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Chapter 2 (1.1)

Sneakers

No one in the world knows shoes like we do

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Introduction Shoemaking is one of the world's oldest crafts--shoes have been works of art and the stuff  of legends. Around the world, the Bata brand is reserved for well-made and well-priced dress and casual footwear. We're devoted to designing, producing, and providing the customers with the best in commercial fashion footwear for the whole who le world. Bata is one of the world's leading footwear retailers and manufacturers with operations across 5 continents managed by 3 regional meaningful business units (MBUs). The MBU approach provides quality resources and support in key areas to the companies operating in similar markets such as product development, sourcing or marketing support. Each MBU is entrepreneurial in nature, and can quickly adapt to changes in the market place and seize potential growth opportunities. Bata's strength lies in its worldwide presence. While local companies are self-governing, each one benefits from its link to the international organization for back-office systems,  product innovations and sourcing. Although Bata operates in a wide variety of markets, Bata companies share the same leadership points. Two important ones are product concept development and constant improvement of business processes in order to offer customers great value and the best  possible service.

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Company History Bata Ltd. is a privately owned global shoe manufacturer and retailer headquartered in Ontario, Canada. The company is led by a third generation of the Bata family. With operations in 70 countries, Bata is organized into four business units. Bata Canada, based in Toronto, serves the Canadian market with 250 stores. Based in Paris, Bata Europe serves the European market with 500 stores. With supervision located in Singapore, Bata International boasts 3,000 stores to serve markets in Africa, the Pacific, and Asia, Finally, Bataa Latin Bat Latin Americ America, a, operat operating ing out of Mexico Mexico City, City, sells sells footwe footwear ar throug throughout hout Latin Latin America. All told, Bata owns more than 5000 retail stores and 33 production facilities. Total employment for the company exceeds 50,000.

Key Dates  1894: The Bata family establishes a company in Zlin, located in what is now the Czech Republic. 1932: Founder Tomas Bata dies in an airplane accident. 1939: The Company relocates to Canada after the movement of German military forces into Eastern Europe. 1945: Czechoslovakia business operations are nationalized by the new communist government following World War II. 1991: Bata returns to the Czech Republic Repu blic following fall of the communist regime. 1994: Thomas J. Bata, the son of o f the company's founder, retires. 2001: Thomas J. Bata, Jr., becomes chairman and CEO. Bata Today • • • • •

Serves 1 million customers per day Employs more than 40,000 people Operates 5000 retail stores Manages a retail presence in over 70 countries Runs 33 production facilities across 22 countries

Bata’s 3 Business Units •

Bata Europe, Lausanne, Switzerland



Bata Emerging Markets, Singapore

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Bata Branded Business, Best, Holland

Current shoe brands are • • • • • •

Bata (Baťa in former Czechoslovakia) Bata Premium (handcrafted dress shoes) Bata Industrials (safety footwear) Bubblegummers (children) Power (athletic shoes ) Marie Claire (women)

Headquarter Anticipating the Second World World war, Thomas J. Bata, together with over 100 families from Czechoslovakia, moved to Canada in 1939 to develop the Bata Shoe Company of  Canada, including including a shoe factory factory and engineering engineering plant, centered centered in a town that still  bears his name, Batawa, Ontario. O ntario. Thomas J. Bata successfully established and ran the new new Canad Canadia ian n oper operat atio ions ns an and d duri during ng th thee war war year yearss he soug sought ht to main mainta tain in th thee necessary coordination with as many of the overseas Bata operations as was p possible. ossible. Duri Du ring ng th this is perio period d th thee Canad Canadia ian n engin enginee eeri ring ng pl plant ant manu manufa fact ctur ured ed st stra rate tegi gicc components for the Allies war effort and Thomas J. Bata worked together with the Czechoslovak government in exile of President Benes and with other democratic   powers. In 1964 the headquarters of the Bata Shoe Organization was moved to Toronto, Canada and in 1965 it moved into an ultra modern building, the Bata International Centre. In 2002 the headquarters was moved to Lausanne Switzerland and the Organization has  been led by Thomas G. Bata, grandson of Tomas Bata.

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Annual sales Bata is one of the world's leading footwear retailers and manufacturers with operations across 5 continents managed by 3 regional meaningful business units (MBUs). Bata’s annual sales are not directly given but in its history the company has sold more than 14 billion pairs of shoes. The company annual sales are comes from this continents of country they are given bellow

Continents are

Europe In Europe continents the company Bata operate accurse about 30 country they are___  Montenegro

France

Cyprus

Netherlands

Bosnia Herzegovina

Estonia

Czech Republic

Poland

Bulgaria

Greece

Bulgaria

Portugal

Croatia

Hungary

Italy

Switzerland

Bosnia

Herzegovina

Iceland

Spain

Kosovo

Latvia

Lithuania

Russia

Asia pacific In Asia pacific continents the Bata Company operates o perates about 23 country they are___  Australia

Indonesia

Jordan

Lebanon

Bahrain

Malaysia

New Zealand

Oman

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Bangladesh

Pakistan

Philippine

India

Brunei

Singapore

Srilanka

Thailand

China

Turkey

United Arab Emirates

Vietnam

Latin America In Latin America continents the Bata Company operates about 9 country they are___  Bolivia

Chile

Colombia

Ecuador 

French Guyana

Guadeloupe

Martinique

Mexico

Peru

North America In North America Bata operate two countries that are Canada and USA.

Africa In Africa continents the Bata Company operates about ab out 10 country they are___  Botswana

Congo (RDC)

Kenya

Malawi

Zambia

Mauritius

South Africa

Tanzania

Uganda

Zimbabwe

Factories Afte Afterr th thee glob global al econ econom omic ic chan changes ges in 1990s 1990s th thee comp compan any y cl clos osed ed a numb number er of it itss manufa man ufactu cturin ring g factor factories ies in developed developed countries countries and has has fo focu cuse sed d it itss act activ ivit itie iess on expanding its retail business there. In developing countries it still has a large number of  manufacturing units and still produces a significant number of shoes shoe s each year. Bata has been manufacturing footwear for over 110 years. Bata is one of the world’s leading integrated marketers and manufacturers of footwear, with a network of almost 40 shoe production facilities, tanneries and engineering workshops in 25 countries. About half of the factories' output is destined for sale through Bata-owned retail stores, and

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the balanc balancee is manufa manufactu ctured red to the specif specifica icatio tions ns of wholes wholesale ale custom customers ers or und under  er  contract to other footwear brands.

Bata production and manufacturing countries are ____  •



Europe  o Czech Republic Asia-Pacific   o Australia o Bangladesh o India o Indonesia o  New Zealand

Pakistan o Sri Lanka o Thailand Latin America  Bolivia o o Chile o Colombia Mexico o Africa  o Congo Kenya o o Malawi o





o o o o

South Africa Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

Why do you think it was manufacture there? Afte Afterr th thee glob global al econ econom omic ic chan changes ges in 1990s 1990s th thee comp compan any y cl clos osed ed a numb number er of it itss manuf ma nufac actu turi ring ng fa fact ctor orie iess in devel develop oped ed count countri ries es and and has has fo focu cuse sed d it itss acti activi viti ties es on expanding its retail business there. In developing countries it still has a large number of  manufacturing units and still produces a significant number of shoes shoe s each year.

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Most of the manufacturing countries are located in developing because of the low labor  cost this is first facilities to manufacture in there because this country has more labor  facility. Second, less political control on developing countries. Third, facilities of more quality material and other facilities that move the factories in developing countries in around the world.

Chapter 2 (1.2)

Television

Panasonic ideas for life

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Introduction Te Tele levi visi sion on is on onee of th thee most most en ente tert rtai ainm nment ent chan channel nelss in rece recent nt worl world. d. Pa Panas nasoni onicc Corp Co rpor orat atio ion n is one one of th thee la larg rges estt el elect ectro roni nicc prod product uct manuf manufac actu ture rers rs in th thee worl world, d, comprised of over 540 companies. It manufactures and markets a wide range of products under the Panasonic brand to enhance and enrich lifestyles all around the globe. Panasonic starts with a desire to create things of value. As hard work and dedication result in one innovative product after another, the fledgling company takes its first steps toward tow ardss becomin becoming g the electr electronic onicss giant giant of today. today. Panaso Panasonic nic was born from from a fir firm m commitment to provide superior products to people all over the world. Panasonic aims to be the No.1 Green Innovation Company in the Electronics Industry in 2018, the 100th anniversary of our founding. We will make the ‘environment’ central to all of our business activities and take the lead in promoting the ‘Green Revolution’ which is taking place around the world for the next generation. Specifically, we will work to realize our vision with these two ‘innovations.’

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Company History Since its establishment establishment in 1918, the Company has been guided by its basic management management  philosophy, which states that the mission of an enterprise is to contribute to the progress and development of society and the well-being of people worldwide through its business activities. n 2008, the 90th anniversary of its founding, the Company made a new start by changing its name from Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. to Panasonic Corporation. Moving forward, Panasonic is determined to contribute to the future of the earth and the development of society by continuing to generate “ideas for life” for people the world over and accelerating efforts in environmental management, including making the energy  business a new growth driver. Thee compa Th company ny th that at was to beco become me Panas Panason onic ic was was st star arte ted d on Marc March h 7,191 7,1918, 8, when when Konosuke Matsushita moved from his tiny dwelling to a larger two-story house, and set up Matsushita Electric Housewares Manufacturing Works. The staff consisted of three   people: the 23-year-old Matsushita, 22-year-old Mumeno and her brother Toshio lue, then just 15. Panaso Pan asonic nic was founded founded in 1918 by Konosuk Konosukee Matsus Matsushit hitaa fir first st sellin selling g duplex duplex lamp lamp sockets. In 1927, it produced a bicycle lamp, the first product it marketed under the brand name  National. It operated factories in Japan and other parts of Asia through the end of  World War II, producing electrical components and appliances such as light fixtures, motors, and electric irons.

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After World War II, Panasonic regrouped and began to supply the post war boom in Japan with radios and appliances, as well as bicycles. Matsushita's brother-in-law, Toshio Iue founded Sanyo as a subcontractor for components after World War II. Sanyo grew to  become a competitor to Panasonic. In 1961, Konosuke Matsushita traveled to the United States and met with American dealer dea lers. s. Panason Panasonic ic began began produci producing ng televi televisio sion n sets sets for the U.S. U.S. market market under under the  Panasonic brand name, and expanded the use of the brand to Europe in 1979.

 Brands and divisions Panasonic produces electronic products under a variety of names, including: •

Panasonic (ho (home me applian appliances ces,, person personal al electr electroni onics, cs, audio/v audio/vide ideo o equipme equipment, nt,

microchips, automotive components) •

Technics (mu (music sic equipm equipment ent li like ke headpho headphones nes and turnta turntable bles, s, overla overlaps ps with with

Panasonic branded products in some audio categories) •

Sanyo became a subsidiary of Panasonic on December 21, 2009.

Panasonic Corporation of North America has its USA headquarters in Secaucus, NJ.

Headquarter Formerly known as Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. is a Japanese multinational corporation corpor ation headquartere headquartered d in

1006,

oaza Kadoma-shi, Osaka 571-8501, Japan. Since its

founding in 1918, it grew to become the largest Japanese electronics producer. In addition to electr electroni onics, cs, Panason Panasonic ic offers offers non-el non-elect ectron ronic ic produc products ts and servic services es such such as home home renovation services. Panasonic was ranked the 89th-largest company in the world in 2009

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 by the Forbes Global 2000 and is among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders

 

Annual sales Panasonic annual sales is ¥7,765,507 and it is distributed by geographic

area.

By Geographical Area: Sales attributed to countries based upon the customer’s location and property, plant and equipment are as follows:   Sales: 2007  Japan………………………....... ¥4,616,520

2009

¥4,082,233

North and South America……. America……... 1,381,104 Europe………………………….. 1,217,931 Asia and Others ………………. 1,892,615 Consolidated total………... ¥9,108,170 United States included in North and South America ……………..

¥1,213,867 China included in Asia and Others ¥ 824,465

996,647 962,981

Millions of yen 2008 

¥4,544,772 1,250,677 1,212,971

1,723,646

2,060,508

¥7,765,507

¥9,068,928 

¥ 857,896 ¥ 855,352

¥1,081,183 ¥ 941,685

Property, plant and equipment:

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 Japan …………………………... ¥1,171,223 North and South America……. America……... 53,317 Europe …………………………. 71,594 Asia and Others………………. 346,159 Consolidated total ……………..

¥1,230,868 31,694

¥1,353,421 34,260

48,398

69,844

263,870

299,848

¥1,574,830

¥1,757,373 

¥1,642,293

There are no individually material countries which should be separately disclosed in  North and South America, Europe, and Asia and others, except for the United States of  Americ Ame ricaa and China China on sales. sales. Transf Transfers ers betwee between n busine business ss segmen segments ts or geograp geographic hic segments are made at arms-length prices. There are no sales to a single external major  customer for the three years ended March 31, 2009.

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Total sales in 2 4500000 4000000 3500000 3000000 S a le l e s a m o 22 50 00 00 00 00 00 1500000 1000000 500000 0

408223

172364 962,98

8 5 78 78 9

8 5 53 53 5

JapanEuropeUnited ChinaAsia and States others   S a le le s r e g i

Manufacture the product Panasonic Corporation is a worldwide manufacturer of electronic products which are mark ma rket eted ed and and di dist stri ribu bute ted d on a gl globa oball scal scale. e. Ther Theree are are curre current ntly ly more more th than an 556 556 consolidated companies and 66 companies which are reflected by the equity method worldwide. Today, the Matsushita Group is a global network of over 300 companies with 250,000 250 ,000 employ employees ees - manufa manufactu cturin ring g and market marketing ing over 15,000 15,000 product productss under under the   brands Panasonic, National, Technics, Quasar and Ramsa. Recently, Matsushita was ranked 26 in US Fortune magazine's annual list of the world's top 500 companies, the "Global 500".

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Manufacturing Sites Regional Manufacturing Sites •









 North & Latin Americas Europe, Africa East Asia South Asia, Oceania Japan

Manufacturing Sites (South Asia, Oceania) Country/Area : Websites & Contacts • • • • • • •

India Singapore Indonesia Thailand Malaysia Vietnam Philippines

Manufacturing Sites (North & Latin Americas) Country/Area : Websites & Contacts • • • • •

USA Peru Mexico Costa Rica Brazil

Manufacturing Sites (Europe & Africa) 15

 

Country/Area : Websites & Contacts • • • • •

Belgium Tanzania Germany Poland Slovakia

Manufacturing Sites (East Asia) Country/Area : Websites & Contacts • • •

China Taiwan Hong Kong

Why do you think it was manufacture there? Pa Pana naso soni nicc co corp rpor orat atio ions ns most most fo th thee prod product uct are are manuf manufact actur uree in Japa Japan n but but is al also so manufacture in USA, India, China, Hong Kong, Italy, Brazil an so many country. But, it is mainly manufactured in Japan which covered all most every country. It’s mostly manufactured in Japan because of  •

Most highly skilled labor,



Super high-tech technology,



Availability of raw materials at comparatively low price



Effective distribution channel’s



Low labor cost



Large market to sale the product

Chapter 2 (1.3)

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Computer 

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Introduction Computer is a programmable machine. The two principal characteristics of a computer  are: •

It responds to a specific set of instructions of  instructions in a well-defined manner.



(a program). It can  can execute  execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program

Modern computers are electronic and digital digital.. The actual machinery -- wires, transistors transistors,, software.. and circuits -- is called hardware; hardware; the instructions and data are called software All general-purpose general-purpose computers require the following following hardware components they are memory,  mass storage  device, input device, output device, central processing unit  unit  (CPU). In addition to these components, many others make it possible for the basic

components to work together efficiently. For example, every computer requires a  bus   bus that transmits data from one part of the computer to another. Long the world's largest direct-sale computer vendor, Dell Inc. is now also the leading seller of computer systems in the world, capturing a global market share of more than 15 seller of  percent. Dell markets desktop personal computers, notebook computers, notebook  computers, network servers, workstations, handheld computers, monitors, printers, high-end storage products, and a variety of computer peripherals and software. The firm also has moved into the consumer  elec electr troni onics cs ar aren ena, a, of offe feri ring ng LCD LCD te tele levi visi sion ons, s, proj projec ecto tors rs,, an and d ot othe herr prod product ucts. s. Dell Dell manuf ma nufac actu ture ress most most of th thee prod produc ucts ts it sell sells, s, main mainta tain inin ing g si six x prod produc ucti tion on fa faci cili liti ties es worldwide.

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Company Perspectives Dell was founded in 1984 by Michael Dell, the computer industry's longest-tenured chief  execut exe cutive ive office officer, r, on a simple simple concept concept:: that that by sellin selling g comput computer er system systemss direct directly ly to customers custom ers,, Dell Dell could could best best unders understan tand d their their needs needs and effici efficient ently ly provid providee the most most effective computing solutions to meet those needs. This direct business model eliminates retailers that add unnecessary time and cost, or can diminish Dell's understanding of  customer expectations. The direct model allows the company to build every system to order and offer customers powerful, richly-configured systems at competitive prices. Dell also introduces the latest relevant technology much more quickly than companies with slow-moving slowmoving,, indirect indirect distributi distribution on channels, channels, turning turning over inventory every three days on average.

Key Dates: •

1984: Michael Dell founds Dell Computer Corporation.



1988: The company goes public with 3.5 million shares of company stock.



1991: Dell introduces its first notebook PC.



1993: Dell establishes subsidiaries in Australia and Japan.



1996: The company begins selling over the Internet.



1997: Dell introduces a line of workstations.



2001: The company gains the leading share of the global PC market.



2003: Reflecting its widening interests, the company changes its name to Dell Inc.



2004: Michael Dell announces he will step down as CEO but remain chairman.

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Headquarter Dell's products are currently sold in more than 180 countries worldwide and Dell's global  busin  bu siness ess operati operations ons are divide divided d int into o four four distin distinct ct geogra geographi phicc region regions. s. The Americ Americas as region, which is based in Austin, Texas, covers the United States, Canada, and Latin America. Dell also has regional headquarters in Bracknell, England, for Europe, Middle East and Africa; in Singapore to serve Asia-Pacific; and in Kawasaki, Japan, for the Japanese market. Dell's corporate headquarters is located in Austin, Texas. Our company manufactures its computer systems in each of six locations: Austin, Texas; Nashville, Tenn.; Eldorado do Sul, Brazil (Americas); Limerick, Ireland (Europe, Middle East and Africa); Penang, Malaysia (Asia-Pacific and Japan) and Xiamen, China (China). . Dell sells its equipment directly to consumers, small to large businesses, government agencies, and health healthcar caree and educat education ional al insti institut tution ionss through through dedica dedicated ted sales sales repres represent entati atives, ves, telephone-based sales, and online via the company web site.

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Sales Dell achieved sales of $6 million its first full year in business, approaching $40 million the next year. Dell hired former investment banker E. Lee Walker as president in 1986 to help deal with his firm's explosive growth. By 1987 Dell held a dominant position in the mail-order market, but it was clear that the firm had to move beyond mail order if it was to continu continuee growin growing. g. To accompl accomplish ish this this goal goal the fi firm rm nee needed ded a larger larger profe professi ssional onal mana ma nagem gement ent st staf aff, f, and and Dell Dell hi hire red d a grou group p of mark market etin ing g ex exec ecut utiv ives es from from Ta Tandy ndy Corporation, another maker of low-cost PCs. The group built a sales force able to market to large corporations and put together a network of value-added resellers, who assembled  packages of computer components to sell in specialized markets. The Tandy team soon helped raise gross margins to 31 percent, up from 23 percent a year  earlier. Rather than merely undercutting the prices of competitors, they set prices in relation to the firm's costs. The new marketing department soon ran into trouble with Michael Dell, however. Battles erupted over advertising budgets and the number of  salesp sal espeop eople le requir required ed for corpor corporati ations ons and resell resellers ers.. Regard Regardles less, s, the firm firm contin continued ued growing rapidly, opening a London office that sold $4 million worth of computers during one month in 1988. Dell also formed a Canadian subsidiary. Early in 1988 the firm form formed ed vari variou ouss di divi visi sions ons to rais raisee it itss prof profil ilee among among corp corpor orat ate, e, gov gover ernm nment ent,, and educational buyers. With reported sales of $159 million in 1987, the firm went public in June 1988, selling 3.5 million shares at $8.50 $8. 50 a share. The firm faced several challenges, however. Announcing their own clone of IBM's new PS/2 PS /2 compu compute terr syst system em well well befo before re it was actu actual ally ly read ready, y, Dell Dell la late terr had had troub trouble le reproducing important aspects of the PS/2's architecture, and the computers were delayed Furthermore, Dell faced competition competition significantly,  embarrassing the young company. Furthermore, from several Japanese manufacturers, which were offering IBM clones at low prices. Further, having had trouble meeting demand, Dell used money raised from its stock  offering to expand capacity and warehouse space, leaving the company with little cash. When it overestimated demand during the fourth quarter of 1988, the firm suddenly had no cash and warehouses full of unsold of unsold computers. 21

 

Manufacture Dell manufactures most of the products it sells, maintaining six production facilities worldwide, located in Austin, Texas; Nashville, Tennessee; Eldorado do Sul, Sul, Brazil; Limerick, Ireland; Penang, Malaysia; and Xiamen, Xiamen, China. About two-thirds of revenues are generated in the Americas, with 22 percent originating in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa and with the Asia-Pacific region accounting for the remaining 11 percent. . Dell sells its equipment directly to consumers, small to large businesses, government ag agen enci cies es,,

an and d heal health thca care re an and d ed educ ucat atio iona nall

in inst stit itut utio ions ns th thro roug ugh h dedi dedica cate ted d sale saless

representatives, telephone-based sales, and online via the company web site. Dell's headquarters in Round Rock , Texas

In 2006, Dell purchased the computer hardware manufacturer   manufacturer  Alienware Alienware.. Dell Inc.'s plan an anti tici cipat pated ed Al Alie ien n ware ware cont contin inui uing ng to opera operate te in inde depen pende dent ntly ly unde underr it itss exist existin ing g management. Alien ware expected to benefit from Dell's efficient manufacturing system On January 31, 2007, Kevin B. Rollins, CEO of the company since 2004, resigned as  both CEO and as a director, and Michael Dell resumed his former role as CEO. Investors and many shareholders had called for Rollins' resignation because of poor company  performance. At the same time, the company announced that, for the fourth time in five quarters, earnings would fail to reach consensus analyst estimates.   In February 2007, Dell became the subject of formal investigations by the U.S. SEC[10] and the  U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York .[11] The company has not formally filed financial reports for either the third or fourth fiscal quarter of 2006, and several class-action lawsuits have arisen in the wake of its recent financial performance. Dell Inc's lack of formal financial disclosure would normally subject the company to delisting from the  NASDAQ,  NASDAQ, but the exchange has granted Dell a waiver, allowing the stock to trade normally. normally.[14]

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On March 1, 2007, the company issued a preliminary quarterly earnings report showing gross sales of $14.4 billion, down 5% year-over-year, and net income of $687 million (30 cents per share), down 33%. Net earnings would have declined even more if not for the effect eff ectss of elimin eliminate ated d employ employee ee bonuses bonuses,, which which account accounted ed for six cents cents per sha share. re.  NASDAQ extended the company's deadline for filing financials to May 4.

Why do you think it was manufacture there? The Dell computer most likely manufactured in USA because of some rezones it was manufacture there, they are___  

High skilled labor on USA



Demand of the computer on USA is very high.



They are transportations facility is more.



Availability of raw materials at comparatively low price.



More research and development facilities.

Summary Like most technology companies, Dell has been feeling great pressure to reduce costs and increase profitability. profitability. While Dell has been steadily lowering the price of its computer computers, s, it has yet to streamline its manufacturing process in a manner than impacts one of the greatest areas of spend for them. By selling their plants plants and turning to a fully-outsourced fully-outsourced manufacturing strategy, Dell has taken a key step towards breaking down the business model that it has championed, often alone, for so many years.

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Chapter 2 (1.4)

Camera

make.believe 24

 

About Sony Corporation (commonly referred to as Sony) (Japanese: Sonī Kabushiki Gaisha) (TYO: (TY O: 6758) 6758) is a multin multinati ational onal conglo conglomer merate ate corpor corporati ation on headquar headquarter tered ed in Minato Minato,, Tokyo, Japan, and one of the world's largest media conglomerates. Sony is one of the leading manufacturers of electronics, video, communications, video game consoles, and information technology products for the consumer and professional markets. Its founders Akio Morita and Masaru Ibuka derived the name from sonus, the Latin word for sound, and also from the English slang word 'sonny', since they considered themselves to be 'sonny boys', a loan word into Japanese which in the early 1950s connoted smart and  presentable young men.

Sony Corporation is the electronics business unit and the parent company of the Sony Group, which is engaged in business through its five operating segments – electronics, games, entertainment (motion pictures and music), financial services and other. These make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment companies in the world. Sony's  principal business operations include Sony Corporation (Sony Electronics in the U.S.), Sony Pictures Entertainment, Sony Computer Entertainment, Sony Music Entertainment, Sony Ericsson, and Sony Financial. As a semiconductor maker, Sony is among the Worldw Wor ldwide ide Top 20 Semico Semiconduc nductor tor Sales Sales Leader Leaders. s. The compan company's y's curren currentt slogan slogan is make.believe. Their former slogan was like.no.other 

Some significant information about SONY Company Name

Sony Corporation

Founded

May 7, 1946

Headquarters

1-7-1 Konan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0075, Japan

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Representative Corporate Executive Officers Chairman, CEO and President-

Howard Stringer 

Chairman-Vice Chairman

Ryoji Chubachi

Executive Deputy President and CFO-

Nobuyuki Oneda

Major Products

Audio Home audio, portable audio etc. Video Video cameras, digit digital al still still cameras, cameras, and DVD-Video DVD-Video players/r players/recorde ecorders, rs, and DigitalDigital broadcasting receiving systems Televisions LCD televisions, projection televisions, CRT-based televisions, etc. Information and communications PC, printe printerr system system,, broadca broadcast st and profes professio sional nal use audio/ audio/vid video/ eo/mon monito itors rs and other  other   professional-use equipment Semiconductors LCD, CCD and other semiconductors Electronic components Optical pickups, batteries, audio/video/data recording media, and data recording systems

Locations of Major Offices and Research Centers (in Japan) Tokyo, Kanagawa, Miyagi Headcount (Consolidated) 171,300 (as of March 31, 2009) Consolidated Sales and operating revenue (2008) 7,730,000 million yen 26

 

Digital Camera  

Here are some of the significant digital cameras in different years1981

MAVICA (prototype)

Played a key role in coverage of the Los Angeles Olympic Games via contracts with newspaper companies. This model was an early adopter of revolutionary technology featuring a CCD and 2-inch floppy disk while also enabling the user to conveniently switch lenses.

1988

MVC-C1 The first consumer use Mavica. This model was marketed as an electronic still camera for  the TV age. Incorporated auto-strobe, fast successive shooting, and timer functions, as well as TV screen display (with the attachment of an optional kit), among a host of other  features. This device laid the foundation for the exciting innovation existing in today's digital cameras.

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1996

DSC-F1

The first “Cyber-shot.” The lens and flash were capable of 180-degree rotation, and this model featured a 1.8-inch liquid crystal viewscreen in the back of the body. 1997

MVC-FD5

The product product that that single single-ha -handed ndedly ly booste boosted d the popula popularit rity y of the Mavica Mavica.. This This model model enabled images to be saved on 3.5-inch floppy disks (conventional media for PCs at the time). Since images were already in JPEG format, there was no need for special software to make them PC compatible.

1998

DSC-D700

This camera broke with the tradition of internalized memory to become the first to support Memory Stick external memory.* True SLR with large optical viewfinder. *Equipped with a PC Card slot. Recording on Memory Stick is possible using the  provided adapter.

1999

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DSC-F505K 

A model for uncompromising photographers, featuring a Carl Zeiss Vario-Sonnar 5x optical zoom lens on a rotating cylinder.

2000

DSC-P1

This “P series” model was created through a unique user-friendly approach, and was the first Memory Stick compatible model. Among other meanings, the letter “P” was meant to connote “Pocket” and “Play.”

2001

DSC-F707

The first model in the Cyber-shot series with an effective pixel count of 5 million. This camera featured NightShot technology enabling users to shoot without flash even at night.

2002

29

 

DSC-U10

The palm-size Cyber-shot. It was so small (weighing a mere 87g) that it could be carried in a handbag or worn around the neck with the provided strap.

2003

DSC-T1

This new series offered an increased effective pixel count of 5.1 million and featured a slim design with the thinnest portion measuring only 17.3mm. This camera also featured a larger 2.5-inch liquid crystal display for high visibility v isibility and readability.

DSC-F828

The world's first of its kind*. This was the top-of-the-line model, boasting an effective  pixel count of 8.1 million and featuring Sony's original four-color filter CCD. Combined, these features features enabled enabled exceptionall exceptionally y fine, smooth-text smooth-textured ured photograph-l photograph-like ike quality. quality. * World's first consumer-use CCD digital still camera (*as of November 2003 based on Sony research).

2004

DSC-M1

30

 

Incorporated the “Hybrid REC” feature supporting convenient capture of still shots from video footage. Pressing the shutter button only once allows the user to shoot a still image in addition to capturing video five seconds before and three seconds after the shot is taken.

2005

DSC-T7

This slim-type Cyber-shot incorporates newly developed parts and Sony's unique highdensity mounting technologies for a slender, 9.8-mm profile.

DSC-T9

Offers both Super SteadyShot image stabilization and advanced light sensitivity, and features a new 2.5-inch ClearPhoto plus LCD screen.

DSC-R1

Highest image quality in this series, with a large 10.3-megapixel CMOS sensor and wideangle 24 mm Carl Zeiss Vario-Sonnar T* (T-star) lens.

2006

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DSLR-A100

The (Alpha) digital SLR, with an innovative Alpha Mount lens mount system supporting multiple lenses.

2008

DSLR-A900

Digital single-lens reflex camera "α900." The first α to incorporate a 35mm full frame image sensor and 24.6-megapixel resolution. This realizes a body weight of only 850g.

DSC-T77

This 10-megapixel T77 camera is worlds thinnest---measuring 13.9mm (at its thinnest   point). This Cyber-shot features a 4x optical zoom and optical SteadyShotTM image stabilization. It also features improved intelligent scene recognition technology, Smile Shutter? And face detection technologies enabling amateurs to take shots like the p pros. ros.

32

 

Manufacturing base Slightly more than 50% of the electronics' segment's total annual production during the fiscal year 2005 took place in Japan, including the production of digital cameras, video cameras, flat panel televisions, personal computers, semiconductors and components such as batteries and Memory Sticks. Approximately 65% of the annual production in Japan was destined for other regions. China accounted for slightly more than 10% of total annual production, approximately 70% of which was destined for other regions.

Asia, excluding Japan and China, accounted for slightly more than 10% of total annual  p pro roduc ducti tion on with with appr approx oxim imat atel ely y 60 60% % dest destin ined ed fo forr Japa Japan, n, th thee US and th thee EU. EU. The The Americas and Europe together accounted for the remaining slightly less than 25% of total annual production, most of which was destined d estined for local distribution and sale.

Sony's Sales and Distribution by Geographical Regions in 2009 Geograp raphic Regio egion n Total tal Sale ales (Yen in mil millio lions) Japan United States Europe Other Area

1,873,219 1,827,812 2,307,658 2,041,270

SONY sales distribution

Japan United States Europe Other Area

Global slowdown affects this year, Sony Corp suffered its first annual loss in 14 years and could be grimmer in upcoming years too. On 9 December 2008, Sony Corp. said it will cut 8,000 jobs, drop 8,000 contractors and reduce its global manufacturing sites by 10% to save $1.1 billion a year.

33

 

Chapter 2 (1.5)

Car 

TOYOTA moving forward

34

 

Company overview Commonly known simply as Toyota, is a multinational corporation headquartered in Japan. At its peak, Toyota Toyota employed employed approximately approximately 320,000 people worldwide. worldwide. It is the world's largest automobile maker by sales. The company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937 as a spin-off from his father's company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. Three years earlier, in 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product, the Type A engine, and, in 1936, its first passenger car, the Toyota AA. Toyota also owns and operates Lexus and Scion brands and has a majority shareholding stake in Daihatsu and Hino Motors, and minority shareholdings in Fuji  Heavy Industries,   Isuzu Motors, Yamaha Motors, and Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation. The company includes 522 subsidiaries.

Vehicles were originally sold under the name "Toyoda", from the family name of the company's founder, Kiichiro Toyoda. In September 1936, the company ran a public competition compet ition to design a new logo. Out of 27,000 entries the winning entry was the three Japanes Jap anesee kataka katakana na letter letterss for "Toyoda" "Toyoda" in a circle circle.. But Risabur Risaburo o Toyoda, Toyoda, who had married into the family and was not born with that name, preferred "Toyota" because it took eight brush strokes (a fortuitous number) to write in Japanese, was visually simpler  (leaving off the diacritic at the end) and with a voiceless consonant instead of a voiced one (voiced consonants are considered to have a "murky" or "muddy" sound compared to voiceless consonants, which are "clear"). Since "Toyoda" literally means "fertile rice  paddies", changing the name also helped to distance the company from associations with old-fashio old-f ashioned ned farming. The newly formed formed word was trademarked trademarked and the company was registered in August 1937 as the "Toyota Motor Company".

35

 

Headquarter Toyota is headquartered in Toyota City, Aichi and in Tokyo .In addition to manufacturing automobiles; Toyota provides financial services through its Toyota Financial Services division and also builds robots. Toyota Motor Corporation (including Toyota Financial Services) and Toyota Industries form the bulk of the Toyota Group, one of the largest conglomerates in the world. Toyota started in 1933 as a division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Loo m Works Works devote devoted d to the product production ion of automo automobil biles es under under the direct direction ion of the founder's son, Kiichiro Toyoda .Its first vehicles were the A1 passenger car and the G1 in 1935. Toyota Motor Co. was established as an independent company in 1937.

Annual Sales Toyota's financial unit has asked for an emergency loan from a state-backed lender on March 16, 2009, with reports putting the figure at more than $3 billion. It says the intern internati ationa onall financi financial al sit situat uation ion is squeez squeezing ing it itss busine business, ss, forcin forcing g it to ask for an emergency loan from the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. It is the first time the state-backed bank has been asked to lend to a Japanese car manufacturer.

36

 

Production and sales numbers

Typical breakdown of sales by region Consolidated Vehicle Production and Sales Thousands of units % change   2006

2007

20 2008 08

2007vs.2008

Vehicle Production by Region: Japan ............................ .............. ............................ ............................ ............................ .................... ...... Overseas Total ........................... ............. ............................ ............................ .................... ......   North America.................... America.................................. ............................. .......................... ........... Europe ............................ .............. ............................ ............................ ............................ ................ .. Asia............................... Asia................. ............................. ............................. ............................ .................. .... Central and South America..................... America................................... .................. .... Oceania................................... Oceania..................... ............................ ............................. ...................... .......

4,684 5,100 5,160 3,027 3,080 3,387 1,201 1,205 1,268 623 709 711 836 755 961 122 147 150 113 117 149

+1.2 +10.0 +5.2 +0.3 +27.3 +2.0 +27.4

Africa ............................. .............. ............................. ............................ ............................ .................. .... Consolidated Total ............................ .............. ............................ .......................... ............

132 7,711

+0.7 +4.5

Vehicle Sales by Region: Japan ............................ .............. ............................ ............................ ............................ .................... ...... Overseas Total ........................... ............. ............................ ............................ .................... ......   North America.................... America.................................. ............................. .......................... ........... Europe ............................ .............. ............................ ............................ ............................ ................ .. Asia............................... Asia................. ............................. ............................. ............................ .................. .... Central and South America..................... America................................... .................. .... Oceania................................... Oceania..................... ............................ ............................. ...................... ....... Africa ............................. .............. ............................. ............................ ............................ .................. .... Middle East ............. ........................... ............................. ............................. ...................... ........ Others ............................ .............. ............................. ............................. ............................ ................ ..

2,364 2 2,273 ,273 2,188 -3.7 5,610 6,251 6,725 +7.6 2,556 2,942 2,958 +0.5 1,023 1,224 1,284 +4.9 880 789 956 +21.2 233 284 320 +12.7 251 268 289 +7.8 253 304 314 +3.3 406 433 597 +37.9 8 7 7 0.0

Consolidated Total ............................ .............. ............................ .......................... ............

7,974

147 8,180

8,524

148 8,547

8,913

+4.6

37

 

Factories Toyotas Toyot as do not strictly strictly come from Japan Japan as most assume. Toyot Toyotaa manufacturing manufacturing takes  place worldwide with final assembly usually being in the country where they are sold in order to avoid shipping entire cars across the ocean. Parts manufacturing are spread across the world from from places such as Thailand Thailand to Africa. So when you get your Toyota, Toyota, the final papers will usually say it is built in the country you live in however, it is assembled from parts across the globe.

Worldwide Manufacturing:

North America Canada-Canadian Auto parts Toyota Inc. (CAPTIN) - Aluminum wheels

-Toyota Motor Manufacturing Canada Inc. (TMMC) - Corolla, Matrix, RX U.S.A. - TABC, Inc. - Catalytic converters, steering columns, stamped parts  

 New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc. (NUMMI) - Corolla, Tacoma Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Kentucky, Inc. - Camry, Camry Camry Hybrid, Hybrid, Solara,

Avalon Engines Toyota Motor Manufacturing, Manufacturing, West Virgi Virginia, nia, Inc. (TMMWV) - Engines, transmissions Toyota Motor Motor Manufacturing, Manufacturing, Alabama, Inc. (TMMAL) (TMMAL) - Engines Subaru of Indiana Automotive, Inc. (SIA) - Camry Latin America Argentina - Toyota Argentina S.A. (TASA) -- Hilux, Fortuner (SW4) Brazil - Toyota do Brazil Ltda.

-- Corolla, Corolla Fielder, Hilux underbody parts

Colombia - Sociedad de Fabricacion de Automotores - S.A.Land Cruiser Prado

Manufacturing de Baja California (TMMBC) - Tacoma Truck  Mexico - Toyota Motor Manufacturing  beds Fortuner, Hilux, Dyna, Venezuela - Toyota de Venezuela Compania Anonima - Corolla, Fortuner, Land Cruiser  Europe

38

 

Czech Republic - Toyota Peugeot Citroën Automobile Czech, s.r.o. (TPCA) – Aygo France - Toyota Motor Manufacturing France S.A.S. (TMMF) (TMMF) - Yaris (Vitz) (Vitz) Engines Poland - Toyota Motor Manufacturing Poland SP.zo.o. (TMMP) - Engines,

transmissions Portugal - Toyota Caetano Portugal, S.A.(TCAP) - Coaster(Optimo), Dyna, Hiace Turkey- Toyota Motor Manufacturing Manufacturing Turkey Inc. (TMMT) - Corolla Verso, Auris

-

Toyota Motor Manufacturing (UK) Ltd.  (TMUK) - Avensis, Auris Engines

Russia - Limited Liability Company "Toyota Motor Manufacturing Russia"(TMMR) -

Camry Africa

Assemblers Ltd. - Hiace, Land Cruiser  Kenya - Associated Vehicle Assemblers South Africa - Toyota South Africa Motors (Pty) (Pty) Ltd. - Corolla, Hiace,Hilux, Fortuner,

Dyna Engines.

Asia China - Tianjin Jinfeng Auto Parts Co., Ltd. (TJAC) - Steering assembly, assembly, propeller 

shafts - Tianjin Fengjin Auto Parts Co., Ltd. (TFAP) - Constant velocity joints, axles, differentials -Tianjin FAW Toyota Engine Co., Ltd. (TFTE) - Engines -Tianjin Toyota Forging Co., Ltd. (TTFC) - Forged parts - FAW Toyota (Changchun) Engine Co., Ltd. (FTCE) – Engines Toyota - FAW (Tianjin) Dies Co., Ltd. (TFTD) - Stamping dies for vehicles Guangqi - Toyota Engine Co., Ltd. (GTE) - Engines, engine parts (camshafts, crankshafts) -TaiwanKuozui -Taiwan Kuozui Motors, Ltd. - Camry, Corolla, WISH, Vios, Yaris, Hiace, Zace, Toyota Kirloskar Motor Private Private Ltd.(TKM) - Corolla, Innova India - Toyota - Toyota Kirloskar Auto Auto Parts Private Ltd.(TKAP) - sAxles, propeller shafts, transmissions, differentials Indonesia - PT. Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia - Innova, Fortuner, DynaEngines

39

 

Assembly Services Sdn. Bhd (ASSB) - Corolla, Vios, Hilux, Innova, Malaysia - Assembly Fortuner, Hiace, Perodua Manufacturing Manufacturing Sdn. Sdn. Bhd(PMSB) - Avanza ndus Motor Company Ltd.(IMC) Ltd.(IMC) - Corolla, Hilux Hilux Pakistan - IIndus Thailand - Toyota Motor Thailand Co., Ltd. (TMT) - Corolla, WISH, Camry, Soluna

Vios, Yaris, VIGO, FortunerSiam, Toyota Manufacturing Co., Ltd. (STM) (STM) - Engines, engine parts Corolla, Vios, Land Land Vietnam - Toyota Motor Vietnam Co., Ltd.(TMV) - Camry, Corolla, Cruiser, Innova, Hiace. Oceania Australia - Toyota Motor Corporation Australia Ltd. (TMCA) - Camry, Aurion 149

Engines

Why do you think it was manufacture there? Though Toyota cars assembled all over the world but, it is mainly manufactured in Japan which covered all most every country accepts USA. Toyota has another manufacturing  plant at USA. It’s mostly manufactured in Japan because of: 

Most highly skilled labor,



Super high-tech technology,



Availability of raw materials at comparatively low price



Effective distribution channel’s

Competitor Japan - Honda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Suzuki. India - Maruti, Mahindra. Singapore - Proton. Germany - BMW, Mercedes, Subaru, Porsche. Italy - Fiat. USA - Ford, Dodge.

40

 

Chapter 3

Conclusion In this report we focuses on five different multinational organization they are___ 

Bata, Panasonic, Dell, Sony, Toyota The end of this report we can say that this report will provide us the practical knowledge about the world multinational organization. There production facility distribution channels, management facility’s how they control the overall process. As well as we can underst understand and about about the home home countr country y and host host countri countries es oper operati ation on and there there history of the establishment

41

 

Bibliography Bata:  http://www.bata.com http://www.bata.com/about-us.php http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bata_Shoes somewhere.org.uk/bata-ville / bata-ville.com

Panasonic: http://www.panasonic.com/ http://www.panasonic.com/   www.panasonic.net/support/gscn/   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panasonic_Corporation   www.panasonic-broadcast.com/  www.panasonic-broadcast.com/  

Toyota: http://google.com/all http://wekipedia.com/toyota/corporation http://businessblog.com/toyota http://google.com/toyota http://google.com/toyota/competetor  

Dell: http://www. //www.dell dell .com http: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/dell/computer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dell   http://www.dell.com/content/segmenter.aspx?c=us&l=en – 

Sony:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/sony http://sony.net

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