side. But, they do fit, trust me. 0n an
2T3 board, the poer !onne!tor is one large >91ire one. )t is keyed
for !orre!t installation.
<. .onne!t the .&/ fan to the poer. -ost .&/ fans !onne!t to one of
the poer supply leads. They often, then, provide a pass1through so
that you have a !onne!tor free for a drive, thereby pla!ing the .&/ fan
on the !ir!uit to a parti!ular drive. 0thers have a little <1pin lead
that !onne!ts to a small !onne!tor on the motherboard itself.
C. "tudy the !ase !onne!tors on the motherboard and mat!h them up ith
!ase !onne!tor ires. "ome boards label the pins, but it is best to
have your manual sin!e it !an sometimes be diffi!ult to determine hi!h
label goes to hi!h set of pins. )f you have a good !ase, ea!h
!onne!tor ill be labelled to tell you hat !ase feature it leads to.
)f this isn't the !ase, you may have to physi!ally tra!e the ires ba!k
to see hat feature it goes to. (hen !onne!ting, !onsult the manual for
pin 5's, to make sure ea!h !onne!tor is plugged in the right ay.
Remember, if the parti!ular !ase feature is not orking later, you may
only have to turn the !onne!tor around on the motherboard.
=. .onne!t Turbo "it!h if your !ase has one. )f not, you !an simply
roll up the ire and stuff it aside or tie it up ith a garbage bag tie.
;. .onne!t the poer sit!h 1 2T3 form fa!tor only. 0n 2T3 ma!hines,
the poer sit!h is !onne!ted to the motherboard instead of the poer
supply itself. .onsult your manual.
7. .onne!t the reset sit!h. )t !an be plugged in any ay, :ust make
sure you !onne!t it to the right pins. The pins may be labelled R"T or
R#"#T, but it is best to also !onsult the manual.
G. .onne!t &oer H#,D 8eylo!k "it!h. -any system !ases put these to
devi!es on one =1pin plug. The motherboard ill probably be labelled
su!h. Lust plug in the plug. )f your system has separate plugs for
ea!h, !onne!t them separately.
B. .onne!t the Turbo H#,. Hike the turbo sit!h, this is a reli!. Eou
!an !onne!t it if you ish, although many boards :ust light it and
don't really do anything ith it at all. )f you ish, you !an skip it.
"ome also !onne!t it to a different part, su!h as a ".") adapter, and
use it for ".") drive a!tivity instead.
59. .onne!t the hard drive a!tivity H#,. "ome on a >1pin plug. 0ther
!ome on a four pin plug, sometimes only to of the pins a!tually doing
anything. .onsult your manual, or play ith it until it orks.
55. .onne!t the &. speaker. -ost !ases put this onto a C1ire plug.
Lust plug it in to the C pins on the motherboard. 0ther !ases put the
speaker !onne!tor on to 51ire plugs. )n this !ase, plug them into
pins 5 and C.
5>. ,ouble1.he!k your ork, as alays.
&T:P *+ : 4nstall Flopp! "ri#e
5. .hoose hi!h drive bay you ant to install the drive and remove the
fa!e plate off of that bay. "ave the fa!e plate for future use.
>. Ait the drive into the bay ithout !onne!ting anything. Lust make
sure it fits. .hoose the best possible fit.
<. .onne!t the ribbon !able and the poer supply to the drive. "tudy
the available !onne!tors. Eou should have a ribbon !able ith a tist
on one end. The end ithout the tist is atta!hed to the floppy
!ontroller on the motherboard.
C. Then, atta!h the !onne!tor after the tist to floppy drive 2'. )f
you have only one floppy drive, then it is ,rive 2'. Eou may have to
available !onne!tors after the tist. /se the one that fits your drive.
=. )f you are using bra!kets to hold the drive in pla!e, se!ure them
no. Eou may need to temporarily dis!onne!t the !ables.
;. 0n!e in, tighten the drive in pla!e.
7. ,ouble1!he!k the !onne!tions, also !he!king the !onne!tions for
other drives to make sure you didn't bump one out of pla!e.
G. %o put everything ba!k together. &lug the system in.
This is appro*imately hat the floppy drive ill look like'
&T:P *, : Con5i(ure Hard "ri#e A C"$ROM
)t is mu!h easier to !onfigure these drives before you a!tually install
them in the !ase. )f you install them first, having enough room to
a!tually set the :umpers !an be a problem. Before doing this, you must
de!ide hat type of drives and ho many you ant in your system. The
basi! system has one hard drive and one .,1R0-. Eou may ant more than
this. )n this !ase, !onfigure the drives to suit your preferen!es.
.onfiguring these drives is very easy. 0ften the :umper settings are
printed on the top of the drive itself. )f not, then !onsult the manual
for it. )n the basi! system ith one hard drive, make sure the :umper
on the ba!k is set to ?master?. This is usually labelled on the drive
itself. -any drives have a setting for ?single?. This setting tells the
drive it is alone on that parti!ular ),# !hannel, and it orks the same
as a master. )n a one +,, system, use this setting if available.
.,1R0-'s are very simple to !onfigure. Their :umpers are lo!ated in
different pla!es on ea!h drive, and are labelled differently, but they
are easily found in most !ases. -ost systems only have one .,1R0-. "o,
!onfigure this .,1R0- as a master. )t is best to have this .,1R0- alone
on the se!ond ),# !hannel of your motherboard.
Lumpers !an be set ith a pair of needle1nosed pliers or tee6ers. -any
are !apable of grabbing the :umper ith their fingers or nails. This is
fine, too.
)f a parti!ular drive does not need to be :umpered at all, it is best
to hang the :umper over one pin. This is the same as being un:umpered,
but make sure the :umper is there for future use if needed.
This is appro*imately hat the hard drive ill look like'

&T:P *- : Mount Hard "ri#e

9ote: Be5ore simpl! 5ollowin( the directions below on mountin( the hard
dri#e7 pa! attention to where !ou put it) Technicall!7 !ou can put the
hard dri#e in an! 5ree ba! o5 !our case7 but there are a 5ew
considerations) Hard dri#es (enerate heat7 especiall! the newer 0+33
and *3333 RPM dri#es) There5ore7 it is best to place these dri#e as 5ar
5rom other hardware as possible) <i#e them room to breathe) 45 it is
necessar! to install a dri#e cooler7 ma'e sure !ou ha#e room) Also7
some cases (i#e room under the power suppl! to install a hard dri#e)
Bad idea) A power suppl! is li'e a ma(net7 and ma(nets and !our data do
not (o to(ether) "on>t install a hard dri#e an!where near the power
suppl!) Beep !our hard dri#e near the 5ront o5 the case)
5. "lide the hard drive into an available drive rail of the !ase.
Typi!ally, there should be part of the drive mounting rail of the !ase
hi!h is belo and fa!e plates of the !ase front.
>. )nstall the drive there, sin!e you ill not take up any room for
drives that a!tually need to be seen from the front.
<. "!re the drive into pla!e, making sure not to for!e anything.
C. 2tta!h the !ables to the hard drive. Lust like a floppy drive,
!onne!t the ribbon !able and the poer !able.
=. The ribbon !able goes from the primary !ontroller of the motherboard
to the drive. -ake sure the red edge of the ribbon !able is in line
ith &in 5 on the drive. )f you pla!e the !able on ba!kards, you may
get strange errors that make your ne drive sound like it has died
already. )f you are adding a se!ond drive, simply !hoose a !onne!tor on
the same ribbon !able that is not used. -ost ribbon !ables !ome ith
to !onne!tors' one on the end and one mid1ay. )n this !ase, it
doesn't matter hi!h plug goes in hat drive.
;. The !omputer looks at the masterDslave :umpers to see hi!h one is
7. -ake the se!ond hard drive the slave. The manual should sho you ho
to do this on your parti!ular drive, although many drives have the
:umper settings !onveniently labelled on the drive itself.
&C&4 "ri#es
)f you are opting for a ".") drive setup, then there are a fe
variations. Airst, you need to install a ".") !ontroller into one of
your e*pansion slots.
5. Eou need to set any sit!hes or :umpers that need setting on the ne
drive. )n ".") setups, ea!h devi!e gets its on ".") ),, numbered 517.
N7 is usually given to the adapter !ard. Eou may pi!k, then, any other
unused address. Eou may need to take into a!!ount any little quirks in
your adapter, su!h as spe!ial likings to other addresses that !ould
!ause problems a little later. Eou'll need the manual for this one.
>. .he!k for the !orre!t termination. )n ".") setups, the adapter !an
hold up to seven ".") devi!es.
<. These devi!es are hooked up in a !hain, usually ith the adapter at
one end and another devi!e at the other end.
C. This ending devi!e must be set to be the terminating devi!e,
therefore ending the ".") !hain. /sually, ".") devi!es !ome ith a
terminator plug. )n some !ases, the adapter is in the middle of the
!hain, therefore you must terminate at both ends of the !hain. Eou may
need to !onsult the manual for any spe!ial termination te!hniques
parti!ular to your brand of drive.
=. "lide the drive in and !onne!t the !ables. -ake sure that pin N5 on
the ribbon mat!hes up ith pin N5 on the drive.
9otes:@hen per5ormin( this ph!sical installation7 !ou>ll 5ind that it
di55ers 5rom case to case) @ith some cases7 the dri#e rac' is simpl!
part o5 the case) @ith this setup7 !ou simpl! push the dri#e into the
case and screw it in) 4n other cases7 the dri#e rac' ma! be remo#able)
&ome ha#e man! separate rac's7 and some ha#e one remo#able rac' that
can hold man! dri#es) @ith this setup7 remo#e the dri#e rac') this is
usuall! done b! squeeCin( two metal tabs to to(ether to release it)
Then slide the rac' out) &crew the dri#e into the rac') Then7 slide the
rac' bac' into place where it was) @hen !ou are done7 !ou should ha#e a
hard dri#e properl! screwed into the case)
&T:P *. : 4nstall the C"$ROM

5. )f you have not yet removed the drive bay !over, do so no. This is
usually done by pushing to tabs together and pushing the plate out
from the front of the !ase. 0n!e the !over is removed, you !an slide
the drive in from the front.
>. Eou !an no s!re the drive into pla!e. Eou might ant to :ust pla!e
the s!res in but not tighten them. This is done so that you !an slide
the drive out again later.
<. (hen installing the !ables later, you may need to slide the drive
out a fe in!hes so that you have enough room to ork behind the drive.
)n many !ases, espe!ially mini1toers, one !an have a hard time orking
behind the .,1R0- be!ause it is pinned up against the front of the
poer supply.
C. Lust like in the previous step, the physi!al installation depends on
the !ase. "ome !ases !ome ith a bun!h of drive rails. (hat you do is
s!re a drive rail in the !orre!t dire!tion to ea!h side of the .,1R0-
=. Then, you slide the .,1R0- into the !ase from the front and the
drive rails follo a guide until they !li!k into pla!e. This design,
one you get used to it, it really mu!h easier, and leads to very qui!k
installations in the future.
;. (hen tightened into pla!e, make sure the front of the drive is flush
ith the front of the !ase.
7. 2lso make sure it appears straight. (hile this doesn't really affe!t
fun!tionality, its a matter of aestheti!s.
&T:P */ : Connect the Flopp! "ri#e
2ssuming you have already installed the floppy drive into the !ase, it
is no time to a!tually !onne!t it to the motherboard and poer supply.
5. .onne!t the poer supply to the floppy drive.
>. 2tta!h the Ribbon .able. Aloppy !ables have a tist in the !able. 2'
drive goes after the tist. )f you have a se!ond B' drive, this goes
before the tist.
<. Eou do not need to mess ith masterDslave :umpers. )f you !hoose not
to mess ith the tist, you !an, ith later B)0" versions, sap the
order of the drives in the B)0".
C. Eou need to use a !able ith the proper !onne!tors for ea!h type you
use. -any floppy !ables !ome ith !onne!tors for ea!h type on ea!h side
of the tist.
=. 2lays !he!k &in 5 on the ribbon !able !onne!tor.
;. The red edge of the !able is !onne!ted to &in 5. )f you a!!identally
reverse this, your drive on't be damaged, it :ust on't ork, and the
floppy drive light ill stay on all the time until fi*ed.
7. The !onne!tor on the far end of the ribbon !able !onne!ts to the
floppy !ontroller on the motherboard or )D0 !ard. .onsult your
motherboard's manual to determine hi!h is your floppy !ontroller.
G. ,ouble .he!k your ork.
&T:P *0 : Connect the Hard "ri#e
2ssuming your hard drive has already been physi!ally installed in the
system !ases, you must no !onne!t it up to the poer supply and
5. .onne!t it to the poer supply. This orks :ust like any other
drive. Aind a spare C1ire !onne!tor from your poer supply and plug it
in to the ba!k of the drive. The plug is keyed, so it ill only go in
the !orre!t ay.
>. 2tta!h the Ribbon !able. 2tta!h one end of the !able to the drive
and the other end to the ),# !ontroller N5, or primary ),#, on your
<. /sually, &in 5 is labelled on the ba!k of the hard drive, so line up
the red edge of the !able ith pin 5. &in 5 on the motherboard
!ontroller is probably not labelled, so you'll have to !he!k your
C. )f you are installing a se!ond hard drive in this system, you must
!onne!t the !able to this.
=. Aind a third !onne!tor on the same ribbon !able and atta!h this to
the se!ond drive. )f you must sit!h hi!h !onne!tor goes to hi!h
drive, this is fine, sin!e the masterDslave relationship is determined
by :umpers.
;. )f you only have to !onne!tors on your !able, you ill need to
repla!e this !able ith one boasting three !onne!tors.
7. ,ouble1.he!k your ork. -ake sure everything is tight.
&T:P *1 : Connect the C"$ROM
2ssuming your .,1R0- is already installed in the !ase, you !an no
!onne!t it to the motherboard and poer supply.
5. 2tta!h the poer supply to the drive. Lust like a hard drive, :ust
find a free C1ire poer plug and plug it into the poer !onne!tor on
the .,1R0-.
>. 2tta!h the ribbon !able. .onne!t one end to the .,1R0-, paying
attention to &in 5, and the other end to ),# !ontroller N>, or
se!ondary ),#, on the motherboard. )t is best to have the .,1R0- on its
on ),# !hannel from the hard drive instead of as a slave to the hard
<. 2tta!h the 2udio .able. This small <1ire !onne!tor goes from a plug
on the ba!k of the .,1R0- to a <1pin plug on the sound !ard. Eou !an
!onne!t it to the sound !ard no, or ait until after you a!tually
install a sound !ard in the system. )n any !ase, you might as ell
!onne!t it up to the .,1R0- no.
C. ,ouble1!he!k your ork.
&T:P *2 : 4nstall The ideo Card
Typi!ally, the video !ard ill be pla!ed as far to the left as
5. Aind a e*pansion slot ideal for your video !ard. The slot must be
the !orre!t type, and it should be as far as possible from other
hardare in the system.
>. Remove the !ase insert that !orresponds to the slot on the
motherboard. This is usually done by uns!reing, but some !ases have
pun!h out inserts.
<. )nsert the video !ard in the slot. Eou might need to ro!k the !ard
in, inserting one end first, then ro!king the rest of the pins into
pla!e. The old )"2 !ards may be tougher be!ause of their length. Eou
might not be able to ro!k them. (hen pushing don, make sure the
motherboard does not fle*. )f the board tends to bend, it may be
ne!essary to pla!e one hand underneath the board to hold it up.
C. "!re the !ard into pla!e.
=. ,ouble1!he!k your ork.
This is appro*imately hat the video !ard ill be like'

&T:P +3 : Post$Assembl!
Eour ne &. is almost ready to turn on for the first time. Eou have the
basi!s installed and !onne!ted. 2ll e*tras, su!h as a modem, sound
!ard, et!. !an be installed after the initial boot1up, :ust to make
sure everything is orking before adding ne hardare. Before :umping
right into booting, though, ) re!ommend taking a minute, and ith a
flashlight, !he!k all of your ork. )t is better to ?aste? the time
than to fry your system after all of this ork. #.g. The 2T1style poer
!onne!tor !omes in to pie!es, and must be !onne!ted properly if you
ish to see the motherboard ever ork. T+# BH2.8 ()R#" -/"T B# &H2.#,
T04#T+#R (+#% &H/44)%4 T+#- )%T0 T+# -0T+#RB02R,@@@
&ay attention to the folloing list'
,rives properly !onne!ted to poer
.&/ fan atta!hed to poer
&oer sit!h is off &G and &B are !onne!ted properly, ith bla!k ires
in middle.
The 559D>>9 volt sit!h is !onfigured properly for your area
Ribbon !ables atta!hed !orre!tly, red edge on pin 5
2ll !onne!tion tight, no !onne!tors off by one set of pins
.&/ voltage settings !orre!t
.ards fully in slots
%o ires protruding into fans.

&T:P +* : 4nitial Boot$?p
5. To start off !onne!t all of the e*ternal peripherals to the system.
This in!ludes the mouse, the keyboard, and the monitor. >. Eou !an also
atta!h the printer, phone lines, or speakers to it, but this isn't
ne!essary for no. Besides, if you are folloing this pro!edure, you
on't have these parts installed yet.
<. 2lso, you need to have a valid system disk. The disk should in!lude
?fdisk.e*e? and ?format.!om? along ith the other ne!essary system
C. "ti!k your system disk in the 2' drive.
=. Turn your monitor on, and let it heat up a fe se!onds before
;. 8eep in mind hat to e*pe!t. Eou may need to a!t qui!kly. The poer
H#, should turn on, then fans should start spinning, the hard drive
should poer up. Eou ill see the video B)0" s!reen first, then you
ill see the B)0" s!reen and it ill pro!eed to !ount the memory. Eou
may hear one beep from the &. speaker. Eou may also get a ?.-0"
!he!ksum error? or another error saying the .-0" or time isn't set.
8no hat key(s) to hit to enter setup. This ill be shon on the
bottom of the s!reen. Eou ill ant to do this qui!kly. )f you hear any
eird sounds su!h as grinding, s!raping, or loud hining, be ready to
turn the system off immediately.
7. &ress the poer sit!h. 0bserve the system !losely. 2s soon as the
B)0" s!reen appears, press the appropriate key(s) and enter B)0" setup.
The !orre!t key !ombination should be visible at the bottom of the
s!reen. "ometimes it pops by too qui!k for you to see hi!h keys to
press. %o problem. ,on't hesitate to :ust hit reset and try again.
G. )f this didn't go a!!ording to plan, troubleshoot the system. (alk
mentally through the boot pro!ess and !he!k all hardare as it goes.
Think like the !omputer thinks, if you kno hat ) mean.I)
B. 0ne !ommon thing ) see ith 2T3 ma!hines is that people press the
poer sit!h and nothing happens. /sually this is due to the fa!t that
the poer sit!h is either not !onne!ted to the motherboard or it is
off my a pair of pins or so. Lust make sure that it is !onne!ted to the
right pins.
&T:P ++ : Con5i(ure The B4O&
%o, your ne &. should be up and running and you should be staring at
the B)0" setup s!reen. The folloing pro!edure ill alk you through
this initial setup. &lease bear in mind that this serves as an outline.
Eour a!tual settings and names may vary for different B)0" versions.
Belo, you ill simply find an outline of hat to plug in no for the
purposes of getting a ne &. in operation.
5. 2utodete!t your +ard ,rive. Lust about all somehat modern B)0"
versions are !apable of auto1dete!ting the hard drive and using the
,rive), !ommand to find and !onfigure it in the B)0". Eou should see a
menu option for this. 4o ahead and do this no. )f it does not
su!!essfully dete!t the drive, then make sure the drive is properly
!onne!ted, be!ause it probably isn't. The B)0" ill auto1dete!t your
drive and offer you three options to !hoose from. /sually, :ust !hoose
the first option at the top of the list, the one that says ?HB2?. )t
ill then try to auto1dete!t your other drives, hether they are there
are not. &ressing es!ape ill ship the dete!tion of drives that are not
>. %o enter the ?"tandard "ettings? option. .onfigure the folloing
The date and time. The date is in --D,,DEE format, and the time is in
>C1hour format, like ?military1time?. ,rive ),# settings' Type'
&robably set to ?/ser?
+eadsD"e!tors, et!...leave these set to the values determined by 2uto1
,ete!t. -ake sure that any drives that are not physi!ally present are
set to %0%# in the B)0s, so that it does not try to find those drives
on every boot1up.-ode' -odern drives are set to HB2, the older drives
belo =99-B or so are set to %ormal, or .+".
Blo!k -ode' ,isabled on most systems
&)0 -ode' /sually auto1dete!ted, but most drive should be set to &)0
mode <.
Aloppy ,rive(s)' Lust set the !orre!t type, like 5.CC-B, 7>98, et!.
$ideo ,isplay' "et to $42
+alt 0n' ?2ll errors?, to be sure you see all errors
<. %o, go into ?2dvan!ed Aeatures?, its all the same thing'
$irus &rote!tionD(arning' ,isable
)nternal .a!he' #nable. )f you !an't, then this is a hardare problem.
#*ternal .a!he' #nable.
Oui!k &0"T' ,isable to make sure all tests are performed on boot1up,
but you !an enable it, sa!rifi!ing valuable tests, but in!reasing boot
speed. Boot "equen!e' Best left at 2', .', ".")
"ap Aloppy ,rive' )f your floppies are set in the !orre!t lo!ations on
the floppy ribbon !able, you ill not need to enable this. )f your a'
and b' are reversed, though, you !an enable this.
Aast 2>9' ,isable
$ideoD"ystem B)0" "hado' ,isable no for minimum problems.
C. 4o to the ?.hipset 2dvan!ed Aeatures? menu'
.hipset "pe!ial Aeatures' ,isable
.a!he Timing' leave at ?2uto?, the default
H> .a!he si6e' "et it to mat!h the si6e of your e*ternal !a!he.
,R2- &arity .he!king' #nable only if using parity memory
,ram parityD#.. mode' ?&arity? if using parity memory, ?#..? if using
#.. memory
,R2- speedDTiming' "et to ?2uto?, or speed of memory. Aor ",R2-, you
probably on't see 59ns listed, :ust !hoose ?2uto?, the memory runs at
the !orre!t speed.
,isable all other options, or leave at default.
=. ,isable &oer -anagement Aeatures for no.
;. "et &.)D&n& .onfiguration "ettings. )f using (indos B=, set the &n&
2are 0" to enabled. 2ll other options set to 2uto, or disable if
?2uto? is not available.
7. 4o to ?)ntegrated &eripherals?. .onfigure these items'
)ntegrated Aloppy .ontroller' #nable.
)ntegrated ),#D +,, .ontroller' #nable those you are using. -ost
likely, you have a hard drive on !ontroller 5 and a .,1R0- on
!ontroller >, so enable both.
)ntegrated "erial &ort. Both .0- 5 and .0- > are usually enabled.
)ntegrated &arallel &ort' #nable on most systems.
&arallel &ort -ode' "et to either ?#&&? or ?"&&?.
&"D> -ouse' "et to ?2uto? if available, otherise, enable if using a
&"D> mouse.
/"B' ,isable on most systems, but enable if a!tually using /"B.
G. )f you are using a ?:umperless? motherboard equipped ith
?"oft-enu?, enter this option and !onfigure the folloing items'
.&/ 0perating "peed. "etting this ill automati!ally set the #*ternal
.lo!k and -ultiplier "ettings.
#*ternal .lo!k' "et to the bus speed of your system.
-ultiplier Aa!tor' "et it. 0bvious.
.&/ &oer &lane' "et to either dual voltage or single voltage. -ost
modern !hips use dual voltage, one for !ore, one for )D0.
)D0 $oltage' "et to appropriate voltage for your !hip.
.ore $oltage' "et to appropriate voltage for your !hip.
B. "ave and #*it the B)0" setup program. This ill reboot the ma!hine.
-ake sure your system disk is still in ,rive 2'.
&T:P +, : Test The &!stem
%o that the system is on and operating, you !an make a fe tests to
ensure all is orking as it should. Het's !he!k the folloing items'
5. .he!k the H#,'s on the front of the !ase. ,uring boot1up, the +,,
H#, should light. )f it does, it is !onne!ted properly to the
motherboard. )f not, try reversing the leads on the H#, plug, or :ust
turning it around. Eou !an also !he!k that the poer H#, lights and
that the turbo H#, lights, if it is !onne!ted.
>. .he!k the hard drive. -ake sure it is spinning.
<. .he!k the fans. -ake sure the .&/ fan, poer supply fan, and !ase
fan(if you have one) are all spinning ithout any ires in the ay.
C. -ake sure the .,1R0- has poer by hitting the e:e!t button and
seeing if it opens.
=. +it the reset button to be sure it orks. -ake sure the system disk
is still in ,rive 2'. (hile it reboots, !he!k to be sure all the data
on the B)0" splash s!reen is !orre!t to your system.
;. )f you have a keylo!k, test it no.
7. Het the system run for 5915= minutes.
G. %o, turn it off, ground yourself on the !ase, and !arefully tou!h
the .&/ and hard drive. Eou are !he!king the temperature to be sure
they are being properly !ooled. Both ill be arm, espe!ially the .&/,
but it should never be too hot to tou!h. )f it is, then you should get
a better fan.
&T:P +- : 4nstall Additional Hardware
)f you're like most, you ant a modem, sound !ard, and possibly some
other hardare in this system. Eou !an install these no if you please.
)t may be a better idea though to perform this step after you have
installed (indos B=. (hen you install (inB=, it is best to have as
simple a system as possible to minimise problems. Then, after the 0" is
installed, install your other hardare one item at a time. (ith (inBG,
the setup pro!edure is a little more thorough, so you !an probably
atta!h any hardare you ant to the system no. (inBG should properly
dete!t it and set it up, or at least help you do it.
) on't bother telling you ho to install these e*pansion !ards. They
install :ust like a video !ard, or any other !ard. Be sure that the
poer is off and that you are properly grounded. Eou !an follo the
pro!edures spe!ifi! to ea!h part. (ith the modem, go ahead and atta!h
the phone lines to it. 0n the sound !ard, :ust be sure that the audio
!able from the .,1R0- is !onne!ted to it through the .,1)% !onne!tor.
0n all !ards, make sure it properly !onfigured to avoid !onfli!ts. -ost
modern hardare is plug1n1play, so this ill be easy. "ome are
!onfigured for plug1n1play, but !an be set ith :umpers to use spe!ifi!
)RO's and .0- ports. Eou !an use these if ne!essary.
&T:P +. : Prepare the Hard "ri#e
5. )n order to use your hard drive, it must be partitioned and
>. There are some !onsiderations here. )f you are using (indos B= 0"R>
or (inBG, then you !an partition using the A2T<> file system. This ill
allo smaller !lusters, saving disk spa!e due to sla!k, and ill allo
massive partition si6es. (ith any other version of (indos, you ill
have to use A2T5;, hi!h uses <>8 !lusters and limits partition si6es
to >4.
<. To find hat version you are using, type ?ver? at the !ommand
prompt. )t ill return a version number. )t says ?C.99.5555?, you are
using 0"R>. 2ny other, and you are not.
C. Take a little time to plan your partitions. ,o you ant one large
partition for the entire driveK 0r do you ant to separate it into
different drive volumesK )f you have A2T<>, it is very popular to
!reate one partition for the entire drive. 0therise, if you are using
a drive larger than >4, you ill have to separate it into more than one
partition. 2lso, keep in mind that smaller partitions lean to smaller
!lusters, thus less sla!k or asted disk spa!e.
=. 2t this point, partition the drive. Type ?fdisk? at the !ommand
prompt. )f it does not ork, it is be!ause your hard drive is not
atta!hed properly.
;. The first partition is your primary ,0" partition. This is your .'
drive and !an't be divided. This is also !alled the a!tive partition.
Eou !an only have one a!tive partition. The se!ond partition is
optional. )t is !alled an e*tended partition. This is the spa!e left
over after the primary partition. #a!h e*tended partition must be
labelled ith a letter ,' through J'.
7. Airst you have to setup a primary ,0" partition. .hoose 0ption 5
( .reate ,0" partition or Hogi!al ,0" drive). .hoose 0ption 5 in the
ne*t menu. %o you !an make your entire .' drive the primary partition
or only a part of it. -any people :ust make the entire drive one
partition :ust to stay simple. )f you ant to break from this norm,
spe!ify the amount of drive you ant to partition in either megabytes
or per!entage of total drive. )f you are using a per!entage, be sure to
follo the number by a ?P? or the !omputer ill think you're talking
G. %e*t, you'll need to make this partition a!tive. Return to the main
A,)"8 menu and !hoose 0ption > ( "et 2!tive &artition). Aollo the
B. )f you're going to !reate an e*tended partition, !hoose 0ption 5
again, but this time !hoose 0ption > in the ne*t menu ( .reate #*tended
,0" partition). &lug in the per!entage of drive to partition for this
one. ,o not make this partition a!tive. 0nly one !an be a!tive.
59. 2fter you !reate an e*tended partition, you ill be given the
.reate Hogi!al ,rives option in the e*tended partition menu. Aollo the
on1s!reen instru!tions to assign drive letters to your partitions ,'
through J'. 8eep in mind that ,' is often used for the .,1R0-.
55. 2fter all this is done, you !an !hoose 0ption C ( ,isplay &artition
)nformation) and !he!k your ork.
5>. )f you have A2T<> and ish to use it, enter ?E? hen asked if you
ant to use ?Harge ,isk "upport?.
5<. 2fter the drive has been partitioned, reboot the ma!hine ith the
system disk in ,rive 2'. )f you try to do anything on the .' drive, you
may get an error about )nvalid -edia Type. ,on't orry about it. )ts
be!ause you haven't formatted it yet.
5C. %o you must format the ne .' drive. 2t the 2Q prompt, type
?format !' Ds?. The ?Ds? tells it to make the disk bootable. Eou ill
get a arning saying that this a!tion ill erase all data on the drive.
This is normal, and sin!e there is no data on the drive, :ust press ?E?
and move on. )t ill sho the status as it happens.
5=. )f you !reated additional partitions on this drive, format those
volumes no. Type ?format d'? or ?format e'?, here the letter
!orresponds to the volume you ish to format. ,o not type the ?Ds?
sin!e you only ant the .' drive bootable.
5;. %o remove the system disk and reboot. )t is supposed to boot
normally and up at the .' prompt. )f you get an error like ?%o boot
devi!e found? or ?%o R0- Basi!?, you probably forgot to make the
primary partition a!tive. Run Adisk again and fi* that. )f you get an
error like ?%o 0perating "ystem?, you probably forgot to make the disk
bootable. -ake sure you typed ?Ds? at the format !ommand.
&T:P +/ : 4nstall The C"$ROM "ri#er
-ost operating systems !ome on .,, hi!h requires you to have your .,1
R0- orking in order to install the operating system. Eour .,1R0- !omes
ith an install disk that, if properly programmed, ill install your
.,1R0- drivers very qui!kly. /nfortunately, many manufa!turers make
lame installation disks, requiring you do some of the ork manually.
Aor this reason, ) re!ommend you have a !opy of #,)T..0- on your hard
drive or system disk in !ase you have to manually edit the .0%A)4."E"
or 2/T0#3#..B2T. "ome installation programs are very parti!ular as to
hat they e*pe!t. "ome ill stop unless -".,#3.#3# is not already
installed on the drive .' "ome go so far as to e*pe!t this file in
.'R,0", and it might not tell you this. Eou !an :ust put the file in a
dire!tory !alled .'R,0" and try again. 0ther installations !annot
properly !onfigure .0%A)4."E" or 2/T0#3#..B2T. "ome ill halt if these
files aren't already present on the hard drive. )f you run into
problem, keep this in mind.
%ote' )f you are installing (indos BG and have a (inBG system disk,
then booting ith this system disk should give you a menu. This menu
allos you to boot the system ith .,1R0- support automati!ally,
ithout having to go through any of the folloing trouble. )n this
!ase, feel honoured, and skip this step.
5. -ake sure #,)T..0- is on your hard drive. )t may be found on your
system disk, your installation disk, or you may need to get it from
another system. .opy this file to the ne !omputer's .' drive.
>. )nstall the .,1R0- )nstallation disk in ,rive 2'.
<. To be safe, you might ant to !reate a 2/T0#3#..B2T and .0%A)4."E"
if they are not already there. Eou !an do this by typing ?#,)T
.0%A)4."E"? then saving it empty. This ill !reate the file, although
it ill be empty. ,o the same for 2/T0#3#..B2T.
C. Run the )nstall program. /sually you type either ?a'install? or
?a'setup?. )t ill !opy ne!essary files, and modify your .0%A)4."E" and
2/T0#3#..B2T. Lust follo the prompts. 2ll install programs are
different. (hen this is done, reboot.
=. .he!k the system files. Eou !an #,)T them or type ?type !onfig.sys?.
The line ill look something like ?,#$).#I.'R.,&R0R$),#1.,,."E"
D,'-".,995?. )n the 2/T0#3#..B2T file, it may look like
?.'R()%,0("R.0--2%,R-".,#3 D,'-".,995 D$?. The parameter after ?D,?
should be the same in both files. These lines ill vary depending on
your .,1R0- and files lo!ations.
;. )f you ant to !hange the drive letter of the ., drive, add ?DH'A?
at the end of the line referen!ing the .,1R0- in the 2/T0#3#..B2T file.
.hange ?A? to the drive letter you ish the .,1R0- to be.
7. Test your ork. Reboot. The .,1R0- should a!tivate. Then sti!k a .,
in the drive and try to read it by sit!hing to the appropriate drive
:ust as you ould to read a floppy diskette. )f it didn't ork, then
first !he!k your 2/T0#3#..B2T and make sure it is leading to the
!orre!t lo!ation for the file -".,#3.#3#. This file is ne!essary on all
systems to make a .,1R0- operate in ,0".
&T:P +0 : 4nstall The Operatin( &!stem DAssumin( it is
@indows 2.E
This pro!edure should only serve as a general outline. The ease of
installing an operating system is fully dependent on your system. -any
times, it goes smoothly, but, ith others, it !an be more diffi!ult to
iron out all the !onfli!ts that arise. )f your hard drive is not blank,
) re!ommend reformatting it before installing (indos B=.
5. Begin "etup. 2t the ,0" prompt, type ?,'setup?. )f your .,1R0- is a
letter other than ,', type in that drive letter instead.
>. ".2%,)"8. 0n!e begun, the setup program ill begin to run a ".2%,)"8
on your hard drive. This ill pro!eed automati!ally and, hopefully,
ithout error. )f you get an immediate error stating that you have no
e*tended memory manager, don't fret. This is probably be!ause this
drive is brand ne and you don't have ,0" installed on it. "imply hit
#". and move on.
<. (el!ome "!reen. 2t this point, you ill see the graphi!al interfa!e
of (indos B= and a (el!ome s!reen. Eou should see a mouse !ursor.
-akes sure your mouse orks. )f not, double1!he!k its !onne!tions. Eou
!an setup (inB= ithout a mouse, but ) ouldn't re!ommend it. %o, hit
C. Hi!ense 2greement. Eou should see the "etup (i6ard load, then a
li!ense agreement. Read it, if you ant, then !li!k Ees.
=. "etup "tart. "etup ill tell you all about the three phases of this
install pro!ess. +o ni!e of -i!rosoft to arn us.I) .li!k %e*t.
;. .hoose )nstall ,ire!tory. Eou ill be prompted to tell the !omputer
hat dire!tory to install (indos to. The default is .'R()%,0(", and )
strongly re!ommend leaving this value at default.
7. 0ptions. /pon !ontinuation, setup ill run some routine tests on
your system. 2fter this, you ill be offered four options for a setup
routine, ?Typi!al?, ?&ortable?, ?.ompa!t?, and ?.ustom?. &i!k the
options that best suits you. Aor most people, ) re!ommend !hoosing
?Typi!al?. )f you ish to have more !ontrol over hat -i!rosoft ould
like to install on your ma!hine, !hoose ?.ustom?.
G. 2uthenti!ation .ode. "etup ill prompt you for a long string of
numbers and letters that proves you indeed bought this softare. This
!ode should be available ith a .ertifi!ate of 2uthenti!ity.
B. +ardare "ear!h. 2t this point, setup ill analyse your !omputer to
see hat !omponents are installed. (hen asked if it has a -),) or sound
!ard, or video !apture !ard, !he!k the appropriate bo*es. This sear!h
may take several minutes, and e*pe!t your hard drive to be very loud
and a!tive.
59. "ele!t .omponents. (indos ill ask you hi!h !omponents you ould
like to install. "imply !li!k on those you ant. ) re!ommend !hoosing
at least 2!!essories, .ommuni!ations, -ultimedia, and ,isk Tools.
55. %etork .onfiguration. #ven if you don't have a netork, (indos
ill ant to add a netork !ard. Lust a!!ept the defaults and move on.
This !an be fi*ed later.
5>. ),. Eou ill be asked for your netork identifi!ation. Lust type
something in for ea!h line :ust to make (indos happy. Eou !an alays
!hange these names later.
5<. ,ouble1.he!k "ettings. .hange any settings that aren't right. "ome
drivers ill have to be installed later.
5C. "tart/p ,isk. (indos ill ask you if you ant to make a startup
disk. -ake one if you ould like. Eou !an alays make one later as ell.
5=. .opy Ailes. "etup ill no !opy all of the files to your !omputer's
hard drive. This may take ahile depending on the speed of your system.
(hen it is finished, !li!k ?Ainished?.
5;. Airst Boot. (ell, first (indos B= boot. Eou ill see a ni!e blue
s!reen. 2t the bottom, it ill say ?4etting Ready To Run (indos B= Aor
The Airst Time?. )t ill do some thinking, and it might take a hile.
Lust let it go.
57. &assord. Eou might be prompted for a passord. Lust hit ?.an!el?.
5G. +ardare "etup. (indos ill no dete!t all plug1and1play devi!es
and !onfigure them automati!ally.
5B. Time Jone. Eou ill see a lovely orld map. )f you are installing
0"R5, you !an !li!k on the map on your lo!ation and set the time 6one.
)n 0"R>, -i!rosoft made the map un!li!kable (to be politi!ally !orre!t
ith regards to border disputes) so you ill have to !hose it manually
>9. 2dd &rinter. The 2dd &rinter (i6ard ill appear. Eou !an install
your printer no, if you like, or later if you ant. )f you'd like to
ait, :ust hit ?.an!el?.
>5. "et/p Ainished. Eou ill see a dialogue saying setup is done. .li!k
08 and the system ill reboot.
>>. .he!k "ettings. /pon reboot, you should see basi! (idos B=. 2t
this point, you !an !he!k a fe things to :ust to make sure setup did
its :ob and that there are no problems. Right1!li!k on ?-y .omputer?
and !hoose ?&roperties?. Then, :ust double1!he!k everything. )s the
!orre!t .&/ dete!tedK Right amount of memoryK 2ll of your hardare
><. 0ptimise the 0". 2t this point, you might as ell optimise the
system a tad from the start. This in!ludes optimising your sap file
and disk !a!he settings, integral !omponents of performan!e that
-i!rosoft !onfigured poorly.
>C. )nstall 2dditional ,rivers. )f you're like most, you have
additional hardare that is not yet set up. This probably in!ludes your
video !ard, sound !ard, modem, et!. )nstall these drivers no. Aollo
the pro!edures outlined in their do!umentation. Eou may have to reboot
a fe times.
>=. Hast1minute !hanges. 2t this point, reboot your ma!hine and make
sure all parts ork. Then, !hange your allpaper, s!reensaver, et! to
mat!h your innermost desires. Then, E0/R ,0%#@ I) I) I) I) I) I) I)
Troubleshootin( a PC that won>t boot)
This is intended to be a nearly e*haustive listing of every possible
thing that !ould be rong. /nfortunately, most &. troubleshooting
te!hniques are not for the novi!e &. oner. The large &. repair shop
ill have everything from a R0- burner, !hip tester, diagnosti! )"2
!ards, and volt metersDlogi! testers. Eou ill not.
)t is hoped that you have a fe very understanding friends that trust
you and your diagnosti! ideas. Be!ause you ill often ant to borro
almost his entire &.'s !omponents (the elusive orking ma!hine) to sap
into yours. The idea is to narro things don so you don't lug C9
kilograms of metal around the blo!k instead of a single !ard or
(hat e*a!tly should a normal boot look and sound likeK
(ell, let me stress the importan!e of !onne!ting at least four
!omponents to your &. every time you boot. Eou need a speaker, a
keyboard, a floppy, and a monitor. These four ob:e!ts provide very
distin!t qualitative output to the te!hni!ian. Aor those of you ho
are familiar ith the seven1step troubleshooting method, this is step
to 1 it !omes ay before you need to a!tually repla!e something.
5. Airst, H#,'s ill illuminate everyhere 1 the motherboard, the hard
disks, the floppy, the !ase, the %)., the printer, the .,1R0-, the
speakers, the monitor, and the keyboard.
>. The hard disks usually spin up, although some disks, espe!ially
".")'s, may ait for a !ue from either the !ontroller or may simply
ait a fi*ed amount of time to begin spinning to prevent a large poer
surge during boot. Lust imagine the old days hen a R2), system
!onsisted of five = S? full1height hard disks that su!ked a !ouple of
amps apie!e of 5> volt poer.
<. The &D" and .&/ fans ill start to spin.
C. The first thing on the monitor should usually be either memory
!ounting or some video !ard B)0" display. ) have had some video
problems here the video B)0" only shoed up about <9P of the time, and
hen it didn't, the !omputer ould usually lo!k up.
=. ,uring the memory !ount, the &. speaker may !li!k.
;. (hen the memory is done !ounting, the floppy disk often s!ree!hes as
its H#, !omes on (!alled floppy seek).
7. The monitor may have messages from the B)0", in!luding B)0" version,
number of .&/'s, a passord prompt, and non1fatal error messages.
G. )f there are any %).'s or other !ontrollers ith R0-, you should see
a message from them at some point during the &0"T.
At this point7 the PO&T is done7 and the boot be(ins
1The last part of the &0"T is often a !hart that lists the
!omponents found during &0"T, like .&/ and speed, $42 !ard,
serial ports, H&T ports, ),# hard disks, floppy disks, et!.
1/sually, the .' drive is seeked (soughtK) and ill begin running
the system files hi!h used to be !alled the ?bootstrap
1)f no system files are found, you may get a message from the
B)0" saying, ?)nsert Boot disk and press any key? or something
12gain, this is a non1fatal error, and you !an put a bootable
floppy in the drive and press a key.
)f the above happens, you ill kno that your motherboard is at least
!apable of running the R0-'s &0"T. The &0"T has many potential
problems, most of hi!h are non1fatal errors, hoever any !onsistent
error is a !ause for a !on!ern.
1The fatal &0"T errors ill normally generate no video, so you
need to listen to the speaker and !ount beeps. The number of
beeps and their length indi!ate !odes for the te!hni!ian to use
in repairing the &.. Aor instan!e, removing the video !ard is
usually a fatal error for most B)0"'s, sin!e the assumption is
that you should have a monitor.
F %o R2- is a fatal error.
F %o .&/ ill generate no &0"T beeping !odes, but it is, of
!ourse, a fatal error.
F %o keyboard is a non1fatal error, &0"T ill !omplete, and
you ill be notified of the error.
F /sually, it is something stupid like' ?8eyboard %ot
Aound. &ress A5 to !ontinue.?
1+ere's a listing of &0"T error messages or Beep .odes that some
of the ma:or B)0"es generate during a failed boot.
%o video or bad video during boot
1.he!k the monitor's poer and video !onne!tion.
1Try reseating the video !ard or putting it in a ne so!ket.
1-ake sure the speaker is !onne!ted in !ase you are getting a
fatal &0"T message, hi!h !ould have nothing to do ith video.
1"ap out the video !ard andDor the monitor.
Most notable and common PO&T messa(es are:
5. +,, (or A,,) !ontroller error. /sually, this is a !abling issue
like a reversed !onne!tor.
>. ,isk ,rive 9 failure. Eou forgot poer to the hard disk, or you've
got the rong drive set in .-0" (run "etup). 2lso make sure the disk
is properly !onne!ted to the !ontroller.
Flopp! troubleshootin(
)f the light stays on !ontinuously after boot, you probably have the
!onne!tor on ba!kards.
The se#en$step troubleshootin( method
5. )dentify the problem.
>. &erform visual and normal !he!ks based on indi!ations and
operational knoledge.
<. )dentify possible faulty fun!tions.
C. Troubleshoot using diagnosti! equipment, narroing don the list of
=. )dentify the problem !omponent.
;. $erify faulty !omponent.
7. Repair, repla!e, do!ument, and return equipment to original
spe!ifi!ations. Theorise hy the !omponent failed.
)deas for random problems
1.he!k the !ables, !he!k the !ables, !he!k the !ables.
1Remove se!ondary !a!he, or disable it in "etup 1 this ill
surprisingly fi* a plethora of problems.
1/nder!lo!k the .&/ 1 it may have been sold to you at the rong
speed, a !ommon s!am.
1Repla!e ")--'s ith someone else's.
1Repla!e the video !ard.
1Remove the unne!essary !omponents like e*tra R2-, sound !ard,
modem, mouse, ".") !ard (if you have ),#), e*tra hard
disks, tape drives, %)., or any e*tra !ontroller !ard.
1Remove all hard disks and try booting from floppy.
1Remove the motherboard from the !ase and run it on a pie!e of
1 this ill fi* a problem !aused by a motherboard grounded to the
1Try someone else's !ables.
1Re!he!k all the :umper setting on the motherboard.
1-ake sure you have sele!ted the proper bus speed and !lo!k
multiplier for your .&/.
1.yri*D)B- ;*G;'s alays use a >* multiplier (as of this riting)
and are rated at a loer -+6 than their & rating.
"rastic plans Dlon( shots and o5ten e8pensi#eE
1Repla!e the battery used for the .-0" R2- and the RT..
1Try someone else's poer supply.
1Borro someone's hard disk (:ust make sure you kno his B)0"
1Repla!e the .&/.
1Repla!e the B)0" if you are !onvin!ed that this is the problem.
12sk your friendly B)0" vendor about hether getting a ne B)0"
ill fi* your problem.
10r, if you kno your motherboard manufa!turer, you should !he!k
their B)0" offerings to see if they have any fi*es.
1Eour last resort is to buy a ne motherboard.

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