Information Management

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ILK2B: Information Management 2B

Topic 1
Knowledge management, technology, research strategies, new media and the 'bibliographic chain', i.e. the CHANNELS through which an IDEA moves
Lecturer: Ms Tracy Lefika: 011 559 4000, [email protected] Department of Information & Knowledge Management APK Campus, A Ring BRIDGE 502 READ: Lee et al; Pelz-Sharpe et al; Smith Additional: Bishop*; Doyle and Grimes*; Zhong* *FYI: For Your Information

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Introduction

The need for knowledge management (KM) and KM systems is acute for a variety of reasons. KM is not about technology in the first place but rather about people, relationships, trust, and the exchange and integration of information and knowledge between people. One example of the technology that facilitates the exchange and integration of information and knowledge is portals. According to Pelz-Sharpe, Harris-Jones and Ashenden (2008:1) portals provide an "integrated environment that provides information access, delivery and work support across multiple dimensions of the enterprise". Pelz-Sharpe et al (2008:2-3) discuss the many goals of portals, of which communication of corporate objectives, promotion of common understanding, and the promotion of a collaborative research environment will be dealt with in this module. A portal provides knowledge workers (who often engage in research) with a connected environment. PelzSharpe et al (2008:3) refer to this environment as the "technical embodiment" of the "corporate memory". The bibliographic chain (BC) refers to the channels through which an idea moves and forms a core part of the corporate memory. As technology advances it revolutionises the BC. Corporate memory is found, for example, in the complex web of information and knowledge sources in an organisation and includes the skills and experience of people also referred to as the 'intellectual capital assets' in the knowledge economy. In the day-to-day work of employees, they draw on the corporate memory embedded in the company's knowledge portal as a vast potential resource for decision-making and problem-solving. Zhong (2006:715) provides a graphical presentation of how a knowledge portal supports decision-making and problem-solving in Figure 1.

*FYI, NO, you do not have to study for the exam Zhong's figure above (nor the content of any of the FYI articles for that matter). But, you DO have to study for the exam each topic's Lecture Notes (LN) together with the pages of articles referred to in the LN. Be sure to attend class – the discussions in class are aimed at
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ILK2B: Information Management 2B developing your 'knowledge base' – not only for the exam, but in preparation for when you have to find a job or for when you're out there doing your own thing as an entrepreneur. Zhong (2006:715) illustrates the importance of knowledge discovery databases (KDD) in the current competitive business environment. Knowledge discovery does not happen without communication. Lee, Kim and Koh (2008) investigated knowledge portal design for research and development teams and found that knowledge workers perceive 1) communication 2) collaboration and 3) connection functionalities as being most important when their research team sizes are large or when members are distributed – as is currently the case in most businesses. This first, introductory topic will focus on: The importance of communication in the research process Look at specific problems regarding research and what the role of information in the research process entails How to manage the research process (including how to establish the quality of electronic resources in research) Reviewing the phases of the research process in general. …Topic 1 covers the RESEARCH REPORT topic, namely, to understand the role of information in research and to identify/explore new media links with the OBJECTIVE to IMPROVE the old bibliographic chain.

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Communication in the research process

Information is the reason and the result of communication. There are broadly two types of communication in the research process, namely, informal communication (verbal, person-to-person > idea generating; brainstorming; mind mapping); and formal communication ('published' > paper/digital documents). Both 'types' of communication culminate in the so-called 'life cycle of information'. It is important in the knowledgebased economy to skillfully interact with all types of media. Defining electronic media: 'Digital'? ('media on electronic screen') Mainly web-based (…and moving to 'The Grid') Challenges in using digital sources: Media: text, sound, video, graphics…

‘New’ formats:
e-journals e-newspapers RSS feeds podcasts avatars social networks (Facebook) and professional networks (LinkedIn) o tweets, etc Formats: unpublished/published, frequency, archiving… Undefined parameters, e.g. "when is information information?", "when is a publication a publication?" Information is obscured in one immense virtual information infrastructure. Financial layout to publish quality work versus end-user expectations for free access. Is 'free information' good or bad; and is FREE information really free? Students, what is your opinion on the OPEN ACCESS movement? Make sure you know how to determine the o o o o o o

quality information (see: Section 6).

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Specific problems regarding research
Finding and identifying relevant sources (relevancy & precision) 2

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ILK2B: Information Management 2B Establishing quality of content (see Section 6) Storing (managing and working with) retrieved documents (full text paper/digital copy or only the URL) Students, your focus should be on Personal Information Management > Do you have a personal information management system? If not, then

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Role of information in the research process: Applying the bibliographic chain (BC)

In the previous century Doyle and Grimes (1976) created a BC-model useful to grasp the role of (what used to be) ALL formats of information. They said that the process through which information progresses as it "moves from its creation within an individual's mind to its potential resting place within an encyclopaedic summary of a given subject field" can be seen as the progressive links in the bibliographic chain (Doyle & Grimes 1976:1). These links are:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Information residing in people (human resources) Information being created by institutions (institutional resources) Work-in-progress documents Unpublished studies Periodicals Reports and monographs Indexing and abstracting services Bibliographic lists and essays Annual reviews and state-of-the-art reports Books Encyclopaedic summaries

If these were the links in 1976…!!...then the Bibliographic Chain needs serious revision, don‟t you think? …what is your opinion, how can the BC be improved? << This is your RR1 assignment >> Below are some examples of 'new resources' and how they fit into the bibliographic chain (BC). Students have to discuss their view of the BC, why it needs revision and suggest how it can be revised, identify new sources, etc (follow examples and discussion in class): 4.1 Ideas BC1-4: E-digests; e-discussions; listservs; directories of academic and research lists; subject meeting points (hubs OR portals); blogs… (Social networking: connected generation, collective intelligence). 4.2 Unpublished (research) reports BC4: The South African National Research Foundation‟s NRF NEXUS database, also general researchbased information (Electronic Theses and Dissertations). 4.3 Academic journal directories and journals BC5: Directories of e-journals (full-text journal articles and others) or single titles of scientific journals. 4.4 Conference proceedings BC6-7: NRF site and announcements of forthcoming conferences.

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ILK2B: Information Management 2B 4.5 Indexing and abstracting services BC8: Generally pull systems with push features. The Invisible Web, the Dialog corporation (fee-based databases); campus networked CD-ROMs (fee-based, Juta); general search engines: single / meta (free); directories (good starting point) and yes, definitely, Google and Yahoo, etc. 4.6 Bibliographic reviews and books BC9-10: …?...Students task to find out more and give own examples of NEW MEDIA. 4.7 Encyclopaedic summaries BC11: …?... Students task to find out more and give own examples of NEW MEDIA.

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Research is a skill

The most basic step in research is known as a literature review, viz, reading and documenting information (facts) found in reliable sources (…yes, research does obviously advance to empirical research and involves analytical thinking such as the research performed by knowledge workers at e.g. Ernst & Young, Accenture, banks, Group 5, Fluor, Anglo, Armscor, IBM, etc…where you'll probably one day work). However, as an ILK2B student you should:

1. 2. 3.

Know the channels through which an idea moves and be able to use sources linked to the entire chain. 'Extract', 'get/make' a systematic development of the topic while you read (broad to narrow build-up). While you read and write and develop your understanding, always cite the source. As a university student this means you have to give basic biographical information per reference. Referencing differs in the 'real life of a knowledge worker', but the principle remains the same – you must be able to TRACE THE SOURCE. A knowledge worker follows a systematic approach to personal information management. This would include developing and maintaining a 'personal referencing database' that links to the full-text and includes the indexing of sources for easy access by you and your colleagues (indexing=to assign describing words and categorise these keywords from broad to narrow indicating the 'weight' or importance of the source).

4. Obviously pays. FYI these four items listed here are some notthe real life.IBM real life in– – no plagiarism. Not in academic research and in In originality of criteria applies
selecting those candidates who progress from interns to permanent staff. So what then is RESEARCH as it is done by a KNOWLEDGE WORKER say, for example, one who works at Ernst & Young, Anglo, IBM, JD Group, Accenture, SARS, Standard Bank, MTN, MWeb, MNet, Investec, Dept of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, or the Dept of Minerals and Energy, etc. etc.? << Students must answer this question in the RR >> WHAT IS RESEARCH?_

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Establishing quality of information

Criteria to establish the quality of digital information sources (Yes, you have done this in the first year…but as a knowledge worker doing RESEARCH it is vital to know how to evaluate the quality of information.) 1 Accuracy Is the information reliable and error-free? Is there an editor or someone who verifies/checks the information? Rationale – Anyone can publish anything on the web – Unlike traditional print resources, web resources rarely have editors or fact-checkers – Currently, no web standards exist to ensure accuracy 2 Authority Is there an author? Is the page 'signed'? Is the author qualified? An expert? Who is the sponsor? Is the sponsor of the page reputable? How reputable? Is there a link to information about the author or the sponsor?
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ILK2B: Information Management 2B If the page includes neither a signature nor indicates a sponsor, is there any other way to determine its origin? Look for: o A header or footer showing affiliation o The URL: http://www.fbi.gov o The domain: edu, com, ac, org, co, mil, gov, sev Rationale – It's often hard to determine a web page's authorship – Even if a page is signed, qualifications aren't usually given – Sponsorship isn't usually indicated 3 Objectivity Does the information show a minimum of bias? Is the page designed to sway opinion? Is there any advertising on the page? Rationale – Frequently the goals of the sponsors/authors are not clearly stated – Often the web serves as a virtual 'soapbox' 4 Currency Is the page dated? If so, when was the last update? How current are the links? Have some expired or moved? Rationale – Publication or revision dates are not always provided – If a date is provided, it may have various meanings. For example: It may indicate when the o material was first written o material was first placed on the web, or o when the material was last revised 5 Coverage What topics are covered? What does this page offer that is not found elsewhere? What is its intrinsic value? How in-depth is the material? Rationale – Web coverage often differs from print coverage – It is difficult to determine the extent of coverage

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Information and the research process

As a knowledge worker it is vital to understand how/where information 'fits' into research and how to manage information and knowledge. (Academic vs Business … is there a difference?) >> FYI: See Bishop (2007:521). Phase 1: From research idea to research problem Sources: Ideas‟ sites = topics still in progress (listservs; BB‟s; human resources; bibliographic reviews; annual reviews; state-of-the-art reports; conference proceedings; unpublished studies.) South Africa: National Research Foundation‟s Nexus database @ http://stardata.nrf.ac.za/ (completed and current research projects - masters/doctoral) Africa: …?...Students to do own searching for examples (SS=Students Self) International: SS …? SS Find own sources and examples; the library is a good place to ask if you really don‟t know what to do. Phase 2: Preparing a research proposal A research proposal is the preliminary document stating the researcher's: Background knowledge to the research problem. Explanation of research question in a clearly stated problem and sub-questions. Research methodology and proposed research design. Current status of the topic in general. Anticipated contribution of the results.
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ILK2B: Information Management 2B Chapter outline, namely, a narrated version of the headings to be used to structure the report in a logical delineation of topics and sub-topics. This clearly indicates how you will address the research question. Time line (schedule indicating researcher's commitment, sense of reality, time management skills). SS > Sources: Basic „first phase‟ literature study [published indexes & abstracting journals; books; encyclopedias, online dictionaries]. Phase 3: Research design and selecting an appropriate research method SS > Sources: Seeking information on research methods per discipline [mainly books; also journal articles]. Phase 4: Literature review SS > Sources: Extensive literature search for ALL sources to solve research problem [starting point: indexes & abstracting journals for journal articles; directories; bibliographic reviews; annual reviews; state-of-the-art reports; conference proceedings; books, new media – always keep 'quality/reliability' in mind]. Phase 5: Empirical research ('fieldwork') ILK2B students don‟t DO empirical research, but you do have to take note of each of the phases. Those who somehow find the time to do empirical work in their RR will be rewarded. SS > Sources: Using data sources e.g.: Observation (Under controlled experimental or laboratory conditions) Self-reporting (Personal and group face-to-face interviewing; questionnaires; diaries, blogs) Archival/original documents (Historical documents; old diaries, minutes; letters; speeches; narratives, annual reports, etc.) Physical sources (Blood samples, cell tissue; chemical compounds – lab materials and lab work. Please, definitely no blood samples in ILK2B!) Phase 6: Analyse/interpret empirical findings Students SS > Sources: At this level (ILK2B) there are no sources applicable. Knowledge workers DO this (they analyse and in effect, they are 'the source', that is why they are valuable). During this phase they use sources such as current awareness systems (CA) and RSS feeds for regular checking of other research or newest information on the research topic. They aim to create 'actionable information' to give their company the competitive edge. Phase 7: Writing Students SS > Sources: Again there isn‟t really any 'sources' associated with this phase. As a 2B student this is typically when you write your report. Knowledge workers constantly put into words (communicate through written means) their findings. (At this stage the researcher's ideas/knowledge/work/findings are becoming part of the BC.) Phase 8: Evaluation Students SS > Sources: This is the peer-reviewing phase [Human resources; peers; supervisor.] Value is added in the form of criticism (testing, verification) and refining and re-working (back to previous phases if necessary). Phase 9: Publishing Students SS > Sources: (think . . . what is the 'end product', where and in what format will the initial idea (tacit knowledge) that has progressed through the IDEA CHANNEL, be 'captured' and made available for all to use (explicit knowledge) and become part of a company's CORPORATE MEMORY.

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Conclusion

Many modern enterprises today value knowledge management and use KM systems for improved financial competitiveness, efficiency of operation, and increased market share. Smith (2008:114) connotes the value of knowledge portals with its potential to leverage a organisation's digital research systems to promote the "sharing of important ideas, best business practices, and lessons learned" whereby the entire organisation becomes "transformed by a new culture of knowledge sharing" and develops as a learning organisation. According to Smith (2008:114-125) any business in the knowledge economy is "under immense pressure by external and internal stakeholders to remain competitive" and KM and knowledge portals are employed to compete in a "high volume transactional environment by sharing best business practices, policies, and procedures". Research in business requires competencies which distinguish the traditional employee and the skilled knowledge worker. The latter applies powerful Internet-based technologies in research and applies
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ILK2B: Information Management 2B the new bibliographic chain to connect with people internal and external to the organisation and to share, manage and create information and new knowledge.

Maybe at this stage you may wonder WHY you have ILK2B? Search for jobs on CareerJunction and other job searching websites and you will see that knowledge workers, i.e. people with information and knowledge management skills, are in high demand. Companies are increasingly advertising KM positions. Knowledge Managers develop and manage effective 'idea channels' and creating access to the company's corporate memory, their purpose is to make the right information available at the right time in support of organisational decision making and gaining competitive advantage. Companies pay Knowledge Managers to facilitate information and knowledge flow (the BC) in their companies (obviously without referring to it as 'the BC'). In today's work environment research plays a significant role and having information skills is crucial. So, use it to your advantage! Good luck in the rest of the semester – if you don‟t understand a word the lecturer says, then ASK in class. There are tutors available, but, SPEAK to the lecturer ([email protected]).

Topic 2
IntrAnet infrastructure & information dissemination

Do not use bullet-style-writing in the exam, this will result in 0% Write full sentences and motivate statements, and you should get 60% Write full sentences, motivate and give examples to get 80%

READ: Curry & Stancich; Yen & Chou (and also look at Stoddart > certain pages only) Telleen is a good BASIC resource to scan; but definitely DO NOT PRINT all 71 pages (and don’t study Telleen for the exam)

Objective: To be able to define an intranet, describe the different planning phases in setting up an intranet, as well as to analyse the types of information that can be made available via a corporate intranet. Furthermore, to investigate the role of intranets in information and 'intelligence' distribution or dissemination. Practical example: The IBM Intranet is a powerful productivity and collaboration tool for 330,000 IBM employees in 75 countries; it serves as an integrating platform that accelerates the speed with which employees can find resources and knowledge to help their clients innovate and succeed. The IBM portal's success lies in its human-centred product and service design. 1 Introduction Information is the lifeblood of any organisation, i.e. 'solid' reliable information. Almost every person in a company needs to be able to explore data and to conduct their own informal queries to support their decisionmaking and perform their daily work. In business/competitive intelligence (BI/CI) the aim is to *quickly* get the right tools and information to the decision-makers in your organisation. But because of, for instance, flatter organisation management levels, more and more employees are called on to analyse data and make decisions as part of their day-to-day tasks and routines. What is important to these employees (remember, they are knowledge workers, people who are required to make rapid business decisions), is not to have enough information…but…>> <<refer to discussion in class…KM & CI, difference between BI & CI? To gain maximum value from the systems a company uses for business intelligence (BI systems), companies today increasingly rely on corporate intranets to deliver information and provide employees access to BI applications and to CI tools. An intranet is a computer network which relies on web-based technologies and is said to be the most cost-effective knowledge management system. An intranet provides a fast way in which to
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ILK2B: Information Management 2B make BI and/or CI analysis tools available to all end-users within a company regardless of time or place constraints. Analogy: An intranet is like the dashboard of a car (and if it is customisable then it is also called a corporate portal). If your company has a good KM, BI and CI team and this team and the company directors/managers are in sync then they are like the steering wheel and the accelerator and can skilfully overtake those ahead of them.

What is an intranet? LAN Internet / World-Wide Web technology Intranet (access only for company end-users) …a restricted-access (private) network that works like the Web, but isn't on the open Web or accessible to other Internet users. An intranet is usually owned and managed by a company and it enables a company to share its resources with its employees without confidential information being made available to everyone with Internet access. Extranet Corporate portal… (Topic 3) Intranets are commonly used for information access >> retrieving corporate documents (content), but

not only information retrieval, also for disseminating information …
E-mail Threaded discussions Newsgroups Virtual conferences News feeds (RSS) Various other push functions, e.g. stock tickers Share ideas / co-ordinate work / collaborate (e.g. blogs and wikis) - Community of Practice (CoP) - Organisational Learning (OL) (Topic 5) Electronic white boards Work flow systems and business process engineering

2 Background Curry & Stancich 2000:250 Stoddart 2001:19 Intranet An intranet essentially provides a company with a communication infrastructure which is based on Internet communication standards and provides a company with tools identical to those used for Internet and Web applications only it is distinguished by its restricted access to content (i.e. authorisation is required). Types of pages Content pages and Broker pages: CP = information of value required by user BP = "pages" that provide context to help users find the content pages appropriate for their current requirements (<xml>) Definition: An intranet is a corporate framework (technology infrastructure) for creating and sharing corporate data | information | knowledge | wisdom; focuses on content sharing within a limited and well defined group. <Definition … students to add own notes and give examples> 1. Private computing network 2. Internal to an organisation 3. Access to authorised users only (password protected) 4. Internal „web‟ with links to the Web [TCP/IP] 5. Browser: navigate searching/retrieving information Yen & Chou 2001:81 vs Extranet vs Groupware <more definitions>
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ILK2B: Information Management 2B "A website designed to be accessed within a company." "Intranets are private, internal networks based on Internet standards." "Designed with information sharing between various departments and groups in mind." "An integrating mechanism for people, processes and information within the enterprise." "The corporate information network." Curry & Stancich; Yen & Chou. 3 Company use (advantages of an intranet) 3.1 It unifies: 1. people 2. business processes 3. corporate knowledge 4. suppliers 5. customers 3.2 It provides a collaborative (shared) technology and communication infrastructure: organisation behaves as a whole shares common knowledge base aligns vision, mission, goal, objectives produces intellectual artefacts/products (web pages) for sharing 3.3 It uses a single, universal interface that combines: processes relationships interactions standards projects diaries and schedules budgets 3.4 It builds a learning organisation's corporate memory: epresents an organisation's „intelligence‟ (expertise) organises each individual‟s desktop with minimal cost, time and effort effect on company > more productive, most cost-efficient practices used, more timely decisions, more competitive… etc. everyone uses/adds value back, thus creating a dynamic learning organisation and building the company's corporate memory 3.5 It focuses on co-existence, co-location, co-creation and makes it possible for staff to: fulfil their information needs (see the Dialog Toolkits example below) easily locate people with similar skills/interests to get their jobs done (e.g. company specific 'Facebook') exploring new ways to do their job create new business opportunities Yen & Chou 2001:86 – Challenges companies face:

1. Network security 2. Site currency 3. Privacy

rewall Firewall Firewall Firewall Firewall Firewall Firewall Firewall Firewall Firewall Firewa rotect protect protect protect protect protect protect protect protect protect protec n ion ion ion ion ion ion ion ion ion ion
4 Typical intranet content and features (Later more on content types and content management >> CMS - Topic 4.) © UJ. Dr T du Plessis 9

ILK2B: Information Management 2B A. Formal Officially sanctioned and commissioned information verified for accuracy, currency, liability… B. Project / group  Information intended for use within a specific group. There for the communication and sharing of ideas. Work-in-Progress. Creatively documented group knowledge / expertise… C. Informal  Organisational notes, memoranda, white papers, individual work-in-progress… Example: http://www.dialog.com/products/toolkit/ [Self-study] 4.1 First generation content (basic) General staff information o o o o o o o o o o Corporate structure and executives Corporate benefit plans: healthcare, pension funds Plans and status for current projects Current catalogues Job openings, with an online application database Financial information about company Software tools and information Employee information Client lists and contact information Best-practices documentation o Employee newsletters o Information on corporate events – schedules, pictures from the company picnic, etc. o Company policies and procedures o Job and resume postings o Calendar of events o Company telephone/e-mail directory o Explanation of employee benefits description o Personnel profiles 

Information services o Project management, Calendar of events, External information? = „toolkits‟ Product development o Product management o Research and development o Documentation (e.g. patents and user guides) 4.2 Second generation content (more strategic) Sharing information between users of the intranet, e.g. o new product proposals, o schedule for a project, cost-reduction plan, o quarterly, monthly, weekly, daily, hourly, per second objectives, (similar to RSS feeds, tickers) o information on competitors Availability of other types of company information and applications e.g. information traditionally stored in different databases in the company Directing of third party content, i.e. external information, to users (e.g. Web links, journal articles, Web toolkits, DIALOG, Factiva, Dow Jones, etc.) o Provide access for intranet users to carefully targeted information via custom search forms with exactly the databases and options needed for the organisation. o Give clients quick access to information via links to popular ready-made search forms. o Give clients direct access into highlighted topics of interest using a ”Saved Strategy" for a "Hot Topic" title list. o Create a delivery site on intranet to keep clients apprised of "breaking news" and business opportunities by setting up alerts to automatically deliver new information to their desktops.
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ILK2B: Information Management 2B Comprehensive vehicle for training and development in the company (giving various users access to the latest training material available at the same time and at reduced costs). Customer services: o Online ordering o Product availability o Warranty repair status News and information database: o o o o o o o o o o Press releases (documentation, articles and reprints) Product calendar Product specifications Technical issues Online product user manuals Online directories Market share and company profits Stock value Online prospectus Annual and quarterly reports

IBM's Intranet features:

Exam Students must integrate their discussion on content and features. They must discuss intranet features with examples that illustrate the type of content, for example, the IBM Intranet features and content example given below.

Personalisation of news o Based on self-created profiles, employees receive internal and external news tailored to their jobs and interests, for example, News24.com RSS feeds on a specific topic of interest. Role-specific portlets o Job-specific portlets are available for employees in finance, sales, and management. This means all the tools and applications these employees need for their particular functions are available directly from their IBM Intranet home page, for example, the WebSphere Portlet with content developed by other experts. Employee directory o "IBM BluePages" facilitates collaboration by allowing IBMers to find each other more easily (like Facebook). Using this tool, IBMers can search for other employees based on their areas of expertise. Blogging o Through BlogCentral, IBM Employees can share their ideas by creating their own blogs, or subscribe to each other's blogs via RSS. Accessibility o The site is designed to be easy to use for people with disabilities, including older users, users with motor-related disabilities, memory or literacy issues, or low vision.

5 Planning, building and maintaining an intranet The emphasis is on information and knowledge sharing…and how we use technology to facilitate the process of sharing information and knowledge (the idea channel). One such technology is a company's INTRANET. Source: Curry & Stancich Important when planning an intranet: Have a defined strategic plan Must have senior management buy-in Clear business drivers Create a new environment Maximize intellectual property Incentive plans (part of evaluation) High levels of expertise Make the contribution of the intranet to the current and future strategies of the company clear.

Intranet

strategy revolves around content management (CM):
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ILK2B: Information Management 2B Later more on CM in Topic 4 1. It's not about company goals in the first place … it is firstly about PEOPLE who have to use the technology to reach the company's goals, understand the PEOPLE (end-users) and the technology will work. If you don‟t understand the needs of PEOPLE using the technology, the technology will fail. ASK: What do the people in your company need in order to accomplish their everyday tasks? 2. Criteria for KM technology = ease of use, data integration, enabling content updates, protecting the overall integrity of the intranet… simple integration of non-technical users' contributions. 3. Measuring value … users' USE of the intranet… NB content… (tracking tools). 4. Areas that don't meet EU requirements > change… how quickly can you fix this…? 5. Not outside users BUT employees, managers, partners… they are your audience… content and usability are critical issues. It's not about how pretty the intranet is… CM must ensure long term ROI.

INITIATE USE / EVAL IMPLEMENT BUILD
According to Telleen (2000) building an intranet is a layered process: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Technology infrastructure must be created Must have solutions to attract and retain users Tools to make technology manageable Provide more efficient development environments Always remember the four functional 'boxes' in an intranet…

SPECIFY

<< This is from Telleen, Chapter 6, but don‟t study Telleen for the exam, only study the Lecture Notes.

DESIGN

Building an intranet involves many phases, steps and building blocks; it is a continuous process and combination of distributed management which integrates the four components identified by Telleen >> the cyclical process suggested by Stoddart >> and the generic Deming's cyclic model as discussed by Curry and Stancich >>

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ILK2B: Information Management 2B AND

Stoddart 2001:25-78 AND Deming's cyclic model (generic)

See also the "Deming Cycle of continuous improvement" as replicated and applied to Intranet Development in Curry and Stancich (2000:254) which involves:

1. 2. 3. 4.

Plan a change or a test Do the change or test decided upon, preferably on a small scale Check/measure the effects of the change or test Act/learn from the results and make appropriate predictions

Factors to be considered in intranet planning and management: Yen & Chou 2001:83-84 1. 2. 3. 4. Human factors In-house development or outsourcing Technologies selection Business process functions 1. Human factors • End-users rule!! …they will make or break the system… • Resistance • IT – infrastructure • Other departments – manage content • Purpose – get all users involved and using frequently • "Build it and they will come" ~ true or not…? • Depth over Breadth 2. Development factors • In-house development vs outsourcing • Well developed IT company? • Can outsource the expertise • Charge little for browsers, make up for it on server software • Why re-invent the wheel? 3. Technology factors • Basic system configuration
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ILK2B: Information Management 2B • Server hardware platform • Operating systems • WWW Server software • Manage internal WWW presence • Provide needed functionality …managing home pages, searches, integration with DB's… 4. Business factors • Process Functions • Can automate business processes • Platform-independent • Tie together different systems • Focus on overall business processes as they run across departments • Rules – Constraints • Input • Transformation • Output

6 Evaluation of the intranet Curry & Stancich (2000:259-264) identified the following EVALUATION CRITERIA: 6.1 Importance and relevance of the intranet to all the people in the organisation's jobs: type of information provided about department or project contribution to departmental operations 6.2 Reliability and user-friendliness: how up-to-date the site is proportion of non-active links organisation and ease of navigation presence of a named contact or not format and content presentation whether or not new items were identified time taken for site to load

6.3 Levels of web-awareness: frequency and type of intranet use web/intranet skills content contribution and training needs 6.4 Additional value added: level of interactivity/availability of applications or tools value contribution of the site from: o strategic efficiency o competitive advantage perspectives

7 Conclusion Intranet technology offer GREAT benefits: Agility, Low Cost, Integrated… <<students to add more benefits and give examples – these are found in the reading material>> Platform independent (ties systems together) Facilitates organisational knowledge work Acquisition, packaging, application, re-use of knowledge Provides re-usable units (previous projects; templates) Reduces geographic distance (between local and international branches) Promotes organisational communications Supports group collaboration. The corporate intranet is the technology used for ~ INFORMATION and KNOWLEDGE SHARING ~
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ILK2B: Information Management 2B An intranet is of strategic importance IF it succeeds in integrating the organisation‟s performance and strategy Curry & Stancich 2000:264 Impact: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Corporate intranet becomes centrepiece of the organisational strategy (KM technology). Explicit recording of lessons learned in the organisation (organisational learning). Lessons learnt are made available and accessible to all in company (corporate memory). Thus creating a learning and knowledge culture (learning organisation). And extending opportunities for all to contribute to continuous improvement (shared knowledge).

Topic 3
Information portals and access to information
This topic is NB in the exam. Do not write in bullet style.

Objective
o o To be able to define the term „portal‟ and to describe the important role of the portal in improving the information end-user‟s access to information. To further be able to evaluate the impact of the corporate portal / enterprise information portal (EIP) in companies that strive to maintain their competitive advantage.

1 Introduction Intranets have grown in importance (Topic 2). This type of technology has been instrumental to gaining access to information, to identifying expertise, and to working collaboratively in a virtual environment. However, intranets are not always successful for reasons such as: Staff resources – content and currency Technically difficult – linking databases, VLE

Rather write full sentences, e.g.: Although an intranet solves many problems regarding access to information, it often fails due to issues such as limited staff resources responsible for managing content and maintaining the required levels of content quality and currency. Other issues may include technical difficulty, for example the linking of databases and the integration of content in a company's virtual learning environment (VLE).

This is bullet style… what does "staff resources – content and currency" mean…?? Make sure when you write in the exam to use FULL sentences and clearly state what you want to say. Give examples to illustrate what you are saying. Motivate your argument, etc.

Main problem in intranet management: Need to have access to internal and external information on a common technical platform. Solution to the problem: Portal. There are five capabilities/features of a portal that distinguishes it from a website. A portal should provide: 1. A single point of access to all resources associated with the portal domain 2. Personalised interaction with the portal services 3. Access to hundreds of data types and repositories, aggregated and categorised
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ILK2B: Information Management 2B 4. Collaboration technologies that bring people together 5. Integration with applications and workflow systems “Portals provide a secure, single point of interaction with diverse information, business processes, and people, personalized to a user's needs and responsibilities.” Sounds like an Intranet… …some portals are built ON TOP OF the existing Intranet Infrastructure already in place… NB = corporate issues such as security provided for by intranet infrastructure… Emerging industry: o o o o Providing corporate portal applications with stronger information and knowledge integration requirements (…learning organisation / organisational learning…) Security (…built on the more secure intranet infrastructure) Addressing the strong need to customise a company‟s intranet resources Necessity to add personalisation as function: (Van Brakel 2004:595) User‟s ability to subscribe, unsubscribe to information channels and alerts Select and store personal set of appearance and content characteristics

Portal Development Initially started out as 'search engines' (SE)… only some have „grown-up‟ to become portals. Today: Sophisticated SEs and directories that facilitate access to Web documents. SE ….Phases of development o Categorised navigation o Boolean search o Personalisation o Integration of additional features o Provides direct access to other specialised information Information often stored across systems in a disorganised way. Many enterprises lack a global view of their own data and information.

Corporate portals – are used to integrate/convert unstructured data to structured data.
(Dias 2001:269-270, 273-274) 2 Portals (…and Intranets) Various approaches & levels...Can be very confusing! Corporate portals = "Intranets" o General or public approach A portal is a website providing:    Example: MyYahoo http://my.yahoo.com Single entry point (to content) via the Internet Public value-added services (eg directories, searching, news, links, transactions) Partnerships with other content providers

o

Analogy = palace, huge & wonderful place with doors; … where you re-visit what interests you most. Detlor 2000:91-92 & Dias 2001:276 Corporate or 'private' approach “Software that provides user-customisable access to corporate information and applications through a Web browser.”    Private, internal, web-based networks restricted to employees Firewalls = info securely managed inside transparent directory to content, services & applications Corporate value-added processes

Portal Taxonomy General to specialised:
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ILK2B: Information Management 2B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Search engines and directories (NorthernLight & Yahoo!) “Home pages” of ISPs (MSN, AOL) Vertical portals („niche‟ portals) / vortals (Lexis-Nexis) Subject gateways (INTUTE) Sites of intelligent agents (SS > find own examples) EIP "Intranet" (corporate/enterprise) portals Extranet portals

3 Types of Portals Public Portals o Internet portal / web portal / consumer portal o A web page that serves as a point of entry for surfers of the World Wide Web. o Attract a web community Horizontal Portal o General interest o Offers content and services related to many subjects Corporate / Business Portals / Enterprise Information Portals o Single-point Web browser interfaces o Promotes gathering, sharing, dissemination of information o Private (can give restricted external access) o Acts as a separate source of information, not only making currently available information available o Consolidate, manage, analyze, and distribute information across and outside the enterprise Vertical Portal / Vortal / Niche Portal o Offers content and services related to one subject o Narrow / specific subject or target group

See also how the Delphi Group categorises portals according to the Portal Market Model <SS> (next page)

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ILK2B: Information Management 2B o Publishing portals Large and diverse communities with diverse interests Fairly traditional Little customisation of content (except for online search and limited interactive capabilities); Expected by the casual Web user („broadcasting‟) Commercial portals

o

Narrow content for large diverse audiences
Customisation of content in the users' interface Straightforward content (eg stock tickers, news on pre-selected items Aggregate Web information into a single visual presentation („web casting). o Personal portals Specific filtered information for individuals („narrow casting‟) Offer relatively narrow content Compensate with precision of coverage and personalisation for individual Corporate portals Rich content within narrow community (unites around a group mission) Coordinate a diverse range of enterprise intranet applications Support knowledge management practices („corcasting‟) Content = broader than commercial or vertical portal Greater complexity and diversity of information used to make decisions in an organization Effective audience = operations team or stakeholders in the enterprise

o

(Van Brakel, 2004:596+) NB: Summary of portal trends
Horizontal portals (open; available to general public; certain level of customisation & personalisation) Vertical portals (limited to company‟s employees, including non-profit institutes = campus/academic portals) Layout of a typical vertical portal
Enterprise administration system

Communications (e.g. e-mail; voice mail)

E-business

End-user (employee)

INFORMATION PORTAL
Internal content (e.g. circulars; policies; reports)

External content: (e.g. pushed news; bibliographic & full text toolkits) systems Multi-modular e-learning (e.g Blackboard; WebCT)

Academic (campus) portals Possibilities - - - various groups - - - via a single interface:  Prospective students: o Track applications for admission o Scholarships 18

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ILK2B: Information Management 2B o o o o o  Financial aid Attend virtual orientation Visit an advisor Register for classes Pay bills

Current students: o Copies of the current time table o Degree progress (academic record) o Assignments being graded o Computers free in the nearest lab o Reminded if materials are due in the library o Chat with friends o Announcements in clubs or special interests o Headlines or sports results on campus o Lists of regional or national levels Academics: o Access class rolls with student photos o Post class announcements o Submit grades o Check budget balances o Track status of trust funds o Search and access articles ao digital documents Alumni and donors: o Keep up with classmates o Stay in touch with campus events o Follow favourite campus projects





 Examples of university (tertiary) portals … <students>

4 Characteristics and features of corporate portals Portals offer a wide range of customisation options and functionality including:  Easy to use User Interface  Customised interfaces  Structured access  Single point of access  Log on once  Interactivity  Collaborative working space  Information content space  Communication space  Coordination space  Multi-level security (…Intranet infrastructure…)  High levels of currency  Timeliness  Future proof…! (…Depending on your IT guys)  Internet-like search and navigation  Adaptable to changes in business and technology  Scalability  Easy administration and configuration  Diverse back-ends look unified  Customisation and personalisation  Integrating content management systems  Push and Pull app‟s  Management of heterogeneous databases & document types  Sticky content, such as: - Email - Customized news, weather, sports, and horoscopes - Planners, calendars, and contact managers - Bookmark managers to save favourite websites
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ILK2B: Information Management 2B Real-time chat; message boards Original content on every imaginable topic Shopping Free Home Pages News Stock Prices

…and the two most NB features are >>> 1. Ease of customisation and personalisation 2. Ease of integration with existing services ~ VALUE-ADDED (VA) MODEL ~ …VA-model is a portal with features designed specifically to meet the NEEDS of the END-USERS… <SS> The approach followed in the value-added model is to concentrate on the user, attempting to understand the criteria by which information will be judged to be valuable. This does not necessarily mean that the user wants to find a specific answer, but rather to be assisted in making sense of their environment, learning new ideas, sharing information and knowledge and resolving their problems as they go along. To design such a portal involves an analysis of the information use environment (IUE). (Taylor in Detlor on page 95-98)

5 Portal applications and functions Read: Dias (2001:276-279) & Detlor (2000:91)

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o o o o o o o o o o

Access to information Information management Information sharing Organisational communications Collaboration Decision making and processing support Knowledge and expertise sharing Information retrieval Publishing Information exchange

Portal benefits (Dias) o o o o o o Trends o o o XML (eXtensible Markup Language) > customisation, context, semantic technologies (Topics 4 & 6) Wireless Access (WAP), MOBI applications Business Mobile, B2E portals (e.g. Blackberries) <SS> Examples of portals Corporate Portals http://www.ibm.com/ http://www.ceoexpress.com http://www.iafrica.com/ (public / private) http://www.factiva.com/ Academic Portals http://stardata.nrf.ac.za/index.html http://www.intute.ac.uk/ http://www.academicinfo.net/ https://student.uj.ac.za/ Common and personalised view of enterprise information Reduce internal information publishing costs – high return on investment…ROI (Corporate Portals) Enhance information distribution Customer relations management Structured access – single point of entry Competitive advantage (easy access to strategic info in support of business decision-making)

6 Future of corporate portals Increasingly central to operation of a business… Significant blurring between intranet, Internet & desktop… (PC = Digital Dashboard) More customisation…more value-added features Perform repetitive tasks (….e.g. SARS: income tax return – auto email notices) Notification (selectively informs users of events of significance) "Artificial Intelligence" (learns IEU‟s behaviour by keeping track of topics being searched) Tutoring ('coach' users in context; offering additional tutoring materials in employee‟s weak areas, creating and providing a learning environment in support of employees' development needs) Enterprise Knowledge Portals… with Semantic Technologies to provide context to content

(If bullets above are too staccato for your understanding, then READ: Ward 2006, Fano 2006, Firestone 2001:7)
7 Conclusion “By functioning as a home page to departmental intranet sites and external Internet resources, portals have generated an increased interest among information mangers due to the technology‟s ability to improve the flow and exchange of information across the enterprise.” (Newall et al in Detlor 2000:92)
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“Corporate portals differ from intranets in that a portal‟s primary function is to provide a transparent directory of information already available elsewhere, not act as a separate source of information itself.” (Plumtree in Detlor 2000:92) B2E portal >> strategic tool for today's workforce >> "information at your fingertips". [[B2B and B2E explained in class]]

…no, you don't have to study the READING material, you only have to read it to help you better understand the lecture notes.

Topic 4
Content Management Systems (CMS) and Content Delivery
Outline only = 0% in exam Objective To develop an understanding of Content Management Systems (CMS); to discuss the purpose and functionality of web-based systems; to understand 'content intelligence' and tools and methods that would allow companies to capitalise on their existing skills and resources. Class Activity aimed at understanding the one basic CM principle, namely: Content has to be in Context to have meaning; no context, no meaning.

What do we mean by 'context'? Context is the collection of relevant conditions / surrounding influences that make a situation unique and comprehensible and in business this is especially important without context [Cx] knowledge workers cannot perform knowledgeable [KNOWLEDGEABLE PERFORMANCE =Kp]

1 Introduction A system is an assemblage of related elements comprising a whole, such that each element may be seen to be a part of 'the entirety' in some sense. That is, each element is seen to be related to other elements of the system and/or related to the system as a whole. It is generally recognised that while any element of a system need not have a (direct) relationship with any other particular element of a system, any element which has no relationship with any other element of a system, cannot be a part of that system. A system may be a set of rules for governing behaviour, e.g. laws form a legal system which governs human social behaviour. An example of a 'system' is Grammar. Grammar is a system which governs language usage. A sub-system is a system which is a proper subset of another system. Organisations are also systems.

Organisations are often referred to as ‘Organised Systems’. These systems are defined by the way the people who form them (in other words the organisation/business/company), how they manage the system's communication & content (information dissemination) and how they make decisions (processes)

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SYSTEMS may have CENTRAL communication With central control = "Pyramid System" (purpose driven) With distributed control = "Virtual System" (purpose driven)

SYSTEMS may have DISTRIBUTED communication With central control = "Client-server System" (not purpose driven) With distributed control = "Ecosystem” (not purpose driven)

In terms of managing content in organisations, people have PUSH and PULL approaches ‫٭‬ Push mentality in CM o Content publisher's perspective: – I know what you need – and I'll send it  right approach – I don‟t know what you need – so I'll send it all X wrong approach – I don‟t care if you need it – I'll send it anyway X wrong approach o Content user's perspective: – Someone needs to tell me what information is available  – Someone needs to tell me what information I need X Pull mentality in CM o Content publisher's perspective: – I know my mission and my audience – I make information available on demand – I measure and improve information usefulness o Content user's perspective: – I know how to find information when I need it – It is my responsibility to determine what information I need

‫٭‬

Organisational CM tools and roles in support of organisational (business) processes Organisations require tools and roles (systems and subsystems) that support processes for:

– – – – – –

Goal directed activity (purpose driven communication) Communication and coordination (formal and informal) Verified content (quality controlled and value added) Information currency (updated content) Protection from liability (pre-evaluated content) Protection from loss (security) CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM = BUSINESS TOOL

How?

Reaching these goals cannot be achieved by a straight technical implementation alone; it requires the development of an information organisation and content management infrastructure. Technology is the enabler and used by people in various management roles to make information (content) available.
2 Content Management –"CM is not a noun, it is a verb" –"Cannot buy CM, it is something you do" –"CM supports the functions required to create and finalise content not yet ready for delivery" –"CM includes functions that relate to authors, editors, collaborators and other personnel involved in the preparation of content" According to Schaeffer (2001), content management can mean different things to different people. “Fundamentally it is the process of attaining content, working with it, and publishing it” (Schaeffer 2001:21).
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Content sources to be managed 1 2 Formal • Officially sanctioned and commissioned information verified for accuracy, currency, liability… etc Project / group • Information intended for use within a specific group. There for the communication and sharing of ideas. Work-in-Progress. Creatively documented group knowledge / expertise Informal • Organisational notes, memoranda, white papers, individual work-in-progress… etc

3

3 Web CMS

• In their most basic form, web content management systems should allow each content producer: • The system should have customised and automated checks and balances to ensure that:
– pages get placed correctly, – navigation trees are created and maintained, – the appropriate people control the process along the way. – to create pages – and feed them to the publishing system

READ: Trippe 2001:22, 24 How is Web content managed?

• Good Web content management packages distinguish between: – content (written material, images, streaming audio and anything else that makes up Web pages) – from presentation of content, and they include strong workflow capabilities • Complex Websites have turned to some form of dynamic content, where: – the Webpage is built by an application, which gathers the different components into some organised
structure either >

• •

dynamically (e.g. for each user per his/her request) or statically (e.g. writing out the generated webpage periodically - perhaps whenever new content arrives)

4 CM vs. DM (Schaeffer 2001)

• •

Delivery Management (DM), deals with content already prepared and available for access

– either for bulk information products (such as books or CDs) – or in support of interactive queries
The key difference between DM and CM is its assumption that content is:



– complete – properly structured – ready for delivery
Content management (CM), on the other hand, supports the functions:

– required to create and finalise content – required by colleagues collaborating on a project, working on content that is not yet ready for delivery – required for version control, enabling “Work-in-Process Management”

5 CMS and business requirements (Robertson 2002) 1. Identify business goals and strategy >> different businesses have different CM needs. 2. Identify business requirements >> what do we as a business expect of a CMS? 3. Determine structure requirements (what are the things it must do for us?) with regard to: a. Content creation
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b. c. d. e.

Content management Publishing Presentation Contract & business requirements

A: CONTENT CREATION Key requirements: – Integrated authoring environment – Separation of content and presentation – Multi user authoring – Single sourcing (content reuse) – Metadata creation – Powerful linking – Non-Technical authoring – Ease of use & efficiency

B: CONTENT MANAGEMENT Key requirements: – Version control and archiving – Workflow – Security (Audit trails) – Integration with external systems – Reporting

C: PUBLISHING Key requirements: – Style sheets – Page templates – Extensibility – Support for multiple formats – Personalisation – Usage statistics

D: PRESENTATION Key requirements: – Usability – Accessibility – Cross browser support – Limited client-side functionality – Speed – Valid HTML – Effective navigation – Metadata

E: CONTRACT & BUSINESS Key requirements: – Training – Documentation – Warranty – Maintenance agreements
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– – – – – –

Resources required Skills required Cost Scalability IT constraints Reference sites

8 x CM functions SS and NB in TEST/EXAM (Schaeffer 2001:2-3)

1. Enable authors to create richly tagged XML content as a part of their original editorial process.



Using a word processor to capture content and then putting in the XML tagging later.

–Get authors to use an XML editor.
2. Allow authors to locate, create and manage associations and links among parts of content.



On the Web, links that point elsewhere in the content, are everything.

–Rich content must contain rich links if it is to fulfil its intended delivery mission.
3. Allow authors to create content suitable for multiple audiences.

– In a multimedia world, content must be delivered in slightly different form to each segment of the total audience. –Every content provider faces a layered audience that wants even common content tuned to its unique needs.
4. Facilitate collaboration and communication among knowledge providers.

– Rich content passes through many hands on its way to delivery. –Any CM system must support collaboration among actors within and outside the primary content site.
5. Record and track revisions to content at a granular level.

– As information moves ever faster, knowing how it got to its current state becomes a growing factor in satisfying your
audience.

– One approach to this has been to keep each version of a document in work, comparing each version to the previous
to determine what has changed.

–A better approach is to make content revision a specific transaction and support it with tools and tagging.
6. If possible, keep content in its original state.

– If you’re creating XML content, the best approach is to keep the XML in its originally authored format until time for
delivery.

–Some CM approaches translate the content into a proprietary (often database) format, and then retrace the process to
extract the XML. 7. Reuse portions of content in multiple places but keep the ownership centralised

– The entire concept of “reuse” is somewhat overblown. – Some vendors suggest that you deal with this by breaking your content down into ever-smaller pieces so you can
collect them in different ways for reuse.

– Beware that complexity and risk grows in direct proportion to your usage.
8. Keep the content safe and under control.

–Controlling access and data integrity is part of CM.
6 CM technology and categories, rules and standards READ: Trippe 2001:24-25

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There are some common technological features among CM systems: 1) Virtually all systems include some kind of repository for storing the content, and/or sturdy mechanisms to access existing repositories.

–Provides a protected file system as well as connectivity to leading relational database engines, such as ORACLE –Their content delivery engines are high-performance, flexible, programmable environments for building Web
pages that can dynamically select from various sources (databases, other sites, etc.) and present the results 3) Most systems can be integrated with a number of other applications, especially on the Web presentation side. 2) All systems provide some level of dynamic serving for getting Web pages out to users.

– Most or all will provide a means for you to integrate their software with ad serving software, software for
Web site logging, and traffic analysis, "shopping cart" software, and software for search and retrieval

CMS categories Many things are called "content management systems," but they more or less fall into two camps: 1. Delivery platforms for dynamic personalised delivery of content over the Web (FOR EXAMPLE, Vignette and Broadvision)
Personalised…Portals…

2. Editorial-facing systems for capturing content and routing it through workflow and approval (FOR EXAMPLE, TeamSite, ContentWare and Engenda)

Content pages: Rules Rules for every page:

– Explicit identification of the page owner – Date of last revision – Contact details of the page owner – <Level of confidentiality> – …other?
Content pages: Standards Formal publishing standards:

– Each formal organisation should develop an explicit review process – State the official access status – Adopt an identifying logo for formal content, only to be used by editors on pages that have gone through the
reviewing process

– Keep to the appropriate corporate look and feel – Consistent in high level navigation aids

7 Content management and XML What is the role of XML in CMS? 1 XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is a key piece of your technology infrastructure going forward. In other words, no matter what you are doing to get data from one place to another, it's going to involve XML.

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2

It means delivering content beyond the browser to all manner of devices. Clearly cell phones and PDAs have some traction already, but who knows what will follow?

CMS - XML requirements 1. Able to store „native XML‟ in CMS, the system should not force you to translate XML data to a proprietary format. 2. Able to use eXtensible Style sheet Language or Cascading Style Sheets freely for content structure, navigation, retrieval. 3. Able to access XML through standard Application Programming Interface such as Document Object Model and Streaming API for XML. 4. Vendor should show competency in XML writing, e.g. Document Type Definitions or schema for enhanced information retrieval, e.g. Topic Maps. 8 Conclusion CMS (NB = XML) is a key piece of a business‟ content infrastructure (XML & ESS, IE & IR). Understand your content Relate to business needs Avoid technical details Move towards delivering content beyond the browser to all manner of devices Content MUST be in context (XML & Topic Maps) (Trippe 2001) NB: Content Intelligence "encompasses all the methods and tools that make it possible to implement efficient content access solutions within an enterprise context". (Delahousse 2002:2) Test & Exam IE = Information Extraction (machine)…..??? IR = Information Retrieval (human)……??? Effective IE and IR relies on three Content Management Principles ONE: Content has to be in context to have value. Why? In business it is important to know: When was this „piece of information‟ created? Who created it? Who was involved in the research? Who will be using the content? What is the content „about‟? What „version‟ is the content? Who has been working with the content? Who is the current „owner‟ of the content? What is the „location‟ of the content? What can be done with this content / how can it be applied / what is the value / impact? When will the content be used? NB: Effective decision-making (DM) depends on contextualised content. Students must give relevant examples to illustrate why / how quality, contextualised information is required in support of sound business DM. TWO: Background (BG) information is required in order to fully understand content. Why? Without BG information one cannot 'perform knowledgeable' in business to reach the business outcome or successfully perform the business task. NB: Students must give examples of how BG information includes knowing the context and adding 'individual knowledge/experience' to the task, i.e. …what the individual knows / understands / experience / wisdom / cultural background / insight / business „savvy‟ / connections / „a‟intelligence / lateral thinking / analytical aptitude to make sound business decisions. THREE: Information Extraction and Information Retrieval can only be effective if the context of the content is known and if the necessary background information exists or is in place. Why? The combination of "Context + BG information" is required to effectively identify trends that result from activities such as data mining, i.e. finding and working with information in large information repositories. NB: Students must give examples of how comprehensive contextualised content is analysed by the individual with the best (expert) background knowledge and how this leads to smart business DM.

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Topic 5
E-Learning technologies for the enterprise

Objectives 1. An understanding of e-learning in business strategy. 2. Knowledge of learning or course management systems in practice. 3. Describe the features of LMS or course management systems. 4. Understand the function of the information specialist in achieving learning impact through content integration in the virtual learning environment.

1

Introduction

Straub E-learning is, in a sense, becoming a core „enabler‟ of our knowledge society and a key lever for competitiveness. E-learning is the use of network technologies to create, foster, deliver and facilitate learning, anytime and anywhere. It includes computer-based learning, Web-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaboration. Learning content can be delivered via a variety of electronic media including: • Internet (Portals) • Intranets/Extranets • Satellite broadcast • Audio/Video, etc. CoP / CoI Organisational learning…???

Students MUST read HANDZIC (2007:3-6)
>>>> CORPORATE MEMORY …considered to be one of the fundamental sources of competitive advantage within the context of strategic management… 1. 2. 3. 4. Convergence of different disciplines: Learning Knowledge Management Collaboration E-learning refers to the transformation of learning processes and approaches with the application of ICT. Formal and informal learning Everyday learning Lifelong learning Learning in organisation Learning in practice Flexible learning Zero‟ed-in learning On demand learning Just-in-time LEARNING & Learning-on-Demand Technology for learning-on-demand Knowledge acquisition Interpretation Distribution Organisational memory

2
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Refers to systems that deliver instructional material to individual users‟ (employees, managers, executives, etc.) desktops or portable computing devices on an as-needed or flexibly scheduled basis. Involves the process of using technology to enable and encourage people to learn and acquire new skills while resolving the enterprise's problems or situations. The learning process takes place in context and on demand. Allen “Computer-based training, learning-management systems, and synchronous or asynchronous learning conducted over the Internet, an intranet, or extranet, are all forms of E-learning if they include a tailored multimedia experience offered individually at any location.” E-learning = Meeting the Need to Know >>> FAST Enables organisations to respond quickly to changing business situations and shorter market cycles by using IT to provide employees with learning on demand. Provides cost-effective and critical support for many business activities. Has the potential to revolutionise learning in the workplace – changing learning opportunities from institution-based, generic training programs to self-directed, customised, individual learning options. Available to geographically dispersed audiences.

3

E-learning strategies Straub

"To become the most competitive knowledge economy in the world… " Infrastructure o Networks o Portals o Virtual learning environments and systems o Database content integration tools o Search and collaboration tools o E-learning standards (vendors vs. open source) o Security Content o Quality o Content creators o Content providers o Content aggregators o Cross-media & cross-platform digital content o Copyright & licencing Services o Moving from technology to application o Using technology to better acquire, create, distribute, share relevant knowledge

4

Learning management systems (LMS/CMS/LCMS)

LCMS >> Discussion in class… Schweizer - Abstract “E-learning is replacing face-to-face classroom instruction in a growing number of businesses, but what is the prospect for the continued proliferation of e-learning in business? On one hand, the quality of instruction, the costeffectiveness of new technology, a supportive e-learning educational culture, an expansion of the Internet, an increase in online courses, shorter business cycles, mergers, and increasing competition encourage business use of e-learning. On the other hand, employee reticence in using learning technologies, insufficient corporate investment, lack of business-relevant university courses, narrow bandwidth, and Internet access issues are constricting the business use of these technologies.” “An LMS is focused purely on managing and delivering the appropriate e-learning content for users when they need it. The Learning Management System provides an infrastructure that can be used to rapidly create, modify, and manage content for a wide range of learning to meet the needs of rapidly changing business requirements.” Features

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Web conferencing sessions Discussion forums Downloadable resources E-mentoring … (Students must give examples) <Students> <SS> Pro’s Enable task-driven learning in which employees consult instructional material in order to solve a specific problem or challenge that they currently face Increase productivity Avoid the significant costs of traditional classroom instruction methods by o Eliminating off-site travel and classroom expenses o Reducing employee time away from the job o Distributing instructor costs across a larger audience o Avoiding a pace of instruction that adjusts to meet the needs of the slowest learner in the group. Support “Communities of practice / Communities of interest” = Sharing ideas Establish the culture necessary to create a learning organisation Allows company to incorporate learning activities as an integral part of employees' job responsibilities and daily routine Help company attract and retain employees who are lifelong learners, are highly motivated, and show initiative and creativity Provide employees with timely and convenient access to quality course material appropriate to company's needs Reduce time to market and product cycle time Improve the quality and responsiveness of customer service functions Allow the user of instructional material to proceed at an optimal pace and integrate the learning process into his or her personal schedule Easy scan through a library of course offerings or knowledge-sharing resources Available at any time Employees can work through all or part of the course material to answer particular questions or learn specific techniques Allow the tailoring of instructional methodologies to accommodate the distinct learning modes of various individuals People can learn at their own pace instead of being constrained by the pace of the group in instructor-led classroom training. Learner‟s understanding of any given material can be measured; allowing learners to proceed to new material only after mastery of the current material is complete. Con’s Lack of social interaction (!!) Lack of spontaneous knowledge exchange that occurs between peers and colleagues (??) Difficult to measure the learner‟s understanding of any given material. Blended Learning 5 Learning impact, the virtual learning environment and content integration

** in class **

VLE Content Integration is explained with examples in class. EXAM: VLE content integration. DOI: Digital Object Identifier… and what is a PURL…? 6 Conclusion Straub In a sense e-learning is becoming the underlying enabler of our knowledge society and a key lever for competitiveness. Schweizer “It is clear that e-learning is an effective technology for educating and training the workforce. Business use of elearning has been growing and will continue to grow in the near future. The quality, just-in-time delivery, and costeffectiveness of e-learning classes drive corporate interest in this technology. Although internal and external forces threaten the expansion of this technology, many of these are offset by the nature of e-learning courses, corporate
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commitment to e-learning, the expansion of business-oriented course offerings, and evolving technologies. It is fully expected that e-learning courses will remain educationally effective vehicles for corporate training and retraining. As broadband access spreads globally and as interactive course-ware is developed to promote effective learning, the business community will expand their use of e-learning courses. More graduate and undergraduate business courses will become available for all management levels and for those in specialized offices, such as public relations or graphics. The number of e-learning courses will increase as senior management uses it to promote corporate strategic objectives. Finally, as the technological sophistication of the workforce increases, employees will more readily embrace e-learning as the preferred learning format. In short, business will move the power of the Internet for learning from promise to practice."

Topic 6
Portal development and the value of semantic technologies
Learning Objectives: THINK about the following – 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. SECTION A 1 A good web development team A „web department‟ may consist of a single skilled Webmaster or manager; or the web department could include a variety of people with different roles depending on the type and size of organisation / business / institution and the scope or „reach‟ or recentness of the organisational website. For example, some sites may require weekly, daily, and in some cases, up-to-the-minute updates requiring round the clock attention. This team may consist of (but is not limited to): Resources: Walbridge 2005, Richmond s.a., MacDonald et al 2006. 1. 2. 3. 4. Project manager(s) Web manager and/or webmasters Web application programmers Multiple system administrators The difference between a Webmaster and a Web Manager. Tasks associated with the Webmaster and the Web Manager. The function of a Web department within an organisation. What website / portal management involves. Portal re-design considerations. Web monitoring and the interpretation of website logs. The existence of the Semantic Web. The issue of data quality content on the Web. The importance of ontology and taxonomies in information extraction and information retrieval.

2 Roles in the web department

A good web development team (Walbridge 2005). PROJECT MANAGER The project manager is responsible for the team's individual members, communication and follow-through (3-5
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years of project management experience is a good minimum requirement): Key to a successful team is a skilled project manager. This position does not require specific programming or networking skills, however, a technical background is preferable. Must be able to represent the team, and speak intelligently/systematic thinking skills. Tasks are to gather the requirements of the site and understand the expectations of the client. Must understand the scope of the project. Good oral and written communication skills are essential. Important to have time management and organisational skills. Lead team members, manage resources, and speak to management as well as clients.

Responsible for: PROJECT MANAGEMENT o A solid plan is critical to accomplishing this task. o The plan must be detailed, straightforward, and easy to understand. o Regular project updates should occur. o Extremely important to communicate among the members of the project team. WEBMASTER This person works closely with the client and with the Project Manager to determine the content of the site and layout. To do this a webmaster should have a good combination of „hard and soft‟ IT skills (3-5 years of experience is typical for a qualified Web master): Be familiar with the operating system, and the internet server applications. Have a thorough understanding of SQL or another database engine. Knowledge of Flash animation, Adobe Photoshop, as well as VB Scripting. Must also have good written skills (e.g. responsible for grammar and spelling of web content) [CM]. Must have good publishing skills and knowledge of systems based on XML/SGML. May also be responsible for graphic design.

WHAT IS A WEB MASTER? o A person who manages a Web (web manager) Students: Difference between: Web master / Web manager …?? o Acts as mediator between Web authors and system administrator o Ensures that applicable standards such as HTML validity and link activeness are met o Optimises the Web architecture for navigability o Takes editorial responsibility for the content, quality and style of the site (CM) o Finds, creates and installs tools to create web content and check consistency o Develops and enforces the house style o Liaises with graphic artists o Provides first level user or client support. A web master may also sometimes perform authoring or system administration… (…and a Web manager…??) APPLICATION DEVELOPER This person should not only be familiar with the operating system and internet server applications but actually have experience with IP networks, database development and an understanding of the operating system. Technical skills are essential (2-4 years experience): Responsible for developing server side functionality for web-based applications. Working with all aspects of the server and database. Common Internet programming languages include PERL, CGI, ActiveX, ASP, and Java. Will work with the project manager to analyze and interpret the client requirements and recommend solutions, thus strong problem-solving and analytical skills are essential.

SYSTEMS ADMINISTRATOR The role of the administrator is to ensure that the website, the network services and the clients all operate or have access in a secure and stable environment. Definitely an „IT person‟ (4-6 years of network administration experience): Responsible for building, maintaining and securing the website, application and database servers in the Internet architecture.
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System administration is often outsourced. GRAPHIC DESIGNER A graphics designer will greatly enhance a Web development team, but many organisations do not have graphic designers and this function is often outsourced (a minimum of a four-year degree in fine arts or related field, and at least two years of graphical design experience in a Web environment): The creation of images and other graphical needs of the development project. Proficient with the latest multimedia tools. Knowledge of layout, composition and colour theory as well as experience with HTML is a plus.

3 Web Master / Web Manager << Students in Class >>

World Wide 4 A good web master Web A skilled web master has: Consortium exceptional intelligence enthusiasm for web technology excellent communications skills familiarity with the W3C's work thoroughness and an eye for detail integrity, courtesy and professionalism ability to spell and knowledge of English grammar knowledge of at least Perl, UNIX, HTML, CGI, JavaScript …

5 Typical tasks of a web master SS If you ask a group of web masters for a job definition, they will all be different. Even if you ask the same group of web masters again six months later, you'll probably get a completely different set of answers from them. This list is not exhaustive; the tasks of a web master vary according to the type of organisation, the different roles within the web department, the presence of a web manager, etc. Perl programming Maintain the site map(s) Maintenance procedures Maintain any mirror sites Assisting in site promotion HTML validation Publishing XML Provide first-level user support Develop the content management system Maintain the search engine index Look for problems, suggest improvements, etc. Keep a close eye on web statistics and identify web usage trends Generate the Top 100 page from the access logs Monitor the error logs and report potential problems Verify that links from the site are active and go to where/what they claim "Webmaster" is currently an amorphous title, describing everything from a beginning programmer to a management-level marketing professional, depending on whom you talk to.

So, what then is the difference between a Web Master and a Web Manager?

6 Typical tasks of a web manager A web manager is responsible for managing a company‟s Internet Infrastructure. One of his/her typical tasks will
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be Internet/Intranet Policy Management (IPM), e.g. to determine the company's Internet and Intranet Policy (IP), it's Acceptable Use Policy (AUP), and other related policies. 6.1 Internet Acceptable Use Policies

An acceptable use policy (AUP) is a set of rules applied by many networks restricting the ways in which the network may be used. Enforcement of an AUP varies with the network. AUPs are set by any business, corporation or institution with a large user base and multiple computers, delimiting what is and is not permitted for use of the computers. Most providers of services on the Internet (ISP) include an AUP as one of the key provisions of their terms of service. Acceptable use policies are integral to the framework of information security policies; it is often common practice to ask new members of an organisation to sign an AUP before they are given access to its information systems. For this reason, an AUP must be concise and clear, while at the same time covering the most important points about what users are, and are not, allowed to do with the IT systems of the organisation. It should refer users to the more comprehensive security policy where relevant. It should also, and very notably, define what sanctions will be applied if a user breaks the AUP. Compliance with this policy should, as usual, be measured by regular audits. The arrival of the Internet and e-mail in the office has brought a vast, fast and efficient means of communication which is increasingly accepted as standard business practice. o o An Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) is a crucial tool in helping to manage access to the Internet / Intranet. An effectively written policy will: – – – – – – Clarify the level of service that can be expected; Clarify what is acceptable use; Provide guidance for management; Ideally the AUP should be written before the access to Internet service is introduced; It should be a positive statement developed from core business values, rather than a reactive document written in response to problems that have been encountered. It should complement existing policies.

Internet Policy architecture of the enterprise should cover: 1. Infrastructure How can we ensure that the Internet is affordable, reliable, and available for people around the world? 2. Governance How can we ensure that the Internet works properly? How will Internet standards be set? How will domain names and IP addresses be allocated? 3. Security How can we protect the data and systems on the Internet from malicious hackers, computer viruses, and other threats? 4. Privacy What can be done to protect the privacy of Internet users? 5. Content How can we protect children and others from pornographic, violent, and offensive material on the Internet? What is needed to protect intellectual property made available over the Internet? 6. Commerce How will contracts be made and enforced in cyberspace? How will consumer protection laws apply to online transactions? How will governments tax e-commerce? 6.2 Internet and E-Mail Policy – Why have a Policy? The reasons for introducing a policy governing the use of e-mail and access to the Internet are essentially two-fold: First, the potential liabilities arising from their use or misuse are not limited to the individual - an employer can be held liable for the acts of its employees carried out in the course of their employment. Secondly, rather than being regarded as a purely defensive measure, an e-mail policy can provide positive benefits in terms of promoting good practice and improving efficiency. South African – legislation – Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, 2002 << FYI not NB It's all about >> MANAGING THE RISK … WHAT IS THE EMPLOYER'S LIABILITY?
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An employer can find itself held liable for the actions of its employees. Anything done by a person in the course of his employment is treated as done by the employer, as well as by him, whether or not it is done with the employer's approval. Many employees assume that their e-mails are private and will be deleted automatically and completely at the push of a button. These assumptions are wrong. Careless, inappropriate or offensive communications could land them - and their employer – in Court or paying for an expensive settlement.  DEFAMATION o An untrue statement, published to a third party, which damages the reputation of a person or company or holds them up to hatred, ridicule or contempt. o o Defamatory e-mails, communicated to a potentially huge audience with ease and speed, can cause just such devastating damage to a company's business reputation. An employer which has provided staff with computers and access to the Internet will find it difficult to argue that it was not a publisher. … It is to the employees’ own benefit

The existence of a policy warning staff against sending offensive and defamatory e-mails is important!! E.g. “A person shall not be considered the author, editor or publisher of a statement if he is only involved: (1) in processing, making copies of, distributing or selling any electronic medium in or on which the statement is recorded, (2) as the operator of or provider of access to a communications system by means of which the statement is transmitted, or made available, by a person over whom he has no effective control."  STRESS-RELATED ILLNESS One of the main causes of stress in the workplace is bullying. Received abusive, aggressive or deliberately anti-social messages - so-called "flame mails"…  COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT – Copying a work without permission from the owner. Copying in relation to a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work means reproducing the work in any material form. This includes storing the work in any medium by electronic means." Includes down-loading files from the Internet or copying text into or attaching it to an e-mail. – – E-mail presents a serious risk of copyright infringement liability for employers. An employer will be liable for any employee who down-loads from the Internet software which is not properly licensed. The fact that the employer did not know that the employee had down-loaded the software will not be a defence.

 CONTRACTUAL COMMITMENTS Inadvertently commit a company to a contract if it appears to the other party that he has authority to do so.  ADVICE Employers can be liable for advice given by e-mail (even if unauthorised) just as if given in a letter.

6.3 –

Enforcing E-mail Usage Policies If a corporation chooses to monitor employee e-mail and Internet use, it should do so in conjunction with a policy distributed to all employees and should also restrict its monitoring activities to only that which is necessary to further its legitimate business objectives. In addition to monitoring, employers may implement “blocking” or “filtering” technology. By “blocking” employee Internet access to websites that are not business-related, corporations may prevent a reduction in productivity and avoid potential liability from employee access to and dissemination of improper content. Software products that can enforce Security and Usage Policies Software can be used to automatically add a disclaimer to all outbound messages



6.4 –

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Content filtering software can be employed to scan messages and attachments, and to take a number of different actions, such as block, quarantine, allow or encrypt. o to look for inappropriate language, such as profanity, racist, or defamatory statements o to look for evidence of Spam, chain letters, or virus hoaxes o to look for words, such as project names, etc. that indicate the transmission of company secrets Drafting the Policy GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Consider the following matters when preparing a policy: (1) Is Internet access necessary for all staff? (2) Is e-mail to be used exclusively for business purposes (3) Will the e-mailing of some sensitive messages be prohibited (4) Will the e-mail of certain employees be subject to closer scrutiny? (5) How long should e-mail be stored before being destroyed? (6) How will any breach of the rules be handled? (7) How will employees be educated?

6.5

6.6 Elements of an AUP A basic AUP should address the following issues: –Why does the business provide Internet access? –Who will be able to use the Internet? –What Internet services will be provided? –Will access be free or charged? –What types of resources can users access? –Is access filtered? –How are users expected to behave? –How will the AUP be implemented?

6.7 Objectives of an AUP The policy should: (1) Reduce the employees' expectation of privacy by providing explicitly that the e-mail system is company property and that the employer reserves the right to monitor and to access any messages in the system; (2) Warn employees of the risks of personal and company liability for improper use; (3) State that the system should never be used to send messages which are abusive, sexist, racist or defamatory; (4) Warn that e-mail messages may be read by others and that, accordingly, confidential information should never be sent by the Internet; (5) Warn that the mere deletion of a message or file may not fully eliminate it from the system; (6) Warn that unknown files or messages should never be introduced into the system without first being checked for viruses; (7) Encourage staff not to waste time and congest the system by sending trivial messages and carrying out unnecessary copying. (8) Finally, the policy must be supported by the education and training of staff not just in terms of the contents of the policy.

6.8 Typical content of an IP/AUP The following areas are among those most commonly addressed in an Internet and e-mail policy: (1) a statement that the IT facilities and systems are company property and are intended for business use (2) an indication of the extent to which personal use of the Internet and e-mail is allowed, perhaps at set times only and without detriment to an employee's work (3) guidelines on 'acceptable use' and in particular an outline of the types of inappropriate websites that are off-limits to employees - principally those which are obscene or pornographic - with a warning that employees should not access, download or disseminate any material which could be construed as offensive (4) a note that the loading or running of unlicensed software is forbidden and that copyright should be respected when downloading or forwarding information from the Internet (5) advice on e-mail etiquette and good housekeeping (6) a reminder to employees that the content of e-mails should not breach the company's harassment and
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equal opportunities policies and should not be defamatory, remembering that e-mails could be produced as evidence in court (7) a warning that anything of a confidential nature should not be communicated by e-mail without encryption (8) a need to ensure that e-mail attachments are strictly necessary and to guard against the risk of importing viruses (9) a requirement that disclaimers and signature files should be attached to external e-mails (10) a clear warning to employees that their e-mail and Internet activities may be subject to monitoring. <Students Self-study> E-MAIL policies … (1) A statement setting forth restrictions on the use of e-mail, e.g., whether it is to be used strictly for business purposes or whether occasional appropriate personal use is permitted. (2) A statement that all aspects of the employer‟s computer, technology and communications system are the property of the company. (3) A statement that no e-mail messages are considered private, except where it may benefit the company, and that employees should not expect that their messages will remain private. (4) A statement that the company reserves the right periodically to review or inspect employees‟ email and disclose the contents thereof to third parties with or without notice to the employee. (5) A statement reminding employees that e-mail messages should not contain any information or statements that they would not mind having a third party read or having read in open court. (6) A statement that certain types of e-mail messages, such as those containing pornography; derogatory, defamatory, sexual, racist, harassing, or offensive remarks; those that solicit for personal business ventures, religious or other personal causes, or jokes, cartoons and chain emails, are expressly prohibited. (7) A statement prohibiting the unauthorised transmission of company trade secrets, confidential information or privileged communications. (8) A statement prohibiting the unauthorised copying and distribution of copyrighted materials. (9) A statement specifying the routine deletion of e-mail after a specified time. (10) A statement that the automatic deletion of electronic records will be suspended and steps taken to preserve responsive records once a formal investigation or litigation is commenced. (11) A statement that misuse or abuse of the e-mail system will result in discipline up to and including termination. … Access Control Policy … – – – – – Access control policies can be created to protect network bandwidth by blocking Spam, large nonbusiness files (such as audio or video files) and other non-productive messages. Messages exceeding a specified threshold can be blocked, or delivery can be deferred until off-peak hours. Policies can be created to scan for viruses, and to clean infected files. Policies can be created to automatically encrypt sensitive information before it is sent. These policies can be based on the address or domain of the recipient, the attachment type, or content of the message or attachment, among other things. If you plan to use software to enforce your policies, you should add a statement to the policy that notified the employees of the use of such software, i.e.: “The company has put software and systems in place that can monitor and record Internet usage.”

6.9

Examples …of a SIMPLE policy… <The Organisation's name> provides access to a wide range of resources including those available from the Internet in its role as a provider of informational, educational, recreational and cultural enrichment opportunities for its users. or < The Organisation's name> provides free access to its Internet services for all library members. or The Internet is a global electronic network and < The Organisation's name> is not responsible for the accuracy, validity, legality or usefulness of information available.

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…of a DETAILED policy… (1) Transmission of any material in violation of any laws is prohibited. This includes, but is not limited to: copyrighted material, threatening or obscene material, pornographic material, or material protected by trade secret. (2) Use for any commercial purpose is also prohibited. (3) Permission of parents or guardians is required before children can use the Internet and the Library encourages parents/guardians to supervise their children's use of the Internet. (4) < The Organisation's name > provides its members with access to the World Wide Web, but it does not provide e-mail accounts, Internet Relay Chat or Newsgroups. (5) Printing and downloading services are not currently available. (6) And more…detail... (7) And more…detail... (8) And more…detail... (9) Etc (10) Etc (11) Etc …

7 Section A: Summary Depending on the type and size of a company or organisation the roles and size of a web team will differ. In a small company, for example, a web master might perform all the tasks described above, but in a larger company, the head of the web development team (web manager) relies on various people in roles that may be much more specialised, e.g. author, web master, system administrator, and many other roles including publishers, designers and programmers. Among a web manager's many roles he/she plays a vital role in Internet Policy Management (IPM). IPM has many facets such as the company's Internet Policy (IP), Acceptable Use Policy (AUP), E-mail Policy, etc. These policies generally are lists of rules outlining and limiting the ways in which a computer or network of computers can be used. It contains information regarding etiquette, legislation, privacy and personal accountability and is a formal agreement between the service provider, employer, government, or management and the user – users are typically expected to acknowledge and agree to, for example, all AUP stipulations. The aim is to make the technology user aware of the required procedures AND of his/her rights and responsibilities. SECTION B …'monkey-puzzle' exam questions

Portals and semantic technologies
8 Web development and semantic technologies Many people interested in website development want to get straight to the actual coding of the site (e.g. adding text and images to the pages right away). Page design certainly is an important aspect of the process; however, much of the success of a website is based on the overall planning of the site, long before the coding ever takes place. It is ESSENTIAL to first consider the purpose of the website and how you plan to get its intended message across to your audience. Part of web design and management is the study of the behaviour of website visitors also known as "Web Analytics". This refers to using data that is collected from a website to determine which aspects of the website work towards the business objectives, e.g. which landing pages encourage people to make a purchase. It is furthermore important to design your website according to "semantic web" principles. The Semantic Web (SW) is said to be an evolving extension of the Web as we know it. In the SW content can be expressed in a form that can be understood, interpreted and used by software agents, thus permitting them to find, share and integrate information more easily. Semantic technologies include taxonomies, ontology, clustering, etc. which are intended to provide CONTEXT to CONTENT by formally describing concepts, terms, and relationships within a given knowledge domain.

9 Website design mistakes

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Classic mistakes in managing the design of a website: 1) 2) 3) (Nielson 2005-2009) Not Knowing Why What the site should achieve Designing for Your Own Very important Persons Do not build a site that your top executives will love: they are not the target audience. Letting the Site Structure Mirror Your Organisational chart A classic sign of a mismanaged website is when the homepage has a button for each of the Senior Vice Presidents in the company. Outsourcing to Multiple Agencies Consistency is the key to usable interaction design Forgetting to Budget for Maintenance The Web currently changes so rapidly that a major redesign is needed at least once per year. Additional maintenance is needed throughout the year to bring fresh content online, reorganise and revise old pages Treating the Web as a Secondary Medium The only way to get great Web content is to have your staff develop the content for the Web first. Wasting Linking Opportunities Do not link to your homepage in your ads. Link directly to the product page from the ad. Treating Internet and Intranet Sites the Same Staff productivity. Confusing Market Research and Usability Engineering Watching four or five users as they actually use your site to perform real tasks – interactivity. Underestimating the Strategic Impact of the Web The Web enables completely new ways of doing business. Globalisation - the goal of everyone, everywhere; connected.

4) 5)

6)

7)

8) 9) 10)

10 Web design and development Three levels of web development: 1. Web management 2. Interaction design, i.e. navigation support, homepage layout, templates, search. 3. Content design, i.e. the actual writing on the pages, as well as the design of any other media types used to communicate content as opposed to site interaction. Seven steps in website development: 1. Define Goals A website is a unique representation of a business and creating an optimum site requires careful planning of how the available technology can provide the maximum benefit. The first step is a design review to ensure the goals are clearly defined so content, design, and structure can support those goals. 2. Identify Content Identifying clear and concise content is critical to keeping potential customers at the site and getting them to return again and again. It is essential to create content that provides an optimum interactive experience for the client or user. 3. Create Structure The structure of a website provides the basis or framework to apply the content, giving the site unity. Creating the structure based on the Goals and Content ensures a clear and consistent solution. Typically structure is developed by developing a „storyboard‟ of the site and simulating the website FLOW. 4. Site Development This is the where the website is built, tested, and reviewed by the customer to ensure it functions and conveys the desired goals, information, and identity of the company. 5. Publishing <CM/DM/DRM> This is the presentation process, namely taking web content (e.g. text, graphics, sound), and publishing it to the open Web or to the company‟s intranet site. Web publishing can range from simple HTML upload, to automatic layout creation tools, graphics packages, web design and automatic web content creation. Often used in conjunction with, or implemented through a combination of content management systems,
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personalisation tools, document archiving tools, enterprise search and retrieval solutions, and Digital Rights Management. 6. Promotion & SEO Published or posting on the Web will not get people to find or visit your website. One has to promote your website. This can be done by sending announcements to newsgroups and including your website address in your other marketing information, e.g. brochures, magazine ads, etc. Then there is Search Engine Optimisation, i.e. submitting the site to the appropriate search engines. SEO is aimed at increasing the amount of visitors to a website by ranking high in the search results of a search engine. The higher a website ranks in the results of a search, the greater the chance that site will be visited by a user. It is common practice for Web users to not click through pages and pages of search results, so where a site ranks in a search is essential for directing more traffic toward the site. 7. Maintenance & redesign Once the website is „completed‟, someone has to maintain it and keep things running. Especially if the website has dynamic content or users can interact with your website. Depending on the size and scale of the website, maintenance can be a full time job. Also, maintenance alone is not enough and website redesign is often necessary.


Students Self-study the Checklist


11 Website redesign checklist



All websites should be in a process of being redesigned or renovated. Here are some simple steps or a checklist to redesigning your website. CHECKLIST EVALUATE EXISTING SITE What are the success and failures of your existing site? Gather a few people to get an honest evaluation of your existing site. Write down three recent successes and three failures. BRAINSTORMING What new and fresh ideas are missing? Brainstorm with a team of people to get fresh ideas. Write down five ideas. WHY PEOPLE NOW VISIT Why are people visiting your site? Generally they are coming for information or are in need of your company's product or service but there can be many other reasons. List three reasons. DOES IT GRAB ATTENTION? Do you think visitors remember your site? Does it have something that gets attention and is memorable? Write one thing that will be remembered about your site. RESEARCH COMPETITORS What can I learn from my competitors? Get ideas about the latest web design, technology and communication concepts by looking analytically at competitor sites. TARGET AUDIENCE Who is the target audience? Who (age, interests, level of IT literacy, etc.) is your customer or audience? THEME AND 'LOOK AND FEEL' What is the mood or emotion that you want to communicate? CONTENT This is probably why most people come to your site. They come to read your content. It should be clear and well written. TRUSTWORTHY / CREDIBILITY What will make your visitor believe you? Testimonials by reputable companies. A list of previous customers.
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KEEP SEARCH ENGINES IN MIND Decide on keywords. Apply Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) rules. ANALYZE VISITOR KEYWORDS Look at your site statistics and see if the keywords entered by your visitors are matching the target audiences you identified. ANALYZE POPULARITY OF PAGES Look at your site statistics and carefully examine the popularity of the pages. ANALYZE VISITORS' ACTIONS Are your visitors coming back and are they spending time at your site? If your visitors are not returning or they are only spending a few seconds at your site then something is wrong. NAVIGATION Can the visitor find what is needed quickly and easily? PERSONAL INTEREST Do you have a place where visitors can find out what is behind the scenes? Some people may want to know who is behind this website. What does their office look like? FRESH NEWS Do your visitors feel they are visiting an active site? PRODUCT AND SERVICE INFORMATION Are you making it easy for your customers to do business with you? Can they find what they need quickly? Can they respond easily? INFORMATION Are you adding value to your visitor? To keep your visitors returning it is important to think of how you can serve him rather than what my company can get from him. INTERACTION Can your visitors exchange information with you? If you sell a product can the customer find out how the order is progressing? COLLABORATION Can your visitors learn from each other? Collaboration is one of the most important advantages being discovered on the Internet. INTERNATIONAL AUDIENCE You have to know - your audience IS global – therefore you need to consider a few things. First, many people don't have fast Internet access, so the site needs to have fewer graphic and other slow loading items. Second, monitor sizes in some countries average 14"-15". The design should take this into consideration. Finally, many phrases and other culture things may not make sense (South Africa?). SPEED What needs to be compromised for the sake of speed? Site speed and server speed is the major bottleneck on the Internet. GRAPHICS AND ANIMATION Are the graphics able to load fast? Do the graphics communicate a concept? Is it really necessary? COMPONENTS Is the website taking advantage of components like a discussion forum, poll, survey, guestbook, chat and more? Stickiness… MAKE IT EASY FOR CUSTOMERS TO DO BUSINESS WITH YOU Do know what your customer is thinking? Able to get information required to make a decision, e.g. to purchase from your site? How many steps involved in ordering / adding to chart? Obstacles?
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12 Website design and the Semantic Web, the importance of Content in Context Bennett 2006:1 and Crosman 2006a:1 The Web is still a mass of unstructured data with little to link groups of documents together, and no way for computers to manipulate the information in web pages. The Semantic Web project aims to solve this problem by adding machine-readable content to the web. Computer scientists and a growing collection of start-up companies are finding new ways to mine human intelligence. Their goal is to add a layer of meaning on top of the existing Web that would make it less of a catalogue and more of a guide – and even provide the foundation for systems that can reason in a human fashion. That level of artificial intelligence, with machines doing the thinking instead of simply following commands, has eluded researchers for more than half a century. But nowadays, within companies and their websites, a semantic layer can be initiated – albeit with much time and care – with the development of ontologies and taxonomies that provide definitions and structure to categories of content.

12.1 Taxonomies

Crosman 2006b:1 Search engines don't know the difference between reading glasses and drinking glasses, but a taxonomy puts your query in context. Mention the word "taxonomy" and some people will think you mean stuffing dead animals (as in taxidermy). Although the taxonomy may not be well known, taxonomies (or sets of categories) are used to organise quantities of information on the Internet, in portals and in enterprise data repositories. Taxonomies bring context to words, topic areas and search results. Finding a piece of information within a large collection of data without a taxonomy is like driving in unknown territory without the benefit of a map or road signs: You may eventually stumble upon your destination, but chances are you'll encounter a lot of dead ends and detours first. A taxonomy provides a hierarchical structure of categories, from general to specific. In biology, for instance, foxes are classified under the kingdom Animalia, the phylum Chordata, the class Mammalia, the order Carnivora, the family Canidae, the genus Vulpes, and the species Fulva. If the context was COMEDY… then you would know the meaning of "Redd Foxx". If the context was ALCOHOL … then you would classify "red fox" as beer and if it was BUSINESS you would classify it under "Event Management". According to Crosman (2006b:1, 3) an enterprise taxonomy or 'semantic classification system' attempts to "classify virtually all information in an organisation and brings it under one structure". A taxonomy is only useful if it can be
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consistently applied.

There are two major challenges in matching information to categories: 1. Tagging the item; and 2. Matching tags to the appropriate categories.

Advantages of taxonomies  SS Crosman 2006b:4-5 Narrow enterprise search: By XOL (XML Ontology Language) tagging information according to the enterprise taxonomy – with the aid of extraction and categorisation technologies – results can be quickly narrowed down within categories. Improve site navigation: It often turns out that available products or services are incorrectly (out of context) listed under the 'right' headings. Taxonomy helps make sure people coming to your site can actually find the products or information they're looking for. Eliminate redundancy: A taxonomy provides companywide terminology, encompassing synonyms and alternative expressions, as well as structure to which information from many sources can be mapped. Maximise the value of intellectual assets: In knowledge-intensive industries, such as publishing, consulting and financial services, intellectual assets gain value the more they're used. A taxonomy organises and eases discovery of assets, thereby maximizing reuse. Support customer-facing employees: Salespeople can be much more effective if they can quickly find pertinent information before calling on existing or potential customers. And in the call center, time is money, yet customer-service representatives (CSRs) constantly talk to customers who don't know the proper nomenclature (classification and categorisation) for the company's products and services. A taxonomy can help CSRs interpret queries and find requested data. Make corporate resources more accessible: HR, IT and other support areas on corporate intranets are often loaded with terminology only understood within those departments. Taxonomies standardise terminology and can help publishers present information in a logical way. Ease mergers and acquisition: When two companies merge, it can be hard to meld product lines and cultures; people in different organisations use disparate vocabularies. A unified taxonomy can help provide a common view. Support globalisation and localisation: Translation and localisation efforts are difficult enough. By establishing a global taxonomy, you can lower translation costs, maximise content reuse and avoid inconsistencies in brand building and corporate communications. Streamline business processes: The amount of paperwork involved in drug trials, legal proceedings, legislative or regulatory proceedings and other complex processes can be overwhelming. The hierarchy inherent in taxonomy can at least ease navigation, and help researchers and analysts avoid working at cross purposes. Speed legal discoveries: Lawsuits often lead to discovery requests for all documents related to a specific product or customer within a specified time period. Judges expect swift compliance, yet many companies pay steep fines for failing to comply in a timely fashion. A taxonomy can narrow and speed the search.



 













12.2 Clusters For those companies who can't or don't wish to invest the time and effort necessary to build taxonomies, clustering offers an alternative (Crosman 2006b:3). For a demonstration of how a clustering engine works, go to http://www.clusty.com. Type a query in the search field and you'll see how the clustering algorithm groups the results by subject heading and number of hits within each along the left side of the screen. If you choose a "tag
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cloud" presentation, you'll see the topic clusters displayed as a field of words, with the largest, boldest fonts indicating the highest hit results. The categories may not be exactly what you would have expected, but it's a useful filter that helps you quickly find the information you're after.

12.3 Ontologies Crosman 2006b:4 Ontology language is seen as a major technology for the future implementation of a Semantic Web. It facilitates greater machine interpretability of Web content and comes into play when accuracy is vital. An ontology not only organises information, it provides precise definitions of terms and logical rules for relationships between terms. It can help you integrate or communicate between two sets of data or disparate taxonomies by a establishing a shared understanding. Visionaries say the Semantic Web/Web 3.0 will some day be informed by a massive ontology that will provide a common way for machines to process information on the Web and understand its meaning. In the meantime, ontologies and their simpler, more down-to-earth cousins, taxonomies, are being deployed within companies, in portals and in intranets to make documents and content easier to find and understand.

13 Web design and Web analytics Web analytics is the measurement of the behaviour of visitors to a website (e.g. log analysis). In a commercial context, it especially refers to the measurement of which aspects of the website work towards the business objectives, e.g. which „landing pages‟ or „drop-ins‟ encourage people to make a purchase. Many different vendors provide web analytics software and services. One an example of web analytics software is WebTrends. Typical web analytics concepts: Hit – A request for a file from the web server. Visit / Session – A series of requests from the same uniquely identified client with a set timeout. Visitor / Unique Visitor – The uniquely identified client generating requests on the web server or viewing pages. Repeat Visitor – A visitor that has made at least one previous visit. New Visitor – A visitor that has not made any previous visits. (NetIQ 2003)

WebTrends (an example of WA software) enables the Web Manager to: 1. Gain greater insight on website users‟ activity and usage of the site, e.g. duration, time, date. 2. Monitor website „health‟ and network infrastructure – inactive pages, disconnected pages, URL errors. 3. Manage website performance intelligently. 4. Identify „best‟ path through site. 5. Identify top referrers to site.

WebTrends - examples:

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14 Section B: Summary One of the best tools you have as a web manager/master is website statistics or analytics programmes. Companies use log analysers and other „web stats tools‟ (such as WebTrends, which is a more sophisticated Web Analytics product than the free ware products) to collect valuable information like which file types on their servers are getting hit the most, what page is getting the most hits, the number of hits they get from each search engine, search key phrases people are using to find their site, and which sites are sending their site the most traffic. To any company, this information is extremely valuable for long term website success and for effective online business. Additionally, Semantic Web technologies are also crucial for long term website success and for effective online business. In future SW applications will rely on sophisticated ontologies that bring context and meaning to information. As information proliferates, context and meaning is crucial in information extraction and information retrieval.

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