Information Management

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Paper VI . INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND COMPUTER APPLICATIONS Assignment . I 1. (a) Role of computers in management. At the middle management level (if there exists one), MIS would deal with an organized set of procedures to provide information for middle managers to support their operations and decisionmaking within the organization. At this level, inputs for MIS would be both processed and raw-data and some management-originated data, along with preprogrammed models. Best wide angle digital camera can help middle management level to use computerization. The MIS process would involve report generation data management, simple models and statistical methods. The outputs from MIS would be filtered and screened for semi-routine decisions and replies to simple management queries. At the shop-floor management level, transaction processing system (TPS) is a computer-based system that would capture, classify, store, maintain, update and retrieve simple transaction data for record keeping and for feeding MIS and DSS. The TPS would have transaction data as inputs. The processing for TPS would involve classification, codification, sorting, merging, adding, deleting, and updating. Outputs for TPS would be detailed reports relating to routine decisions and processed data. Best compact digital camera are good at shop floor management level. At the clerical level, office and other automation control system can be in operation. Office automation system (OAS) is simple in an automated office having multiple functions, where the integrated and computer-aided system allows many office activities to be performed with electronics equipment. Best ultra compact digital camera are good solutions at clerical level.The OAS would inputs such as appointments, documents, addresses, etc. The OAS processing would be scheduling word-processor, data storage and retrieval. Outputs from OAS would be schedules, memoranda, bulk mail and administrative reports. (b) Operating systems. An operating system (OS) is software, consisting of programs and data, that runs on computers and manages the computer hardware and provides common services for efficient execution of various application software. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between application programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware, but will frequently call the OS or be interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on almost any device that contains a computer— from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers. Examples of popular modern operating systems for personal computers are Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, and GNU/Linux. (c) Computerized General Ledger System. Computerized accounting offers several more benefits than manual accounting; accountants process more information quicker, formulas verify calculated totals and errors are less common. Accounting systems also are customizable by industry, allowing accountants the opportunity to use preset templates for their general ledger. Accountants also can store several years of financial

information with relative ease, giving them the opportunity to review previous year's information without sorting through stacks of paper ledgers. Most companies will use a computerized accounting system for recording and presenting their financial information. This system allows companies to record business transactions accurately and generate financial reports quickly for management review.

(d) Specific legislation on privacy.
The Privacy Act 1988 is the principal piece of legislation providing protection of personal information in the federal public sector and in the private sector (other statutory provisions also affect privacy). There are also separate privacy regimes applying to state and territory public sectors. The Privacy Act provides 11 Information Privacy Principles for the federal public sector and 10 National Privacy Principles for private sector organisations. These Privacy Principles deal with all stages of the processing of personal information, setting out standards for the collection, use, disclosure, quality and security of personal information. They also create rights of access to, and correction of, an individual’s own personal information. The present Information Technology Act, 2000 does contain some provisions which deal with data base security and privacy for instance Section 43, 43 A, 66E and 72A. However, these provisions deals with the security of the electronic records, e-commerce transactions and web content alone and do not address ‘individual privacy’. As the organisations, government and non government acquires more personal information store in electronic form, privacy and confidentiality have become urgent issues. The privacy of an individual should be given due respect and should be protected by uniform, national legislation. Privacy legislation needs to be constructed carefully and prudently to protect the privacy of individuals, while facilitating the ongoing national mission to ensure the security of the state that can benefit us all.

(e) Classification of information.
Classified information is sensitive information to which access is restricted by law or regulation to particular classes of persons. A formal security clearance is required to handle classified documents or access classified data. The clearance process requires a satisfactory background investigation. There are typically several levels of sensitivity, with differing clearance requirements. This sort of hierarchical system of secrecy is used by virtually every national government. The act of assigning the level of sensitivity to data is called data classification.

A distinction could be made between formal security classification and privacy markings such as
"Commercial in confidence". Some corporations and non-government organizations also assign sensitive information to multiple levels of protection, either from a desire to protect trade secrets, or because of laws and regulations governing various matters such as personal privacy, sealed legal proceedings and the timing of financial information releases.

(f) Subprograms.
Subprograms provide modularity i.e. they let you break a program down into manageable, welldefined modules. In addition, subprograms promote reusability and maintainability. Once validated, a subprogram can be used with confidence in any number of applications. If its definition changes,

only

the

subprogram

is

affected.

A procedure is a subprogram that performs a specific action. A procedure can take parameters of type IN, OUT and IN OUT howeevr a procedure cannot return a value. If it has to return one then it should be in the form of an IN OUT parameter. 2. Explain different types of software. Explain the main features of LOTUS 1-2-3. There are many different types of software, which can be a little confusing for the uninitiated. Following is a brief definition of each type, and the differences between them. Retail software: This type of software is sold off the shelves of retail stores. It includes expensive packaging designed to catch the eye of shoppers and, as such, is generally more expensive. An advantage of retail software is that it comes with printed manuals and installation instructions, missing in hard-copy form from virtually every other category of software. However, when hard-copy manuals and instructions are not required, a downloadable version off the Internet will be less expensive, if available. OEM software: OEM stands for "Original Equipment Manufacturer" and refers to software sold in bulk to resellers, designed to be bundled with hardware. For example, Microsoft has contracts with various companies including Dell Computers, Toshiba, Gateway and others. Microsoft sells its operating systems as OEM software at a reduced price, minus retail packaging, manuals and installation instructions. Resellers install the operating system before systems are sold and the OEM CD is supplied to the buyer. The "manual" consists of the Help menu built into the software itself. OEM software is not legal to buy unbundled from its original hardware system. Shareware: This software is downloadable from the Internet. Licenses differ, but commonly the user is allowed to try the program for free, for a period stipulated in the license, usually thirty days. At the end of the trial period, the software must be purchased or uninstalled. Some shareware incorporates an internal clock that disables the program after the trial period unless a serial number is supplied. Other shareware designs continue to work with "nag" screens, encouraging the user to purchase the program. Crippleware: This software is similar to shareware except that key features will cease to work after the trial period has ended. For example, the "save" function, the print function, or some other vital feature necessary to use the program effectively may become unusable. This "cripples" the program. Other types of crippleware incorporate crippled functions throughout the trial period. A purchase is necessary to unlock the crippled features. Demo software: Demo software is not intended to be a functioning program, though it may allow partial functioning. It is mainly designed to demonstrate what a purchased version is capable of doing, and often works more like an automated tutorial. If a person wants to use the program, they must buy a fully functioning version. Adware: This is free software that is supported by advertisements built into the program itself. Some adware requires a live Internet feed and uses constant bandwidth to upload new advertisements. The user must view these ads in the interface of the program. Disabling the ads is against the license agreement. Adware is not particularly popular.

Spyware: Spyware software is normally free, but can be shareware. It clandestinely "phones home" and sends data back to the creator of the spyware, most often without the user's knowledge. For example, a multimedia player might profile what music and video files the software is called upon to play. This information can be stored with a unique identification tag associated with the specific program on a user's machine, mapping a one-to-one relationship. The concept of spyware is very unpopular, and many programs that use spyware protocols were forced to disclose this to users and offer a means to turn off reporting functions. Other spyware programs divulge the protocols in their licenses, and make acceptance of the spyware feature a condition of agreement for using the software. Freeware: Freeware is also downloadable off the Internet and free of charge. Often freeware is only free for personal use, while commercial use requires a paid license. Freeware does not contain spyware or adware. If it is found to contain either of these, it is reclassified as such. Public domain software: This is free software, but unlike freeware, public domain software does not have a specific copyright owner or license restrictions. It is the only software that can be legally modified by the user for his or her own purposes. Features of LOTUS 1-2-3 The acceptance of the IBM PC following its introduction in August, 1981, began slowly, because most of the programs available for it were translations from other computer models. Things changed dramatically with the introduction of Lotus 1-2-3 in November, 1982, and release for sale in January, 1983. Since it was written especially for the IBM PC, it had good performance[citation needed] and became the killer app for this PC. Lotus 1-2-3 drove sales of the PC due to the improvements in speed and graphics compared to VisiCalc on the Apple II. Lotus 1-2-3, along with its competitor Borland Quattro, soon displaced VisiCalc. Lotus 1-2-3 was released on January 26, 1983, started outselling then-most-popular VisiCalc the very same year, and for a number of years was the leading spreadsheet for DOS. 3. Explain the characteristics of inventory. Explain the design of an inventory system with a suitable example. An inventory system may be as simple as a clipboard with checkmarks, or as complex as an automated system, interfaced with a company's enterprise software system, with alerts when inventory is low. Sometimes a clipboard is good enough, but large operations require more sophisticated systems. Inventory Management is an eCommerce system develop by Ydeveloper. Ydeveloper has deeply researched and developed an Inventory Management as a dynamic solution for all eCommerce Business Owners. Ydeveloper is in a business of designing and developing eCommerce websites. From initial stage Ydeveloper has a dream to develop a system which can easily manage complete product management & order management of all different platforms of e-Business like Yahoo, Amazon & eBay. Ultimate Inventory Management System became reality. Time Saving: Our Inventory Management System is developed with a primary aim of 'Saving Time'. With our system, huge time can be save because in our system we have append three major platform of product selling i.e. Yahoo Store, Amazon and eBay. Only add category List and necessary Products Information once and co-related with different platform, our inventory system

will automatically generate .CSV format file for all three different platform which can be easily export. Import Facility: In inventory system we have facility to import .CSV to our system, which save additional time if you have your .CSV file ready with you. Just directly import and co-relate different field; finally get .CSV file of all three product selling platform No Complication: Major complication part for eBusiness owners is adding product or managing products section. In our inventory management system no complicated part is involved in product sections; we have take immerse care in this section and nullified all complications which make this system accurate and unique. It is easy to add products and manage complete Product section in our system. Fetch Order: Our Inventory Management System has a facility to fetch order detail from email address provided in product selling platform. This is a facility which is rarely found in any inventory system. This facility is very much customized. Report Section: Our inventory management also has report generation section which is well programmed and fetches accurate data from all three products selling platform. You can view detail information about sold items, revenue and mainly gives facility of comparing report with previous day, week, month and year, i.e. you can comparing report of two successive month, week, year and day. Inventory Management System, additional facility in our report section is owner can have hard copy of report by acquiring print of required report. Custom Report: Custom report gives a facility to getting a report of specific date range according to requirement of any product selling platform like Yahoo, Amazon and eBay collectively or individually Multiple Store: In our inventory additional advantage is you can add multiple store and manage Product Management, Order Management, and Report of all different stores. Many other facilities can be incorporated in our Inventory Management System like messaging your order detail in mail, SMS etc. which we have done for some of our clients worldwide Design of an inventory system 1. Develop sound physical processes and make them easy for employees to follow. Whether the warehouse is storing moth balls or MP3 players, the processes are the same. And the No. 1 and most important rule that must be followed is "write down everything you do and do everything you write down." Without this simple concept in place and being adhered to no software system in the world will be effective. 2. Create a secure and controlled environment for the inventory to reside in, this will give any system a much better chance to work effectively. The warehouse should have controlled entry and exit points so that any material entering or leaving the warehouse can only travel through certain exit points. Any time material moved in or out of the warehouse ,must be documented, and although the use of radio frequency scanning can help to reduce errors and data entry time it is never a replacement for diligence and documentation on the part of the employees. 3. Gather as much information as possible about the warehouse, the activities of the warehouse and its main responsibilities. Interview employees, work with employees as they perform their duties and document the formal and the informal process. The informal process are all the things that go on to make things happen which management is not aware of or ignores as only happening once in a while. The informal processes are what will make or break any inventory system if they are not made formal or done away with. 4. Design the system to be as user freindly as possible. Most inventory systems are way too complicated for the warehouse using them and entering data becomes almost a detriment to the process as well as the data is rarely used or never used. Or the system is so difficult for the operators to use that the employees just give up at trying to use them as a tool to aid in

inventory management. The system being designed must be allow for ease of use at all the critical exit and entrance points to the warehouse. 5. Implement the new system with a plan in place that has been carefully thoughtout and will cause as little interuption to the operation as possible. Include a physical count of all inventory that is going to be managed via the system. The processes for documenting transactions must also be in place before going live so as to ensure that once the system is live the data can be kept accurate and real time. 4. What is perverse software? Describe the characteristics of computer viruses. Explain the methods of virus detection and removal. It is a programme which is causing hindrances of other programme executionin such a way resulting in modifiction or complete destruction of datawithout the user's intention or even sabotaging the operational System Viruses Threat Level - Intermediate to Severe A computer virus is a piece of malicious code that adds itself to other existing programs, including operating systems. Computer viruses spread quickly and wreck havoc on computer systems. Including potential destruction of operating systems and data. There are different types of viruses and they range from being a nuisance that constantly displays pop-ups to being a real severe danger that deletes system files, attaches to registries, destroys ability to log into the Internet and even destroying the computer's operating system along with all the data that is on it. Unless you have completely backed-up the data on your laptop, recovering that data will be impossible if you have to re-install the operating system after a virus infection. While there are hundreds of different types of viruses with various levels of dangers, one of the most dangerous is the Trojan Horse, all though threat severity levels vary with the different types of Trojans, basically they are all dangerous and should always be protected against. Unfortunately some Trojans infect computers and cause such damage that it becomes irreversible and a reinstall of the entire operating system becomes necessary. Many viruses slow down computer performance tremendously and especially Internet Browsers, there are other causes however for slow computers so do not assume that it is a virus. The best way to detect if you have a virus is by installing and running anti-virus software. The best protection against computer viruses is prevention, early detection and removal. A good anti-virus or Malware removal program can protect computers and provide peace of mind when surfing the net. A computer virus is a program that damages your computer. There are a number of symptoms your computer will show if you have a virus (keep in mind though that just because your computer has the symptoms it doesn't mean you have a virus, only an Antivirus program can tell you if you have a virus). * If the computer is working hard and you have nothing running * If your computer is unusually slow all of a sudden * Strange things happen on your computer such as random images on the screen, weird unexplained sounds, flashes of colour, etc * You notice your hard drive free space is quickly filling up * Phantom files are being created or downloaded

* Programs stop working or become corrupted To prevent viruses keep your antivirus up to date and do at least one scan of your system per day. If you don't have an antivirus program I recommend ClamWin. It is an excellent program that was designed by a community of security cautious programmers that didn't want to rely on antivirus programs from companies that wouldn't let you see their code (what are they hiding?). Assignment . II 5. Discuss the three models of MIS and compare them. The role of a management information system (MIS) is to provide a manager with sufficient information to make informed decisions to help him to carry out the above functions. The best definition of an MIS is: The role of a management information system is to convert data from internal and external sources into information that can be used to aid in making effective decisions for planning, directing and controlling. We need to make the distinction between a data-processing system and an information system: • Data processing systems record day too day transactions, e.g. sale of a CD to a customer. • Operational Information systems read the collected data and do things like producing lists of items that need to be re-ordered. • The MIS will analyse the sales data to highlight sales trends of different product lines, to enable decisions to be made as to whether the product needs special promotion, or whether it should be discontinued. The MIS deals with internal and external information. The internal information can be got quite easily from the various systems on the company network, e.g. sales figures for each product line. The external information is gathered from: • Intelligence about competitors’ activities. This can come through reading articles in the press, leaks, or even industrial espionage. • Information about population shifts. As the population gets older, the less likely they are to be interested in pop-music or customising cars, but are more likely to be interested in weight-loss products or holidays for the over 50s. • Economic and social factors. Sales of cars would go down in an area where a major employer had just closed down a plant. • Government Legislation. Financial forecasts would change if the minimum wage rose. The MIS can be used to gather information from both formal and informal flows of information. A formal flow of information is one in which a procedure is adopted, e.g. the downloading of sales figures from several branches first thing on a Monday morning. External data can be collected using specialised data collection agencies such as Dun and Bradstreet who produce economic data for academic and commercial organisations. Formal flows can also come from people working on the same document at several locations, or by use of e-mail, or by use of company intranets. Informal information flows come from chance meetings, reading magazines or newspapers, or watching the news on TV. There are a number of ways that computer projects can be managed. We will look at the systems life cycle



• •

the waterfall model prototyping. The systems life cycle was the traditional way in which projects were carried out. Each stage was completed before the next was started. You will have done something fairly similar with your project. This system had its drawbacks, in that experience in a later stage could not inform work that had been done previously. In the waterfall model, it is possible to rework earlier stages in the light of experience gained at a later stage. Each stage is signed off and the next stage is proceeded with. However the end user is rarely involved in the development stage, even though they may well be involved in signing off. It is therefore critical that the analysts and the programmers understand the end-users’ requirements. This can be quite difficult with the waterfall model. The waterfall model has disadvantages, which can be overcome using prototyping, in which a model of the system is developed in partnership with the end-user. The features are worked out with the end user using a prototype, and the end user can have a considerable input into the development of a project. The approach is shown below: Benefits are: • Misunderstandings are detected at early stages • the user will notice any missing functions, incomplete or inconsistent requirements. • can be built quickly to demonstrate systems • it can be used for training before the system is finished Drawbacks are: • Project management can be discoordinated or even sloppy. • Meetings with end users can become time consuming. • The final result could be completely different to what was requested in the first place. There are several different ways of prototyping: • Piloting – Test the feasibility of the design proposal • Modelling – building to develop an understanding of the user’s requirements • Throw-away prototyping – Pilot and modelling are throw away types – once they achieve their purpose the real system is built. • Evolutionary prototyping – each prototype built is a step closer to solution. 6. Explain the role of MIS at various management levels. What is a data flow diagram? Explain its use in system design. Despite the vast improvements in information technology, computers (on which modern IT is based) cannot as yet take over business management. However, business information systems have transformed the effectiveness, power and efficiency of management. In an earlier article on business management software, we looked at surface aspects of how modern management information systems help businesses. We saw how computers speeded up and improved the quality of operations. We also mentioned the existence of broad categories of

business software - office suites, functional software such as accounting and inventory, and industry software such as retail management software. In this article, we seek to look more analytically at the role of information management systems. Decision Support, Problem Analysis and Overall Control Business managers often need to make decisions that can affect the business' fortunes one way or other. For example, a company with sales outlets or distributors spread over a wide geographic area might want to optimize the logistical operations of delivering merchandise to the outlets. The best solution might be affected by numerous factors such as demand patterns, availability of merchandise, distances involved and the option of using external carriers (who can find two way loads and might prove a lesser cost option over long distances) instead of own vehicles. While it might be possible to use complex mathematical formulas by hand to compute the best solution, computers transform the whole process into a routine task of feeding certain information as input and obtaining suggestions for best solutions as output. The task can typically be done in a few minutes (instead of hours or even days) and it becomes possible to examine several alternatives before deciding upon one that seems most realistic. Identifying problems and analyzing the factors that cause them also has been transformed by modern computer information systems. In a typical MIS environment, standard reports are generated in a routine manner comparing actual performance against original estimates. The software that generates the report can be instructed to highlight exceptions, i.e. significant variations between original estimates and actual performance. Managers will thus become aware of problem areas in the daily course of their work simply by looking at the reports they receive, without having to do detailed data collection and computations themselves. Identifying the factors responsible for the problem can also be routinized to some extent by using such tools as variance analysis. Variance analysis is an element of standard costing system that splits deviations from estimates (or standards) into causative factors such as increase in price of materials used, excessive usage of materials, unexpected machine downtimes, etc. With such a detailed report, managers can delve deeper into the problem factor, such as why there was excessive usage of materials. Control is also exercised through variance analysis. Budgets are prepared for all business operations by concerned managers working in a coordinated fashion. For example, estimated sales volumes will determine the levels of production; production levels will determine raw material purchases; and so on. With good information system management, it then becomes possible to generate timely reports comparing actual sales, production, raw material deliveries, etc against estimated levels. The reports will help managers to keep a watch on things and take corrective action quickly. For example, the production manager will become aware of falling sales (or rising sales) of particular products and can prepare to make adjustments in production schedules, and purchasing and inventory managers will become quickly aware of any mounting inventories of unused materials. MIS thus enhances the quality of communication all around and can significantly improve the effectiveness of operations control. Effective MIS Involves Humans and Computers Working together

The major aspect to note is that MIS provides only the information; it is the responsibility of concerned managers to act on the information. It is the synergy between efficient, accurate and speedy equipment and humans with commonsense, intelligence and judgment that really gives power to MIS. A data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data through an information system. DFDs can also be used for the visualization of data processing (structured design). On a DFD, data items flow from an external data source or an internal data store to an internal data store or an external data sink, via an internal process. A DFD provides no information about the timing of processes, or about whether processes will operate in sequence or in parallel. It is therefore quite different from a flowchart, which shows the flow of control through an algorithm, allowing a reader to determine what operations will be performed, in what order, and under what circumstances, but not what kinds of data will be input to and output from the system, nor where the data will come from and go to, nor where the data will be stored (all of which are shown on a DFD). Developing a data flow diagram Event partitioning approach Event partitioning was described by Edward Yourdon in Just Enough Structured Analysis.[5]

A context level Data flow diagram created using Select SSADM. This level shows the overall context of the system and its operating environment and shows the whole system as just one process. It does not usually show data stores, unless they are "owned" by external systems, e.g. are accessed by but not maintained by this system, however, these are often shown as external entities.[6] Level 1 (high level diagram) This level (level 1) shows all processes at the first level of numbering, data stores, external entities and the data flows between them. The purpose of this level is to show the major and high-level processes of the system and their interrelation. A process model will have one, and only one, level1 diagram. A level-1 diagram must be balanced with its parent context level diagram, i.e. there must be the same external entities and the same data flows, these can be broken down to more detail in the level 1, example the "enquiry" data flow could be split into "enquiry request" and "enquiry results" and still be valid.[6] This is all about using your creativity. Level 2 (low level diagram)

A Level 2 Data flow diagram showing the "Process Enquiry" process for the same system. This level is a decomposition of a process shown in a level-1 diagram, as such there should be a level-2 diagram for each and every process shown in a level-1 diagram. In this example, processes 1.1, 1.2 & 1.3 are all children of process 1. Together they wholly and completely describe process 1, and combined must perform the full capacity of this parent process. As before, a level-2 diagram must be balanced with its parent level-1 diagram.[6] 7. Explain string handling functions with suitable examples. Explain the basic features of COBOL. There are number of string handling functions present in string.h. In other words if a programmer uses any of the function present in string.h then they must include the header file as All the string handling functions are prototyped in: #include <string.h> The common functions are described below: char *stpcpy (const char *dest,const char *src) -- Copy one string into another. int strcmp(const char *string1,const char *string2) - Compare string1 and string2 to determine alphabetic order. char *strcpy(const char *string1,const char *string2) -- Copy string2 to stringl. char *strerror(int errnum) -- Get error message corresponding to specified error number. int strlen(const char *string) -- Determine the length of a string. char *strncat(const char *string1, char *string2, size_t n) -- Append n characters from string2 to stringl. int strncmp(const char *string1, char *string2, size_t n) -- Compare first n characters of two strings. char *strncpy(const char *string1,const char *string2, size_t n) -- Copy first n characters of string2 to stringl . int strcasecmp(const char *s1, const char *s2) -- case insensitive version of strcmp(). int strncasecmp(const char *s1, const char *s2, int n) -- case insensitive version of strncmp(). The use of most of the functions is straightforward, for example: char *str1 = "HELLO"; char *str2; int length;

length = strlen("HELLO"); /* length = 5 */ (void) strcpy(str2,str1); Note that both strcat() and strcopy() both return a copy of their first argument which is the destination array. Note the order of the arguments is destination array followed by source array which is sometimes easy to get the wrong around when programming. The strcmp() function lexically compares the two input strings and returns: Less than zero -- if string1 is lexically less than string2 Zero -- if string1 and string2 are lexically equal Greater than zero -- if string1 is lexically greater than string2 This can also confuse beginners and experience programmers forget this too. The strncat(), strncmp,() and strncpy() copy functions are string restricted version of their more general counterparts. They perform a similar task but only up to the first n characters. Note the the NULL terminated requirement may get violated when using these functions, for example: char *str1 = "HELLO"; char *str2; int length = 2; (void) strcpy(str2,str1, length); /* str2 = "HE" */

COBOL (pronounced /ˈkoʊbɒl/) is one of the oldest programming languages. Its name is an acronym for COmmon Business-Oriented Language, defining its primary domain in business, finance, and administrative systems for companies and governments. The COBOL 2002 standard includes support for object-oriented programming and other modern language features COBOL Report Writer is COBOL's own built-in, non-procedural facility for the production of printed output. It enables you to define and produce all the listings, reports, and displayed summaries normally required from a COBOL application, but in far less time. COBOL Report Writer allows many more printed outputs, previously produced using stand-alone, non-COBOL report generators. It reduces the time and effort needed to code and test a COBOL program with printed output. Originally, report writer appeared in 1961 and later entered the COBOL 1968 Standard. This version provided basic features that users of accounting machines were accustomed to, such as simple accumulation, cross-footing, counter-rolling, and automatic page numbering.

COBOL Report Writer contains all the facilities of the standard COBOL 1968, COBOL 1974, and COBOL 1985 report writer plus IBM extensions. It includes features that were added in various stages since 1974, many of which appear in the proposed COBOL 2002 Standard. It is suitable for the more varied and complex outputs needed by modern applications. COBOL Report Writer includes the whole of the COBOL 1968, COBOL 1974, and COBOL 1985 report writer standards. If you use a COBOL compiler that has report writer built in, your programs should work just as they did before. COBOL Report Writer has many new features that are not a part of these standards as well as enhancements to the original features. COBOL 1968 features that were deleted or changed in the COBOL 1974 and COBOL 1985 Standards are retained in this product. 8. Before embanking on integrated information system projects, top managers often know which employees are likely to be laid off. However, in an effort to with the cooperation of employees during system development, managers often provide verbal assurances of job security to employees who will be laid off a few months often after the system becomes operational. Manager often find themselves in a dilemma. Being truthful about coming layoff many interfere with employee cooperation. How would you as a manager, handle this situation?

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