Information System Project Management

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This report examines the implementation plan for introducing WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) for a healthcare facility. The main focus of this report is to comprehensively analyze steps in implementation as well as highlighting the risks and providing solutions for them. This report goes on to put forth a schedule accompanying the implementation plan. The findings of this report will prove to be insightful to a facility planning to embrace Wireless technology. However this report is not encompassing of financial data hence is limited in its scope

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Information System Project management

2013

Table of Contents
Executive Summary ................................................................................................................................................................. 2 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3 1 Prepare (CISCO and Intel, 2008) ..................................................................................................................................... 4 1.1 1.2 Statistics and bandwidth requirements .................................................................................................................. 4 Planning Requirements ........................................................................................................................................... 5 Observing RF environment ............................................................................................................................. 5 Looking for Access Points (APs) requirements................................................................................................ 5

1.2.1 1.2.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2

High Accessibility..................................................................................................................................................... 6 Evaluation of Security ............................................................................................................................................. 6 Access Type ............................................................................................................................................................. 6

Plan.................................................................................................................................................................................. 6 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Service Level Agreement......................................................................................................................................... 6 RF Spectrum Management ..................................................................................................................................... 6 Capacity Planning .................................................................................................................................................... 6 Handoff Roaming .................................................................................................................................................... 7 Safety Protocols in place ......................................................................................................................................... 7

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Design.............................................................................................................................................................................. 7 3.1 Architecture Overview (CISCO, 2012) ..................................................................................................................... 7 APs................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Wireless LAN Controller .................................................................................................................................. 8 Authentication ................................................................................................................................................ 8 Wireless Control System ................................................................................................................................. 9

3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.2

Network Management tools ................................................................................................................................... 9 Rogue AP detection......................................................................................................................................... 9 Auto RF ............................................................................................................................................................ 9 RF Spectrum Management ........................................................................................................................... 10

3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.3 3.4

Remote Office Wireless ........................................................................................................................................ 10 Wireless End Points............................................................................................................................................... 10 Biomedical Devices ....................................................................................................................................... 10 Voice Services................................................................................................................................................ 10 1

3.4.1 3.4.2

Information System Project management
3.5

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Physical Consideration .......................................................................................................................................... 11 Power over Ethernet(PoE) ............................................................................................................................ 11

3.5.1 3.6 4

Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Design and Deployment .............................................................................. 11

Implementation ............................................................................................................................................................ 11 4.1 4.2 Procurement ......................................................................................................................................................... 11 Execution............................................................................................................................................................... 11

Risks ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 12 Solutions................................................................................................................................................................................ 12 Time Schedule ....................................................................................................................................................................... 13 Assumptions .......................................................................................................................................................................... 13 5 Works Cited ................................................................................................................................................................... 14

Executive Summary
This report examines the implementation plan for introducing WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) for a healthcare facility. The main focus of this report is to comprehensively analyze steps in implementation as well as highlighting the risks and providing solutions for them. This report goes on to put forth a schedule accompanying the implementation plan. The findings of this report will prove to be insightful to a facility planning to embrace Wireless technology. However this report is not encompassing of financial data hence is limited in its scope.

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Information System Project management

2013

Introduction
There are many reasons why hospitals are regarded as a technical challenge when it comes to implementing wireless technology infrastructure. Buildings are usually added on to the main hospital over the years, which combine a lot of haphazard construction of connectors such as long hallways (which interfere with Wi-Fi signals). Hospitals are defined as ‘high density’ environments (Ruckus Wireless, 2013) when it comes to wireless access technology. Due to this fact, there is a high chance of interference and the penalty is dire. Interference causes variation in network latency, connectivity and application performance, which can lead to a patient losing his/her life. Every unit inside (patients, equipment, employees) is highly mobile which means each wireless device carried by the unit will choose the access point (AP) with the strongest signal and switch to other APs as the unit roams. This switching causes deviations in wireless signals, which can be life threatening. Hence hospitals are organizations which require a unique and specialized handling when implementing wireless technology infrastructure. (Meru Networks, 2013) The private hospital where the wireless infrastructure will be deployed can be classified as ‘high density’, due to the following requirements: 1. The mobile access should be at least 20 M Bits per second in speed 2. The mobile architecture should support 2000 users accessing the system at the same time, from internal or external sources 3. The data upload and download will consist of text, graphics, medical images, video clips, video conferencing with clients in the hospital and in homes for post-operative treatments 4. The device family will need to support smart phones, digital tablets, laptops fitted with wireless capabilities, and other mobile devices such as telephones

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Information System Project management

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The wireless infrastructure technology specifically refers to installation of WLAN network. The implementation plan encompasses the following steps:

Prepare
Conducting Site survey, understanding RF environment

Plan
Decide the neeeds of the infratstructure based on various factors

Design
come up with combination of components to make up the infrastructure

Implement
Procurement, deployment planning and execution
Figure 1

1 Prepare (CISCO and Intel, 2008)
1.1 Statistics and bandwidth requirements
This part is concerned with how many people will access the WLAN, which devices will be employed (PDAs, tablets, desktop PCs), the coverage area, the individual bandwidth required by various applications of inventory tracking, patient monitoring, guest access etcetera. 4

Information System Project management
1.2 Planning Requirements

2013

Wireless connectivity across healthcare institutions presents challenges. These providers should be accessible at all times and must not be allowed to be interfered with. Wireless signals function on the principle of Radio Frequency (RF). RF signals have the potential to interfere with medical systems such as x rays and can cause disruption of functioning of medical systems such as RFID inventory tracking or MRIs. Also, hospitals are constructed using various materials which bring variations in the RF signal. Conducting a proper site survey is important because inability to do so will result in signals fluctuating and frustrating the users. 1.2.1 Observing RF environment Devices employing their own RFs, as well as materials which interfere with RF signals must be examined and taken into account such as:          1.2.2 Electric Motors Transformers Microwave Oven Wire Mesh and Stucco Air Conditioning Ducts Concrete Fridges Plasma Lighting Elevators Looking for Access Points (APs) requirements

Usually, there should be one access point per 3,000 sq feet for a handheld supporting environment. However this may vary and the general understanding is, more the density of access points, better the service. Following figure shows analyzing possible AP spots.

Figure 2 CISCO and Intel, 2008

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Information System Project management
1.3 High Accessibility

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High accessibility refers to constant availability of APs in the healthcare environment. If one AP breaks down, there should be another functioning to take its place. Following the appropriate wireless network protocols, this can be avoided.

1.4 Evaluation of Security
Any Security fallbacks should be identified by observing potential vulnerabilities and existing security software and hardware of legacy systems. Passive and Active WLAN attacks must be taken into consideration. A passive attack is when an unidentified user gains access to the network and eavesdrops. An active one is where the user intentionally distorts the network.

1.5 Access Type
Since there are many different users of the wireless network within the hospital, such as patients, doctors, nurses, staff, equipment etc, which have different bandwidth requirements and privileges, access types have to be identified. For instance visiting physicians can have the access type of ‘guest doctors’. They will require a connection to the internet, as well as access to the hospital’s database. ‘Patients’ on the other hand will only require a connection to the internet. Each access type is given its own Service Set Identifier (SSID) or Virtual LAN (VLAN).

2 Plan
The network deployment must be in line with the hospital’s strategic goals, such as anticipating future technological redundancies. Hence the network should be flexible so that it will have the ability to incorporate new advances in the field so that the hospital doesn’t have to spend billions on replacing infrastructure. Voice-over-IP is the new advancement in the field and should be incorporated within the network to allow for good signal coverage for VoIP.

2.1 Service Level Agreement
This refers to planning IT support for the WLAN, such as how many employees will be required, which parameters (concurrent users, noise, interference) they will be needed to monitor, how often and from where.

2.2 RF Spectrum Management
Currently, WLANs use one of two bands: the 2.4-GHz band, used by 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n networks, or the 5GHz band, used by 802.11a and 802.11n networks. We will chose 802.11a because of the following advantages:

Figure 3 CISCO and Intel 2008

2.3 Capacity Planning
Capacity Planning is an integral part of setting up a WLAN. One critical aspect is deciding how many clients an AP should support. The following figure gives the output of the 802.11a protocol, which is the highest, making it the most suitable.

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Figure 4 CISCO and Intel,2008

2.4 Handoff Roaming
WLAN should be able to support already existing applications and devices, previously being run on legacy infrastructure. Desktop PCs do not require configuration for Handoff Roaming, while cellular phones and tablets do. Voice over IP applications consume the most handoff time.

2.5 Safety Protocols in place
  WLAN should not be accessed without authorization Since RF signals have shown to interfere with pacemakers, every wireless device should not come nearer than six inches.

3 Design
The newest development is a standard wireless network for healthcare facilities (Dolan, 2012). The West Wireless Health Institute, a non profit research facility, came up with the ‘Medical Grade Network’. The Design part of the plan will focus on the many components of the entire infrastructure.

3.1 Architecture Overview (CISCO, 2012)
3.1.1 APs APs are devices which allow a wireless communication device to a wireless network using Bluetooth or Wi-Fi. The following table provides details of the type of APs used by the MGN (Medical Grade Network) 7

Information System Project management

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5 CISCO, 2012

3.1.2

Wireless LAN Controller

Since the deployment is at a large scale, it has to be handled centrally or would require too many employees. This device takes on the role of a central manager for all APs. Its functions include:      Authentication of users Configuration of APs Transport all data between APs Identification of rogue APs or users Collecting detailed information regarding RF interference.

The models to be employed are as follows:

Figure 6 CISCO,2012

3.1.3 

Authentication

According to MGN, there are two security mechanisms for WLANs: Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA PSK) 8

Information System Project management
 Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA 2 Enterprise)

2013

Networks which previously employed WPA (Wi Fi protected access) or WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) were prone to security breaches.” The Wi-Fi Alliance certifies inter-operability of IEEE 802.11 products”. The product employed here is the Cisco Security Suite

Figure 7 CISCO,2012

3.1.4

Wireless Control System

Just like the Wireless LAN Controller manages the APs, the Wireless Control System manages all Wireless LAN Controllers. Features of the Cisco Wireless Control System include:    Configuring, managing , monitoring the entire network Graphical Interface for fast, simple and effective deployment Provides comprehensive reports, analyzing various components of the network Rogue AP detection

3.2 Network Management tools
3.2.1 A Rogue AP is an AP not belonging to the original network, but introduced by a hacker. The AP has no security controls and hence sensitive information being passed over the APs such as Electronic Protected HealthCare Information can be accessed easily. The Cisco Unified Wireless Networking Solution is the answer. It can locate Rogue APs. 3.2.2 Auto RF This is Radio Resource Management which tweaks the power level of APs to maintain ideal RF coverage. It has the following functions:

Figure 8 CISCO, 2012

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Information System Project management
3.2.3 RF Spectrum Management

2013

Spectrum management refers to minimizing interferences from equipment and materials mentioned before. The Cisco Clean Air and Spectrum Expert technology identifies the interference source and notifies the Wireless Control System. It consists of the following elements:

Figure 9 CISCO, 2012

3.3 Remote Office Wireless
Doctor’s should have access to main databases in environments immediately removed from the central unit (hospital) such as their own clinics. According to MGN, the best solution is to maintain an AP at the clinic which is connected to the main Wireless LAN Controller (located in the main facility). The following figure explains the system:

Figure 10 CISCO, 2012

3.4 Wireless End Points
3.4.1 Biomedical Devices Smart infusion pumps, which are used extensively in cardio-related treatments and patient monitors are wireless devices newly integrated into MGN. 3.4.2 Voice Services Products include:

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Information System Project management

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Figure 11 CISCO, 2012

3.5 Physical Consideration
3.5.1 Power over Ethernet (PoE) is now used as an alternate to power injectors and give the advantage of supplying remote power cycling of an AP. Importantly, it eliminates the need for ceiling tile removal which deploying APs.

3.6 Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) Design and Deployment
Power level and antennas are used to adjust the coverage area. During the planning phase the type of antennas to be employed are decided (Omni directional, directional, and distributed). However with DAS, using antennas for every AP is not needed. This saves down on labor and equipment costs as well as physical destruction of ceiling tiles. They are used for the purpose of combining various RF systems into a singular antenna radiator system. This leads to widening of the coverage area, to encompass had to reach areas such as basements and underground walkways between buildings. Also they boost VoIP service.

4 Implementation
4.1 Procurement
Since we have decided on CISCO’s products, we will place an order after initial site surveys. Special attention should be paid to the number of APs.

4.2 Execution
         Put in the cables( in the ceiling with outlets placed after every 60 feet for each AP, confirm the sites for the APs by Airmagnet Site Survey Planner or WCS Airwave Planning, make sure there is enough cabling to cover entire network) Inventory Equipment Install APs Join controllers to PoE and configure Configure VLANs Assign domain name for all devices Configure the WLCs Connect PoE switches to APs Validate connections and configurations 11

Information System Project management
  Trial Test one AP to test connectivity Deploy the WLAN MGN

2013

Risks
The most obvious challenges posed to deployment are the physical infrastructure of the hospitals themselves. X ray rooms are typically lead lined, however many hospitals change locations and an X ray room might become a patient room. The patient uses a monitoring device which operates wirelessly but the lead prevents it from functioning properly. Another implementation challenge is that healthcare Wireless Networks support both life critical hospital devices as well as personal and administrative devices. The life critical devices have lengthy life cycles hence do not need to be updated frequently. However personal and administrative devices (such as RIFD inventory control) do need to be updated regularly. If these two types of devices share the same network, updating of the personal and administrative devices would hinder functioning of life critical devices which is a very high risk. (Meru Networks, 2013) Another challenge while implementation is to chose the perfect number of SSIDs. Too many overburdens the network and slows it down while too less leads to improper characterization of users, which in turn might lead to unauthorized users to access sensitive information. (Ruckus Wireless, 2013) Also, when connectivity falls, the cost goes up. “There are real dollars associated with Wi-Fi when staff can’t maintain connectivity, and it adds up in a hurry.” (Ruskus Wireless , 2009). Security is a major concern. Experts are able to hack into sophisticated security systems and gain access to confidential information.

Solutions
 Go beyond Wi-Fi Wi fi can be replaced with a combination of other technologies such as personal networks. Wi fi is popular since everyone believes that Wi Fi is the golden solution which is the solution to all. Alternates to Wi Fi exist; the hospital management just needs to do a little work. (SearchHealthIT, n.d.)   Long Term Planning

Even if the short term cost of WLANs seems staggering, it’ll be less costly in the long run. Prioritize Traffic

When a situation comes where bandwidth becomes restricted, life critical devices should be given preference to the highest bandwidth available, over administrative devices. Designing a method where medical data traffic is superior to other traffics, is key.  Shared SSIDs

Dynamic VLAN assignment and Hotspot 2.0 standards are the answers to overload by numerous SSIDs (Ruckus Wireless, 2013). Also, APs could be configured to a data rate of 6 mbps which would also minimize SSIDs without endangering security.  Tracking of Clients

Constant Tracking of client users by smart softwares is a solution for quickly apprehending hackers. Software such as Meru’s Identity Tracking Manager, which can be used on all platforms of iOs and Android. (Meru Networks, 2013)

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Information System Project management Time Schedule

2013

Prepare 6 months

Plan 30 days

Design 30 days

Implement 6 months
Figure 12

Assumptions
  Cisco would be the main wireless infrastructure provider MGN does not have glitches( however, it has only been recently deployed in only 3 hospitals around the world)

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Information System Project management

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5 Works Cited
CISCO and Intel, 2008. Intel and Cisco WLAN Deployment Guide for Healthcare, s.l.: s.n. CISCO, 2012. Cisco Medical-Grade Network (MGN) 2.0, s.l.: s.n. Dolan, B., 2012. Six hospitals deploy West’s medical grade wireless. [Online] Available at: http://mobihealthnews.com/16369/six-hospitals-deploy-wests-medical-grade-wireless/ Meru Networks, 2013. Meru Uninterrupted Care Network; An architectural overview, s.l.: s.n. Meru Networks, 2013. Wireless Networks Designed for Hospitals. [Online] Available at: http://www.merunetworks.com/collateral/white-papers/hospital-wi-fi-uninterrupted-care-networkwhitepaper.pdf [Accessed 2013]. Ruckus Wireless, 2013. Deploying High Density Wi-Fi. [Online] Available at: http://www.ruckuswireless.com/library/pdfs [Accessed 2013]. Ruckus Wireless, 2013. Network Scaling CHOOSING THE RIGHT NUMBER OF SSIDs, s.l.: s.n. Ruckus Wireless, 2013. Network Scaling CHOOSING THE RIGHT NUMBER OF SSIDs, s.l.: s.n. Ruskus Wireless , 2009. Sea Mar Community Health Centers Move to Smarter Wi-Fi to Save Doctors Time and Money, s.l.: s.n. SearchHealthIT, n.d. HIT managers tackle hospital wireless implementation challenges. [Online] Available at: http://searchhealthit.techtarget.com/tip/HIT-managers-tackle-hospital-wireless-implementationchallenges [Accessed 2013].

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