India and the British Raj

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India and the British Raj the Jewel in the Crown
Four Kinds of Imperialism Indirect political control idea is that you can colonize on the cheap ? cheek? Britain would go in and conquer the land, but they would make alliances with local leaders in that area, and use them as proxies [people that would rule on their behalf] -- relatively few foreign ex patriots worked with local people Existing legal systems and codes were left in place however, there were often a lot of Christian missionaries or trading companies Britain used companies as a way of extending its political and military control over the world begins to collect taxes, etc Alliances with tribal chiefs or trading companies from your own country Direct political control the Europeans see it as their moral duty to bring their exalted higher level to the poorer countries a favor to the people they conquered. Civilizing Mission. Often a lot of educational institutions established, sometimes a strong missionary component. The Europeans went out of their way to act even more European than they might have even at home Ex: India was indirect direct Settler Societies a lot of people immigrate from the mother country these countries look more like their mother countries than the other ones Ex: America Economic Free trade imperialism used with Latin America. The economies remained oriented to selling raw materials to the British and then the British sold back the finished goods to them Banana republic: a little dictatorship economy is based on export of raw materials the leaders of the company are backed up by the US Indirect Imperialism First steps: coastal trading forts in Mughal Empire eventually the British Empire granted monopoly over trade but just for Britain [British East India Company] Economic interests backed by small British military presence 1707: Death of Aurangzeb end of Mughals [very politically instable] The rajas wanted to set up different trading companies with the British the British go deeper into the Indian proper become involved in local politics

British became increasingly involved in local politics figure out that they can get power, and especially in trade, if they play the princes off against each other Divide and conquer busy trying to get in there and make more profit Political component: Rivalry with French Seven Years War was fought in India too, not directly with British and French troops, trading relations with the princes private armies of the companies went to war with the private armies of another country s trading company Use of sepoys (Indian soldiers) under command of British officers trained in European techniques of warfare Early British Raj can t get every prince to do as they want The company goes to war with one of these princes and wins Battle of Plassey [1757] in Bengal British East India Company begins direct rule no longer just traders, but rulers as well British hero Robert Clive But many local rulers still left in place but increasingly calling the shots Indian social structures were left intact British assimilated to Indian culture Miscegenation, clothing, work schedules End of British East India Company Dominance Abuses by BEIC officials rampant by 1770s Nabob derogatory term to those who were nouveau riche saw India as a way to get rich quickly Abuses included immense corruption within the company itself skimming profits and abusing the Indians who were working in enterprises that the British East India company looked over inhumane hours, etc not looking out for anyone s welfare Bengal famine in 1770 led to calls for reform. This famine was manmade [BEIC] refused to ship food from one place in Bengal to another hundreds and thousands of people died There was public outcry British Parliament began to regulate BEIC Although they had tons of alliances, regulation began

Social Change in Britain [1820 s] Evangelical Christians argued that it was time to bring Christainty to the Indian people civilizing mission idea. Utilitarian [Jeremy Bentham and JS. Mill] promote the greater good is through education necessary to bring British civilization Direct British Rule Sepoy Mutiny [1857] Indian troops that worked for the British complaints about corruption and mismanagement The British wanted to introduce with new technology [a musket] this form of gun took a new type of bullet had to load the bullets, but the Cartridge was wrapped in a waxy paper that kept the gunpowder from deteriorating problem was rumors spread about these wax paper containers Muslim troops began to believe that the lubrication stuff that kept the waxy paper waxy was pig fat. Hindus began to believe that it was cow fat it s completely taboo. The british were trying to get them to do something horrible Troops rebelled killed the British officers, but also officials of the company along with the family. Relations with the Indians soured distrust, feeling of superiority Queen Victoria finally appointed viceroy [governor] to administer India Founded British expatriate civil service education assume jobs in the lower levels of the British civil service [usually higher castes] 1870 s on European Scramble for colonies around the Globe actively pursued overseas colonies once more India was seen as a linchpin of British Empire the Jewel in the Crown More british came to India particularly family units [esp. women] Superior and apart from their Indian subjects continued to sour relations between the Indians and the British Education institutions were high Econonmic Dependence Textile Sector Britain needed cotton for new textile mills Forced India to sell raw cotton to them, and they sold finished cloth back to India

India s textile industry disappeared Home spun movement boycott the cloth that was made by the British to create economic self sufficiency Grew cotton for export was from the interior to the ports Railways built to ports Tea highlands of India to fuel the demands for tea back in Britain also because there was a lot of land that was clear and planted with tea [couldn t get as much from China] Opium as well Economic motives for imperialism Steady supply of raw materials Markets for manufactured goods in India [from Britain] Truth is that having an empire overseas was not profitable Unintended Consequences Education created a new middle class substantially different from any middle class that was different from traditional middle class began to see itself as a new and distinct group in Indian society Acceptance of European ideas and education however, the British always treated them with disdain identified themselves with British, and not Indian culture Created shared values across traditional ethnic divisions this new group of people became the leader of the Independence Movement Used Western ideas of freedom, equality, and popular sovereignty against British Ex: Gandhi was trained as a lawyer fight against the racism against the Indians Indian National Congress [1885] the British were actually excited about this at first can get together and talk about common concerns was helped by the British Became more and more radicalized was the group that organized the protests against the British and gained independence in 1947 [Gandhi was one of the leaders of the National congress] Indian nationalist:Tilak violence

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