Ingles Pri Maria

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In this unit we are going to study language and its major functions:
* We will show how Comm!"#a$"o! is one of these F!#$"o!%.
* We will show how learning a language is not only a grammatical process but also a So#"a&
* We will also analyse the differences between W("$"!) a!* S+ee#,.
* We will discuss some important Comm!"#a$"-e T,eo(. defining their key factors.
* Finally, we will show how important it is to create Rea& Comm!"#a$"o! S"$a$"o!% in our
C&a%%(oom% in order to improve language teaching.
A conclusion summing up what has been said throught the unit will follow, ending up with
the bibliography used for the elaboration of this discussion.
We must point out that language is not just a 'subject( in the sense of a package of
knowledge. It is not just a set of information and insights. It is a fundamental part of
being human. !raditional approaches used to treat a language as if it were a free)standing
package of knowledge by analysing and observing it. *any of us learnt a language that way.
+ut this process is a very abstract one and e,perience has shown that it does not appeal to
everyone. !o learn to use a language at all well for ourselves rather than for te,tbook
purposes, most of us have to become involved in it as an e,perience. We have to make it a
human event not just a set of information. We do this by using it for real communication,
for genuine giving and receiving of messages.
* ow that we have introduced this particular topic we are going to deal with the study of
language as Comm!"#a$"o!, its functions and the concept of communicative competence.
!he word language has prompted many definitions. For e,ample-
.apir said that ' language is a purely human and non instinctive method of commicating
ideas, emotions and desires by means of voluntarily produced symbols '.
/all defined language as ' the institution whereby humans communicate and interact with
each other by means of habitually used oral)auditory symbols '
As we can see with these two definitions it is difficult to make a precise and
comprehensive statement about formal and functional universal properties of language, so
some linguists have tried to identify the various properties that are thought to be its
essential defining characteristics.
!he most widely acknowledged comparative approach has been that proposed by &harles
/ockett. !his set of 01 design features of communication using spoken language are as
0. Auditory)vocal channel: sound is used between mouth and ear.
2. +roadcast transmission and directional reception: a signal can be heard by any auditory
system within earshot and the source can be located using the ear3s direction finding.
1. "apid fading: auditory signals are transitory.
4. Interchangeability: speakers of a language can reproduce any linguistic message they can
5. !otal feedback: speakers hear and can reflect upon everything they say.
6. .peciali7ation: the sound waves of speech have no other functions than to signal
8. .emanticity: the elements of the signal convey meaning through their stable association
with real world situations.
9. Arbitrariness: there is no depency between the element of the signal and the nature of
the reality to which it refers.
:. $iscreetness: speech uses a small set of found elements that clearly contrast with each
0;. $isplacement: it is possible to talk about events remote in space or time from the
situation of the speaker.
00. <roductivity: there is an infinitive capacity to e,press and understand meaning, by using
old sentence elements to produce new elements.
02. !raditional transmission: language is transmitted from a generation to the ne,t by a
process of teaching and learning.
01. $uality of patterning: the sounds of language have no intrinsic meaning, but combine in
different ways to form elements, such as words, that do convey meaning.
* After having studied the main properties of language, and communication, we will now see
how the learning of a language involves a So#"a& '(o#e%%.
!he most usual answer to the =uestion of 'why we use language( is to communicate our
ideas, and this ability to communicate or communicative competence will be studied in the
ne,t part. +ut it would be wrong to think of communicating our ideas as the only aim for
which language is used. .everal other functions may be identified where the
communications of ideas has a marginal or irrelevant consideration.
#ne of the most common uses of language, the e,pressive or emotional one, is a means of
getting rid of our nervous energy when we are under stress, when we are angry, afraid, etc.
We do not try to communicate because we can use language in this way whether we are
alone or not.
*alinowski termed the third use of language we are studying <hatic &ommunication. /e
used it to refer to the social function of language, that is, to signal friendship or lack of
enemity. Also, to maintain a comfortable relationship between people.
!he fourth function we may find is based on <honetic <roperties. !he persuasive cadences
of political speechmaking, or the chants used by prisoners or soldiers have only one
apparent reason: people take delight in them.
!hey can only be e,plained by a universal desire to e,ploit the sonic potential of language.
!he fifth function is the <erformative one. A performative is an utterance that performs
an act. !his use occurs in the naming of a ship at a launching ceremony, or when a priest
baptises a child.
We can also find other functions such as:
) recording facts
) instrument of thought
) e,pression of regional, social, educational, se,ual or occupational identity.
!he +ritish linguist /alliday grouped all these functions into three *etafunctions, which
are the manifestations in the linguistic system of the two uni=ue manifestation purposes
which underline all uses of language, combined with the third component >te,tual? which
breathes relevance into the other two.
0? !he Idealistic Funtion: is to organise the speaker3s or writer3s e,perience of the real or
imaginary world.
2? !he Interpersonal Function: is to indicate, establish or maintain social relationships
between people.
1? !he !e,tual Function: which serves to create written or spoken te,ts which cohere
within themselves and which fit the particular situation in which they are used.
ow we shall study the function of communication or what is named Comm!"#a$"-e
&homsky defined language as a set of sentences, each finite in length and constructed out
of a finite set of elements. An able speaker has a subconcious knowledge of the grammer
rules of his language which allows him to make sentences in that language. /owever, $ell
/ymes thought that &homsky had missed out some very important information:
!he "ules #f %se. When a native speaks, he does not only utter grammatically correct
forms, he also knows where and when to use the sentences and to whom.
For /ymes the Comm!"#a$"-e Com+e$e!#e had four aspects:
0? .ystematic <otential:
!his means that a native speaker possesses a system that has a potential for creating a lot
of language. !his is similar to &homsky3s competence.
2? Appropriacy:
!his means that the native speaker knows what language is appropriate in a given situation,
according to: setting, participants, purposes, channel and topic.
1? #ccurence:
!his means that the native speaker knows how often something is said in the language and
acts accordingly.
4? Feasibility:
!his means that a native speaker knows whether something is possible in the language.
!hese four categories have been adapted for teaching purposes. !hus, Rea& De#(e$o
1//011221 of 04th @une, which establishes the teaching re=uirements for <rimary
Aducation nation)wide, sees #omm!"#a$"-e #om+e$e!#e as comprising five
13 G(amma( Com+e$e!#e.
!he ability to put into practice the system of grammar rules by which a language operates.
43 So#"o&"!)"%$"# Com+e$e!#e.
!he ability to produce appropriate utterances in different sociolinguistic conte,ts
depending on conte,tual factors such as status of participants, purpose of the
53 So#"o#&$(a& Com+e$e!#e.
!his is understood to be the knowledge of the social and cultural conte,t in which the
language is used.
63 D"%#o(%e Com+e$e!#e.
!he ability to produce unified written or spoken discourse that shows coherence and
cohesion in different types of te,ts.
73 S$(a$e)"# Com+e$e!#e.
!he ability to use verbal and non)verbal strategies to compensate for breakdowns in
communication, or to improve the effectiveness of communication, as for e,ample, the use
of paraphrase, tone of voices or gestures.
#n the other hand, &anale defined D"%#o(%e Com+e$e!#e as the aspect of communicative
competence which describes the ability to produce unified written or spoken discourse
that shows coherence and cohesion and which conforms to the norms of different genres.
* %p to this point we have studied the concept of language as means of communication,
amongst other functions.
ow, let us move onto another important aspect of this unit, which deals with the main
differences between 8("$"!) a!* %+ee#,.
+efore summarising the main differences between spoken and written language we will
outline their main features independantly.
#n the one hand we have spoken language, which is the most obvious aspect of language.
.peech is not essential to the definition of an infinitely productive communication system,
such as is constituted by language. +ut, in fact, speech is the universal material of
language. *an has almost certainly been a speaking animal. !he earliest known systems of
writing go back perhaps some 5;;; years. !his means that for many hundreds of thousands
of years human languages have been transmitted and developed entirely as a spoken means
of communication.
!he description and classification of speech sounds is the main aim of phonetics. .ounds
may be identified with reference to their production, their transmission and their
reception. !hese three activities occur at the physiological level, which implies the action
of muscles and nerves. !he motor nerves that link the speaker3s brain with his speech
mechanism activate the corresponding muscles. !he movements of the tongue, lips, vocal
chords, etc, constitute the articulatory stage of the speech chain, and the area of
phonetics that deals with it is articulatory phonetics.
!he movement of the articulation produces disturbances in the air pressure called sound
waves which are physical manifestations. !his is the acoustic stage of the chain, during
which the sound waves travel towards the listener3s ear. !hese sound waves activate the
listener3s ear drum.
#n the other hand we have written language which evolved independently at different
times in several parts of the world.
We can classify writing systems into two types:
0? on)<honological .ystems.
!hese do not show a clear relationship between the symbols and the sounds of the
language. !hey include the pictographic, ideagraphic, uniform and Agyptian hieroglyphics
and logographics.
2? <honological .ystems.
!hese do show a clear relationship between the symbols and the sounds of language. We
can distinguish between syllabic and alphabetic systems.
In a syllabic system each grapheme corresponds to a spoken syllable. Alphabetic writing
establishes a direct correspondance between graphemes and phonemes.
In a perfect regular system there is one grapheme for each morpheme. /owever, most
alphabets in present day use fail to meet this criteria. At one e,treme we find such
languages as .panish, which has a very regular system- at the other we find such cases as
Anglish and Baelic where there is a marked tendency to irregularity.
ow let3s study the main differences between writing and speech. !he most obvious is the
contrast in physical form.
.peech uses phonic substance typically in the form of air)pressure movements, whereas
writing uses graphic substance, typically in the form of marks on a surface. As writing can
only occasionally be thought of as an interaction, we can establish the following points of
0? !he permanence of writing allows repeated reading and close analysis. !he spontaneity
and rapidity of speech minimises the chance of comple, pre)planning, and promotes
features that assisst speakers to think standing up.
2? !he participants in written interaction cannot usually see each other, so they cannot
make clear what they mean. /owever, in speech interactions feedback is possible.
1? !he majority of graphic features presents a system of contrasts that has no speech
e=uivalent. *any genres of written language, such as tables, graphs and comple, formulae,
cannot be conveyed by reading aloud.
4? .ome contructions may only be found in writing, others only occur in speech, such as in
slang and swear words.
5? Finally we can say that writing tends to be more formal and so it is more likely to
provide the standard that society values. Its performance provides it with a special status.
$espite these differences, the written and spoken language have mutually interacted in
many respects. We normally use the written language in order to improve our command of
vocabulary, active or passive, spoken or written.
Coan words may come into a country in a written form, and sometimes everything we know
about a language is from its written form eg: Catin. It is true that writing has derived from
speech in an historical sense, but nowadays their independance is mutual.
* ow we have e,amined the differences between speech and written language
we shall concentrate on the $,eo(. of communication, and those factors defining a
communicative act.
According to Ivor Armstrong "ichards, 'communication takes place when one mind so acts
upon its environment that another mind is influenced, and in that other mind an e,perience
occurs which is like the e,perience in the first mind, and is caused in part by that
From this definition we can conclude that any communicative act necessarily happens among
persons or between a person who acts as a speaker and a listener or between various
people who act as receivers. +esides these people there are other elements in a
communicative act:
D !he *essage
!he content of information that the speaker sends to the listener.
D !he &hannel
!he place through which the message flows.
D !he &ode
A limited and moderately wide group of signs which combine according to certain rules
known by the speaker and by the listener.
D !he &onte,t
!he situation in which the speaker and the listener are in, which sometimes helps to
interpret the message.
* As we have seen communication is the e,change of meanings through a common system of
symbols. ow it is time to ask ourselves:
'What does communication in the #&a%%(oom imply E(
*any studies of classroom language have shown that in most native speaker E is used for
function rather than for direct teaching. !hese e,tra functions include: greetings,
discussion, health, attendance,the weather and so on.
+arnes >0:6:?, in his description of classroom language, labelled these functions 'social(.
.ocial interaction also takes placein foreign language and 2nd language classrooms, but in
many such classrooms native language is used for this purpose.
Fanselow >0:88? attempted to set up a system for observing and recording different types
of communication in the language classroom. /e established five headings in the form of
0? Who communicates E
2? What is the pedagological purpose of the communication E
1? What mediums are used to communicate content E
4? /ow are the mediums used E
5? What areas of content are communicated E
All of these =uestions are useful in thinking how language is used in the classroom.
!he first of these areas, Canguage, concerns those times when a teacher is e,plaining or
illustrating the language, or when the pupils are asking =uestions about the language, or
practising pronunciation or structures. In most Anglish language classes, this part of the
lesson is conducted in Anglish.
!he second, <rocedure, concerns those times when the teacher is managing the classroom,
e,plaining what to do ne,t, how to do it and so on. .ome teachers use Anglish for classroom
management, and others use the children3s mother tongue, at least during the early stages.
!he third of Fanselow3s categories, .ubject *atter, concerns those times when the
language is being used to convey some specific topic as a part of a lesson. For e,ample, if
the teacher tells the story '!he Frog Bot Cost(, the subject matter is the frog and its
adventures. In this case the teacher3s aim might be to illustrate the use of the past simple
tense, but the content area of language used in that part of the lesson is not tense but the
tale of the frog. In the language classroom, this part of the lesson would be conducted in
!he final content category identified by Fanselow, Cife, concerns communication between
teacher and pupils about "eal Cife *atters, not directly about the lesson. !his category
embraces the type of =uestioning that +arnes called 'social( as well as any other type of
communication about the real world.
!hus, for e,ample, if the teacher directs a particular student to 'open the window( or asks
another who has nothing to write on 'Where is your notebookE(, or genuinely asks another
'Is your brother in the football match on .aturdayE(, then heFshe is using language about
the real world that is part of the learner3s direct e,perience. !his is a great opportunity
for real communication in the Anglish classroom through Anglish. When speaking to children
in Anglish, it is important, as it is when they are learning their first language, to support
communication through the use of gesture, facial e,pression and action because this gives
children clues to the meaning of what they hear and so draws their attention to and helps
them to become familiar with the sounds, rhythm and stress of the second language.
.trategies that parents use intuitively to draw children into the use of the first language
must be used deliberately by the teachers to draw children into using the second language.
"esearch has shown that parents generally speak more slowly, articulate more carefully,
and use gesture, facial e,pression and tone when talking to young children to aid their
understanding and to encourage them to produce.
!o conclude, we could bear in mind that an important aspect of interaction in the Anglish
classroom is that it must be managed by the learners as well as by the teacher. !hat is to
say that learners must be confident enough to initiate communication in Anglish, and not
merely respond when they are addressed by the teacher. A pupil that has something to
say, an apology or a re=uest to make, a =uestion to ask, a greeting to give, should be
encouraged to e,press himFherself in Anglish. If resources are not to be wanted and
opportunities to be missed, children must learn Anglish in the same way they learnt their
mother tongue, as a living language that can be used for active communication as much as
for establishing personal relationships.
!he bibliography used for the elaboration of this topic is as follows:
D '!eaching the .poken Canguage( by Billian +rown and Beorge Gule &.%.<. 0::8.
D '!eaching Anglish to &hildren( by &hristopher +rumfit, @ayne *oon and "ay !ongue.
Congman 0::2.
D '!eaching Anglish in the <rimary &lassroom( by .usan /alliwell. Congman 0::2.
1.1. Langag! "!#$n$%$&n'.
1.(. Langag! #n)%$&n'.
1.*. C&++n$)a%$,! )&+-!%!n)!.
(.1. S-&0!n 1angag!.
(.(. /2$%%!n 1angag!.
(.*. 3$'%&2$)a1 A%%$%"!'.
(.4. D$##!2!n)!' 5!%6!!n 62$%$ng an" '-!!)7.
*.1. C&++n$)a%$&n "!#$n$%$&n.
*.(. Ma$n M&"!1'.
*.*. .!8 #a)%&2'.
Traditional foreign language teaching concentrated on getting students consciously to learn items
of language in insolation. These bits of information would be mainly used to read texts and only
occasionally for oral communication. The focus was not on communication but on a piece of language.
Following Krashen’s distinction between acquisition and learning we can say that people got to know
about the language (learning) but could not use it in a real context (acquisition).
The ritish applied linguist !llwright tried to bridge this dichotomy when he theorised that if de
language teacher’s management acti"ities were directed exclusi"ely at in"ol"ing the learners in sol"ing
communication problems in the target language# then language learning wil take care of itlself. $e may or
may not agree with this extreme rendering of the %ommunicati"e approach# but we all agree nowadays on
the importance of letting ous pupils use &nglish for real communication during at least# the production
'n this unit we are going to study language and its functions to see that communication is one of
thes functions. $e wil then posit that learning a language is not only a grammatical and lexical process but
also a social process. $e also analy(e the differences between writing and speech) and finally we will
discuss the most important communication theory models# defining their key factors.
1.1. Langag! D!#$n$%$&n'.
The word language has prompted innumerable definitions. *ome focus on the general concept of
language (what we call lengua or lenguaje) and some focus on the more specific notion of a language
(what we call lengua or idioma).
*!+', (-./-) said that 0language is a purely human non1instincti"e method of communicating
ideas# emotions and desires by means of "oluntarily produced symbols2. 3!44 (-.56) defined language
as 0the institution whereby humans communicate and interact whith each other by means of habitually
used oral1auditory arbitrary symbols2. !s we can see in these two definitions it is diffi cult to make a
precise and comprehensi"e statement about formal adn functional uni"ersal properties of language so
some linguists ha"e trien to indentify the "arious properties that are thought to be its essential defining
The most widely acknowledged comparati"e approach has been the one proposed by %harles
37%K&TT. 3is set of -8 design features of communication using spoken language were as follows9
- A"$%&28:,&)a1 )7ann!19 sound is used between mouth and ear.
- 92&a")a'% %2an'+$''$&n an" "$2!)%$&na1 2!)!-%$&n9 a signal can be heard by any auditory system
within earshot# and the source can be located using the ears’ direction1finding ability.
- Ra-$" #a"$ng9 auditory signals are transitory.
- In%!2)7ang!a5$1$%89 speakers of a language can reproduce any linguistic message they can understand.
- T&%a1 #!!"5a)09 speakers hear and can reflect upon e"erything that they say.
- S-!)$%a1$;a%$&n9 the sound wa"es of speech ha"e no other function than to signal meaning.
- S!+an%$)$%89 the elemens of the signal con"ey meaning through their stable association with real1
world situations.
- A25$%2a2$n!''9 there is no dependence of the element of the signal on the nature of the reality to which
it refers.
- D$')2!%!n!''9 speech uses a small set of sound elements tha clearly contrast whith each other.
- D$'-1a)!+!n%9 it is possible to talk about e"ents remote in space or time from the situation of the
- P2&")%$,$%89 ther is an infinite capacity to express and understand meaning# by using old setence
elements to produce new sentences.
- T2a"$%$&na1 %2an'+$''$<n9 language is transmitted from one generation to the next primarily by a
process of teaching and learning.
- Da1$%8 &# -&%%!2$ng9 the sound of language ha"e no intrinsic meaning# but combine in diferents ways
to form elements# such as words# than do con"ey meaning.
!fter ha"ing studied th:e main properties of language (what is language?) we will now see its function
(whats language for?).
1.(. Langag! Fn)%$&n'.
The most usual answer to the question 0why do we use language;2 is 0to communicate our ideas2
and this ability to communicate or communicati"e competence is studied in the next part. ut it would be
wrong to think of communicating our ideas as the only way in which we use language (2!#!2!n%$a1,
$"!a%$&na1 &2 -2&-&'$%$&na1 #n)%$&n). *e"eral other functions may be indentified where the
communication of ideas is a marginal or irrele"ant consideration.
7ne of the commonest uses of languages# the !=-2!''$,! &2 !+&%$&na1 one# is a means of getting
rid of our ner"ous energy when we are under stress. $e do not try to communicate ideas because we can
use language in this way whether we are alone or not. *wear words and obscenities are problably the most
usual signals to be used in this way# especially when we are angry. ut there are also many emoti"e
utterances of positi"e kind# such as expressions of fear# affection# astonishment...
<!4'=7$*K> (-?661-.6/) termed the third use of language we are studying >-7a%$)
)&++n$)a%$&n?. 3e used it to refere to the social function of language# which arises out of the basic
human need to signal friendship# or# at least# lack of enmity. 'f someone does not say hello to you when hi
is supposed to# you may think hi is hostile. 'n these cases the sole function of language is to maintain a
comfortable relationship between people# to pro"ide a means of a"oiding an embarrassing situation. +hatic
communication# howe"er# is far from uni"ersal# some cultures prefer silence# eg# the !ritama of %olombia.
The fourth function we may find is based on -7&n!%$) -2&-!2%$!'. The rhythmical litanies of
religious groups# the presuasi"e cadences of political speechmaking# the dialogue chants used by prisoner
or soldiers ha"e only one apparent reason9 people take delight in them. They can only be explained by a
uni"ersal desire to exploit the sonic potential of language.
The fith function is the -!2#&2+a%$,! &n!. ! performati"e sentence ins an utterance that performs
an act. This use occurs in the naming of a ship at a launching ceremony# or when a priest bapti(es a child.
$e may also finde other functions such as9
- recording facts.
- 'nstrument of thought
- &xpression of regional# social# educational# sexual or occupational identity.
The ritish linguist 3!44'@!> grouped all these functions into three metafunctions# shich are the
manifestation in the linguistic system of the two "eryu general purposes shich underlie all uses of
language combine whith the rhird component (textual) shich brethes rele"ance into the other two.
-.1 The $"!a%$&na1 #n)%$&n is to organi(e the speaker’s or writer’s experience of the real or imaginary
world# i.e. language refers to real or imagined persons# things# actions# e"ents# states#etc.
/.1 The $n%!2-!2'&na1 #n)%$&n is to indicate# establish or mantain social relationships between
people. 't includes forms of address# speech function# modality ...
8.1 The third component is the %!=%a1 #n)%$&n which ser"es to create written or spoken texts which
cohere within themsel"es and which fit the particular situation in which they are used.
1.*. C&++n$)a%$,! )&+-!%!n)!
%37<*K> (-.AB) defined language as Ca set of sentences# each finite in length and constructed
out of a finite set of elements. ! capable speaker has a subconscious knowledge of the grammar rules of
his language which allows him to make sentences in that language’. 3owe"er# @ell 3><&* thought that
%homsky had missed out some "ery important information9 the rules of the use. $hen a nati"e speaker
speaks# he does not onlu utter grammatically correct forms# he also knows where and when to use these
sentences and to whom. 3ymes# then# said that competence by itself is not enough to explain a nati"e
speaker’s knowledge# and he replaced it with his own concept of communicative competence.
3><&* distinguishes 6 aspects of this competence9
1 systematic potential
1 appropriacy
1 occurrence
- feasibility
S8'%!+a%$) -&%!n%$a1 means that the nati"e speaker possesses a system that has a potential for creating a
lot of language. This is similar to %omsky’s competence.
A--2&-2$a)8 means that the nati"e speaker knows what language is appropriate in a gi"en situation. 3is
choice is based on the following "ariables# among others9
O))22!n)! means that the nati"e speaker knows how often something is said in the language and acts
F!a'$5$1$%8 means that the nati"e speaker knows whether something is possible in the language. &"en if
there is no grammatical rule to ban /D1ad:ecti"e prehead construction# we know that these constructions
are not possible in the language.
These 6 categories ha"e been adapted for teaching purposes. Thus# the ,oyal @ecree -DD5E-..- of
-6 Fune (7& /A Fune)# which establishes the teaching requirements for +rimary &ducation nationwide#
sees communicati"e competence as comprising fi"e subcompetences9
- G2a++a2 )&+-!%!n)! (competencia gramatical# o capacidad de poner en prGctica las unidades y
reglas de funcionamiento del sistema de la lengua).
- D$')&2'! )&+-!%!n)! (competencia discursi"a o capacidad de utili(ar diferentes tipos de discurso y
organi(arlos en funciHn de la situaciHn comunicati"a y de los inetrlocutores).
- S&)$&1$ng$'%$) )&+-!%!n)! ( competencia sociolingIJstica o capacidad de adecuar los enunciados a
un contexto concreto# atendiendo a los usos aceptados en una comunidad lingIJstica determinada).
- S%2a%!g$) )&+-!%!n)! ( competencia estratKgica o capacidad para definir# corregir# mati(ar o en
general# reali(ar a:ustes en el curso de la situaciHn comunicati"a).
- S&)$&)1%2a1 )&+-!%!n)! ( competencia sociocultural# entendida como un cierto grado de
familiaridad con el contexto social y cultural en el que se utili(a una determinada lengua).
The terms grammar# sociolinguistic and sociocultural competence are quite self explanatory so we will
only analy(e discourse and strategic competence.
CANALE (-.?D) defined discourse competence as an aspect of communicati"e competence which
describes the ability to produce unified written or spoken discourse that shows coherence and cohesion
and which conforms to the norms of different genres. 7ur pupils must be able to produce discourse in
which successi"e utterances are linked through ruoles of discourse competence.
*trategic competence may be defined as an aspect of communicati"e competence which describes
the ability of speakers to use "erbal and non1"erbal communication strategies to compensate for
breakdowns in communication or to impro"e the effecti"eness of communication.
't is traditionl in language study to distinguish between spoken and written language. efore
summari(ing their main differences we will outline their main features independently.
(.1. S-&0!n Langag!
The most ob"ious aspect of language is speech. *peech is not essential to the definition of an infinitely
producti"e communication system# such as it is constituted by language. ut# in fact# speech is the
uni"ersal material of human language. <an has been a speaking animal from early in the emergence of
3omo *apiens as a recogni(able distinct species. The earliest known systems of writing go back perhaps
A.DDD years. This means that for many hundreds of thousands of years human language were transmitted
and de"eloped entirely as spoken means of communication.
The description and clasification of sounds is the main aim of phonetics. *ounds may be identified
with reference to their production# transmission and reception. These three acti"ities occur at a
physiological le"el# which implies the action of ner"es and muscles. The motor ner"es that link the
speaker’s brain with his speech mechanism acti"ate the corresponding muscle. The mo"ements of the
tongue# lips# "ocal folds# etc. %onstitute the articulatory stage of the speech chain# and the area of
phonetics that deals with it is a2%$)1a%&28 -7&n!%$)'.The mo"ement of the articulators produces
disturbances in the air pressure called sound wa"es# which are physical manifestations. This is the acoustic
stage of the chain# during which the sound wa"es tra"el towards the listener’s ear1drum. The study of
speech sound wa"es correspons to a)&'%$) -7&n!%$)'. The hearing process is the domain of a"$%&28
-7&n!%$)'. This can be seen in the following table9
!cti"ity psychological physiological physical physiological psychologicals stage
linguistic production transmission perception linguistic
+honetics articulatory acoustic auditory
phonetics phonetics phonetics
'n this table we can see how phonetics is the study of all possible speech sounds.
This is not the most important task for linguist# howe"er. ! linguist must study the way in which a
language’s speakers systematically use a selection of theses sounds in order to express meaning. 'n this
acti"ity he is helped by phonology. +honology is continually loking beneath th surface of speech to
determine its underlying regularities. 't is not interested in sounds but in phonemes# ie. *mallest
contrasti"e phonological units which can produce a difference in meaning. The study of speech is
therefore# the field of both +honetics and +honology.
(.(. /2$%%!n 1angag!.
<yths and legends of the supernatural shroud the early history of writing. 7ne point# at least# is
fairly clear. 't now seems most likely that writing systems e"ol"ed independently of each other at different
times in se"eral parts of the world Lin <esopotamia# %hina... There is nothing to support a theory of
common origin.
$e can classify writting systems into two types9
- =on1phonological.
- +honological.
=on1phonological systems do not show a clear relationship between the symbols and the sounds of
the language. They include the pictographic# ideographic# cuneiform and egyptian hieroglyphic and
'n the pictographic system# the graphemes or pictographs or pictograms pro"ide a recogni(able
picture of entities as they exist in the world.
'deograms or ideographs ha"e an abstract or con"entional meaning# no longer displaying a clear
pictorial link whith external reality.
The cuneiform method of writing dates from the 6
. <illennium %# and was used to express both
non1phonological and phonological writing systems. The name deri"es from the 4atin# meaning Mwedge1
shaped’ and refers to the technique used to make the symbols.
&gyptian hieroglyphic de"eloped about 8DDD %. 't is a mixture of ideograms# phonograms and
determinati"e symbols. 't was called hieroglyphic because of its prominent use in temples ad tombs
(Nreek# Msacred car"ing2).
4ogographic writing systems are those where the graphemes represent words. The best known case
is %hinese and Fapanese kan:i. The symbols are "ariously referred to as logographs# logograms or
+honological systems do show a clear relationship between the symbols and the sounds of
language. $e can distinguish syllabic and alphabetic systems.
'n a system of syllabic writing# each grapheme corresponds to a spoken syllable# usually a
consonant1"owel pair. This system can be seen in Fapanese Kataka.
!lphabetic writing establishes a direct correspondence between graphemes and morphemes. This
makes it the most economic and adaptable of all the writing systems. 'n a perfectly regular sustem there is
one grapheme for each morpheme. 3owe"er# most alphabets in present day use fail to meet this criterion.
!t one extreme we find such languages as *panish# which has a "ery regular system) at the other# we find
such cases as &nglish and Naelic# where there is a marked tendency to irregularity.
(.*. 3$'%&2$)a1 a%%$%"!'.
3istorically speaking# written language was considered tobe superior to spoken language for many
centuries. 't was the medium of literature# and literature was considered a source of standards of linguistic
excellence. $itten records pro"ide language with permanence and authority and so the rules of grammar
were illustrated exclusi"ely from written texts.
7n the other hand# spoken language was ignored as an ob:ect unworthy of study. *poken language
demostrates such a lack of care and organi(ation that cannot be studied scientifically) it was said to ha"e
no rules# and speakers ha"e thought that# in order to speak properly# it was necessary to follow the correct
norm. !s this norm was based on written standards# it is clear that the prescripti"e tradition rested
supremacy of writing o"er speech.
This "iewpiont became widely critici(ed at the turn of our century. 4eonard loomfield insisted
that Owriting is not language but merely a way of recording language by means of "isible marksO. This
approach pointed out se"eral factors# some of which we ha"e already mentioned9
- *peech is many centuries older than writing
- 't de"elopes naturally in children
- $riting systems are mostly deri"ati"e# ie# they are based on the sounds of speech.
'f speech is the primary medium of communication# it was also argued that it should be the main
ob:ect of linguistic study. !ctually# the ma:ority of the worldPs culturesP languages ha"e ne"er been written
down and this has nothing to do with their e"olutionary degree. 't is a fallacy to suppose that the
languages of illiterate or so1called primiti"e peoples are less structured# less rich in "ocabulary# and less
efficient than the languages of literate ci"ili(ation. &. *apir was one of the first linguistics to attack the
myth that primiti"e peoples spoke primiti"e languages. 'n one study he compared the grammatical
equi"alents of the sentence Ohe will gi"e it to youO in six !merindian languages. !mong many fascinating
features of these complex grammatical forms# note the le"el of abstraction introduced by the following
*outhern +aiute
<aya1"aania1aka1anga1PmiQ gu"e will "isible1thing "isible1creature thee
<any linguistics and ethnographerstherefore stressed the urgency of pro"iding techniques for the
analysis of spoken language and because of this emphasis on the spoken language# it was now the turn of
writing to fall into disrepute. <any linguistics came to think of written language as a tool of secundary
inportance. $riting came to be excluded from the primary sub:ect matter of linguistic science. <any
grammarians presented an account of speech alone.
=owadays# there is no sense in the "iew that one medium of communication is untrinsically better.
$riting cannot substitute for speech# nor speech for writing. The functions of speech and writing are
usually said to complement each other.
7n the other hand# there are many functional para llels which seem to be increase in modern
society. $e cannot use recording de"ices to keep facts and communicate ideas. 7n the other hand writing
is also taken the social of phatic function typically associated with the immediacy of speech.
@espite these parallels we can ob"iously find striking differences.
(.4. D$##!2!n)!' 5!%6!!n 62$%$ng an" '-!!)7
,esearch has begun to in"estigate the nature and extent of the differences between them. <ost
ob"iously# they contrast in physical form9
- *pecch uses phonic substance typically in the form of air1pressure mo"ements
- $riting uses graphic substance typically in the form of marks on a surface.
@ifferences of structure and use are the product of radically different communicati"e situations.
%rystal (-.?B) pointed that Cspeech is tme1bound# dynamic# transient# part of an interaction in which#
typically# both participants are present# and the speaker has a specific addressee in mindR. $riting is space1
bound# static# permanent# the result of a situation in which# typically# the producer is distant from the
recipient and# often# may not e"en know who the recipient is. !s writing can only occasionally be thought
of as an interaction it is :ust normal that we can establish the following points of contrast9
-.1 The permanence of writing allows repeated reading and close analysis. The spontaneity and
rapidity of speech minimi(es the chance of complex preplanning# and promotes features that assist to
think standing up.
/.1 The participants in written interaction cannot usually see each other# and they thus cannot rely
on the context to help make clear what they mean as they would when speaking. !s a consequence# deictic
expressions are normally a"oided. 7n the other hand# feedback is a"ailable in most speech interactions.
8.1 The ma:ority of graphic features present a system of contrast that has no speech equi"alent.
<any genres of written language# such as tables# graphs# and complex formulae# cannot be con"eyed by
reading aloud.
6.1 *ome constructions may be found onluSy in writing# such as the French simple past# and others
only occur in speech# such as CwhatchamacallitR# or slang expressions.
A.1 Finally we can say that written language tends to be more formal and so it is more likely to
pro"ide the standard that society "alues.
@espite these differences# there are many respects in which the written and the spoken language
ha"e mutually interacted. $e normally use the written language in order to impro"e our command of
"ocabulary# acti"e or passi"e# spoken or written. 4oan words may come into a country in a written form#
and sometimes# e"erything we know about language is its writing.
*.1. D!#$n$%$&n
%ommunication# the exchange of meanings between indi"iduals through a common system of
symbols# concerned scholars since the time of ancient Nreece. 'n -./? the &nglish literary critic and
author '"or !rmtrong ,ichards offered one of the first definitions of communication.
*ince about -./D the growth and apparent influence of communication technology ha"e attracted
the attention of many specialists who ha"e attempted to isolate communication as a specific facet of their
particular interest.
'n the-.5Ds# <arshall <c4uhan# drew the threads of interest in the field of communication into a
"iew that associated many contemporary psychological and sociological phenomena with the media
employed in modern culture. <c4uhanPs idea# Cthe medium is the messageR# stimulated numerous
filmmakers# photographers# and others# who adopted <c4uhanRs "iew that contemporary society had
mo"ed from a print culture to a "isual one.
y the late /D
century the main focus of interest in communication seemed to be drifting away
from <c4uhanism and to be centring upon9
-.1 The mass communication industries
/.1 +ersuasi"e communication and the use of technology to influence dispositions
8.1 +rocesses of interpersonal communication as mediators of information
6.1 @ynamics of "erbal and non1"erbal (and perhaps extrasensory) communication
A.1 +erception of different kinds of communication
5.1 Tses of communication technology for social and artistic purposes# including education
B.1 @e"elopment of rele"ant critism for artistic endea"ours employing modern communication
'n short# a communication expert may be oriented to any number of disciplines in a field of inquiry
that has# as yet# neither drawn for itself a conclusi"e roster of sub:ect matter nor agreed upon specific
methodologies of analysis.
8./. <odels
Fragmentation and problems of interdisciplinarity outlook ha"e generated a wide range of
discussion concerning the ways in which communication occurs and the processes it entails. <ost
communication theorists admit that their main task is to answer the query originally posed by the T.*
political scientist 3. @. 4asswell# C$ho says what to whom with what effect;R. 7b"iously all of the
factors in this question may be interpreted differently by scholars and writers in different disciplines.
*cientists may make use of dynamic or linear models.
8./.-. @ynamic models.
@ynamic models are used in describe cogniti"e# emotional# and artistic aspects of communication
as they occur in sociocultural contexts. These models do not try to be quantitati"e as linear ones. They
often centre attention upon different modes of communication and theori(e that the messages they contain
including messages of emotional quality and artistic content# are communicated in "arious manners to and
from different sorts of people.
<any analysts of communication such as <c4uhan assert that the channel actually dictates# or
se"erely influences# the message# both as sent and recei"ed. For them# the stability and function of channel
or medium are more "ariable and less mechanistically related to the process than they are for followers of
*hannon and $ea"er.
8././. 4inear models9 *hannon and $ea"erPs.
%laude *hannon and $arren $ea"erPs <athematical <odel of %ommunication is one of the most
producti"e schematic models of a communication systems that has e"er been proposed. The simplicity#
clarity# and surface generally of their model pro"ed attracti"e to many students of communication in a
number of disciplines. !s originally concei"ed# the model contained fi"e elements arranged in linear
- !n information source
- ! transmiter
- ! channel of transmission
- ! recei"er
- ! destination
This model was originally intended for electronic messages so# in time# the fi"e elements of the
model were renamed so as to specify components for other types of communication transmitted in "arious
manners. The information source was split into its components to pro"ide a wider range of applicability9
- a source
- an encoder
- a message
- a channel
- a decoder
- a recei"er
!nother concept# first called a Cnoise sourceR but later associated with the notion of entropy was
imposed upon the communication model. &ntropy diminishes the integrity of the message and distorts the
message for the recei"er. =egati"e entropy may also occur in instances where incomplete or blurred
messages are ne"ertheless recei"ed intact# either because of the ability of the recei"er to fill in missing
details or to recogni(e# despite distortion or paucity of information# both the intent and the content of the
ut not only negati"e entropy counteracts entropy. ,edundancy# the repetition of elements within a
message that pre"ents the failure of communication of information# is the greatest antidote to entropy.
,edundancy is apparently in"ol"ed in most human acti"ities# and# because it helps to o"ercome the
"arious forms of entropy that tends to turn intelligible messages into unintelligible ones# it is an
indispensable element for effecti"e communication.
$e can see that the model# despite the introduction of entropy and redundancy# is conceptually
static. To correct this flaw# =orbert $iener# the father of cybernetics# added the principle of feedback# ie#
sources tend to be responsi"e to their own beha"iour and to the context of communication. 'nteraction
between human beings in con"ersation cannot function without the ability of the message sender to weigh
and calculate the apparent effect of this words on his listener.
$e will now analy(e each of these key factors.
*.*. .!8 #a)%&2'
This unit title mentions some of the key factors affecting any communicati"e interaction such as
the sender and the recei"er. !fter putting them in the broader framework of the <athematical <odel of
%ommunication we will analy(e the intended effects of our communicati"e interactions (speech acts) and
the en"ironment in which they are exchanged (social context).
The information source selects a desired message out of a possible set of messages. The transmitter
changes the message into a signal which is sent o"er the communication channel where it is recei"ed by
the recei"er and changed back into a message which is sent to the destination. 'n the process of
transmission certain unwanted additions to the signal may occur which are not part of the message and
these are referred to as noise or entropy) negati"e entropy and redundancy counteract entropy. For somo
communication systems the components are simple to specify as# for instance9
- information source9 a man on the telephone
- transmitter9 the mouthpiece
- message and signal9 the words the man speaks
- channel9 the electrical wires
- recei"er9 the earpiece
- destination9 the listener
'n face1to1face communication# the speaker can be both information source and transmitter# while
the listener can be both recei"er and destination.
8.8.-. *peech acts.
F.4. !ustin (-.--1-.5D) was the first to draw attention to the many functions performed by
utterances as part of interpersonal communication. 3e distinguishes two main types of functional
- performati"e
- contati"e
! performati"e is an utterance that perform an act9 to say is to act# as we ha"e already seen when
studying language functions. +erformati"es may be explicit and implicit performati"es# which do not
contain a performati"e "erb.
%onstati"es are utterances which assert something that is either true or false.
'n speech act analysis the effect of utterances on the beha"iour of speaker and hearer is studies
using a threefold distinction9
! locutionary act is the saying of something which is meaningful and can be understood. For
example# saying the sentence Cshoot the snakeR is a locutionary act if hearers understand the words Cshoot
R# CtheRand CsnakeR and can identify the particular snake referred to.
!n illocutionary act is using a sentence to perform a function. For example Cshoot the snakeRmay
be intended as an order or a piece of ad"ice.
! perlocutionary act is the result or effect that is produced by means of saying something. For
example# shooting the snake would be a perlocutionary act.
!ustinRs three1part distinction is less frequently used than a two part distinction between the
propositional content of a sentence and the illocutionary force or intended effects of speech acts. There are
thousands of possible illocutionary acts# and se"eral attempts ha"e been made to classify them into a small
number of types9
- representati"es
- directi"es
- commisi"es
- expressi"es
- declarations
'n declarati"es the speaker is committed in "arying degrees# to the truth of a proposition.
'n directi"es the speaker tries to get the hearer to do something.
'n commissi"es the speaker is committed# in "arying degrees# to a certain course of action.
'n expressi"es the speaker expresses an attitude about a state of affairs.
'n declarations the speaker alters the external status or conditions of an ob:ect or situation solely by
making the utterance.
!s we can infer from the examples there are some fu((y areas and o"erlappings between different
types of illocutionary force. ut an utterance may lose its illocutionary force if does not satisfy se"eral
criteria# known as felicity conditions. For example the preparatory conditions ha"e to be right9 the person
performing the speech act has to ha"e the authority to do so.
7rdinary people automatically accept these conditions when they communicate. 'f any of these
conditions does not obtain# then a special interpretation of the speech act has to apply. oth normal and
special interpretations of utterances ha"e much to do with the context in which they are made.
8.8./. %ontext.
%ontext is defined by the %ollins &nglish @ictionary as9
-. The parts of a piece of writing# speech# etc# that precede and follow a word or passage and
contribute to its full meaning.
/. The conditions and circumstances that are rele"ant to an e"ent# fact# etc.
The first definition co"ers what we may call linguistic context# but as we can infer from the second
definition# linguistic context may not be enough to fully understand an utterance understood as a speech
act. 'n fact# linguistic elements in a text may refer not only to other parts of the text but also to the outside
world# to the context of situation.
The concept of context of situation was formulated by <alinowski in -./8. 't has been worked
o"er and extended by a number of linguistics# specially 3ymes and 3alliday. 3ymes categori(es the
communicati"e situation in terms of eight components while 3alliday offers three headings for the
3><&* 3!44'@!>
-. Form and content of text
/. *etting
-. field
/. mode
%7=T&UT 7F *'TT!T'7=
8. +articipants
6. &nds
A. Key
5. <edium
B. Nenre
?. 'nteractional norms
8. tenor
$e will now analy(e 3allidayRs more abstract interpretation as it practically subsumes 3ymesRs
The field is the total e"ent# in which the text is functioning# together with the purpose acti"ity of
the speaker or writer) it thus includes the su:ect matter as one element in it.
The mode is the function of the text in the e"ent# including therefore both the channel taken by the
language# and its genre or rethorical mode# as narrati"e# didactic# persuasi"e and so on.
The tenor refers to to the participants who are taking part in this communicati"e exchange# who
they are and what kind of relationship thay ha"e to one another. 't is clear that role relationships# ie# the
relationship which people ha"e to each other in a act of communication# influences the way they speak to
each other. 7ne of the speakers may ha"e# for instance# a role which has a higher status than that of the
other speaker or speakers.
- %ollins &nglish @ictionary. %ollins. Nlasgow# -../.
- %rystal# @. The %ambridge &ncyclopedia of 4anguage. %T+. %ambridge# -.?B.
- &ncyclopaedia ritannica. &nc. rit. 'nc. %hicago# -..D.
- 3alliday# <. !. K. *poken and written 4anguage. Neelong# Vic. @eakin Tni"ersity +ress# -.B5.
- 3alliday# <. !. K. 4anguage as social semiotics. !rnold. 4ondon# -.B?.
- 3alliday# <. !. K. Functional grammar. !rnold. 4ondon# -.?/.
- 3alliday# <. !. K and 3asan# ,. %ohesion in &nglish. 4ongman. 4ondon# -.B5.
- ,ichards# F. %# +latt# F.# and +latt# 3. 4ongman @ictionary of 4anguage Teaching and !pplied
4inguistics. 4ongman. 4ondon# -../.
- <ateriales para la ,eforma. +rimaria. <&%. <adrid# -../.
- *teinberg# @. @. +sycholinguistics. 4ongman. 4ondon.-.?/
T!+a 1
4! 4&=NT! %7<7 %7<T='%!%'W=9 4&=NT!F& 7,!4 > 4&=NT!F&
&*%,'T7. F!%T7,&* XT& @&F'=&= T=! *'TT!%'W=
%7<T='%!T'V!9 &<'*7,# ,&%&+T7,# FT=%'7=!4'@[email protected] >
Traditionally# theories of language ha"e concentrated on the study of its different components in isolation#
such as grammar# semantics# phonology# seeing language as a system that included all of them. 3owe"er#
when language is first acquired in childhood# is merely by means of communicating with the people
around. 'n this sense# new approaches in the last third of the /D
%# paid attention to language as
$e# as human beings# need to communicate# and as most of us li"e in a literary society# we normally use
oral and written language to transmit or recei"e information. !s far as oral communication is concerned#
most human beings speak using oral language in order to exchange information and interact with other
people# but the use of oral language entails the knowledge of certain particular elements# norms# routines#
formulae and strategies that are put into work when we are in con"ersations.
7n the other hand# writing and reading require formal instruction# and children face a series of difficulties
when learning these skills# because they ha"e to comfort oral to written discourse# adapting rules# learning
spelling# di"iding speech chains into chunks called words# etc.
3owe"er# learning to write and read is probably the most fundamental step in education# because is the
basis for future instruction and access to many fields of knowledge. 'n this unit# we are going to re"iew
the main characteristics of oral and written language# and then we will analyse the factors that define a
communicati"e situation# namely the sender and the recei"er of the message# the functionality and the
!mong all the communication codes which are used by human beings (music# kinesics# sign language)#
written and oral language is the most efficient for the transmission and reception of information# thoughts#
feelings and opinions. 'n addition# these linguistic codes are exclusi"ely human and make us distinct from
animals. ut written and oral language are different processes9 whereas we learn to write through a
formal instruction# speaking and listening come naturally along different stages of the childRs e"olution.
Therefore we can say that oral language comes first in our history as indi"iduals. Therefore# speech and
writing are not alternati"e processes# but rather we must consider them counterparts9 all oral language
should ha"e a good representati"e system in a written form.
From a psychological point of "iew# oral communication is a two1way process in which both speaker
(encoder) and hearer (decoder) must be present in the same situational context at a particular time and
place (unless we talk about special cases of oral communication such as phone con"ersations). The
functions of oral communication are# as we said before# to communicate or exchange our ideas or to
interact with other people. Tnlike written communication# in oral interaction we can monitor the reactions
of the hearer through the feedback so that we can our speech in the course of the communication# as well
as use different linguistic and non1linguistic features (gesturing# intonation...) to make our messages
clearer. 3owe"er# as it takes place in a particular place and time# the interlocutors ha"e to make their
contributions at a high speed# without much time to think# unlike writing.
!long history# the study of spoken language has not much tradition# unlike written language# due to
se"eral reasons9
- it was considered a secondary type of language as it was not reser"ed only to culti"ate people.
- unlike written language# there was a lack of permanent records of oral language during our past
- it presents more mutability in the understanding and interpretation of what it is said than in
written lg.
3alliday was among the first linguists to study oral language# saying that it was not a formless and
featureless "ariety of written language. *ince then# there has been an increasing interest to which it has
contributed the in"entions of audio# "ideo and computer de"ices. 'n oral communication# we distinguish
two different types9
+repared speech The formal setting is organised as writing (syntax# lexis Y discourse
organisation) 't is memorised or written down before (lectures# speech# oral poetry)
*pontaneous speech *peaker has not thought or memorised the message beforehand. 't may
present inaccuracies# hesitations# silences and mistakes
!s spontaneous speech is the main form of oral communication# and directly reflects real communication
processes with different demands and situations# and prepared speech does not allow for feedback and
monitoring# the analysis and study of oral communication should concentrate on spontaneous speech#
where the negotiation of meaning plays an important role for the communication purpose to be correctly
ut because of its per"asi"e and e"eryday nature# its scientific study has pro"ed particularly complex. 't
has been difficult to obtain acoustically clear# natural samples of spontaneous con"ersation# especially of
its more informal "arieties. $hen samples ha"e been obtained# the "ariety of topics# participants# and
social situations which characterise con"ersation ha"e made it difficult to determine which aspects of the
beha"iour are systematic and rule1go"erned.
L$ng$'%$) !1!+!n%'
*T,&** $hen we talk we ha"e to bare in mind there is a regular distribution of accents along
words and sentences. 3owe"er# if we want to gi"e special emphasis to a particular word or
phrase# we change that regular pattern of stress and accent in order to make more prominent
what we want.
,3>T3< 't is the relationship we make between accents (chunks of words) and silences.
,hythm can range from "ery monotonous one (in quick or prepared speech) to rhythm with
contrasts in order to gi"e expressi"eness and sense to our speech. +auses are also important#
because sometimes are made to di"ide grammatical units and other times are unpredictable
and caused by hesitations.
'=T7=!T'7= is the falling and rising of "oice during speech. !ny departure from what it is
considered 0normal2 intonation shows special effects and expresses emotions and attitudes.
=ormally# falling tones show conclusion and certainty# whereas rising tones may show
inconclusion or doubt ('Rll do it E 'Rll do it... )
Pa2a1$ng$'%$) !1!+!n%'
$e cannot consider oral "erbal communication without remembering that the whole body takes
part. 'n fact# many times# a person can express sympathy# hostility or incredulity by means of body
and facial gestures. This 0body language2 is normally culturally related Y is learnt the same way
as "erbal beha"iour is learnt# although it allows for spontaneity and creati"ity9 we use head# face#
hands# arms# shoulders# fingers...
7ther linguistic features that characterise con"ersational language are9
*peed of speech is relati"ely rapid) there are many assimilations Y elisions of letters) compressions of
auxiliary sequences (gonna)) it can be difficult to identify sentence boundaries in long loose passages)
informal discourse markers are common ( you know, I mean)) great creati"ity in the "ocabulary choice#
ranging from unexpected coinage (Be unsad) to use of "ague words (thingummy).
(.(. RULES
$hen we use language# we do not only utter grammatically correct sentences# but we know where# when
and to whom we are addressing our utterances. This is the reason why a speaker needs to know not only
the linguistic and grammatical rules of a language (%homskyRs linguistic competence) or rules of usage#
but also how to put into effect these rules in order to achie"e effecti"e communication# so that we also
need to be familiar with rules of use.
,ules of usage 'n order to produce and understand messages in a particular language we need to be
familiar with9
+37=747N> $e need to know the organisation# characteristics and patterns of sounds to
<7,+3747N> $e need to know the word formation rules and types of combinations of bases Y
*>=T!U $e need to know how words are put together to form sentences and which are their
*&<!=T'%* $e need to know how words can be combined to produce the meaning we want or
to understand the meaning expressed by others# e"en if it is nonliteral# methaporical or
,ules of use To be communicati"ely efficient# we need to show our linguistic competence in real speech
!++,7+,'!T&=&** or knowledge of what type of language suits best in a gi"en situation#
taking into account the context with its participants and their social relationships# the
setting# the topic# the purpose..
%73&,&=%& or ability to organise our messages in a logical and comprehensible way to transmit
%73&*'7= or capacity to organise and structure utterances to facilitate interpretation by means of
endophoras and exophoras ( references to linguistic Y situational contexts)# repetitions#
<anRs ability to be creati"e with language is something ob"ious# but there are times when we choose how#
when and why not to be creati"e# to repeat what has been said or heard many times# often in exactly the
same form. 4inguistic routines are fixed utterances which must be considered as single units to
understand their meaning# and they are of a learned character (Hi! familiar or empty How do you do?)# the
process through which we acquire ritual competence being perhaps the most important socialisation we
make of language.
Tnderstanding routines Y formulae require shared cultural knowledge because they are generally
metaphorical in nature and must be interpreted at a non1literal le"el. +eople are often quite opposed to
routines# formulae and rituals because they are meaningless and depersonalise our ideas# because literal
semantic "alue is largely irrele"ant. *ome typical routines and habitual formulae are used in funeral
condolences# religious ceremonies# weddings# graduation ceremonies...
+articular attention has been paid to the markers of con"ersational turns9 how people know their turn to
speak. 'n formal dialogue# there are often explicit markers# showing that a speaker is about to talk) in
debate# the person in the chair more or less controls speakersR turns. 'n con"ersation# howe"er# the cues
are more subtle# in"ol"ing "ariations in the melody# rhythm# and speed of speech# and in patterns of eye
$hen people talk in a group# they look at and away from their listeners in about equal proportions# but
when approaching the end of what they ha"e to say# they look at the listeners more steadily# and in
particular maintain closer eye contact with those they expect to continue the con"ersation. ! listener who
wishes to be the next speaker may indicate a desire to do so by showing an increase in bodily tension#
such as by leaning forward or audibly drawing in breath. 'n addition# there are many explicit indications#
"erbal and non1"erbal# that a speaker is coming to an end (ast !ut not least...)# wishes to pass the
con"ersational ball ("hat do you think?# staring to someone)# wishes to :oin in (#ould I just say that...$,
lea"e ("ell, that is all...)# change the topic (%peaking of &ary...)# or check on listenersR attention or
attitude ('re you with me?).
The sub:ect1matter is an important "ariable# with some topics being 0safe2 in certain social groups (in
ritain# the weather# pets# children# and the locality)# others more or less 0unsafe2 (religious and political
beliefs# questions of personal income such as How much do you earn(). There are usually some arbitrary
di"isions9 for example# in ritain# it is polite to comment o the taste and presentation of a meal# but
usually impolite to enquire after how much it cost.
'n G2$)!Rs "iew# we cooperate in a con"ersation in order to produce a rational and efficient exchange of
information# so that to reach a good final result in a communicati"e process# we apply 6 cooperati"e
principles or maxims9
1 <axim of quality9 7ur contributions ha"e to be sincere# belie"ing what we say Y a"oiding things we
lack e"idence of
1 <axim of quantity9 $e should make our contributions as briefly# orderly Y informati"e as required for
the exchange.
1 <axim of rele"ance9 !n utterance has to be rele"ant with respect to the stage the con"ersation has
1 <axim of manner9 $hich concerns the manner of expression (a"oiding obscurity# ambiguity...).
$ritten communication is a type of communication# and as such# its main purpose is to express ideas and
experiences or exchange meanings between indi"iduals with a particular system of codes# which is
different to that used in oral communication. 'n written communication# the encoder of the message is the
writer and the decoder and interpreter of the message is the reader# and many times# this interpretation
does not coincide with the writerRs intended meaning.
$hen we write# we use g2a-7$) '8+5&1'# which relate to the sounds we make when we speak. ut
writing is much more than the production of graphic symbols# :ust as speech is more than the production
of sounds9 these symbols ha"e to be a22ang!", a))&2"$ng %& )!2%a$n )&n,!n%$&n', %& #&2+ 6&2"', an"
6&2"' %& #&2+ '!n%!n)!'. T7!'! '!n%!n)!' %7!n 7a,! %& 5! &2"!2!" an" 1$n0!" %&g!%7!2 $n )!2%a$n
6a8', #&2+$ng a )&7!2!n% 67&1! )a11!" %!=%.
*ince classical times# there ha"e been two contradictory approaches to speech and writing9 firstly# the
"iew that writing is the primary and speech the secondary medium# because writing is more culturally
significant and lastingly "aluable than speech) and secondly# the "iew that speech is primary and writing
secondary because speech is prior to writing both historically and in terms of a childRs acquisition of
language. ut lea"ing aside this dichotomy# the first thing we must notice is that speech and writing are
not alternati"e processes9 speech comes first# but writing demands more skill and practice# and they ha"e
different formal patterns.
<ost important of all# howe"er# is that written and spoken language are counterparts9 a writing system
should be capable of representing all the possible wordings of a personRs thoughts. This implies that both
systems could be regarded as the two sides of the same coin.
From a psychological point of "iew# writing is a '&1$%a28 acti"ity# the $n%!21&)%&2 $' n&% -2!'!n%# so we
are required to write on our own# 6$%7&% %7! $n%!2a)%$&n &2 %7! 7!1- &# %7! #!!"5a)0 usually pro"ided
in oral communication. That is why we ha"e to compensate for the absence of some linguistic features
which help to keep communication going on in speech# such as prosody and paralinguisic de"ices such as
gesturing# intonation# etc. 7ur texts are interpreted by the reader alone# and 6! )ann&% +&n$%&2 7$' &2
7!2 2!a)%$&n'# unlike the speaker9 we ha"e to sustain the whole process of communication and to stay in
contact with our reader through words alone# and this is why we must be "ery clear and explicit about our
intentions when we write.
3owe"er# not all the ac"antages are on the side of the oral communication9 in writing# we normally ha"e
time to think about what we are trying to express# so that we can re"ise it and re1write it# if need be# and
the reader# to understand a text# can also read and re1read it as many times as wanted.
There are some features characteristic of written language# but this should not be taken to imply that there
Rs a well1delimited di"iding line between writing and speech. 3owe"er# the extend to which each of them
makes use of different resources is directly related to the nature of the two channels9 speech is the
language of immediate communication# and writing is a type of communication with a distance in
between. This is the reason why written texts present the following formal elements9
L$ng$'%$) #!a%2!' &# 62$%%!n 1angag! ! good writing system must be fixed# flexible# and adaptable
at a time# so that9
- it must pro"ide a codified expression for the elements expressed by oral language9 each idea Q
a written form
- it must pro"ide means for creating expressions for elements not codified yet9 neologisms#
S8n%a)%$) #!a%2!' &# 62$%%!n 1angag! The syntactic elements which make writing different from
speech are9
- markers and rhetorical organisers for clauses relationships and clarity (written texts are more
- use of hea"ily pre1modified =+s # *V7 ordering and use of passi"e constructions and
subordinate phrases
L!=$)a1 #!a%2!' &# 62$%%!n 1angag! 'n order to compensate the absence of paralinguistic de"ices and
- more accuracy in the use of "ocabulary# a"oiding redundancy and ambiguity (due to its
permanent nature)
- use of anaphoras and cataphoras# repetitions# synonyms... to signal relationships between
- there is more lexical density in writing than in speech (more lexical items than grammatical
G2a-7&1&g$)a1 $+-1$)a%$&n' Texts can be presented in different ways# as our culture "alue many times
more the form than the content. To compensate for the absence of feedback and paralinguistic de"ices#
written texts need to be accurate in spelling# punctuation# capital letters to mark sentence boundaries#
indentation of paragraphs# different fonts to call attention (italics# bold...) and in poetry or texts to draw
attention# exploitation of resources such as order and choice of words# "ariations in spelling (iba la
'n any case# what is most characteristic of written communication is that 6! '!! $% (the organisation#
'n writing# communication also takes place following system and ritual constraints9 this is the reason why
when we look at a text we can distinguish and obtain information regarding different types of
organisation# different purposes and different lengths.
Traditionally# written texts were di"ided following the classification of genres. Then# linguists linked their
rhetorical mode to the syntactic structures# routines and formulae that characterised them# and established
the following classification9
P&'%)a2"' +ieces of writing normally directed to friends or family when tra"elling #and sometimes
used for congratulations and greetings. $e :ust write on one side and the language used is
L!%%!2' They can be formal (to enterprises or someone we are not closed to) and informal (to
friends or family) There are some routines to write letters9 apart from the writerRs address
on the top right1hand corner# the date# the first line (dear Z nameEsirEmadamE<rE<rs...)# the
closing (>ours...) and the signature# present in both types of letters# each type of letter
follows this structural organisation into paragraphs9
)ormal* -
Q reason why writing# /
Q what you want from addressee# 8
Informal9 -
Q introduction# /
Q reason# 8
Q additional info# 6
Q conclusion.
There are also directive letters# to pro"oke some reaction on the reader# using imperati"es
Y remarks.
F$11$ng:$n #&2+' %onsist of answering what you are asked# as briefly as possible# so no writing style
is needed to do so.
C22$)1+ ,$%a! %onsists of a clear summary to gi"e the academic knowledge and experience
someone has on a certain matter# so it includes personal details# current occupation#
academic qualification and professional experience.
S++a2$!' rief rKsumKs of articles# booklets and books that due to their special form of composition
and writing they allow the reader to gather the main information about the original work
without reading it.
R!-&2%' They are used to present clearly and with details the summary of present and past facts or
acti"ities# and sometimes of predictable future facts from checked data# sometimes
containing the interpretation of the writer but normally with the intention of stating the
reality of an enterprise or institution without deformati"e personal "isions# and can be
e+positive, interpretative Y demonstrative
Na22a%$,! %!=%' The most uni"ersal of all the types of written texts# refer back to the story1telling
traditions of most cultures. 'n fact there seem to be some basic uni"ersal structure that
go"erns this type of texts9
1 ,rientation (time# place and character identification to inform reader of the story
world)# -oal. .ro!lem. /esolution. #oda and sometimes a morale at the end.
For this characteristic structure# some of the routines and formulae used are presentati"es
(there is...)# relati"es# ad:uncts of place and time# flash1backs# different narrati"e p.o.".#
narrati"e dialogues# etc...
D!')2$-%$,! %!=%' They are concerned with the location and characterisation of people and things in
the space# as well as pro"iding background information which sets the stage for narration.
This type of texts is "ery popular in 4/ teaching# and all types ha"e the same pre1
established organisation. $ithin descripti"e texts we might find9
1 0+ternal descriptions# presenting a holistic "iew of the ob:ect by an account of all
its parts
1 )unctional descriptions, which deal with instruments and the tasks they may
1 .sychological descriptions, which express the feelings that something produces in
*ome of the most characteristic structures are presentati"es (there...)# ad:uncts of location#
stati"e "erbs (look# seem# be...)# use of metaphors# comparisons# qualifying ad:ecti"es and
relati"e sentences.
E=-&'$%&28 %!=%' They identify and characterise phenomena# including text forms such as definitions#
explanations# instructions# guidelines# summaries# etc...They may be sub:ecti"e (an essay)
and ob:ecti"e (definitions# instructions)# or e"en ad"ice gi"ing. They may be analytical#
starting from a concept and then characterising its parts# and ending with a conclusion.
Typical structures are stati"e "erbs# 0in order to2# 0so as to2# imperati"es# modals and "erbs
of quality.
A2g+!n%a%$,! %!=%' They are those whose purpose is to support or weaken another statement whose
"alidity is questionable.
The structures we find are "ery flexible# being this the reason for the existence of se"eral
#lassical1.ros 2 cons 3ig3ag1,ne4sided arg10cclectic appro1,pposition5s arg first1,ther
side questioned
There are sometimes when we choose how# when and why not to be creati"e with language to repeat what
is normally used in a gi"en situation9 we use linguistic routines and formulae. These are "!#$n!" a' #$=!"
%%!2an)!' &2 '[email protected]!n)!' &# %%!2an)!' 67$)7 +'% 5! )&n'$"!2!" a' '$ng1! n$%', 5!)a'! %7!$2
+!an$ng )ann&% 5! "!2$,!" &# %7!+ n1!'' )&n'$"!2!" a' a 67&1!.
'n written texts we find different types of routines and formulaic expressions# which "ary depending on
the type of text# as we ha"e been pre"iously seeing. Tnderstanding them usually requires sharing cultural
knowledge# because they are genarally metaphorical in nature and must be interpreted at a non1linguistic
le"el (for instance# 6ear in a letter does not always carry affecti"e meaning).
!ll those phrases and sentences that# to some extend# ha"e a prescripti"e character# can be considered as
routines and formulaic expressions9 to consider all the different existing routines would take too long# but
some examples are# in letters Y postcards (7ours sincerely) in %.VRs# the organisation of info in different
blocks# in narration (,nce upon a time) in descriptions (on the left, high a!ove$,etc...
A11 $n a11, 6! )an 'a8 %7a% %7!8 a2! '&+!%$+!' ,!28 '!#1 5% &#%!n +!an$ng1!'' A "!-!2'&na1$'! &2
!=-2!''$&n' A $"!a'.
Nenerally speaking# communication is the !=)7ang! &# +!an$ng' 5!%6!!n $n"$,$"a1' %72&g7 a
)&++&n '8'%!+ &# '8+5&1'# and this has been the concern of scholars since the Nreeks.
%ommunication refers to the %2an'+$''$&n &# $n#&2+a%$&n Ba +!''ag!C 5!%6!!n a '&2)! an" a
2!)!$,!2, '$ng a '$gna11$ng '8'%!+.
!t the turn of the century# the &nglish literary critic '"or !rmstrong ,ichards offered one of the
first definitions# saying that communication takes place when one mind so acts upon its
environment that another mind is influenced, and in that other mind an experience occurs
which is like the experience in the first mind, and is caused in part by that experience.
The study of human communication in all its modes is known as semiotics. There are se"eral types of
communication# and although in principle any of the fi"e senses can be used as a medium of
communication# in practice only three (%a)%$1!, ,$'a1 and a2a1) are implemented in both active4
e+pressive and passive4receptive ways.
Tactile communication in"ol"es touch (e.g. shaking hands# grasping the arm) and the manipulation of
physical distance and body orientation in order to communicate indifference or disagreement# and is
studied by proxemics. Visual communication in"ol"es the use of facial expressions (smiling# winking...#
which communicate a wide range of emotions) and gestures and body postures of "arying le"els of
formality (kneeling# bowing...). Visual non1"erbal communication is studied by kinesics. 7ften# "isual
and tactile effects interact closely with "erbal communication# sometimes e"en con"eying particular
nuances of meaning not easy to communicate in speech (such as the drawing of in"erted commas in the
air to signal a special meaning)# and most of the times culturally related.
The chief branch of communication studies in"ol"es the &2a1:a2a1 +&"!# in the form of speech# and its
systematic "isual reflex in the form of writing. These are the ,!25a1 a'-!)%' of communication#
distinguished from the non1"erbal (kinesics and proxemics) aspects# often popularly referred to as !ody
The term 1angag!, a' 6! n"!2'%an" $%# $' 'a118 2!'%2$)%!" %& '-!!)7 an" 62$%$ng# because these
mediums of transmission display a highly sophisticated internal structure and creati"ity. =on1"erbal
communication# by contrast# in"ol"es relati"ely little creati"ity. 'n language# it is commonplace to find
new words being created# and sentences "arying in practically infinite complexity. 'n this respect#
languages differ markedly from the "ery limited set of facial expressions# gestures# and body mo"ements.
!ccording to 3armer# the characteristics apply to e"ery communicati"e situation is that a speakerEwriter
wants to communicate# has a communicati"e purpose# and selects language# and a listenerEreader wants to
listen to something# is interested in a communicati"e purpose# and process a "ariety of language.
<odels 'n order to study the process of communication se"eral models ha"e been offered)
fragmentation and problems of interdisciplinary outlook ha"e generated a wide range of discussion
concerning the ways in which communication occurs. <ost communication theorists admit that
their main task is to answer the question Who says what to whom with what effect? The most
important models are9
D8na+$) Tsed to describe cogniti"e# emotional and artistic aspects of the different modes
(narrati"e# pictorial# dramatic...) of communication as they occur in sociocultural contexts in their
"arious manners and to and from different sorts of people. For those using this model# the stability
and function of the channel are more "ariable and less mechanically related to the process than the
linear models.
L$n!a2 +roposed by *hannon and $ea"er# though "ery mathematical# its simplicity# clarity
and surface generality pro"ed "ery attracti"e. 7riginally intended for electronic messages# it was
then applied to all sorts of communication. 'n its conception it contained fi"e elements arranged in
linear order9 information source, transmitter, channel, receiver, destination. Then# the fi"e
elements were renamed so as to specify components for other types of communication# and the
information source was split into its components to pro"ide a wider range of applicability9 source,
encoder, message, channel, decoder, receiver.
.!8 #a)%&2'
'n theory# communication is said to ha"e taken place if the information recei"ed is the same as that
sent. 'n practice# we ha"e to allow for all kinds of interfering factors# such as !n%2&-8 (noise
distorsion) which can be counteracted by n!ga%$,! !n%2&-8 (recei"erRs ability to clear blurred
messages)# by 2!"n"an)8 (used by the encoder)# or by #!!"5a)0 (the sender calculates and
weights the effects on the recei"er and acts accordingly)) and then we ha"e the )&n%!=%, which
co"ers the references to the linguistic aspects of the message or !n"&-7&2a (anaphora and
cataphora) and the external aspects of situation or !=&-7&2a (such as the field, or total e"ent and
purpose of the communication# the mode, or function of the text in the e"ent# including channel
and genre# and the tenor# which refers to the participants and their relationships).
A. F!%T7,* [email protected] FT=%T'7=* 7F ! %7<<T='%!T'V& *'TT!T'7=
The most usual answer to the question 8why do we use language?9 is 0to communicate our ideas2. ut it
would be wrong to think that communicating our ideas is the only purpose for which we use language.
*e"eral other functions may be identified where the communication of ideas is marginal or irrele"ant. $e
hardly find "erbal messages that would fulfil only one function # although %7! ,!25a1 '%2)%2! &# a
+!''ag! "!-!n"' -2$+a2$18 &n %7! -2!"&+$nan% #n)%$&nD
Following Ja0&5'&n# we agree that language must be in"estigated in all the "ariety of its functions# but an
outline of these functions demands a concise sur"ey of the constituti"e factors in any act of "erbal
communication9 the [email protected]@,&**&, sends a <&**!N& to the [email protected]@,&**&& that to be operati"e requires
a %7=T&UT referred to and to be grasped by the addressee (either "erbal and situational# a %[email protected]&# fully
or partially common to the addresser and addressee# and a %7=T!%T# a physical channel and
psychological connection enabling them to enter and stay in communication
'f the main purpose of our use of language is to communicate our ideas# concentrating on the context to
which these ideas refer to# then we are dealing with the 2!#!2!n%$a1 &2 $"!a%$&na1 #n)%$&n.
'f there is a direct expression of the addresserRs attitude toward what is being communicated# tending to
produce an impression of a certain emotion# that is the !+&%$,! &2 !=-2!''$,! #n)%$&n (also "ery
common)# which differs from the referential one in the sound pattern# and it fla"ours to some extend all
our utterances.
'f we orientate our message towards the addressee because we want a certain reaction# we are dealing with
the )&na%$,! #n)%$&n# syntactically and often phonetically de"iate from other functions ("ocati"es and
$e talk about the -7a%$) #n)%$&n when the language we use is for the purpose of establishing or
maintaining social relationships# to check if the channel or contact works# to attract or confirm the
attention of the interlocutor or to discontinue communication# rather than to communicate ideas# and is
normally displayed by ritualised formulas ($ell...# 3ow do you do;).
'f we use the language to talk about the language# such as when checking if addressee is using the same
code as the addresser (@o you follow me; @o you know what ' mean;)# we talk of the +!%a1$nga1
'f# on the contrary# the focus is on the phonetic properties of the message# althogh not being the sole
function of the message# we say that we are using the -&!%$) #n)%$&n of language.
To end up# we will say that 3alliday grouped all the functions into %72!! $n%!22!1a%!" +!%a#n)%$&n':
$"!a%$&na1# to express ideas or experiences# the $n%!2-!2'&na1 to indicate# establish or maintain social
relationships# and the %!=%a1# to create written or spoken texts that fit in the particular situation in which
they are used.
5. FT=%T'7=!4'T> [email protected] %7=T&UT9 T3& =&N7T'!T'7= 7F <&!='=N
3owe"er# if communication were simply a matter of applying the adequate schema# we wouldnRt ha"e to
worry about the addresseeRs response to the communication process. Therefore# we need procedures to
integrate these abstract schemata into the concrete process of discourse itself.
A11 )&++n$)a%$&n "!-!n"' &n %7! a1$gn+!n% an" a"E'%+!n% &# !a)7 $n%!21&)%&2F' ')7!+a%a, an"
%7! -2&)!"2!' 6! '! a2! %7! $n%!2a)%$,! n!g&%$a%$ng a)%$,$%$!' %7a% $n%!2-2!% %7! "$2!)%$&n' -2&,$"!"
an" !na51! ' %& a1%!2 &2 !=-!)%a%$&n' $n %7! 1$g7% &# n!6 !,$"!n)! a' %7! "$')&2'! -2&)!!"'# and
this procedural ability which traduces the schematic knowledge into communicati"e beha"iour is called
)a-a)$%8 (inference, practical reasoning, negotiation of meaning, pro!lem solving...).
This capacity apply to two different dimensions9 one referred to the kind of schema that is being realised#
and the other to the kind of communicati"e situation that has to be negotiated# that is# to the way in which
the relationship between the schemata of the interlocutors is to be managed. $e find that there are
occasions in which we use procedures to clear up and make more explicit and e"ident the #2a+! &#
2!#!2!n)!# or use 27!%&2$)a1 2&%$n!' to specify more accurately our $11&)%$&na28 a)%' (the intended
effects of our utterances) or that felicity conditions are not satisfactory so that we must use those
7ther procedures# this time on the part of the addressee# are $n%!2-2!%a%$,! (as in '48I have two tickets for
the theatre9 B4 8I5ve got an e+am tomorrow9). 'n some occasions# howe"er# negotiation is too long# too
difficult or e"en fails (as in interethnic interaction) because the schemata are "ery different# so that
interlocutors may use other signalling system (e.g. pictorial)# or use B2!C:#&2+1a%$&n procedures (%o
what you say is... :ow let5s put it straight..$
%ommunication is # therefore# the main purpose of a language# and the use and function that fulfils
depends greatly on the characteristics of the information or the form of the message. 'n any case# for a
communication process to be complete# it is necessary that both addresser and addressee negotiate the
meaning of what is being transmitted# o"ercoming any possible obstacles difficulting that process.
3a11$"a8, M. A. .. 'n Introduction to )unctional -rammar %hapter . -.?A
Tann!n, D. #onversational %tyle %hapter ? -.?6
Ma)A2%72, T. ;he ,+ford #ompanion to the 0nglish anguage 7T+ 7xford -../
3!"g!, T. "riting. 7T+. 7xford. -..8
%ommunication abilities at a "ery early stage are one of the primary aims of foreign language teaching.
<odern approaches to communication do not include only linguistic production but gesture# beha"iour#
mime and other aspects occurring in first language communication.
The communicati"e use of the "isual and tactile modes in their non1linguistic aspects is referred as 0non1
"erbal2 communication or 0body language2.
%ommunication means to say something to someone with a communicati"e purpose and in an appropriate
T7! +a$n a$+' $n 1angag! %!a)7$ng a2!:
• Tsing oral and writing language in classroom actions.
• Tsing idioms and sentences (congratulations# greetings#[)
• Tsing extralinguistic strategies (gesture# body language#[)
An" %7!'! a2! %7! )&n%!n%':
• %onceptual (linguistic)9 identifying# greeting# describing# asking# expressing needs and emotions#
quantify# ob:ect location# requesting# denying# offering#[
• +rocedures (non1linguistic)9 acting# doing what they are commanded (total +hysical ,esponse)
• *ocio1cultural9 knowing games# sports and traditional songs in that language.
C&++n$)a%$&n g&a1':
The learner gets a social and linguistic de"elopment9
• Nets an internal linguistic consciousness
• Takes part in a social interaction
• Nets a cultural knowledge of that society and their habits# and also a way to science# technology and
international relations
• Nets practice in e"eryday acti"ities
4earners can understand much more that they can speak# so current language ca be used in the classroom.
There is almost an unlimited range of acti"ities within the communicati"e approach (information sharing#
negotiation of meaning and interaction)
<ost communicati"e techniques operate by pro"iding information and holding it from the others# creating
an information gap.
&"ery communicati"e acti"ity has these characteristics9
• ! desire to communicate
• ! communicati"e form
• ! "ariety of contents and language
The teacher’s role must be to facilitate the communication process and be in"ol"ed as a participant within
the group# analysing needs# counselling# managing the process and organising resources.
4earners must interact within the group. *uccessful communication can only be achie"ed through group
The communicati"e e"ent is not based on the "erbal component only. 't also implies paralinguistic de"ices
such as gesture# facial expression# body language# sight. They are information and emotional sources.
These non1"erbal acts are culturally related. @ifferent cultures may use different gestures (hand using#
head mo"ement# [e.g.9 nodding in 3ungary is opposite to e"erywhere else)
There is also the silent language like the physical distance maintained between indi"iduals# the sense of
time appropriate for communication under different conditions[ The sight directs "ery well
communication. 'f we do not like someone we put our eyes away# insecurity makes eyes go down or if we
are "ery interested our eyes are widely open to make the speaker go on.
The most common strategies of language learning are9
• 4earning grammar rules and using them
• 'mitating linguistic habits
• 4earning "ocabulary and structures by heart
• Finding out strategies# making hypotheses# contrasting them and getting the knowledge
=on "erbal reactions to messages in different contexts9
• Names9 guessing games# drawing games#[
• @rama9 acting# miming# [
• ,ole play9 using sentences as a nati"e speaker# which is funny and "i"idly remembered.
• Total +hysical ,esponse9 is a teaching method built around the co1ordination of speech and action. 't
attempts to teach language through physical acti"ity.
The more intensi"ely a memory connection is traced the stronger the memory association will be and the
more likely it will be recalled.
't makes second language learning a process like first language acquisition. %omprehension abilities
precede producti"e skills but they transfer from one to others.
The speech directed to children consists mainly of commands. <ost of the grammatical structures of the
target language and hundreds of lexical items can be learned from the skilful use of the imperati"e.
The lower the stress is the greater the learning is. *uccessful learning normally occurs in stress controlled
classrooms# in pleasurable experiences and low anxiety situations.
Nrammatical features and lexical items are selected according to the classroom situations and the ease
they can be learnt. Total +hysical ,esponse is uses after language presentation and practice in order to
consolidate structures and "ocabulary.
The teacher is the director of the stage play and pupils are the actors. The teacher decides what to teach#
how to present the new material# how to select materials.
%orrection should be used only when our pupils will really benefit from it. in the beginning the learner
cannot attempt efficiently to the corrections because all attention is directed to producing utterances.
4earners listen attenti"ely and respond physically to our commands. Teachers monitor and encourage to
speak when learners fell ready to speak.
• $arming up or introductory re"iew
• 'ntroduction of new language# new commands and new items
• *imple questions which can be answered with a gesture such as pointing
• +upils utter commands. <anipulating teacher and pupils’ beha"iour.
• ,eading and writing acti"ities (blackboard# notebooks# [). $riting# reading and acting out the
't is "ery suitable for our primary lessons. 't is only "alid for beginners. $hen our pupils’ knowledge is
"ery limited we do not expect them to talk9 they ha"e to watch# listen and act.
7ur main ob:ecti"e is to pro"ide children as much understable listening as we can while they are doing an
en:oyable acti"ity.
The use of gesture allows them to talk when they cannot speak. %ommands can be responded by physical
actions (e.g.9 point)
%ommunication is a key word for us as &nglish teachers. =ot only is it the essence
of human interaction# it is the centre of language learning.
C7&+'08 was one of the first language in"estigators to try to explain why a child
learns language) he says that the enfant begins to produce language by a process of
deduction using the input recei"ed and with natural resources construct an internal
ut later# linguists such as 38+!'# noted that a child doesnRt know :ust a set of rules.
3eEshe learns how and when to use them# and to whom.3e says that when a nati"e person
speaks# he or she takes into account factors such as9
<. %ystemic potential. $hether something (word# structure...) works grammatically
or not if it fits into the grammatical system.
=. 'ppropriacy. $hether a word or structure is suitable in the context according
factors such as the relati"e social class of the speakers# regional "ariations# age
and status differences# the topic being discussed and so on.
>. )easa!ility. Knowing whether a construction is possible or not. 't may be
possible grammatically but seem ridiculous in real use such as the use of si+
adver!s together.
?. ,ccurence. ! knowledge of how often something appears in the language
(example9 foreign learners of 0nglish from latin countries often use more latin4
sounding words than a typical native speakers).
3a11$"a8 considers that language is# indeed# learned in a functional context of use.
To summari(e all the abo"e# a communicati"e context go"erns language use# and language
learning implies an acquisition of these rules of use.
Nrammar is not enough# as we can be grammatically correct and socioculturally
incorrect or with ill1designed strategies. !nd so communication breaks down.
Cana1! an" S6a$n de"eloped the idea of communicati"e competence# a design
taken on by the <.&.%. as the basis for ob:ecti"es in the curricular design and as a guide
for teaching methodology.
This communicati"e competence consists of A subcompetences9 grammatical#
discourse# sociolinguistic# strategic and sociocultural.
- N,!<<!T'%!4 or the ability to use the rules of the language system.
(example9 the position of the adjective in 0nglish). systemic potential.
- @'*%7T,*& or the ability to use different types of speech o writing based on the
situation and to do it coherently and cohesi"ely.
- *7%'74'=NT'*T'% or the ability to adapt utterances to a particular social
context (socialclass# regional languages# registers). appropiacy.
- *T,!T&N'% or the ability to influence the course of the communicati"e situation
(body mo"ement# intonation). ,elated to redundancy. The aim is to mantein the
channel of communication open or to impro"e the reception.
- *7%'7%T4TT,!4 L being familiar with the social and cultural context# the
background where the language is spoken.(example9when we say 0milkman2 we
understand all the contexts such as9 "ho is the milkman?, "hen does the
milkman deliver the milk? and so on).
This communicati"e competence and its subcompetences seeks to help children to
pro"ide opportunities for gaining real language in real use.
%ommunication is the acti"ity or process of gi"ing information to other people or to
other li"ing things# usign signals such as speech# body mo"ements or radio signals.
%ommunication is then the basis of a foreign language class from the basic
curricular design and aims to lesson plans and methodology.
'n the /D th %entury worl of international tra"el# commerce# culture# technology and
newsEinformation# communication needs to be optimun and our pupils will want to# or need
to ha"e the four skills in language on many occasions for communicati"e purposes.
$e shall now look at what this means in terms of "erbal and non "erbal
This is part of their preparation for life in general# and for their de"elopment as
V&,!4 %7<<T='%!T'7=9
This consists of two skills# namely listening and speaking.
I%;0:I:- precedes speaking. 't consists of the decoding of sound according to
acquired rules.'t can be defined as the process of discriminating the sounds of the &nglish
language through a process of hearing and understanding them. 4istening is related to
+37=747N> This science studies the phonemes# the relationship between units of
sounds and differences in meaning.
$e need to remember that there are differences between the *panish sounds and the
&nglish sounds. $e must allow the children to be clear on these differences# using accent#
rhythm and entonation.
!ll material used in teaching sounds and meaning should be based on its usefulness
in real communicati"e interaction.
There are many ways of presenting material so that it can be a means of helping
children in oral1comprehension. $e may use flash1cards# real ob:ects# pictures from
maga(ines# gestures# mime# language laboratory# radio# t.".# fims# tape1recorder and so on.
%.0'@I:- is the encoding of the acquired sounds# deduced by listening# into
signals.The end of this is to communicate something to someone and is related to
+37=&T'%*  The study of sounds9 how they are produced and how they are recei"ed.
+upils need a lot of practise in comprehension (listening) in order to hold a
con"ersation in &nglish. oth skills (listening and speaking) are linked in the learning
process# since the people need to absorb the elements of a message if they are going to
contribute to a con"ersation.
This encoding and decoding is not only on a grammatical le"el# as %homsky inferred
at first# but as Nuiraud affirms a process which takes logic from phonology# semantics# etc#
but also sub:ecti"e experience and social rules.
*o# we will begin talking about oral1comprehension techniques. 'f we want to
de"elop this ability in our children we shall need to obser"e the processes used by the
learner in listening comprehension.
!t first# the pupil hears a series of noises and heEshe canRt tell what the difference is
between them. !fter some time# heEshe begins to note that the sounds are in some sort of
order# with regularity in the pauses and "oice pattern.
!s heEshe learns some simple expresions# he or she begins to see that there are
recurring sounds# and heEshe associates them with meaning. *o# he or she is starting to
recognise familiar elements# but doesnRt see all the relationship. 3eEshe does not really
!s he or she becomes more familiar with the language# heEshe recogni(es the
different elements# but doesnRt remember what heEshe recogni(ed. This is because heEshe is
recogni(ing single elements and not the whole message. The mind is eliminating
information which it canRt take at first) only a certain amount can be taken into short1term
The recepti"e system in the brain then takes these selected elements into long1term
storage. ut only a small part of the total message will be remembered# this is why pupils
seem to be able to understand "ery little at first. They ha"e to concentrate "ery well to be
able to take in not only the sounds# but their meaning# the brain is not able to do this too
fast# and we must remember this.
ThatRs why we help our pupils by gi"ing them short sequences of sounds so that they
can get the meaning easily and store it automatically. *o# ,&+&T'T'7= is essential for
acquiring this process
The 47N*&# in its . ob:ecti"es of the curricular design# reflects the importance of
proficiency in these skills.
=o child can e"er really communicate in &nglish without some ability to listen and
speak. 'n traditional 0Nrammar Translation2 these skills were often neglected.
The reason for this neglect was that some people consider speaking and listening to
be primiti"e skills. They saw that children acquired these abilities naturally and so it was
felt that "erbal communication was less sofisticated than the written form of the language.
*o# more importance was gi"en to a study of the written language and for many
years "erbal communication was nor considered to be worthy of study.
This is reflected in the approaches to teaching of languages wich followed a classical
methodology imitating latin and greek approaches which by their "ery nature center on
reading and writing.
'n this century howe"er# and thanks to the contributions on social anthropologists
and linguistics we ha"e come to understand that the spoken form of a language is a
"aluable communication tool full of sophisticated rules of use and which is a "ehicle for
social interaction.
$e can think of Vigotsky studies on ethnic groups where he demonstrates how
complex the "erbal communication is within societies which some people consider to be
*o# speaking and listening are complex skills and e"en though they are acquired in
an apparently natural way there is a process in"ol"ed which is intricate.
!s an example of this we can look at some of the features which are unique to "erbal
Noffman highlited some of these.
$e could mention that in "erbal communication there are signals which the adresser
and adressee recogni(e as open1close signals such as the word 0well2 or a cough to open
and there are other non1"erbal signalssuch as hand mo"emet to open or close a
con"ersation. $e could also think of the fact that in "erbal communication there is an
inmediate and constant response from the adressee which we donRt ha"e in written
communication. This leads to the possibility of the speaker using strategies to ensure the
message is being recei"ed.
These strategies include back signals such as the hearer nodding hisEher head or
expressions such as 0really2 or 0umhm2.
These demonstrate to the hearer that the message is being recei"ed.
'f he or she feels that the adressee is ha"ing difficulty in recei"ing the message
because heEshe notes a lack of interests#comprehension# etc# heEshe may choose to use
strategies such as raising the "oice# repetition or gestures to impro"e attention or
$e can not do this in written communication because the adressee is not usually
present and we canRt :udge the recei"erRs response and then react.
Further to this in "erbal communication speakers and listeners pay attention to the
norms of what is acceptable in a gi"en context as regards quantity# for example.$e could
imagine that a ritish con"ersation consists of shorter exchanges than in an anaerobic
context.There are also# of course# complex rules of what is socially and culturally
acceptable in specific contexts depending on the relati"e age# social class and regional
origin and so on of speaker and hearer. For example# the speaker is aware of taboo words
or topics and of con"entions which are appropiate in a gi"en situation.'t would be
inappropiate# for example# to use some swearwords in polite company.
'n written communication the writer does not always know who will read the
message and cannot always select suitable exppressions# topics and "ocabulary.
Taking the abo"e into account we can affirm that when a child begins to listen with
understanding and to speak with intelligibility heEshe is acquiring "ery useful social skills
for e"eryday use.
These skills are not primiti"e instruments but elaborate competences which society
demands and "alues.
$ithin "erbal communication we recogni(e that there are non "erbal elements. $e
will now look at these aspects of spoken communication.
=7= V&,!4 %7<<T='%!T'7=.
'n all "erbal communication we are aware that the message is sent through a code
that is made up of sounds tra"elling trough the air# ha"ing been emitted trough the
articulation of the speakerRs speech organs. ut this message is communicated by non
"erbal signals too real componets of normal communication.
The following are typical contextual non "erbal elements.
Knapp clasifies the non "erbal aspects as follows9
-. ody mo"ements9 includes gestures# mo"ements of the body# limbs# hands# head#
feet# facial expressions (smiling)# eye beha"iour such as blinking# direction of
sight and also posture.
/. +hysical characteristics9 includes physical appearance# general attraction# body
scents# height# hair# skin ton (these characteristics are constant).
8. +aralanguage9 refers to how something is said and not what is said. 't uses the
non "erbal "ocal signs surronding speech (tone# qualities of the "oice# rythm).
6. +roxemics9 is the manner in which man uses space as specific cultural product#
the study of use and perception of social and personal space. The indi"idual
determines his own space base on social and personal rules (perception and use
of personal and social space).
A. Tactile conduct9 kissing# hitting# guiding ...
5. !rtifacts9 include the manipulation of ob:ects# which can act as non1"erbal
stimuli# with interacting persons.These artifacts can be9 perfume# clothing#
lipstick ...
B. *urroundig factors9 this category includes those elements that inter"ine in human
relations which are not a direct part of it9 furniture# interio decoration.
The purpose of non "erbal communication is to be part of the functional aspect
of communication9
a) to communicate emotions
b) to regulate communicationEcon"entions.
c) To interpret.
d) To identify social status# etc.
The cultural specificness of these elements should highlited (*panish and &nglish gestures
are different).
<eaningful language includes a knowledge of these aspects for true communication.
The importance of drama# mime# action songs# role1plays# simulation of real life
situations to include as many non1"erbal elements as possible cn not be underestimated.
'n this part of the topic we will see how the use of extralinguistic elements is linked
not only to achie"ing grammatical and sociocultural competence but to strategic
This is the ability to plan and adapt communication# so that the desired end is
'n different contexts different strategies are required.
$e should make some points here9
-) *trategies de"elop and are sought when a need is seen. %hildren look for
extralinguistic help when they are interested in# or enthusiastic about# or are
seeing the ad"antage in communicating.
/) $e shoul put children in different situations of "erbal communication and help
them to de"elop non "erbal aids with games and acti"ities which link non1"erbal
elements with the context and communication need.
8) This acquisition of language skills and non1"erbal strategies requires an
atmosphere of relaxation# with no tension# ridicule# pressure.
6) %hildren should see how language "erbal and non "erbal changes in different
context# ruled by situation#climate# social class# age# formality and informality
and so on.
7ne method which focuses on the aid of non1"erbal communication is Total
+hysical ,esponse. &"ery extralinguistic resource its use is de"eloping communication
beginning with the listening skills# where imperati"es are inferred by mo"ements# actions#
Though we may not wish to use a T+, methodology with all its implications# the
contributions it makes to the teaching1learning process as part of our methodological plan
in an eclectic approach can be "aluable.
!s teachers we will be aware that elements such as furniture# space# decorations and
so on can help or hinder communication. There will be occassions when we will want to
re1arange desks# chairs# decorations# posters or other ob:ects# so that they can help in a
communicati"e process. For example# if we are perfoming a play we can set up "arious
ob:ects as scenary so that the children fell contextuali(ed. For instance# in a play about
Noldilock and the three bears we could put a table in the centre of the classroom with three
different1si(e chairs beside it.This extralinguistic elements help children# who can use them
as aids in communication.
To gi"e an example of a Total +hysical ,esponse methodology which uses
extralinguistic strategies we can consider for instance the game of 0*imon says2 where# in
the context of a game# children learn to understand simple imperati"es along with
associated parts of the body. They obey the orders of the teacher only when he or she
speaks on behalf of *imon. To help the children the teacher performs the action# which the
children initate. &"entually they do not need this extralinguistic back1up.
From the "ery first days of learning a foreign language# children become accostumed
to deducing meaning from the context# which is full of extralinguistic clues. $hen we say9
1 0 close the door# please2 pointing to the open door and miming a closing mo"ement. This
is a "ery simple but effecti"e T.+.,. acti"ity.
=ot only do children learn to understand spoken messages in this way. They begin to
try to communicate using non1"erbal and stralinguistic strategies at their disposal# from
gestures to mime and with the use of other artifacts.
'n this topic we ha"e attempted to demonstrate the nature of "erbal communication.
The spoken language in each producti"e and recepti"e forms depends not only on
the understanding of sounds or the creation of these sounds.
The context of this communication includes many elements which are aids in the
process and we should be aware of how we can maximi(ed "erbal and non1"erbal items to
encouraged children to infer meaning and to use all sorts of extralinguistic strategies to
impro"e communication.
y means of meaningful# moti"ating acti"ities which use aspects such as body1
mo"ement# gestures# artifacts# the fi"e senses# we can moti"ate our young learners of
&nglish to belie"e that communicating in the &nglish language is within their reach.
$AHAC#<*A! #F !/A F#%" +A.I& CIB%I.!I&
W"I!IB. &#**%I&A!IHA &#*<A!A&A I ABCI./
I will start with a short introduction to let you know what this topic is about
In the society where we live, the possibilities of cultural interchanges
studying abroad, watching !H, so on, determines that, communication, at least
one foreign language is a necessity.
1 With our educational reform, according the BAA"AC
#"BAI& act 0F0::; of 1 of #ctober of Aducative .ystem, its
are persuades !/"AA AI*.:
• A WI$A" A$%&A!I#: compulsory and free education are
e,tended up to the change of si,teen, which also coincides with
the labour ages.
• A +A!!A" A$%&A!I#: the number of teachers and school
resources are increased- the teacher)in)service training courses
are promoted, school resources and vocational guidance
programmes are improved.
• *#"A %.AF%C A$%&A!I#: a new model of vocational training
with greater practice knowledge and with a greater relation with
the labour market are proposed, and the necessites of our present
In the Beneral #rganic Act 0F:; of 1
of #ctober of Aducative .ystem,
we can find in the 2
&hapter, article 01)b that, in <rimary Aducation, among
the capacities to develop in our pupils is ' to understand and produce easy
messages in a foreign language(.
 We also have in the "$ 0144F:0 of 6
of .eptember about !eaching
"e=uirements in the territory managed by the old *inistry of Aducation and
&ulture, in the Art.4 that the objective a? is 'understand and produce oral and
written messages in .panish, language of the community and in a foreign
language ' and continuous '!he ability to communicate in a foreign language
and the knowledge of this language give a good help for a better
comprehension and learning the own language(.
.o,for these reasons, compulsory education must attend to this social
need and give pupils a communicative competence in a foreign language.
Within this communicative competence, we as teachers have to develop the
four main skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing.
!hus, in this topic, I will talk about them in the following points:
0. $AHAC#<*A! #F !/A F#%" +A.I& CIB%I.!I& .IICC.:
2. &#**%I&A!IHA &#*<A!A&A I ABCI./.
1. &#&C%.I#
4. +I+CI#B"A</G.
In the "$ 0144F :0 of 6 of .eptember about teaching "e=uirements in the
territory managed by the old *inistry of Aducation and &ulture, we can read
that( the development of the basic linguistic skills it has to be seen as a
process of integration. In the real life, communicative acts use different
skills, so, it3s not logic, to treat them in an aisle form.(
ow I am going to talk about these skills, and I will start with listening.
1. L"%$e!"!) o( &ea(!"!) $o &"%$e! "! o(*e( $o ,ea( a!* !*e(%$a!*
)First of all, there are several general principles in teaching F learning
listening comprehension, and these principles are:
I. Cistening comprehension lessons, it must have definite goals,
carefully stated. !hese goals should fit into the overall curriculum.
II. Cistening comprehension lessons, it should be constructed, with a
carefully step)by)step planning. !his implies that the listening
tasks progress, from simple hearing based activities, to more
comple, understanding based ones as our pupils gain in language
III. Cistening comprehension lessons should teach not test
IH. Cistening comprehension lessons structure it should demand active
pupil participation. And finally
H. !hese lessons should stress conscious memory work.
)We can use several .!"A!ABIA. in order to develop listening
comprehension such as: .&AIB, .II**IB, "A&#.!"%&!I# #F
#"AC $I.&#%".A, <"A$I&!I#, "A&#BIJIB I!A"AC
.!"%&!%"A. A$ &#A&!#"., B%A..IB F#"* &#!AK!, and,
AK!A.IHA and I!A.IHA .!"A!ABIA..
0. .&AIB or looking for specific details. It3s better to say
=uestions before the listening practice.
2. .II**IB or to identify the principal ideas. F. instance, we want
that our pupils ask themselves, what is this te,t aboutE. And to
guess the type te,t >poem, folk tale?, settings >place, street?,
characters >formal, informal, neuter?, and key words.
1. "A&#.!"%&!I# #F #"AC $I.&#%".A: after we refer to the
first listening, the teacher can make a conceptual map on the
blackboard, considering a word or sentence as the listening key.
4. <"A$I&!I#, pupils can predict what will be the ne,t one that
they are going to listen.
5. "A&#BIJIB I!A"AC .!"%&!%"A. A$ &#A&!#".:
this strategy gives us clues about the content. F. e,ample:
• FACCF"I.A I!#A!I#, and the particle +%! indicate
contrast e,pression
• .# L FACC I!#A!I# indicate '"A.%C!(
• FI".!, !/A, FIACCG, help us to identify and arrange
se=uences in different parts.
6. B%A..IB F#"* &#!AK!: is to find out the meaning of
unknown words. We can use gestures, picturesM and, the two last
ones are
 AK!A.IHA CI.!AIB will be a focused or general
feature of the styles of discourse. !he language level in this
kind of listening is, inside the student3s capacity, and they
listen for pleasure and interest. !his strategy, can be used
for the representation of already known material in a new
environment and it can also serve the function of introducing
new language.
 I!A.IHA CI.!AIB is closer to ear training, and it3s
the most widely used for listening practice in classroom.
.tudents are asked to listen a passage, with the aim of
collecting and organi7ing the information it contains. !his
strategy, can be used for the focus of language items as part
of language teaching programme, and for general
comprehension and understanding.
) And, finally, in this point, I will talk about <CAIB &#.I$A"A!I#..
First of all, these are a number of steps that we have to bear in mind when
planning the listening work for our class:
0. choose the listening te,t.
2. check that the activities are suitable
1. adjust the difficulty level of the activities, if we need to
4. consider, whether the listening work you are planning will fit
the time available or not
5. think about visual aids
6. decide whether any special e=uipment will be needed
8. make up our mind about what procedure you will adopt for the
listening session
9. if you are planning, to present the listening te,t 'live( practice
reading it aloud
)#nce we have taken these steps, we must teach our children to develop
skills, and according to /armer, we can divide these skills into !W# !G<A.:
BAA"AC %$A".!A$IB and .<A&IFI& %$A".!A$IB:
a. BAA"AC %$A".!A$IB is concerned with the treatment of a te,t
as a whole, and includes the following microskills:
+,&@'%T'7=9 because it is useful to encourage children to predict what they
think might come next in a spoken message. This means that they then listen to checks
whether their expectation matches the reality of what they hear.
AK!"A&!IB .<A&IFI& IF#"*A!I# and BA!!IB !/A
BAA"AC <I&!%"A of an activity of listening and,
b. .<A&IFI& %$A".!A$IB, which involve a detailed comprehension of
the te,t. !hey also include the following microskills:
) IFA""IB #<II# and A!!I!%$A because an awareness of stress,
intonation and body language, such as facial e,pressions or gestures, will
help the children work out meaning, specially in dialogues or story) telling.
) $A$%&IB *AAIB F"#* &#!AK! because although the teacher
might like to gloss new words before the children listen to something, she
also needs to encourage them to use pictures and their general knowledge
about a topic to work out the meaning of unfamiliar words.
)And "A&#BIJIB $I.&#%".A <A!!A". and *A"IA".: words such
as first, then, finally, or but, so, give important signals about what is coming
ne,t in a spoken te,t. !his is especially important when listening to a
se=uence of events, such as in a story or a set of instructions.
)About CI.!AIB A&!IHI!IA.,, we make sure the children are clear
about why they are listening. !his means spelling out which part of the
message they need to focus on and what they are going to do before listening,
while listening or after listening. .o, to develop these skills, are commonly
divided into !/"AA &A!AB#"IA.: <"A)CI.!AIB, W/ICA and <#.!)
o <"A)CI.!AIB A&!IHI!IA. have as a main aim to arouse our pupils3
interest and include *AIIB CI.! #F I$AA. or CA+ACCIB.
o In W/ICA CI.!AIB A&!IHI!IA. we have !"%AFFAC.A or
.<#!!IB *I.!AIA" and
o <#.!) CI.!AIB A&!IHI!IA. include .%**A"IJIB or
An activity type could be for instance:
)Cisten and perform actionsF follow instructions: this kind of activity is used
with action songs, rhymes or games such as ' What3s the time *r. WolfE(
)<urpose: listening for enjoyment and to improve memory and concentration
)*aterials: instructions for games.
According the book '!he <rimary Anglish !eacher3s Buide ' by +rewster, Allis
and Birard, e,isting methods and materials for primary school Anglish
contain recorded phrases for use in the initial classes.
/owever, it is primarily the teacher who, by conducting the class in Anglish,
will provide the opportunity for the pupils continually to improve their
listening ability in as natural a manner as possible.
!here are other simple ways of training pupils to listen effectively such as
the teaching of numbers and letters with dictations, or visuals aids, such as
pictures of plants, animals or people, can also be used by the pupils to
respond to dictations involving the names of objects.
4. S+ea<"!), o( &ea(!"!) $o %+ea< "! o(*e( $o =e !*e(%$oo*
)First, I will say several BAA"AC <"I&I<CA. in .<AAIIB .IICC:
0. !he beginning of oral e,pression will start when the pupil can
understand the meaning of language3s first elements.
2. !hus, we will use short dialogues and its will attack attention of
them, both the topic and the attractive form to present it.
1. In relation with the first syntactic structures >which we can
present in first or second cycle?, they are principally
BA.!AC!. or <"AFA+"I&A!A$ CAB%ABA, for instance a
greeting like Nhow are you3.
4. +efore preparing our activities we have to consider several
aspects as &#*<A!A&A level, if our pupils A"A B#IB !#
%.A A +##I, ABA, &#!A!..
) An oral lesson is often divided into .!ABA. commonly known as
<"A.A!A!I# .!ABA, <"A&!I&A .!ABA and <"#$%&!I# .!ABA:
 <"A.A!A!I# .!ABA has as a main aim to give our
pupils the opportunities to reali7e the usefulness and relevance of the new
language and their need to learn it.
In the initial stages, first lessons often focus on teaching simple greetings
and introductions, f.e,: 'hello(, 'What3s your nameE(, '*y name is(.
In the early stages of learning, not much spontaneous speech can be e,pected
from pupils.
.uch speech >language? consists of:
).imple greetings: hello, how are you
).ocial Anglish: have a nice weekendE
)"outines: what3s the dateE
)&lassroom language: listen, repeat, sit down, good
)Asking permission: &an I go to the toiletE
We have to bear in mind that once we have chosen a conte,t for the
presentation, we must decide on a procedure, which includes points in this
a? First, build up the situational conte,t by means of pictures and tapes
b? Alicit the new language.
c? Focus our pupils3 attention on the model sentence, and >to? get the
repetition both chorally or individually.
d? And, check students3 understanding.
!he teacher3s main role during this stage is as IF#"*A!
In <"A&!I&A .!ABA our pupils assimilate and memori7es the new language
by means of activities such as repetitions.
!he teacher3s role is mainly those as &#$%&!#" and &#""A&!#" and
 In <"#$%&!I# .!ABA, the main aims are to give learners the
opportunities to integrate the new learnt language into previously learnt
language in an unpredictable linguistic conte,t, and to provide both, teachers
and pupils, with feedback about the learning and teaching process.
!he teacher3s role is as FA&ICI!A!#".
According to +rewster the main thing is to be understood without the listener
being obliged to go through a series of mental gymnastics in order to discover
what the pupil was most probably trying to say.
From a psychological point of view, it3s a good idea not to force things and to
let each pupil start to contribute when they feel ready.
).ome speaking activities that we can use are "A<A!I!I# activities like
'&hinese whispers >the teacher whisper a word a sentence in the pupils3 ear
and this message will be transmitted in the same form to whole class. !he last
pupils has to repeat aloud what he has just listened or A.IIB A$ BIHIB
IF#"*A!I# it can consists of the repetition of certain structures with
minimums changes which have been practised previously in class to complete a
=uestionnaire, posters, etc M
For instance, an activity type could be:
Cook, listen and repeat: the teacher shows a picture, says the word and pupils
repeat: lookO An elephant. "epeat.
When the teacher is satisfied with her pupil3s pronunciation she can move
another word.
#nce several new items have been introduced, the teacher can check by
showing a picture and asking, what3s thisE And pupils reply.
<urpose: to introduce new vocabulary or structures.
*aterials: picture cards, for e,ample animals. Food, colours, actions
5. Lea(!"!) $o (ea* a!* 8("$e
• Cearning to read a foreign language is obviously not a primary aim of
early learning of Anglish. evertheless, the two skills of reading and
writing are learning tools, which it would be wrong to ignore, as they
occupy a position of fundamental importance in the objectives of
primary school education and in the activities of the pupils.
• Cearning to read in Anglish will gradually give young beginners an ability
to read autonomously as they ac=uire both the necessary ability and the
taste for reading. !here are publishers speciali7ing in Anglish as a
foreign language that offers illustrated readers for children. !he
adventures of the animal and human heroes in these books e,cite the
interest of the children and encourage them to read on.
• We have !W# !G<A. #F .!"A!ABIA. to develop reading
comprehension: A&&#"$IB !# !/A .A.A %.A$ and A&&#"$IB
!/A A&!IHI!IA..
- A&&#"$IB !# !/A .A.A %.A$ we have "AA$IB +G AA"
and "AA$IB +G AGA
 "AA$IB +G AA": we can3t read without the phonic
element, that3s to say, reading is a lineal process and we advance identifying
and reproducing the phonic elements of te,ts. !his strategy is very
important in the first stage of learning a foreign language.
 "AA$IB +G AGA: the relation between written word and
signification is direct. !hus, the words are read as units with meaning
without the participation of an intermediate mechanism. !his strategy is
used with pupils who have a certain reading fluency and.
- A&&#"$IB !# !/A A&!IHI!IA. %.A$ we have .&AIB,
.II**IB, F#CC#W A .AP%A&A, .%"HIHAC "AA$IB, <"A$I&!I#,
IF#"*A!I# !"A.FA".
0. .&AIB or looking for specific details such as a friends address.
It3s better to say =uestions before reading.
2. .II**IB or to identify the principal ideas. F. Instance, we want
that our pupils ask themselves, what is this te,t aboutE. And they can
identify type te,t >poem, folk tale?, settings >place, street?,
characters >formal, informal, neuter?, and key words.
1. F#CC#W A .AP%A&A: it3s useful to understand instructions or
identifying. F. Instance the life phases of famous people.
4. .%"HIHAC. "AA$IB: it3s referred to locali7ation of te,t, which
help us to find something that we are looking for in an urban conte,t.
F. instance: traffic signals with sort te,t >#A WAG?, or informative
signals >AKI!, *I$ !/A BA<?
5. <"A$I&!I#, when we can use clues which show. What3s going to the
ne,t f. instance, we say: Nthere was an Anglishman, a Frenchman, and an
6. IF#"*A!I# !"A.FA": this strategy permits us to translate
determined facts of a te,t to different ones. F. Instance: a travel, or
adventure story can be transformed in a comic or map.
• About "AA$IB .IICC.: and according to /armer we can divide
these skills into two types: BAA"AC %$A".!A$IB and
.<A&IFI& %$A".!A$IB.
)BAA"AC %$A".!A$IB are concerned with the treatment of a te,t as
a whole. !hey include the following micro skills: <"A$I&!I#, AK!"A&!IB
.<A&IFI& IF#"*A!I#, and BA!!IB !/A BAA"AC <I&!%"A.
).<A&IFI& %$A".!A$IB are subse=uently and involve a detailed
comprehension of the te,t. !hey include: IFA""IB #<II# A$
A!!I!%$A, $A$%&IB *AAIB F"#* &#!AK!, and "A&#BIJIB
$I.&#%".A <A!!A". A$ *A"IA"..
• We can also talk about "AA$IB A&!IHI!IA., and are commonly
divided into !/"AA !G<A.: <"A) "AA$IB, W/ICA "AA$IB and
<#.!) "AA$IB A&!IHI!IA..
o <"A) "AA$IB A&!IHI!IA. have as a main aim to arouse our pupils3
interest in what they are going to read. !hey may include: <"A)
CI*IA"G $I.&%..I#, /AA$CIA.. A$ !I!CA., and
.AP%A&IB <I&!%"A..
o W/ICA "AA$IB A&!IHI!IA. for general and specific
understanding. !hey may include: .%BBA.!IB A !I!CA, %$A"CIA
!/A IF#"*A!I# "AP%I"A$, and &/A"! &#*<CA!A!I#.
o <#.!) "AA$IB A&!IHI!IA. can be thought as a follow up work.
!hey may include <"A<A"A A .I*ICA" AK!, <A"!I&I<A!A I A
"#CA)<CAG +A.A$ # !/A AK! *AIA A $"AWIB.
• Finally to say that reading in Anglish in the early stages will usually
remain at the word level, where children play simple games as
dominoes, snap or bingo.
• For instance, an activity type could be:
<laying games such as odd) one out or spot the difference. <upils
identify similarities and differences between letters or words.
<urpose: to develop phonic skills and sight recognition of words.
*aterial: flashcards or worksheets with words grouped in three or
And about the last skill, 8("$"!), we can say that in the early stages of
learning Anglish, the pupils will generally write very little. It is a good idea to
use copying in a way, which encourages pupils to think, this means using
crosswords, and matching, se=uencing or classifying activities.
We also have in this skill several stages:
0. First, FA*ICIA"IJA!I# A$ &#!"#CCA$ W"I!IB:
at the beginning, words and e,pressions won3t be presented
isolated, but with a lot of conte,tual aids, wallcharts,
flashcards. We can use activities such as FICCIB
&"#..W#"$., <%!!IB %$A" <I&!%"A. the right
sentences >with routines e,pressions?
2. !he second stage is B%I$IB W"I!IB and we use pre)
communicative activities to reach out the free composition of
short te,ts. We have for instance, IF#"*A!I#
!"A.FA" .!"A!ABG: with e,cursion photographies which
give us material to produce te,ts >they have to write about
what they see? and
1. !he third stage is F"AA &#*<#.I!I# that can be
introduced when the previous ones have been filled and with
activities such as FICCIB &/"I.!*A. or +I!/$AG
L According to *atthew, writing skills can be divided on:
0. B"A</I& .IICC. which include aspects such as
<%&!%A!I# or .<ACCIB
2. .!GCI.!I& .IICC. refer to our pupils3 ability to e,press
precise meaning in a variety of styles and registers> to say
'hello( sad or happy
1. #"BAIJA!I#AC .IICC. which involve the se=uencing of
ideas >by using connectors such as 'first(, 'finally(
4. B"A*A!I&AC .IICC. refer to our pupils3 ability to use
successfully a variety of sentence patterns and construction
and >negatives or affirmative sentences?
5. "/A!#"I&AC .IICC. refer to pupils3 ability to use cohesion
devices in order to link part of a te,t into logically related
se=uences >more or less as organi7ational?
An activity type could be: .nap:
*aterials: 24 playing cards with common words written on them. !he words
need to be grouped into families which have two or three letters in common,
for e,ample: at, hat, mat, cat- the, other, mother, another.
*ethod: the cards are divided e=ually between two players. Aach player places
the card face down in the usual way. When a player says 'snap(, sheF he has to
say why the two cards are linked. o single letter matching is allowed. !he
winner is the first player to collect all the cards.
And with that I finish the first main point in this topic.
ow, I will talk about the other main point.
&homsky defined language as a set of sentences each finite in length and
constructed out of a finite set of elements
/e said that a native speaker has a subconscious knowledge of the
grammatical rules of his language, which allows him to make sentences in that
language. !his is what &homsky called &#**%I&A!IHA &#*<A!A&A.
/owever, $ACC /G*A. thought that &homsky had forgotten some very
important information about the rules of use, because when a native speaks, he
doesn3t only utter grammatically corrects, he also knows W/A"A, W/A, and to
W/#* to use these.
/e said that competence by itself is not enough to e,plain a speaker3s
knowledge, and, replace it with the concept of communicative competence.
/e distinguished F#%" A.<A&!. of his &&: systematic potential,
appropiacy, occurrence and feasibility
 .G.!A*A!I& <#!A!IAC means that the native speaker
possesses a system that has a potential for creating a lot of
language. !his is similar to &homsky competence.
 A<<"#<IA&G means the native speaker knows what language
is appropriate in a given situation. /is choice is based on the
following variables: .A!!IB, <A"!I&I<A!, <%"<#.A,
&/AAC and !#<I&
 #&%""A&A means that the native speaker knows how often
something is said in a language and acts accordingly
 FAA.I+ICI!G means the native speaker knows whether
something is possible in a language or not
L !hese four categories have been adapted for teaching purposes
L !hus, the "oyal $ecree 0;;6F:0 of 04
of @une which establishes the
teaching re=uirements for <rimary Aducation nationwide sees &ommunicative
&ompetence as comprising five subcompetences: B"A**A" &, $I.&#%".A,
.#&I#CIB%I.!I&, .!"A!ABI& A$ .#&I#&%C!%"AC &#*<A!A&A.
 B"A**A" &.: the ability to put into practice the linguistic
units according to the rules of use established in the
linguistic system
 $I.&#%".A &: the ability to use different types of
discourse and organi7e them according to the communicative
situation and the speakers involved in it.
 .#&I#CIB%I.!I& &: the ability to ade=uate the
utterances to the specific conte,t, in according with the
accepted usage of the determined linguistic community.
 .!"A!ABI& &: the ability to define, correct or in general,
make adjustments, in the communicative situation.
 .#&I#&%C!%"AC &: which has to be understood as a certain
awareness of the social and cultural conte,t in which the
foreign language is used.
Finally and 5. CONCLUSION of this topic, to say that the integrated
education of the four main skills, beside to permit us the use of material for
practising different linguistics activities, it answer to natural phenomenon in
our everyday life: sometimes we talk >orally way? not only what we see, listen,
but we also talk about something that we have just read, or, we write about
something that we have heard or read.
Any practice, thus, about a determined linguistic skills, must be
completed and rested on the other ones.
 !he royal decree 0;;6F:0 of 04
of @une about teaching
re=uirements for <rimary Aducation.
 '!he <rimary Anglish !eacher3s Buide( by +rewster. Ad. <enguin.
Anglish 0::2
 '!he &ambridge Ancyclopaedia of Canguage( by &rystal. Ad.
&ambridge. %niversity <ress 0:98
 '!he <ractice of Anglish Canguage !eaching( by /armer. Ad.
Congman. Condon. 0:91
4anguage can be a barrier to communication. The most usual way to go round is to find someone to
interpret or translate it. there are many problems because exact equi"alence is impossible and there is
always a loss of information# e"en with an accurate translation.
7n the other hand some people ha"e created new artificial languages# neutral# standardised# easy to learn#
with a lot of functions# etc# but people cannot identify with a language nobody speaks.
There is another solution# using a natural language for communication between different groups of people.
For centuries 4atin has been used but nowadays is &nglish the one that is getting that position.
't is due to the political# economic and military power of the TK first and the T*! later. Trading# industry#
science and literature ha"e contributed to it.
&nglish is a li"e language# changing and de"eloping quickly. There are many linguistic loans from all
languages and the meaning of some words change quite easily. 'n addition to that# "erbs system is simple
and &nglish has not got genre.
*ome people# most of them from countries with important languages# are reluctant to learn a second
language. ut foreign language learning becomes a necessity nowadays9
• The &uropean %ommunity9 meeting people from other countries on equal linguistic terms. !nd also
the possibility for workers to mo"e from country to country.
• +eople tra"el a lot and languages help to cope with different situations and gi"e the opportunity of
interaction with nati"es.
• There are more and more cultural exchanges. *cience# technology and trading demand foreign
• 4anguages promote understanding# tolerance and respect for the cultural identity# rights and "alues of
others. They broaden our minds# because we find other ways of thinking about things.
• Foreign language learning prepare students to cope with an e"er1changing en"ironment. They face up
to social and personal demands.
• 4inguistic awareness is getting more and more accurate with foreign language studying. <other
tongue gets also better.
*o# teaching a language means also showing the linguistic aspects and knowing about the culture. The
language is a "ehicle for it.
=ew materials include increasingly information about different aspects of the target language community
(geography# social "alues# sports#[)
't can help the contrast between foreign community habits and pupils’ own habits. They must be aware of
the different ways of beha"iour and also reduce the risk of intolerance.
<eaning is not an isolated property of the text# it does not only appear in discourse# it is relational. +upils
must know about the context where the text is shown.
eing &nglish is a part of a person. $e must also mind sex# age# social class# ethnic background#[
The teaching of &nglish culture is not only a matter of words. $e must not reduce culture to stereotypes.
$e are educating people for a more tolerant world and the ci"ilised acceptance of difference.
7ur task is to encourage people to take an interest and de"elop a positi"e attitude towards the foreign
country and its people.
*ociocultural expressions are shown mostly in traditional material (e.g.9 songs9 0' lo"e sixpence2#
Traditional games and sports also help.
&stablishing differences and contrasts in9
• *ome :obs (e.g.9 milkman)
• *ocial politeness (<r.# <rs.# <iss# &xcuse me# please[)
• &"eryday acti"ities (meals# time# school timetable)
• $eather (clothes# seasons)
• *ociocultural distinctions (dri"ing on the left)
• %elebrations (3alloween)
+!,T 7=&9 T!4& 7F %7=T&=T*
-. '=T,[email protected]%T'7=
/. %7=T&=T*
/.-. 4anguage and communication
/./. 4anguage and different cultures
/.8. 4anguage as an instrument of holistic learning
/.6. The importance of ha"ing materials in the resource room to achie"e a good intercultural
/.A. M'mmersion approach’ to second language learning
/.5. 3ow to experience the culture of the &nglish1speaking world in the classroom
8. '4'7N,!+3>
+!,T T$79 +,!%T'%!4 @&V&47+<&=T
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/. T'<& 7F *&**'7=*
8. 7F&%T'V&*
8.-. Neneral
8./. *pecific
6. <&[email protected]>
A. T3& T&!%3'=N T='T9 *+&%'F'% %7=T&=T*
5. !%T'V'T'&* [email protected] T!*K*
B. <!T&,'!4*
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<odern textbooks take into account the linguistic aspects of a second language. 'n )anfare# for
example# arbara $ilkes cites the following as her aims and ob:ecti"es9 to create an initial interest and
en:oyment in foreign1language learning) to de"elop a positi"e attitude towards foreign cultures and
people) to de"elop and awareness of the link between language and culture) to de"elop an awareness of
language as an instrument of communication ($ilkes -..69 ?1.).
Thus# in addition to contributing 0to the process of the de"elopment of the child’s intellectual#
social# emotional# and physical skills#2 and fostering 0impro"ed learning skills2# teaching &nglish as a
foreign language (T&F4) should also include aspects related to intercultural appreciation and
(.1. Langag! an" )&++n$)a%$&n
4ouis +orcher has obser"ed that one of the ob:ects of teaching a foreign language 0is to gi"e the
learner some measure of communicati"e competence in that language. This competence may correspond
to a future need of the learner (-.?D9 -?).2 'n effect# that the mastering a second language has become a
need for most people today is no longer a debatable issue. *chools not only ha"e the responsibility of
teaching a second language as a linguistic system# but also as a social system to be used by the learner.
3ence# communication should begin in the school where the learning of a second language is taking place.
+orcher maintains that since all teaching is itself a message# 0't must therefore be suitable for those for
whom it is in fact intended (-.).2 For the author# a language is a social practice# a part of a people’s
history. Thus# it becomes necessary to educate pupils in the socio1cultural context which is characteristic
of the countries in which the foreign language is the mother tongue. 't is e"ident that inter1culturism is fast
becoming an essential dimension in all teaching.
The <odern 4anguages +rogramme of the %ouncil for %ultural %o17peration of the %ouncil of
&urope has specifically defined the political ob:ecti"e which guides the programme in the following
manner9 0to facilitate communication and interaction among &uropeans of different mother tongues in the
ser"ice of &uropean mobility# mutual understanding and cooperation# and in order to o"ercome pre:udice
and discrimination (Trim -.?-9 ').2 The following members of the %@%% +ro:ect Nroup 6# @. %oste# %.
&delhoff# ,. ergenthoft# F. 4 <. Trim# each other has something to say in this respect.
@aniel %oste writes# 0!s far as we are concerned# Mlearning to communicate’ does not in"ol"e
learning something totally new9 all language learners are communicators already) what foreign language
learning in"ol"es is learning to communicate differently and to communicate with a different set of
people.O %oste holds that different ways of communicating ha"e to be learned (and not :ust linguistic
ones). Furthermore# it is his belief that in order to learn to communicate with a different set of people# one
must also learn a!out them. 3ence# communication is inseparable from a cultural context. The learning
process itself becomes one of learning to communicate9 0For adults# adolescents and children alike#
learning is a process which# howe"er slightly# in"ol"es and changes the whole indi"idual as a person and
social agent) when it comes to learning a different language to communicate differently with a different
set of people# it is a fair assumption that the changes and the in"ol"ement will be all marked (86).2
(.(. Langag! an" "$##!2!n% )1%2!'
%hristopher &delhoff feels the attitude of learners is as important as their linguistic knowledge and
skills. 0Teachers teaching a communication curriculum must be ready to accept that communication is free
interaction between people of all talents# "iews# races and socio1cultural backgrounds and that foreign
language communication# especially# is there for international understanding# human rights# democratic
de"elopment and indi"idual enrichment.2 'n order to achie"e this end the learner needs to ha"e an attitude
which reflects open1mindedness and respect for others) attitude must also include respect for the history#
en"ironment# and "iews of other people (B5).2
,ume ergentoft reminds us# 0'n the final !ct of the %onference on *ecurity and %o1operation in
&urope# signed in 3elsinki in -.BA by the heads of state of the participating nations# the latter expressed
their con"iction regarding the role now played by a knowledge of languages in connection among other
things with closer international cooperation. 't was decided that a wider knowledge of languages was
needed to promote world peace and cooperation (88).
Finally# F. 4. Trim warns of the 0classical paradigm2 of language teaching and 0elitism2 in
traditional language teaching at school. 0The Mclassical paradigm’ continued to dominate grammar schools
until recently# and is till strong in many member countries...2 The author explains that the Mclassical
paradigm’ tends to extend certain "alues and attitudes# which reflect the classics to the languages and
cultures of modern &urope. 3e points out that from this perspecti"e# the study of a foreign language is but
an intellectual discipline# based on the translation of passages from the classics which ha"e little bearing
on the real world in which learners actually li"e. Trim further declares# 0This Mclassical paradigm’ is
a"owedly elitist.2 3e feels that it creates barriers to communication which tend to reinforce and perpetuate
di"isions in society. 3owe"er# Trim concludes that# though the classical paradigm continues to be
powerful# contemporary creati"e writing no longer employs the criteria of clarity and refined taste 0to
which the classical paradigm attaches the greatest importance (p. UU1UU').2
7ther authors ha"e taken similar positions. &arl $. *te"ick refers to a language class as being 0one
area in which a number of pri"ate uni"erses intersect one another (-.?D9 B).2 3e feels that each learner#
though a total indi"idual# is in fact affected by what the others do. The teacher should be aware Land
sympathi(e with the fact1 that there are times when a learner will resist learning something which "iolates
certain peer norms. For example# learners may at first re:ect the language simply because of its
foreignness. Teachers should therefore be aware that the fear of losing support from those closest to the
learner (peers# parents# etc.) may be an inhibiting factor. *te"ick refers to a 0world of meaningful action2#
which# he says# tends to draw peers# family members# and life1goals during the language learning process.
3e concludes# 0Foreignness# shallowness# irrele"ance# and the subordinate position of the student Lall may
be obstacles to a learner’s feeling of Mprimacy in a world of meaningful action’ (-D).2
(.*. Langag! a' an $n'%2+!n% &# 7&1$'%$) 1!a2n$ng
+aul N. 4a forge affirms# 04anguage learning is people9 this is the basic social process in learning (
-.?89 "iii).2 y this he means that the acquisition of second language is the result of an interpersonal
relationship which includes the teacher and the group of students. For 4a Forge# the interactions are
dynamic and contribute to a personal growth for all in"ol"ed. Their relationship becomes modified as a
result of the learning of a new language. Furthermore# he recogni(es the significance of the social process
in twentieth1century language de"elopment9 0! process "iew of language has opened the route to an
understanding of mankind# social history# and the laws of how a society functions (-).2 This means that
&F4 learning in"ol"es social# historical# cultural# and indi"idual interconnections.
Nertrude <oskowit( defends a system of 03umanistic &ducation2# which she describes as
0combining the sub:ect matter to be learned with the feelings# emotions# experiences# and li"es of the
learners (-.B?9 --).2 *he is concerned with educating the whole person# both intellectually and
'n the author’s opinion# second language learning not only stimulates better human understanding#
but it also leads to greater independence and self1steem. y learning another language# learners care more
both for themsel"es and others.
%aleb Nattegno belie"ed in 0the spirit of language.2 3e felt hat by learning another language one
absorbs the culture and history of the language users. 3uman beings incorporate into their languages
conscious or unconscious collecti"e aims# passions# and "ision# which are taken on by the learner. 3e
suggested that languages are reflections of the "arious modes of thought of a people9 0The spirit of each
language seems to act as a container for the melody and the structure of the language and most users are
unconscious of it (-.B?9 -.)2.
(.4. T7! $+-&2%an)! &# 7a,$ng +a%!2$a1' $n %7! 2!'&2)! 2&&+ %& a)7$!,! a g&&"
$n%!2)1%2a1 a%+&'-7!2!
rumfit and Finocchiaro suggest that acquiring a language also implies acquiring 0enough
knowledge about the culture of the target community to participate fully in a con"ersation at the beginning
of a stay in a foreign country2. !dditionally# they hold that &F4 teaching should pro"ide 0the implicit and
explicit learning of culture and language "arieties through a multi1media approach and an acti"e
methodology based on creati"e use of language (-.?A9 /5)2. 'n order to achie"e this they suggest using
the following resources9 radio broadcasts# tele"ision# tapes# cassettes# documentary# recreational films#
pictures# and short dialogs dealing with e"eryday situations. Furthermore# paralinguistic features need to
be considered as well as gestures and facial expressions. The authors insist that learners cultural insights
are a must in &F4 learning.
(.I. JI++!2'$&n a--2&a)7K %& '!)&n" 1angag! 1!a2n$ng
3. 3. *tern alludes to an area of in"estigation# language teaching for younger children# which
came to the fore around -.5D when T=&*%7 organi(ed meetings in 3amburg in -.5/ and -.55 with the
purpose of stimulating comparati"e research in different countries. 3owe"er# he sadly concludes that
within ten years most of the resulting enquiries had 0not always produced the clear1cut finding that had
perhaps been expected from them when they were initiated (-.?69 A5)2. The two T=&*%71sponsored
international meetings were intended to promote research on early language teaching and on the
effecti"eness of an early start. These meetings centred on the feasibility of an early start in school systems
and re"ealed that young children responded to second language teaching in a positi"e way (856).
7n a similar note# *tern asserts that two of the most interesting research endea"ours in the
se"enties were the %ouncil of &urope <odern 4anguages +ro:ect and the %anadian French immersion
experiments# of which he was a participant. The %ouncil of &urope +ro:ect# which was initiated in -.B-#
in"ol"es the co1operation of school1ars in se"eral countries.
The French immersion research programme in %anada# which began in -.5A# 0illustrates the
effecti"eness of an Mimmersion’ approach to second language learning (-.?69 55)2. 'n both studies#
communication or communicati"e competence was one of the prime ob:ecti"es.
*tern further points out that the term 0communicati"e competence2# is a term which is used a great
deal. 3ymes was the first to employ the term# in contrast to %homsky’s 0linguistic competence2.
0%ommunicati"e competence2 reflects the social "iew of language. The concept of communicati"e
competence is integral with communicati"e language teaching. 't has become a central focus for &F4
teaching# which in"ol"es the study and practice of functional# structural# lexical and sociocultural aspects.
The learning experience itself should be personal and engage in a direct use of the language and contact
with the target language community (*tern -.?69 /5).
(.L. 3&6 %& !=-!2$!n)! %7! )1%2! &# %7! Eng1$'7:'-!a0$ng 6&21" $n %7! )1a''2&&+
Finally# to de"elop cultural insights# Finocchiaro suggests the classroom should 0reflect the culture
of the &nglish1speaking world (-.B69 .6)2. *he submits that the following aspects be incorporated into
&F4 teaching9 maps and posters# a bulletin board with newspaper and maga(ine clipping# including comic
strips# pro"erbs and pictures) a table or shelf with ob:ects such as stamps# money# artifacts# and a library
corner. *he also recommends the carrying out of 0pro:ects related to &nglish1speaking culture which will
then ser"e for class reporting and discussion (.A)2. *uch pro:ects might include the following9 preparation
of maps# tra"el itineraries# floor plans# menus# calendars indicating holidays# scrapbook# flimstrips or
pictures# play readings# a book fair. !dditionally# culture may be experienced through songs# festi"als#
poems# multimedia resource material. *he also suggests# 0! pen pal pro:ect should be initiated "ery soon
after the students learn to write (.B)2.
F'=7%%3'!,7# <.9 (-.B6). 0nglish as a second language* from theory to practice. ,eprint ed. =ew
>ork9 ,egents.
F'=7%%3'!,7 <. !nd ,T<F'T# %.9 (-.?A). ;he functional4notional approach* from theory to
practice. ,eprint ed. 7xford9 7xford Tni". +ress.
N!TT&N=7# %.9 (-.B?). ;eaching foreign languages in schools* the silent way. /
ed. =ew >ork9
&ducational *olutions.
4! F7,N&# +. N.9 (-.?8). #ounseling and #ulture in %econd anguage 'cquisition. 7xford9
+ergamon +ress.
<7*K7$'T\# N.9 (-.B?). #aring and sharing in the foreign language class* ' source!ook on
humanistic techniques. ,owley# <assachusetts9 =ewbury 3ouse.
+7,%3&,# 4.9 (-.?D). /eflections on language needs in the school. *trasbourg9 %ouncil for %ultural
%ooperation of the %ouncil of &urope.
*T&,=# 3. 3.9 (-.?6). )undamental concepts of languge teaching. 8
ed. 7xford9 7xford Tni".
*T&V'%K# &.$.9(-.?D). ;eaching languages* a way and ways. ,owley# <assachusetts9 =ewbury
T,'<# F. 4. <.# pro:ect ad"iser9 (-.?-). &odern languages programme <AB<4<AC<. *trasbourg9
%ouncil for %ultural %o17peration of the %ouncil of &urope.
V'4K&*# .9 (-..6). )anfare. 7xford9 7xford Tni". +ress.
Third cycle (5 th grade)
Four periods of class# one week before %hristmas.
3.1. G!n!2a1
- To recogni(e the communicati"e "alue of learning a foreign language# showing a positi"e
attitude of understanding and respect for other languages and cultures.
3.2. S-!)$#$)
- *tudents will be able to increase their understanding of and compare %hristmas customs in
&nglish speaking countries.
- 4earn the lyrics and music of popular %hristmas %arol and sing it.
- &xperience and extract information from the song in the past tense.
- 'nteract with other cultures.
The methodology used should be suitable to a communicati"e approach to teaching &nglish as a
foreign language. That is# taking into consideration the age# ability and needs of the students# as well as
the criteria specified in the o"erall ob:ecti"es of the course# the &F4 teacher should apply leaning
strategies which are based on learning by doing# i.e.# task oriented strategies. The tasks required elicit a
participati"e attitude on the part of the learners and a guiding role on the part of the teacher. !dditionally#
the teacher should help the students to learn both to think and to do in the target language.
- "ocabulary (*pecifics words from the song and %hristmas words)
- phonological aspects (practise the pronunciation of the consonant Lr1).
- %hristmas en"ironment.
- warm1up acti"ities
- listening tasks
- +roducti"e acti"ities
%ociological aspects*
- %uriosity for different customs.
- ,espect for different cultures.

D.<. rain1storming9 The students (**) say any &nglish words they know which are related to
D.=. The teacher (T) shows them how to make a calendar of events.
D.>. ** work in groups (four to fi"e people) and make one calendar for each group.
D.?. Tsing a cassette recorder# T plays %hristmas carols while ** work with the calendars.
D.E. ** hang their calendars on the walls and T uses them to go o"er the meaning of words.
D.D. T plays the song /udolph the red4nose ,eindeer and while ** listen carefully.
D.B. ** read the lyrics of the song with missing words (listening task).
D.C. y listening and discussing ** find the missing words and start memori(ing the lyrics (day
by day).
D.A. T gi"es ** a text from 0<ary’s @iary2 which tells what <ary did last %hristmas.
5.-D Tsing their own nati"e language (4-)# ** discuss in how the %hristmas customs narrated in
<ary’s diary compare with customs in *pain.
5.-- !t the end of the short1term series# the classroom is decorated. ** gi"e each other presents
and they sing together the song 0,udolph the red1nose reindeer2.
- ! cassette tape of the song 0,udolph...2 and a cassette recorder.
- $rapping paper# glue# scissors# coloured markers and optional material (tacks# staplers# etc.).
- ! textof <ary’s diary talking about %hristmas customs in her country.
** write about what they did last %hristmas9 The pages will go into a class diary that e"eryone can
(*ee thematic number -6)
&nglish is spoken in all continents. &nglish is the most widespread
language on earth.
&nglish speaking is established in the ritish 'sles# =orth !merica#
!ustralia and =orth !frica. The &nglish speaking is uncertain in
!frica# 'ndian subcontinent and *outheast !sia. $e will draw a
geographical# historical and cultural outline of the most important
&nglish1speaking countries.
$e will study the importance of sociocultural competence to the
acquisition of communicati"e# and list acti"ities to reach it.
&nglish has spread all o"er the world. %urrently &nglish is spoken
and understood in the whole continent. 't is the international language
of commerce# science and research. 't is easier to learn for !siatics and
!fricans# but France wants to a"oid the use of &nglish words. 'n *pain
there ha"e been campaigns against the !merican 0contamination2 in
papers# radio# TV or cinema.
$e can say that in *outh !merica# &nglish is widely spoken.
Many Caribbean countries are bilingual, they speak English and Spanish.
This demand of English, all over the world, has caused an economic phenomenon, a military
expansion, the scientific advances and the power of media.
The Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, imported English from the continent when they invaded "Great Britain¨,
after the arrival of the Roman Empire in the 5
The language of these three peoples was basically the same, and the know dialects of Old English developed
after their setting in the isles.
The Norman Conquest in 1066 caused tremendous linguistic changes from that moment on we will talk about
Middle English.
Characteristics of Middle English were:
• Reductions of inflections.
• Disappearance of the grammatical gender.
• Rigidity in sentence word order.
• Fight among dialects.
• French orthography.
The influence of French and Latin terms modify the structure of the English Language.
About 1250, when the Normans lost Normandy and French language took and important paper, it began to be
questioned whether English should be used as a representative national language.
Which dialled should become the standard language? Around 1350 the London dialect was about to become the
The political predominance of London as a governing centre facilities the spreading of this dialect thought the
From 1400 onwards French is reduced to the aristocracy and as a vehicle of commercial transactions with the
From 1650 to 1850 there is a change in the attitude of English people towards their own language.
There have been some changes in the Standard English, they are a consequence of the diversification of the
"social dialects¨.
English is the most spoken language in the world after Chinese. We are going to talk about the general
characteristics of the English-speaking countries.
Ìn full the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Ìs made up of England, Wales, Scotland and
Northern Ìreland.
Ìt's a member of the Commonwealth and European Community. The capital is London. The currency is sterling
Ìt is a constitutional monarchy, with two houses: House of Lords and House of Commons. The chief of state is the
sovereign, and the head of government is the prime minister.
Ìts geographic situation has marked its history, characterized by its independence to the continent. Nowadays this
distance has disappeared with the building of the channel tunnel.
Ìndustry has always been the main economic source, here the industrial revolution took place. Commerce has
also been the basic for their prosperity. The UK dominated the maritime routes. The British monarchy was founded
in 1066 by William the Conqueror, it has been a system, with a small break of ten years corresponding to the
republican government imposed by Oliver Cromwell.
At the present moment, the monarch is Elisabeth ÌÌ; she is also the head of the Anglican Church.
There are two big political parties: the conservative party and the labour party.
The principal river is the Thames. The highest point in UK is Ben Nevis (1343) in Scotland. The population grew in
1950 with the arrival of Commonwealth emigrants. They came from Ìndia, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
This nation occupies the largest part of an island situated west of Great Britain. The national language is Ìrish, but
the official one is English. The major religion is Catholicism. Ìts capital is Dublin.
Ìreland is an unitary multiparty republic, with two houses: senate and the house of representative. The chief of
state is the president and the head of government is the prime minister. Currency is Ìrish pound. The highest point is
carrantuchill; the major river is the Shannon. Ìreland belongs to the European Community. Ìreland obtains the
independence from Great Britain in 1921.
The Ìrish economy is based on the agriculture. Ìt has not got important mineral resources.
The religious conflict: Catholics and Protestants, The majority of the population in England is Anglican, the main
features of the Anglican Church are the subordination to the Queen and its positives rejection of the Pope authority.
Ìn Northern Ìreland, most of the population is Catholic. Ìn Belfast, the capital, Catholics and Protestants cause
almost daily victims. The ÌRA, Ìrish Republican Army, commits terrorist attacks. The ÌRA wants the Protestants to
abandon Northern Ìreland. They want to get the self-government for the Ulster.
English language is an universal language because it has been established in many countries. This export began
in 17
century with the birth of the colonies in North America. The main reason of the status of English is the great
number or inhabitants in USA and the massive emigrations on the 19
and 20
The USA is a federal republic formed by 50 states.
Two legislatives houses: senate and the house of representative. The head of state and government is the
Ìts capital is Washington. The first river is Mississippi river. The currency is American dollar.
Religion: there isn't a principal religion. Protestantism is, perhaps, the most practised.
Ìt is a nation of groups, where the minorities try to get equal rights and opportunities. The language is English, but
there are minorities such as Spanish or Asians, trying to keep alive their language.
Ìt is a very rich country, with important metallic and energy sources. The USA obtains the independence from
Great Britain in 1783. From more than half a century ago the USA is the 1
world power. Ìts history is a long and
constant territorial progress, with a great political and military development.
The Victorian Era (1837-1901) was a period of prestige for Great Britain.
Ìn the 16
century Great Britain developed its commercial capacity, by conquering every strategic point along the
mercantile routes. During the 18
and 19
centuries, they became a great empire.
All these territories were controlled by generators who imposed their language, their culture and laws. Most of
these territories were colonies for the exploitation, which originated the British richness and splendour. The
population was formed by emigrant who wanted to start a new life.
The different territories got their independence, but some of them were not prepared for self-governing and have
became 3
world countries ruled by dictators.
Ìt was founded in 1931 to carry out the dissolution of the British Empire. Ìt is formed by 32 independent nations, they
maintain the English crown as their Head of State.
The reason for this institution is the economic interest of the countries that belong to it.
States members: UK, Canada, Trinity and Tobago, Kenya, Nigeria, Zambia, Australia, New Zealand, etc.
The republic of Philippines is an independent state since 1946.
Language: Tagalo; English as a commercial language.
Religion: Catholic.
Capital: Manila.
Spain lost the colony in 1898, under the domain of USA in 1935, it was constituted as a sovereign state under the
North American supervision.
An amazing fact about the English legal system. There is not a penal or civil code. They have the common law.
The sentences are based on previous trials.
The juries are formed by citizens coming from different social classes, they consider if the accused is guilty or
Ìn USA, there are federal jurisdictions, every state has its own laws, courts and police.
The teacher of a modern language must teach not only the foreign language but also the civilization of the
countries and people who speak that language.
Apart from history and geography, our pupils must get familiar politics, mass media, etc.
There are 3 different procedures:
1. Int!"!t#t$% !#&$n'.
First we must know the level of the group before planning any activity.
There should be a correspondence between the level of the text and the level of the group.
Different types of texts. The important result is that they get the signification about the society or social
aspects reflected in the text-
Example: journey around the world in 80 days. The typical gentleman.
2. P!#(t$() *+ *!#, -"!))$*n.
We can offer our pupils photographs showing different aspects of British life, they must say whatever they
suggest to them.
We can use a dramatization of a dialogue, eg. "An English breakfast¨ (foods, timetable, courtesy
sentences), "a tourist visit¨ (we can use postcards or photographs). We can mention Christmas,
Thanksgiving Day, American Ìndependence).
3. D$&#(t$( .) *+ )*n').
They are a pedagogic support for the teaching of civilization.
The songs must have certain characteristics:
1 correspondence with the level of the pupils.
1 Ìnteresting for the pupils
They can learn some structures with the songs.
&"ery aspect of language is enormously complex. >et# children learn most of the intricate system of their
mother tongue before the age of six. efore they can add /Z/# children are putting sentences together# asking
questions# negating sentences# using the syntactic# phonological# morphological# and semantic rules of the
language. %hildren are not taught language as they are taught arithmetic. They learn language in a different way.
4'=NT'*T %7<+&T&=%& [email protected] %7<<T='%!T'V& %7<+&T&=%&
$e are far from completely understanding the language acquisition process. $e are :ust beginning to
grapple with those aspects of the human neurological and biological make up which explain the child’s ability to
acquire language. %ertainly it is clear that the child is equipped from birth with the necessary neural
prerequisites for language and language use.
7ur knowledge of the nature of human language tell us something about what the child does and
does when acquiring a language9
-) %hildren do not learn a language by storing all the words ant all the sentences in some
giant mental dictionary. The list of words is finite# but no dictionary can hold all the
sentences# which are infinite in number.
/) %hildren learn to understand sentences they ha"e ne"er heard before# and to construct
sentences# most of which they ha"e ne"er produced before.
8) %hildren must therefore learn 0rules2 which permit them to use language creati"ely.
6) =o one teaches them these rules. Their parents are no more aware of phonological#
syntactic# morphological# and semantic rules than the children are. %hildren# then# seem
to act like "ery efficient linguists equipped with a perfect theory of language# who use
this theory to build up the grammar of the language they hear.
'n addition to acquiring the complex rules of the grammar (that is# linguistic competence)#
children must also learn the complex rules of the appropriate social use for language# what
certain scholars ha"e called communicati"e competence. These include# for example# the
greetings which are to be used# the 0taboo2 words# the polite forms of address the "arious
styles which are appropriate to different situations# and so forth.
4inguists di"ide the child’s acquisition of a language into
prelinguistic and linguistic stages. There continues to be disagreement
as to what should be included in these periods. ut most scholars
agree that the earliest cries and whimpers of the newborn cannot be
considered early language. *uch noises are completely stimulus1
controlled) they are the child’s in"oluntary responses to hunger#
discomfort# the feeling of well1being# etc.
Tsually around the sixth month period# the infant begins to babble. The sounds produced in this
period seem to include the sounds of human languages. The role of babbling is not clearly understood# but
it is absolutely clear that in order that the language de"elop finally# the child must recei"e some auditory
*ometime after children are one year old# they begin to use same string of sounds repeatedly to
0mean2 the same thing. <ost children seem to go through the 0one wordQone sentence2 stage. The child
uses :ust one word to express concepts or predications which will later be expressed by complex phrases
and sentences.
!round the time of their second birthday children begin to produce two1word utterances like9
0allgone sock2) 0bye1bye boat2) 0it ball2) 0hi mommy2) 0dirty sock2) mummy sock2.
@uring this stage there are no syntactic or morphological markers) that is# no inflections for
number# tense# or person. The two words a child utters can express a number of different grammatical
relations which will later be expressed by other syntactic de"ices.
There does not seem to be any 0three1word sentence2 stage. $hen a child starts stringing more
than two words together# the utterances may be two# three# four# or fi"e words or longer. The words in a
0sentence2 are not strung together randomly) from a "ery early stage# children’s utterances re"eal their
grasp of the principles of sentence formation.
These first utterances of children which are longer than two words ha"e a special characteristic.
Tsually# the small 0function2 words such as to# the# can# is# etc# are missing ) only the words which carry
the main message Lthe 0content2 wordsL occur. %hildren often sound as if they were reading telegrams#
which is why such utterances are called 0telegraphic speech2. For example9 0%athy build house2) 0=o sit
here2) 0%ar stand up table2.
!s children acquire more and more language# or more closely
approximate the adult grammar# they not only begin to use function
words but also acquire the inflectional and deri"ational morphemes of
the language. There seems to be a natural order of acquisition of
morphemes. 't seems that the suffix Ling is the earliest inflectional
morpheme acquired. &"entually all the other inflections are added#
along with the syntactic rules# and finally the child’s utterances sound
like those spoken by adults.
There are those who think that children merely imitate what they hear. 'mitation is in"ol"ed# of
course# but the sentences produced by children show that they are not imitating adult speech. &"en when
children are deliberately trying to imitate what they hear# there are unable to produce sentences which
cannot be generated by their grammar.
!nother theory suggest that children learn to produce 0correct2 sentences because they are
positi"ely reinforced when they say something right and negati"ely reinforced when they say something
wrong. This "iew does not tell us how children construct the correct rules.
$hate"er 0correction2 takes place is based more on the content of the message than on its form.
That is# if a child says 2=obody don’t like me2# the mother may say 0&"erybody likes you/. esides# all
attempts to 0correct2 a child’s language are doomed to failure. %hildren don’t know what they are doing
wrong and are e"en unable to make the corrections when they are pointed to them.
The reinforcement theory fails along with the imitation theory. =either of these "iews accounts for
the fact that children are constructing their own rules. @ifferent rules go"ern the construction of sentences
as the grammar is learned.
The 0imperfect2 sentences children use are perfectly regular. They are not 0mistakes2 in the child’s
language) they reflect his or her grammar at a certain stage of de"elopment. The child seems to form the
simplest and most general rule he can from the language input he recei"es# and is so 0pleased2 with his
0theory2 that he uses the rule whene"er he can.
The most ob"ious example of this 0o"ergenerali(ation2 is shown when children treat irregular
"erbs and nouns as if they were regular. $e ha"e probably all heard children say 0goed2# 0singed2# or
0foots2# 0childs2. These mistakes tell us more about how children learn language than the 0correct2 forms
they use. The child couldn’t be imitating) children use such forms in families where parents would ne"er
utter such 0bad &nglish2.
The child’s ability to generali(e patterns and construct rules is also shown in the de"elopment of
the semantic system. For example# the child learns the word 0daddy2 and later applies it to other men.
Thus# a third theory suggests that language acquisition is a creati"e construction process# and that
children ha"e to 0construct2 all the rules of the grammar. !ccording to the famous linguist =oam
%homsky.# 0it seems plain that language acquisition is based on the child’s disco"ery of what from a
formal point of "iew is a deep and abstract theory L a generati"e grammar of his language2.
%hildren seem to be equipped with special abilities or with a 0language acquisition de"ice2#
residing principally in the left side of the brain# to know :ust what they can ignore# to find all the
regularities in the language.
The details of this 0innate2 de"ice are far from understood. !s we gain more information about brain
functions and the preconditions for language acquisition# we will learn more about the nature of human
!s we compare a child’s acquisition of his mother tongue with the learning and acquisition of a
second or foreign language# it becomes e"ident that the processes and theories in"ol"ed seem to be# at
least to a certain extent# parallel. 7ther aspects# on the other hand# keep less similarity # as it the case with
the stages that children go through.
The learning progression does not take place in a linear way# by successi"e appropriation of the different
subsystems implied# but rather by a global approximation which in the initial stages implies a considerable
simplification and an exclusion of peculiarities that are not percei"ed as essential. +rogress consists then in a
continuous process of completing# polishing and enriching this global apprehension of the new communication
system. Thus# the teaching and learning of a foreign language should not be "iewed so much in terms of a series
of elemental units of content which are perfectly apprehended before proceeding to the next# but in terms of a
communication system which is globally elaborated and whose complexity and communicati"e potential
increases in a progressi"e form.
't should be pointed out that the information processing mechanisms often work efficiently e"en when the
student is not producing utterances. @uring the first moments in the learning of a foreign language# there are
often silent periods during which the student does not produce at all. This silence# howe"er# cannot
unmistakably be interpreted as a lack of learning) it often co"ers an intense acti"ity that cannot be directly
obser"ed and which sometime in the future# will let him produce utterances which reflect the internal
representation that he has built during those silent periods. 'f we accept that creati"e construction can take place
without generating an immediate production# we will ha"e to admit that recepti"e acti"ities specific
comprehension competencies can be de"eloped# but also# what is not so e"ident# the general communicati"e
competence that is behind e"ery linguistic system.
The abo"e explained makes clear that the process of language learning is complex and that this process
takes place in a personal and distinct way for each indi"idual since the strategies which let the sub:ect recei"e
and transform the input he recei"es are always used in a particular way.
.A&#$ CAB%[email protected] A&P%I.!I# !/A#"G
!ccording to Krashen there are fi"e hypotheses# which try to explain the process of acquisition of
a second language9
!cquisition in a not conscious process in which the person is not aware of the grammar or the rules
he uses. 'n many ways acquisition can be compared to the process by which a child becomes proficient in
his mother tongue. 'n this way# fluency is progressi"ely gained as the proficiency in consolidated. &rrors
are accepted as a normal part of the process.
4earning occurs consciously# we ha"e to study the rules which
go"ern a gi"en language. $e are not responsible for our fluency since
we depend on the acti"ities suggested by the teacher. 4earning has
only one function9 as editor or as monitor# that is# to make corrections
and change our output.
This 3ypothesis states the grammatical structures are acquired in a fairly predictable order in 4-
nati"e language and 4/ (second language). 'n other words# :ust as children learn their nati"e language in a
natural order# so students of a foreign language learn structures in a predictable way.
=e"ertheless two points can be made against this hypothesis9
a) $e do not ha"e information about the order of acquisition of e"ery structure in e"ery language.
esides# there are indi"idual "ariations.
b) The existence of a natural order of acquisition does not imply that we should teach second
languages following this order.
The monitor hypothesis states the relationship between acquisition and learning. !cquisition plays
a far more important role than learning because learning is used as editor or monitor only. The function of
monitor is to make self corrections and change the output before of after speaking or writing.
ut in order to use the monitor# three conditions need be fulfilled9
a) Time9 in order to make a self1correction we need time. *elf correction can hardly be used
without altering fluency.
b) Focus on form9 we ha"e to be aware of the grammar forms we are using and know that there is
a choice of forms.
c) Finally# once we ha"e stopped and concentrated on the form# it is necessary to ha"e a correct
knowledge of the rules so that the proper correction can be made.
Thus# it can be easily deducted that monitor 0o"erusers2 may ha"e difficulty in acquiring fluency.
<onitor# howe"er# can be a great help if used for grammar tests and writing.
/! a)@$2! 1angag! 58 n"!2'%an"$ng $n-% %7a% )&n%a$n' $ N 1
0i Z -2 means a step by step progression. 'n order to progress the input (i) should be only a
bit beyond (-) the acquirer’s current le"el of competence.
$e understand language that we do not 0know2 by using context# extra1linguistic
information# and our knowledge of the world. 'n the same fashion# language is made
understandable to us through the use of de"ices such as simplified# "isual clues# key words and
phrases# gestures or familiar topics.
/! "& n&% %!a)7 '-!a0$ng "$2!)%18
*peaking fluency emerges on its own o"er time# thus# the best way to 0teach2 speaking is to
pro"ide comprehensible input. For the same reason# early speech is typically not accurate. @irect
error correction should be a"oided.
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't is enough by pro"iding genuinely interesting and comprehensible input. Teachers should
organi(e content on the basis of themes or topics which are rele"ant to the students’ needs and
interests (communication1based syllabus or curriculum).
't deals with the effect of affecti"e "ariables on 4/ acquisition. They are "ariables like anxiety#
moti"ation or self1confidence.
The affecti"e filter produces a mental block which pre"ents inputs to enter the 0language
acquisition de"ice2.
Krashen summari(es his fi"e hypothesis with a single claim9
0%omprehensible input is the only causati"e "ariable in second language acquisition. +eople
acquire second languages when they obtain comprehensible input and when their affecti"e filters are low
enough to allow the input in2.
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7lder acquirers are faster in the early stages of second language acquisition because9
a) they are better at obtaining comprehensible input as they ha"e good con"ersational
b) they ha"e superior knowledge of the world# which helps to make input comprehensible)
c) they can participate in con"ersation earlier# "ia use of first language syntax.
>ounger acquirers tend to attain higher le"els of proficiency in second languages than adults in the
long run due to a lower affecti"e filter.
The fi"e hypothesis about 4/ acquisition predict that any successful 4/ teaching program must
ha"e the following characteristics)
a) 't must supply input in the 4/ that is9
- %omprehensible.
- 'nteresting and rele"ant to students.
The goal is# thus# to transmit messages# not to practice grammar.
b) 't must not force students to speak before they are ready and must be tolerant of errors
in early speech. $e impro"e in grammatical accuracy by obtaining more input# not by
error correction.
c) 't must put grammar in its proper place. *ome adults# and "ery few children# are able to
use conscious grammar rules to increase the grammatical accuracy of their output) and
e"en for these people# "ery strict conditions (time# focus on form# and knowledge of the
rule) need to be fulfilled before the conscious knowledge of grammar can be applied#
gi"en the monitor hypothesis presented abo"e.
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The first language has long been considered the ma:or cause of a learner’s problems with the new
language. 't 0interferes2 with the learner’s acquisition of his of her 4/.
'f a structure in 4- differs from that of 4/# errors that reflect the structure on the 4- will be
produced. This process has been labelled interference or negati"e transfer.
*panish structure9 ad: Z noun9 4a casa grande
'nterference with &nglish9 ]The house big
'f a structure in both languages is the same# there will be positi"e transfer or (ero interference# and
there will be no errors in 4/ performance.
*panish plural marker 01s29 libros
&nglish plural marker 01s29 books
The contrasti"e !nalysis treatment of errors was popular up through the -.5D’s. ! large part of the
rationale for the %ontrasti"e !nalysis hypothesis was drawn from principles of beha"iourist psychology.
There are two central concepts in transfer9
a) the automatic and not conscious use of the old beha"iour (habits) in new learning situations
(beha"iourist "iew))
b) the use of past knowledge and experience in new situations (other educational and
psychological "iews).
'n recent years there ha"e been enough data accumulated to place the 4/ learner’s first language in a
0respectable2 role. +resent research results suggest that the ma:or impact the 4- has on 4/ acquisition may ha"e
to do with accent# not with grammar.
<any teachers and researchers noticed that a great number of the errors that students make could
not possibly be traced to their nati"e languages. The theoretical climate of the late fifties and early sixties
pro"ided the ultimate rationale for the error analysis approach9
=oam %homsky’s# ,e"iew of .F. *kinner’s Verbal eha"iour (-.A.) questioned the "ery core of
the beha"iourist habit theory which accounts for language learning. %homsky’s "iews# along with
+iagetian psychology# succeeded in highlighting the pre"iously neglected mental make1up of learners as a
central force in the learning process# not a habit formation.
In%!21$nga1 an" "!,!1&-+!n%a1 !22&2'
The term error is used to refer to any de"iation from a selected norm of language performance# no
mater what the characteristics or causes of the de"iation might be.
'n the &rror !nalysis "iew# errors that reflect the learner’s 4- structures are not called interference
but interlingual errors.
@e"elopment errors are errors similar to those made by children acquiring their nati"e tongue. For
example# students of &nglish as a foreign often say things such as9
3e cans play football "ery well.
This error is also found in the speech of children acquiring &nglish as their first language.
,esearchers ha"e consistently found that# contrary to widespread opinion# the great ma:ority of
errors made by second language learners are not interlingual# but de"elopmental. !lthough adults tend to
exhibit more 4- influence in their errors then children do# adult interlingual errors also occur in small
I+-1$)a%$&n' &# !22&2 ana18'$' #&2 L( 1!a2n$ng
&rror !nalysis has yielded insights into the 4/ acquisition process that ha"e stimulated ma:or
changes in teaching practices. *tudying learner’s errors ser"es two ma:or purposes9
a) it pro"ides data from which interferences about the nature of the language acquisition process
can be made) and
b) it indicates to teachers and curriculum de"elopers# which part of the target language students
ha"e most difficulty to produce correctly and which error types detract most from a learner’s
ability to communicate effecti"ely.
'nterlanguage is the linguistic system that a learner constructs on his way to the mastery of a target
<ethodologically# interlanguage may be said to incorporate the assumption of both %ontrasti"e
!nalysis and &rror !nalysis. $hile %ontrasti"e !nalysis contrasts the learner’s nati"e language and the
target language# and con"entional &rror !nalysis in"ol"es contrast between the learner’s performance and
the target language# interlanguage take all three elements into account# explicitly incorporating the
contrasti"e analysis of the learner’s interlanguage with both his nati"e and the target language.

The unit under consideration is entitled: "INFLUENCES OF LINGUISTICS ON THE
We will start our discussion with a sort of introduction and continue with the frst
point that deals with the infuences of Linguistic Language Teaching, as well as the
infuences of other sciences. At this point from a defnition of Linguistics, we then
move onto ompared Linguistics. Two linguistic theories are also loo!ed into:
"tructuralism and #enerative #rammar. "ociolinguistic is also defned. We will fnish
this $loc! with the contri$utions of other sciences such as %edagog& and %s&colog&
to the process of foreign language teaching.
"econdl&, we will loo! into the language learning process and we shall tr& to fnd
the di'erences $etween the ac(uisition of the mother tongue and the learning of a
foreign language. Within this $loc!, we will also refer to the urriculum, and the
onstructivist )odel proposed $& it* the di'erence $etween ac(uisition and learning
is esta$lished and di'erent suggestions to avoid pro$lems in the second language
A conclusion summing up what has $een discussed throughout the unit will $e fo-
llowed $& the $i$liograph& used for the ela$oration of this topic.
As a sort INTRODUCTION we shall point out that in the last twent& &ears the need for change in
language didactics has $een anal&sed along the following lines:
+-hange of the concept of ,ducation, where a stronger a stonger focus on communication is
-- the need for the stud& of foreign languages through a $etter education*
.- how the technological progress and the development of audivisual aids have contri$uted
to the modernisation of teaching*
/- the students demand of an active learning of foreign languages.
Teachers have to ta!e advantage of the large num$ers of pedagological theories and approaches
and choose those that can $e $est applied in their students0 specifc situation.
Therefore, the teacher has to develop an eminentel& creative tas! and learn how to incorporate
into his methodolog& the latest fndings in the feld of Linguistics, and the contri$utions of man&
other sciences.
1nce having $egun the unit we are going to deal with the frst $loc! of our discussion* which
considers the infuences of Linguistics on 2LT.
The teaching of an& su$3ect must $e supported $& a series of general disciplines that are
common to the teaching of an& su$3ect, such as %s&cholog&, "ociolog& and so on.
4n LT these disciplines assist in the teaching from an& perspective. Linguistics are included here,
or more accuratel& )acrolinguistics, which includes "ociolinguistics and )icrolinguistics. The
fndings from these disciplines used on the teaching of L, help us to ma!e decisions to overcome
the pro$lems involved in teaching.
The so called, Linguistic "cience or Linguistics, that is, the stud& of language is a ver& recent
science. 2or centuries, the interest was onl& centred on the research of a universal grammar. 4n the
+5th centur& ompared Linguistics, appeared which esta$lished that the relationship among
language can $e e6plained in a scientifc wa&. 7owada&s, however Applied Linguistics deal with
collecting data from those disciplines whose o$3ectives are the stud& of language, its learning, its
use, and to utilise those facts to clarif& the factors related to LT.
Let0s move on now to consider what Applied Linguisi!s is for. 4t collects data and interprets
the results that ma& achive its aim and uses its fndings to carr& out its own e6perimental research.
Applied Linguistics has to do with all those theories that anal&se how the& can $e useful LT and
then proceed with their pedagological application.
This !nowledge is use to $uild grammars, to do comparative anal&sis $etween two or more
languages, to carr& out research on the illiterac& rates of the population and to stud& languages
and their regional varieties.
The most interesting feld of stud& deals with second L learning and ac(uisition. Applied
Linguistics uses these fndings from other sciences and applies them to LL.
We are going to consider some sciences on which the concept of 2LT is $ased. The most important
theories are S"u!u"#lis$ #nd Gene"#i%e G"#$$#".These theories are e6ample of how
research in Applied Linguistics can $e helpful in e6plaining the process of mother tongue
ac(uisition and second LL.

S"u!u"#lis$ frst appeared with S#ussu"e in the +5th centur&. This theor& defends that
language is a social phenomenon which is useful $ecause it wor!s in a communit&. This approach
implies a ps&chological perspective, its stud& is centred on speech and not on grammatical
structures. 8e made a distinction $etween l#ngu#ge 9 the s&stem : and spee!& 9 the individual
of the s&stem :. The& $egin with an active stud& of all speeches, arriving at the general rules. All
these structuralistic principles have in commonthe assumption that grammar does not consist of a
s&stem of rules that govern the isolated elements of language, $ut of a set of structures that
have to $e taught, especiall& those that are di'erent in the learners0 frst language.
The application of structuralism in LT was developed after the -nd World War. Linguistics
e6amined and classifed the structure of the frst L and the second L $eing studied. The& anal&sed
which structures were similar to that language and which o'ered interference, the& made drills.
"tructuralism is $ased on ;'e&#%i(u"is ps)!(l(g) si$ulus #ns*e" "esp(nse;, and its
attitude towards teaching is $ased on the premise that -nd L ac(uisition is the result of ha$it and
condidional refe6es, we learn $& imitation and repetition.

Against this theor& appeared C&($s+) with his ;Gene"#i%e G"#$$#"; Theor&. homs!&
o$served that structuralism did not e6plain how the child was a$le to produce sentences that he
had never produced $efore. homs!&0s generativist theor& postulated the e6istence of a specifc
a$ilit& in the child, an a$ilit& that allowed him to generate an infnitive num$er of rules. A creative
person who can create an unlimited num$er of sentences with 3ust a few linguistic elements. The
child hears his frst L and is a$le to develop a series of increasingl& glo$al and correct h&pothesis
a$out that language s&stem.
<efore homs!& students were given correct grammatical e6amples, nowada&s students can
compare sentences with and without errors, and the& are allowed to ma!e mista!es $ecause that is
understood as an important step in an autonomous process of learning. This theor& gives special
importance to free e6pression and creativit&.
homs!& esta$lishes a distinction $etween !($peen!e 9the !nowledge that the person has
a$out his mother tongue: and pe",("$#n!e, that is the e'ective use of this !nowledge in his
normal speech.
We should point out here an essential aspect of the research of applied linguistics, that is, to
what e6tent can the process of frst L ac(uisition $e e(uivalent to the process of -nd L learning.
Thus it can $e seen that the process is the same, -nd Language learners draw h&pothesis a$out
the L s&stem, appl& the rules and modif& them according to the feed$ac! the& receive. A -nd L
learner learns from his e'ort to communicate. 4f what the learner wants to communicate lies within
the possi$ilities of his s&stem, he will have no pro$lems. The pro$lem arises when he wants to
communicate something that is not in his s&stem. Therefore, he can choose to follow other paths,
such as using gestures, or transfering the limits he !nows, in other words, he will ta!e a ris!.
We could conclude from the a$ove that errors that students ma!e reveal the state of
development of his s&stem. We must give him enough information on the success or failure of his
communicative attempt. 8e re(uires input to contrast his production. The student then learns
through the process of communicating* he who ta!es a ris! will $e the one who learns most.
=p to this point we have shown some of the linguistic theories which help us to e6plain the
ac(uisition of a mother tongue and the learning of a 2L.
7ow let us move on to mention the importance of another science: S(!i(linguisi!s. This
science studies and states the relationship $etween the possession of a L and the control of realit&.
The social level of the famil& conditions the development of speech a$ilities and level of
performance. The classroom can $e a useful su$stitute for a poor linguistic environment.
We should also mention the studies of some linguists, li!e Fi"& and M#"in(*s+). The& spo!e
a$out the concept of situational conte6t, that is the meaning of an utterance is a conse(uence of
the cultural and situational conte6t where it ta!es place.
4n the ,ighties man& programs in ,LT were developed. All of them were $ased on the
consideration of a L as an instrument of communication. The threshold level, for instance, whose
author is Wil!ins, esta$lished a program model for a ,uropean adult student of foreign L in terms of
his communicative needs. 4t was intended to
create a program $ased on the areas of his interests.
4n ,urope L teaching was slowl& changing. Linguistics were mainl& concerned with oral language
as a means of communication. Learners were taught to comprehend and then to spea!. The
interferance of the frst L had to $e avoided. onversation was the main focus of the class.
The process of LT goes parallel to the learning process. 4n the >?s special attention waspaid to
this learning process. The concept of interferance, introduced $& order, refers to the pro$lems of
interferance caused $& the mother tongue on the learning of a foreign language.
7ow, we shall stud& the contri$utions of other sciences to the process of foreign LT.
1n the one hand, we fnd -ed#g(g) whose contri$ution to the teaching of foreign L and to the
concept of modern education is the following: that the educational principles are fe6i$le, and
should $e adapted to ever& social change. An individualised teaching is re(uired, as well as the
formation of an integral person with special attention to his creative a$ilit&. #roup wor!,
colla$oration and the participation of students in all the educational process should also $e
1n the other hand, we fnd he science of -s)!(l(g). "ome important studies are the following:
in the teaching of foreign L motivation is ver& important. Apart from motivation a deep !nowledge
of the pupil0s ps&chological characteristics is re(uired* we need to !now the student0s a$ilities and
rh&thm of learning to $etter adopt the structure of the su$3ect to his structure of !nowledge. "o the
teacher will $e a$le to allow pupils to learn more depending on their own needs and rh&thm.
"ummarising, we could sa& that the most important contri$ution of %edagog& and %edagog& to
foreign L teaching is that the teaching must $e centred on the pupils0 needs and personalit&*
creativit& whilst imagination should $e developed through motivation.

After having dealt with some of the contri$utions of Linguistics and other sciences to 2LT, we
shall anal&se the process of L learning and the similarites and di'erences $etween the ac(uisition
of the mother tongue and the learning of a foreign L.
The starting point of the theoretical $asis of the conception of -nd L learning is found in the
urriculum: ; The foreign L ac(uisition process can $e characterised as a creative construction
process during which the student, rel&ing on a set of natural strategies, $ased on the input
received, formulates h&potheses in order to ma!e up the internal representation of the new L
@nowing a L implies !nowing its sociolinguistic, discourse and strategic aspects. The
sociolinguistic aspect implies the !nowlwdge of the rules related to a given sociolnguistic conte6t*
the discourse aspect organises cohesion and coherence in di'erent spo!en and written statements*
the strategic aspect is responsi$le for completing the interaction when ta!ing into account the
o$3ective of
The ontructive )odel proposed $& the urriculum is $ased on the following aspects:
+- The student is considered the centred of the teaching process*
-- The student has a certain !nowledge that adds to the new information
and com$ines them to produce signifcant learning.
Another important aspect of the contructive model is that of learning through discover&. L
functions as regards rules are learned $& a process of discover&. The students generates
h&potheses himself and chec! that the& match the esta$lished rules.
<efore moving on to stud& some of the theories on the L learning process, let us focus on the
di'erences $etween the ac(uisition and learning.
."#s&en in his $oo! L#ngu#ge A!/uisii(n H)p(&esis ma!es a clear distinction $etween
ac(uisition and learning. According to him, the ac(uisition is a natural process whereas learning is
conscious formal process. Ac(uisition implies an implicit !nowledge of rules in contrast with
learning which implies the e6plicit !nowledge of rules.
Ac(uisition is the wa& a child ac(uires his mother tongue, whereas learning is the wa& students
learn a foreign language.
After having loo!ed into the di'erences $etween ac(uisition and learnig, we are going to stud&
some of the theories on the ac(uisition and learning of a second language.
Aigots!& esta$lishes three main stages in language ac(uisition. The frst one is when language is
onl& a means of e6ternal communication in a child, $oth in form and function. The third one is
when language is interiorised and $ecomes ver$al thought and then guides cognitive
Toda& it is $elieved that the frst statements of children are due to their individual s&stem,
independent from that of adults* language is $uilt or re$uilt $& the child who graduall& ma!ea a
s&stem of rules, an implicit grammar and a set of communication rules with which he interprets
what he receives.Thus, the child produces statements correctl& $ut these are mere repetitive
routine. The interesting aspect is that the child ma!es incorrect statements which shows that he is
tr&ing to create a language using his own linguistic mechanism, according to certain opearating
rules that he himself has generated, it is an internal implicit grammar.
The second language ac(uisition process goes through three di'erent phases:
+.- C(gnii%e el#'("#i(n0 the learner centres his attention on t&pes of models presented
to him in the -nd L. 8e has an attitude towards comprehending or remem$ering the di'erent
aspects of the models presented.

-.- Ass(!i#e p&#se0 the child $egins to form h&potheses a$out the input received, as well
as its organisation and arrangement, contrasting them with his !nowledge and e6emplif&ing them
with the production of such models in similar conte6ts.
..- Au(n($) p&#se0 the child can use what he has learned spontaneousl&.4n order for this
phase to ta!e place, a great amount of previous practice is re(uired.
Another important aspect of the constructive model is that the student has an active role in
which he will have to implement certain strategies similar to those used in frst L ac(uisition to
adapt, generalise, correct rules and so on.
Lastl& an assumption in the previous model is that in an& learning process there is a semantic
motivation. There is a natural predisposition for producing meaning, which is motivating when
learning a -nd L.

)oving on, another section of this topic concerns the $asic di'erences and similarities $etween
the ac(uisition of a mother tongue and the learning of a foreign
2irstl&, we will e6amine the si$il#"iies. The& are three:

-the interlingual development,
-the su$concious mental process and
-the variation.

We are going to e6plain now what we undertand $& the ine"lingu#l de%el(p$en p"(!ess.
When a language is learned, the learner is not read& to use it for some &ears. 4nterlingual
development is the process a learner must go through $efore is a$le to spea! fuentl& or as well as
a native spea!er.
The second similarit& is the su'!(n!i(us $en#l p"(!ess* the $rain organises the input
received to allow the mechanisms to spea!.
The third similarit& is the %#"i#i(n. 7ot all language learners follow the same path. There are
individual variations which ma!e some students learn slower than others. %h&chological personalit&
and others also come into pla& here.
7ow, let us consider the di1e"en!es. There are three important di'erences $etween the
ac(uisition of the mother tongue and the learning of a 2L. These are:
-the age,
-the phenomenon of fossilitation and
-the transference.
According to man& authors, #ge is a factor that determines the success or failure in -nd LL.
Toda& there is a$solute unanimit& in the fact that is appro6imalit& in pu$ert&
when the a$ilit& to ac(uire L under natural conditions is lost.
Another di'erence is the p&en($en(n (, ,(ssili#i(n. )an& -nd L learners never (uite learn
the L correctl&. Thie causes ma& $e due to the t&pe of teaching is given, the pro$lems of motivation
or the students personal characteristics.
The third di'erence is the "#ns,e"en!e. When we spea! a -nd L, it is almost impossi$le not to
ma!e mista!es infuenced $& our native L.
As we have e6plained, a $asic di'erence $etween the ac(uisition of a mother tongue and the
learning of a 2L is that the frst one is a natural process which does not need a methodolog&,
whereas the -nd one does* the 2LL happens in a classroom and not in social life.
4n mother tongue ac(uisition there is a continuos linguistic information, and a direct contact
$etween the L and its cultural envirinment* the correction of errors appears after training and
e'ort. 1n the contrar&, we fnd that 2LL involves planning with special o$3ectives and a specifc
didactic method.
We should fnall& point out some suggestions to overcome pro$lems in the -nd LL process.
2irstl&, we should not change the natural order of the interlingual process.
"econdl&, pupils must receive a high input. We must respect a silent period and allow children to
e6press themselves in a spontaneous and natural wa&.
2inall&, regarding how to overcome the fossilitation phenomenon, we fnd di'erent opinions $&
di'erent authors. "ome of then thin! that pupils should $e push to produce, and grammar should
$e taught. 1thers state that grammar should $e taught in an inductive wa&, without forcing pupils
to use it correctl&.
"ummarising, we can point out the following. 4n this unit we have presented some of the most
important contri$utions to 2LT* especiall& the principles of Linguistics, "tructuralism and
#enerative #rammar. After that, we have loo!ed into the most important di'erences and
similarities $etween the ac(uisition of the mother tongue
and the learning of a 2L.
+- The Teaching of ,nglish as an 4nternational Language $& A$$ot, # and Wingard, %. ollins,
-- Approches and )ethods in "econd Language Learning $& #arner, C.. and Lam$ert.
Cowle& %ress 7ew$ur&.
.- Linguistics in Language Teaching $& Wil!ing, D. ,dward Arnold, +5>-.
F:I; D
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4!=NT!N&*. T3& +,7%&** 7F 4'=NT'*T'% 4&!,='=N9
*'<'4!,'T'&* [email protected] @'FF&,&=%&* &T$&&= T3& !%XT'*'T'7= 7F
T3& F',*T 4!=NT!N& !T *%3774 [email protected] T3& F7,&'N= 4!=NT!N&.
The teaching of foreign languages has always de"eloped along with 4inguistics#although it has been in
this century when the traditional conceptions of science of language has been transformed by a widening
and speciali(ing of its knowledge. 7n the other hand# in the current situation of 4inguistics# there is an
intention to o"ercome the contradictions of pre"ious beliefs# in order to elaborate a new model# much
more eclectic and useful for the process of language teaching and learning.
' HI%;,/I#' ,G0/GI0"* 6I))0/0:; '../,'#H0% ':6 &0;H,6%.

The theoretical aspects upon which the main methods and approaches are based and studied in the field of
A--1$!" L$ng$'%$)'# and a first systemati(ation of these theoretical principles at the beginning of the
efore that# the methodology used in the language teaching processes in the -Bth and -?th was
G2a++a21T2an'1a%$&n M!%7&" whose techniques were based on the model of atin teaching# when this
was already a dead language. This model was# in fact#unsuitable to teach li"ing languages#as it was a mere
adaptation of techniques belonging to a prestigious discipline.
3owe"er# :ust from the second half of the century the first applied linguists appeared# looking for
some theoretical basis on which they could support the language teaching processes. To do so# they
obser"ed the childrenRs acquisition mechanisms of their first language# the importance of oral
communication# and the first steps done in the studies of +honetics.
!lthough these first principles had less impact at the moment# they ser"ed as an influence on later works.
Thus# they are "ery related with the second researching line# the R!#&2+ M&,!+!n% which supported# on
the one hand# the adoption of an inducti"e approach in which oral production was considered more
important than written production# and on the other hand# a deep study of +honetics in order to introduce
more efficient exercises to impro"e pronunciation.
'n the century appeared the D$2!)% M!%7&"# based on the model of the first language acquisition.
!ccording to this approach# the best way to learn the second language was the practice of oral production
:ust since the beginning with the help of non1"erbal strategies to explain the meaning of some of the
words or phrases which were likely to appear.
'n the /Dth century# the works of !pplied 4inguistics on the field of language teaching point out to their
a--1$)a%$&n &n a)a"!+$) )&n%!=%'# and they require the adoption of teaching techniques which take into
account the classroom reality.
!t the end of the $orld $ar ''# the !merican !rmy had to organi(e intensi"e language courses in order to
prepare the military staff to work as translators or interpreters in the occupied countries because the
R!a"$ng M!%7&" which was most used# did not guarantee enough fluency in oral comprehension and
production# they appealed to the structuralist linguistsR experiences such as loomfield.
!fter the $orld $ar ''# the A"$&1$nga1 M!%7&" appeared# partially based on the !rmy courses. 'n this
method there is a relationship between %tructuralism (loomfield) and .sychological Behaviourism
(*kinner)# whose stimulus1response1reinforcement theories would ha"e a great influence on the layout of
the mechanic exercises which are characteristical of the !udiolingual <ethod. For this method# oral
production is more important than written and the order for practising the skill is9 aural comprehension
(listening)# oral production (speaking)# written comprehension (reading)# and written production (writing).
'n Nreat ritain another linguistic school appeared# which worked independently from the !udiolingual.
't de"eloped a "ery similar method of teaching foreign languages9 T7! S$%a%$&na1 Langag! T!a)7$ng.
't is based on %tructuralism but much more formal in their linguistic references.'t gi"es more importance
to the situational context and to a selection of "ocabulary. =e"ertheless# the exercises of both methods do
not prepare the students for real situations of communication.
'n the *ixties# a new approach appeared in Nreat ritain9 T7! C&++n$)a%$,! Langag! T!a)7$ng in
which the situational component of the *ituational 4anguage Teaching is the frame for communicati"e
interactions and not only for the practice of structures. 'n this approach# the term communicati"e
competence was coined by !merican linguist @.3ymes to refer to the ability of using the linguistic system
in an efficient way to communicate in society.
From the decade of the 5Ds#other approaches ha"e appeared which ha"e contributed to de"elopment of
!pplied 4inguistics. These methods are interested in the cogniti"e processes and in the affecti"e and
contextual conditions which must take place for the learning or acquisition of the foreign language.
The first one is the T&%a1 P78'$)a1 R!'-&n'!# based on H.'sher5s methodological criteria. 7ne of the
main principles of this new approach is that pupils remember more easily those utterances which they can
relate with actions made by themsel"es. Thus the comprehension of meaning the orders that the teacher
asks the pupils to do lead them to produce no1"erbal responses such as getting up#opening the
Following the same line# the Na%2a1 A--2&a)7# based on % @rashen and ;.;errell works# propose the
possibility of acquiring a second language in an academic context if the conditions which are similar to
those which can be found in the process of acquiring the first language by young children are fulfilled.
4anguage learning as a conscient process lead children to acquire some knowledge which will help them
to correct their mistakes# what is called &onitor ;heory.
Finally# it is important to quote some approaches# such as ;he %ilent "ay# which looks for the learnersR
hard concentration on the utterances) %uggestopaedia# which uses relaxation and suggestion as helpers for
language learning) and the #ommunity anguage earning# based on group therapy and which uses the
target language as a means of expressing feeling.
;H0 &'I: I:-FI%;I# %#I0:#0%.
P7&n!%$)' an" P7&n&1&g8.
These two sciences deal with sounds and how they can combine to make meanings.
+honetics works the whole sound body of a language# studing its phonic elements in a systemic way. 't
gi"es the representation of sounds which helps to pronounce the language in a correct way. The main parts
of +honetics are9 !rticulatory +honetics# which concentrates on how the sounds are emitted by speakers)
!uditory +honetics# which studies those sounds in relation to the listeners) and !coustic +honetics# which
deals with the physical part of sounds by using different instruments to register them.
+honology deals with the function of those sounds in the communicati"e process and gi"es an exhausti"e
analysis of the rules of the sound system within the language.
+honetics is #together with 4inguistics# one of the main sciences concerned with language and arose in the
-5th century as the science that studied the relationship between spelling and sound. 'n -??5 the
'nternational +honetic !ssociation ('+!) was founded. This association de"ised a phonetic alphabet# or set
of symbols that would ser"e to represent the sound of any language. This alphabet is now widely used in
textbooks and pronouncing dictionaries.
!s our present ob:ecti"e is the teaching of a foreign language# the most useful "iew for this purpose is to
regard +honetics and 4inguistics as the two 4inguistic *ciences. oth of them study language# but from
different angle. +honetics is interested in sounds and how they are organi(ed and transmitted#whereas
4inguistics is concerned with how language is structured grammatically and semantically.
$ithin Nrammar we can find two sciences9 <orphology and *yntax.
<orphology studies the form of the words of a language# and deals with the word flexions of genre#
number and case# and with the problems which may arise in this area. 't also studies among others# the
changes which are produced in meaning by the influence of affixes.
*yntax established the rules for sentence combination and analyses the different of the words within the
Nrammar has two main ob:ecti"es) it gi"es the rules necessary to generate the meaningful chains or
strings which are characteristical of a language. 7n the other hand# it gi"es rules useful for the speaker to
"erify that a chain of meaning belongs to the language sEhe speaks.
The most important ideas in the field# nowadays# are gi"en by %homskyRs Nenerati"e Nrammar# which
sets up that a language is built upon a finite "ocabulary corpus# this being a group of symbols which
combine to make sentences.
*emantics studies the meaning and sense of words# and it applies its researches to three important fields9
• *tructural *emantics# based on *aussureRs works. 3e claimed that the signification of a sign is not
only limited to the relationship between the signifier and signified parts of it# but also between this
sign and the others.
• @istributional *emantics# in which the meanings of the linguistic units are in relation with the contexts
in which they appear.
• Nenerati"e *emantics# which does not take into account the different elements of the sentence but the
sentence itself as a model.
't is a modern science which considers speech an act by itself# because language is inserted in a
producti"e context. This context is the communicati"e situation and knowledge shared by the speaker and
the listener.
The speech act is regarded as a cooperati"e process in which the participantsRintentions must be
interpreted. 3.+. Nrice established in his book 4ogic and %on"ersation#that# in e"ery speech act# there is a
con"entional meaning gi"en by speakersRknowledge of the language rules# and an implicati"e meaning#
gi"en by the speakersRintention towards their message and towards the listeners# as well as by the context.
'n this sense# NriceRs %ooperati"e +rinciple established that speakers cooperate in their engagement in
con"ersation# their engagement being on four maxims9
• The maxim of Xuantity# which says9 <ake your contribution as informati"e as it is required.
• The maxim of Xuality# which says9 <ake your contribution true) be sincere.
• The maxim of ,elation# saying9 <ake your contribution rele"ant) do not be unconnected.
• The maxim of <anner9 !"oid obscurity# ambiguity) gi"e order to your speech.
=ormally# speakers fulfill these four maxims in their speech acts. 3owe"er# when one or more of them are
broken up intencionally# this fact gi"es place to what Nrice calls a con"ersational implicature# that is# an
implication made by the speaker who intends to say something# in an indirect way# to the listener.
The experiments carried out about the learning of the first language lead to the conclusion that only
before puberty the childRs brain has a great plasticity that allows himEher perfectly the languages that sEhe
hears around# but when puberty comes# that plasticity seems to decrease gradually.
=e"ertheless# this conclusion says nothing about what happens in the personRs brain when learning a
language# nor does it explain how some people after puberty ha"e achie"ed a mastering of one or se"eral
languages# e"en with a great degree of perfection. <oreo"er# the methods and techniques of foreign
language teaching are exclusi"ely based on the results of teaching experience# but ne"er on a precise
knowledge of how the indi"idualRs internal mechanisms work# although# on the other hand# as the process
of learning the mother tongue coincides with the first years of life# when the child experiments the most
spectacular physical and mental de"elopment# it is natural to think that there exists a narrow relationship
between these two processes9 the first and the second language learning.
;H0,/0;I#' '../,'#H0% ,: ':-F'-0 0'/:I:-.
!lthough# up to now# the se"eral researches that ha"e been undertaken on this matter ha"e not been able
to explain appropiately how second language learning process works# they ha"e shown that some methods
and techniques are more efficient than others. 'n order to establish a solid scientific basis# these researches
ha"e leaned on learning processes in general# and on the process of first language acquisition.
There are essential differences between the learning of a second language and the acquisition of the first
language. $hen children acquire their nati"e language# they are answering to their "ital necessity of
dominating the en"ironment in which they are inserted. $hen they ha"e this tool# their purpose to learn
another language is "ery different. 'ndeed# the circumstances in which we acquire our 4- are "ery
different from those in which we learn a 4/.
Three important theories can be applied both to the acquisition and the learning of languages9
• *K'==&,R* eha"iourism# which is based on experiments made with animals. !ccording to
beha"iourist researchers# the way how animals and human beings learn is similar. The theory on
human speech says that e"ery speech act is produced as a response to a stimulus. This stimulus can
ha"e different origins# such as the en"ironment# the speaker needs and another speech act made by an
interlocutor. esides# if the appropiate answer is to be produced# it is necessary some sort of
reinforcement. 'n our case# this reinforcement can be the speakerRs desire to be understood or simply
to communicate.
The beha"iourist researcher regards language learning as the acquisition of se"eral habits which can
only be acquired by repeating the adequate answers in different situations. @uring this process of
continuous repetition the student of a second language adopts a participati"e role. $hat is important
for eha"iourism is not the meaning of the spoken chains# but the authomatic production of responses
to the different stimula.

1 %37<*K>R* 'nnatism appeared in the 5Ds as a contraposition to eha"iourism. For him# all human
beings ha"e innate uni"ersal grammatical rules :ust from before they are born. These rules are "alid
for all languages. $hen the child starts speaking sEhe applied them to the language sEhe listens to
around himEher. !t the same time# sEhe makes hisEher own grammatical rules of hisEher own language
and during the whole process of acquisition # these rules are adapted to the general concept sEhe has.

• !**7%'!T'7='*<# for its part# include these factors in its researches. This theory claim that
communication factors transmit aditional information which children associate with a concrete
situation. 'n this sense# they make relations between expressions that they may hear and the ob:ects or
actions which accompany those expressions. Their need to fall back on these relationships decrease as
they memori(e the associations. Thus# the end of this progression is in their use of the linguistic
system without appealing to extralinguistic elements.
!ssociationism coincides with eha"iorism in making relations between words and ob:ect. 3owe"er#
in !ssociationis# the process is not mechanical# but it result as a consequence of the indi"idualRs
intelligence. 'n this sense# sEhe is acti"e participant in the communication process and in the learning
processes because sEhe is able to draw hisEher own conclusions.
't is important to say that# to speak a language# we ha"e to know both the "ocabulary and grammar of
that language# and that children lean on their own intelligence to establish the rules which will help
them to make suitable speech acts. @uring the whole learning process these rules are continuously
7n the other hand# if we want to learn a second language# it is necessary to mention the importance of
the teaching process# which is of less rele"ance in the process of acquisition.
$hen learning a second language# people ha"e different purposes and the achie"e different result. This
fact make us suppose that there exist different factors which make influence on this process. *e"eral
studies ha"e gi"en place to some conclusions and they set up three main factors which are of great
importance in the second language learning process.
1. M&%$,a%$&n.

<oti"ation seems to be the most interesting factors of all three# because it does not make any influence
on the 4- learning processes. The 4- acquisition allows children to get into relation with their
en"ironment and to satisfy their needs. !s they get to master the use of their first language# they disco"er
the possibilities they ha"e to co"er up other necessities and functions which may appear.
'f the 4/ is learnt when older# the concepts belonging to the 4- language are already settled up and they
are used by adults in their 4/ learning process. 'f there is an interest in learning the 4/# this teaching1
learning process will be followed in a "ery efficient way because knowing another language implies
knowing another culture.
!t a glance# it seems that if the learner stays in the host country of the language sEhe is studying. *Ehe will
find it easier to learn that language. 3owe"er# this is only true if the learner is actually interested in
participating in social contacts with nati"e speakers. 3isEher wishes to control the en"ironment are more
important here than the teaching aspects.
$hen speaking about moti"ation# it is not only important to appeal reward# in the beha"iouristic sense of
the word# but we must also include human psychological needs. !mong them we can find essential ones#
such as hanger o fear) and some others dealing with personal security# feeling of belonging to a
community# self1confidence and relation with the other members of the community we belong to. !part
from the moti"ation in satisfying these psychological needs# e"ery indi"idual is more encouraged as
hisEher ob:ecti"es are more important for himEher# as for example# those referring to cultural interest#
family well1being# etc.
,esearches ha"e shown that there are two types of moti"ation9
• 'ntegrati"e moti"ation# referring to the studentsRfeeling of belonging to the community of nati"e
speakers of the language they are learning and of participating in their cultural en"ironment.
• 'nstrumental moti"ation# dealing with the learnersRneed to learn the second language to apply for a :ob
or to study abroad.
This second type of moti"ation is "ery common in +rimary &ducation# and as teachers# our role is to
encourage in our students the integrati"e moti"ation. To do so# there are a series of techniques9 bringing to
the classroom material (pictures#brochures#leaflets#...) about the country) organi(ing competitions on
sports characteristical of the country) or accompanying the students to shows (films#plays#concerts#...) in
the foreign language.
7n the other hand# teachers must ha"e in mind that children are better recei"ers of these kinds of
acti"ities than adults# and that they are easily encouraged to participate in tasks where they can play an
acti"e role (dramati(ations#games#mural making#..).
Langag! a-%$%"!.
't has been shown that there are some people who can learn a language more easily than other
people#who# in turn# find it rather difficult to get enough competence in that new language. ! lot of
research has been made in this sense to find the relationship between our own aptitude or inner ability and
the results achie"ed in our learning process. Thus# it has been shown that there is no direct connection
between our intelligence and our aptitude for language learning. 7n the contrary# it seems to exist a
dependence on series of factors# such as the brain ability to record and memori(e certain phonetical
material) our own faculty to tackle grammatical information) our capacity to remember new words) and
our ability to disco"er or infer# without help# linguistic forms and rules.
The <odern 4anguage !ptitude Test (<4!T) is used to measure these abilities# although it is only based
on linguistic elements. esides# it seems that this test only gi"es us AD per cent of certainly# and that is the
reason why the 4anguage !ptitude attery (4!) was also used to measure language aptitude# but
including other extralinguistic elements such as moti"ation. !ccording to the results gi"en by this test# the
students who get satisfactory results in the other sub:ects usually get good qualifications in foreign
language. 'ndeed# this is usually true# but there are other students as well who are "ery good at foreign
language# but not at rest of the sub:ects. 'n conclusion# there does not exist definiti"e criteria for us to base
on when dealing with this matter.
3owe"er# the fact that intelligence does not make great influence o"er foreign language acquisition does
not mean that teacher lea"e it aside. 7n the contrary# it is important to take intelligence into consideration
when choose the appropiate methodology in class. Thus# for less intelligent students# the most useful
method seems to be that of repetition# whereas a methodology based on explanation of what they are
learning seems to suit better to cle"erer pupils.
3ere# the question is# 0which is the appropiate age to start learning a second language;2. !ccording to
some studies the best age to foreign language learning is between four and eight years# because the child
experiments an intensi"e process of e"olution characterised by hisEher ability to learn through mere
exposition to data. =e"ertheless# there some teachers who think that children should not start learning a
second language until they ha"e enough fluency on their first language. They e"en say that an early start
in 4/ learning can pre"ent children from acquiring their 4- efficiently.
!ll these opinions leads us to analyse the ad"antages and disad"antages of foreign language learning
early start. 'n order to do that# we can ha"e a look at those cases of emigrantsRchildren who get
competence in a 4/. !s opposed to them# those children who learn a foreign language at school do not
usually achie"e that degree of perfection.
For all this# one of the main reasons to introduce 4/ learning in +rimary &ducation is the better
assimilation of phonetical elements that children ha"e at this age. esides# children usually are less
reticent to participate acti"ely in class# :ust as they do not ha"e the adultsRsense of ridiculous# although
adults normally ha"e less dificulty on getting concentrated. !ll these age factors# howe"er# should not
interfere on the teaching1learning process# and we should think that# wether younger or older# the human
being has mechanisms of e"ery type to acquire foreign languages if they are moti"ated to do so.
$hat# in fact# should worry us is the fact that the little success which the student may ha"e in +rimary
*chool is# unfortunately# due not to the factors of age# aptitude or moti"ation# but the teacherRs low le"el
of preparation in relation with how to let the students into a foreign language.
!ccording to %homsky# the difference between acquisition and learning is that acquisition can only take
place up to a certain age because when we ha"e already got the mechanisms which allow us to register
those cncept# procedures# and pieces of information in order to use them in our daily li"es for different
purposes#all which we can get afterwards is not tackled through our mechanisms of acquisition# but
through our learning processes. 't is :ust during acquisition when children make their own grammar# by
"erifying which rules are correct and which are wrong. This checking process is made through their
analysis of input data which are contrasted with their own innate rules.
%homskyRs theories on this field are nowadays considered and followed when dealing with how children
acquire their first language# and they are "ery useful to study those processes which gi"e place to foreign
language learning and to put them into practice when teaching that foreign language at school.
&,;H0/ ;,:-F0 '#IFI%I;I,:.
$hen they begin speaking# children produce certan utterances which they ha"e not heard before. Thios
fact leads us to think that there must be an inner mechanism which# basing itself on the outer linguistic
data# allow the production of different grammatical structures. From this generati"e1transformational point
of "iew (%homskyRs) these phenomena can be explained through the 4anguage !cquisition @e"ice# which
make childen know the linguistic uni"ersals (word order#linguistic categories# etc)# as well as the
procedures which are necessary to acquire a language.
<other tongue acquisition begins in the "ery moment the child is gi"en birth# when sEhe hear the first
sounds#"oices and e"en hisEher own cry. $hen sEhe is three or four years old# sEhe has already got hold of
the way how hisEher language works# and is able to communicate more or less effecti"ely with the
speakers of the same language.
The innate ability to oral communication is characteristical of all human beings# except from those who
suffer from some sort of serious congenital illness or disability. !s it has been said before# intelligence is
not directly related to language acquisition because those people who are not relati"ely cle"er ha"e been
succesful in acquire their nati"e language.
$ithin the whole process of mother tongue acquisition# there exist some steps followed by children9
• +relinguistic stage9 From birth to the age of eight months# children acquire spontaneously the use of
auditory mechanisms. 't is the stage when they produce non1symbolic sounds.
• First word production9 $hen they are -- months old# children produce a "oice sound which is
somehow symbolic for them. This is the stage in which they gi"e names to people or ob:ects placed
around them.
• *econd year9 %hildrenRs messy "ocalic structures begin to get shape and they begin to participate into
communicati"e exchanges. Their parentsRrole gets more and more important. 3owe"er# it is not a
matter of repetition of what they say# but beyond that# children create by themsel"es sounds which
they regard as correct or wrong depending on the adultsRreactions. These criteria of "alidation help the
child to take or opt out the different strings of language they are gi"ing birth to. Those strings which
sEhe considers to be correct are the same that the ones produced by adults and are reinforced by means
of continuous repetition.
• etween 8 and 6 years old9 The process of acquisition keeps on de"eloping. This a period of great
creati"ity and less difficulty for auditory discrimination# and for imitation. The essential aspects of the
process of acquisition are de"eloped in full. The following grammatical system children build on are
"ery similar to those which respond to the adultsRgrammatical rules.
• &ntering school9 The school substitutes their parents in the acquisition process and pro"ides them with
written code. 't is :ust in this moment when the process of learning behings# and it will all their li"es.
BII:-F'I%& ':6 &F;II:-F'I%&.
The fact that children start acquiring their mother tongue when they are babies suggests that it would be
quite a good idea to take ad"antage of this ability to make them acquire some others. 'ndeed# there are
people in many places who are bilingual since they were born# this ocurring in families where two or more
languages are spoken at the same time. esides# we must take into account that# from a phonetical and
auditory point of "iew# children ha"e all the biological characteristics to be able to acquire naturally more
than one language :ust from their childhood.
'n some cases children can acquire simultaneously their mother tongue and their father tongue. 3owe"er#
0bilingualism2 does not mean 0same lingualism2# that is# both languages being used with the same
frequency of time. 7n the contrary# their use depends on the circumstances around# and normally# one
language is more often used that another.
7n the other hand# se"eral researches ha"e shown that it would be of great help for children to be
bilingual since the beginning# in terms of psychological de"elopment. 3owe"er# this is only possible
whene"er the contact with their parentsRlanguages is as more natural as possible) if not# there may exist a
possible slowing down in their acquiring process.
ilingualism is essentially the result of family circumstances# or of other natural ways of contact with
different languages# such as those cases in which children li"e long periods of time in a foreign country# or
in which two languages coexist in the same country.
=e"ertheless# those bilingual or multilingual countries# such as elgium# *wit(erland# %anada# or *pain#
can not always offer their citi(ens the possibility to take ad"antage of this situation when they are
acquiring their first languageEs. The main reason for this is that those languages often compete among
them# that is# they are ri"als# and people belonging to one of the linguistic communities often ha"e a
negati"e attitude towards the otherEs# as it is case of %anada.
't is in %anada where an inmersion program was put into practice in -.5A. The experiment began in a
little "illage called *aint 4ambert# and it was completed and assesed by the psychological department of
the Tni"ersity of <ontreal. The program consisted in the alternation of French and &nglish. %hildren
spoke &nglish at home# but at school# they were taught French by using it in the different sub:ects they had
to study. This pro:ect had great rele"ance and has gi"en place to a lot of research in that country.
$ith regard to &urope# only in bilingual countries can this program be put into practice. 4uxemburg is a
case apart# because it is a trilingual country9 4uxemburguese is spoken at home# Nerman is taught from
the first year of +rimary &ducation# and French# from the third year. This early trilingualism is completed
in *econdary &ducation with the teaching of &nglish. The citi(ens of 4uxemburg# where there are not
uni"ersities# ha"e the possibility of choosing among those uni"ersities of Nermany# !ustria# *wit(erland#
France# elgium# %anada and the Tnited *tates. This situation is "ery difficult to achie"e in many other
&uropean countries.
3owe"er# something similar is what is called bilingual education# which implies the teaching in a foreign
language of one or more topics well kown by the pupils. The methodology is being carried at school in
=etherlands# Nermany# France and *candina"ian countries.
1.: C7a2a)%!2$'%$)'
 The need for accuracy
 !ddressee in mind
 *ame situational context
 *pontaneity and the speed
 4inguistic features
 Nrammar and "ocabulary
1.: D!#$n$%$&n &# %7! -2&)!''
(.: S%ag!' &# %7! -2&)!''
 'dentify the phonic and syntactic patterning
 'dentify and select them without retention
 'dentification and guided selection with short term retention
 'dentification and selection with long term retention
*.: P1ann$ng a 1$'%!n$ng 1!''&n
 $hat to be learnt
 3ow to teach
 $hat material to use
 $hat acti"ities will be done
4.: G$"!1$n!' %& "!,!1&- %7! 1$'%!n$ng '0$11
I.: L$'%!n$ng '5'0$11'
 4istening to confirm expectations
 4istening to extract specific information
 4istening for general understanding
 'nferring the speaker’s attitude
L.: L$'%!n$ng +a%!2$a1'
 *ongs
 Video recordings
 Tapes
 The teacher
G.: L$'%!n$ng a)%$,$%$!'
+re1listening acti"ities
• +rediction exercises
• Vocabulary exercises
• Nrammar exercises
$hile1listening acti"ities
• &ar training acti"ities
• Nlobal1listening exercises
4 1 %ompleting diagrams
5 1 +roblem sol"ing
• *electi"e1listening acti"ities
6 1 !nswering display questions
7 1 Following instructions
8 1 %ompletion1type acti"ities
9 1 'dentifying mistakes or contradictions
+ost1listening acti"ities
1.: D!#$n$%$&n &# %7! -2&)!''
(.: P1ann$ng a '-!a0$ng 1!''&n
*.: S-!a0$ng a)%$,$%$!'
!cti"ities based on repetition and imitation
• ,epetition drills
• *ubstitution drills
• Transformation drills
• Nuessing drills
%ontrolled acti"ities
• Xuestion and answer
• ,ight E wrong statements and corrections
• *tating consequences
• <odel dialogue and key words
• Napped dialogues
• %uewords
• +icture cards
• 4anguage games
• @ecision1making acti"ities
• Xuestionnaires
!utonomous interaction
• Functional communication
• *ocial interaction
'n this topic# we’ll start from the idea that the Foreign 4anguage !rea %urriculum mentions
a sequence which must be followed when teaching the different skills9 the oral skills (listening
and speaking) are stressed o"er written skills (reading and writing). ThatPs because learning to
speak and to understand means learning the language# whereas reading and writing implies that
the language is already known and that we are using its graphic representation.
!lthough itPs better to teach a F4 following this sequence# teachers ha"e to take into
account that e"ery skill should be reinforced by the rest and none of them can be taught in
'n this topic wePll concentrate on the oral language# analysing in the first part the main
characteristics of it and the differences with the written language.
'n the second part of the topic# wePll go into detail about both types of oral language# listening and
speaking skills# examining some of the acti"ities we can do in order to impro"e them. $e’ll take into
account that listening is a recepti"e skill# while speaking is a producti"e skill.
4et us concentrate on the spoken language. $ePll explain its characteristics analysing# at the
same time# its differences with the written language.
1.- C/#!#(t!$)t$()
• +erhaps# the most important difference between writing and speaking is related to %7! n!!" #&2
a))2a)8. =ati"e speakers constantly make mistakes
when they are speaking9 they change the sub:ect in the middle of a sentence# hesitate an say the same
thing in different ways#[ These mistakes# except in extremely formal situations# are considered as
normal. 3owe"er# itPs expected that writing should be OcorrectO.
• !nother characteristic is that speech is time1bound# dynamic and transient. 'tPs a part of an interaction
in which both participants are present# and the speaker has a specific a""2!''!! $n +$n". <eanwhile#
in most of the cases# the writer doesnPt know who the addressee is# so that there is a little expectation
of a reply.
• 'n this regard# participants are in a face1to1face interaction and share the 'a+! '$%a%$&na1 )&n%!=%) as
a result# they can rely on non1"erbal de"ices# as body language# facial expression and gesture# as well
as rely on the context# in order to help make clear what they mean. This does not happen in speech.
• !nother characteristic is that speakers do at least three things at once9 planning what to say next#
saying what they ha"e planned# and monitoring
what they are saying in order to check that it is what they meant to say. 7n the other hand# in the
speech pre"ails the '-&n%an!$%8 an" %7! '-!!"# so itPs more difficult to engage in complex ad"anced
planning. $hereas# writers can be more precise and organised about what they ha"e to say# and also
because they ha"e more time for planning and re"ision.
• Talking about the 1$ng$'%$) #!a%2!'# a speaker has a great range of expressi"e possibilities#
since he can "ary his intonation and stress. The writing system cannot directly represent the
prosodic features of speech. 7nly a "ery few graphic con"entions relate to prosody# such as
question marks.
• !s g2a++a2 an" ,&)a51a28 regards# the syntax of speech is much simpler than the syntax
of writing. The lexicon of speech is also often "ague# using words which refer directly to the
situation (deictic expressions# such as that one# in here# right now). 'n written language these
expressions are "ery unusual.
1.- D+$n$t$*n *+ t/ "!*())
4et us concentrate on the listening skill. 't is a recepti"e skill and it wasnPt until the
de"elopment of the %ommunicati"e !pproach in the BDPs when the listening skill took importance
in the language acquisition. *ome pre"ious methods# such as the @irect <ethod and the !udio1
4ingual <ethod# put emphasis in the oral comprehension# but listening was concentrated on the
lower le"els.
The %ommunicati"e !pproach postulated the use of realistic and authentic language and
learners were trained to match what they heard into a context) the context helped them to
understand the meaning.
=owadays it is accepted that listening plays an important role in Foreign 4anguage
Teaching because it pro"ides a great input for the learner# it allows introducing new language and
it can pro"ide en:oyment.
2.- St#') *+ t/ "!*())
The process of writing goes on through different stages# which wePll analyse as follows.
• Firstly# the pupils ha"e to $"!n%$#8 %7! -7&n$) an" '8n%a)%$) -a%%!2n$ng# that is# to recognise
the familiar elements in the mass of speech without being able to recognise the
interrelationships within the whole system.
• Then# the pupils must $"!n%$#8 an" '!1!)% %7!+ 6$%7&% 2!%!n%$&n# that is# listening for
pleasure with no questions to be answered.
• !fter that# ** must do an $"!n%$#$)a%$&n an" g$"!" '!1!)%$&n 6$%7 '7&2% %!2+ 2!%!n%$&n# that
is# they are gi"er a prior indication of what they are going to listen. They demonstrate their
comprehension immediately in some sort of exercise.
• !n the last stage is the $"!n%$#$)a%$&n an" '!1!)%$&n 6$%7 1&ng %!2+ 2!%!n%$&n# that is# **
demonstrate their comprehension de"eloping acti"ities which require the use of the material
pre"iously learnt.
3.- P,#nn$n' # ,$)tn$n' ,))*n
'n order to achie"e a successful de"elopment of the listening skill# it is essential to plan it
"ery carefully. ! listening lesson in"ol"es considering fi"e aspects9
• /7a% %& 5! 1!a2n%D we ha"e to decide the listening skills to be de"eloped. 'n the early stages
we should concentrate on listening at the le"el of recognition.
• 3&6 %& %!a)7D the procedure to follow.
• /7a% +a%!2$a1 %& '!D we ha"e to make a choice regarding materials# and it has to be made
according to two criteria9
- The linguistic difficulty of the listening text) the text should be within the students
language proficiency range.
- The learners’ moti"ation) the materials used should be moti"ating for the students.
$e should remember that the teacher can also be a source of spoken language# he E she
can also pro"ide input.
• /7a% a)%$,$%$!' 6$11 5! "&n!D they should also be moti"ating and rele"ant to the students
0.- G.$&,$n) t* &%,*" t/ ,$)tn$n' )1$,,
There are some guidelines that may be useful when planning how to de"elop pupilsP
listening skill# which we’ll mention as follows9
• Firstly# we must try to gi"e children the confidence) the ** should be told that they cannot
always be expected to understand e"ery word.
• *econdly# we must help the ** to de"elop the strategies for listening) the most important
strategy is the use of Ointelligent guessworkO# that is# they can use their background knowledge
to work out the meaning of a word. They can also use other strategies such as predicting#
working out the meaning from the context#[ The ** should be encouraged to notice the body
language or the way the speaker use hisEher "oice.
• Finally# we must explain them why they ha"e to listen) this means spelling out which part of
the message they need to focus on and what they are going to do before listening# while they
listening or after listening.
$e will now focus on two of the aspects when planning a lesson# the listening subskills and
the listening materials.
2.- L$)tn$n' ).3)1$,,)
The listening subskills are9 listening to confirm expectations# listening to extract specific
information# listening for general understanding and inferring the speaker’s attitude.
• L$'%!n$ng %& )&n#$2+ !=-!)%a%$&n'. $e can ask students to predict what they are going to
listen and then# listen to it to confirm their expectations. 'n this way# the students’ interest is
aroused and they ha"e a definite purpose for listening.
• L$'%!n$ng %& !=%2a)% '-!)$#$) $n#&2+a%$&n. &xtracting specific information when listening is a
ma:or subskill since a great deal of what is said in con"ersation in redundant and unnecessary.
• L$'%!n$ng #&2 g!n!2a1 n"!2'%an"$ng. *tudents listen to con"ersations in order to get a
general idea of what the main points are. The students’ task is fairly simple but it is a "ital skill
(because they listen to authentic spoken language) that they must de"elop.
• In#!22$ng %7! '-!a0!2K' a%%$%"!. !n awareness of stress# intonation or any body language#
such as facial expression or gestures# will help the children to work out meaning.
4.- L$)tn$n' 5#t!$#,)
Talking about the listening materials# the most useful ones are the songs# the "ideo
recordings# the tapes and the teacher.
• S&ng' are an important source of moti"ation. They may be used to change the pace of the
lesson or to introduce cultural aspects. They reinforce the learning process since they are "ery
useful to re"iew and learn "ocabulary# pronunciation# grammatical structures and patterns.
• V$"!& 2!)&2"$ng': $hen using the "ideo it is essential to choose the right technique
depending on the purpose9 recognition# production or a combination of both. There are se"eral
reasons for using "ideo to de"elop listening skills9
- 't is a moti"ating type of material.
- The pupils’ imagination is fostered.
- This sort of communication has an image context.
- +aralinguistic features help comprehension.
• Ta-!': $e can use tapes ad:usting the le"el to the pupils’ needs.
• T7! %!a)7!2: as a matter of fact# can also pro"ide input. The pupils listen to the teacher most
of the time# so he E she must ha"e a good pronunciation.
6.- L$)tn$n' #(t$%$t$)
The listening acti"ities can be di"ided into pre1listening# while1listening and post1listening
acti"ities. 4et us see each one separately.
P2!:1$'%!n$ng a)%$,$%$!'
These acti"ities aim to warm ** up and prepare them to achie"e the most from the passage
and to arouse their interest. $e can distinguish three types of pre1listening acti"ities9 prediction
acti"ities# "ocabulary exercises and grammar exercises.
rediction exercises encourage the ** to draw inferences and increase the amount of
language recognised at first hearing# for instance9
• The ** are told the topic of the listening passage and are asked to guess some of the words or
phrases they think they might hear.
• The teacher plays the first few sentences of the recording and challenges the ** to work out
what is going on. The ** call out their ideas# which are discussed.
!ocabulary exercises# for example9
• The ** are gi"en a list of words that might occur in the listening text and are asked to listen
for which ones occur and which do not.
• The pupils do a picture and word matching exercise. This has two ad"antages. Firstly you can
bring certain words into the forefront of the **’ minds# and secondly# you can ensure that they
know the meaning of new words. 't is not necessary that all the words which appear in the
exercise should appear on the tape.
"rammar exercises# such as gap1filling exercises# in"ol"ing grammatical structures. The
sentences will be taken from the listening passage. The ** will check the answers from the tape.
/7$1!:1$'%!n$ng a)%$,$%$!'
$hile1listening acti"ities aim to guide the pupils to handle the information in the passage.
Three types of exercises are to be distinguished9
#ar training activities help ** in distinguishing between key sounds# stress and intonation
patterns. They are most suitable in the early stages.
"lobal$listening exercises are aimed at helping ** to construct an o"erall sense of a text
and they include9
• %ompleting diagrams
• +roblem sol"ing acti"ities in which ** match or recognise information in a text# for example9
- The ** compare what they hear with the information gi"en to them in a picture.
They listen to see how far the information the speaker pro"ides agrees with# or
contradicts# the information they were originally gi"en.
- !nother problem1sol"ing acti"ity is storyline pictures sets9 the ** listen to a story or
set of instructions referring to a number of pictures and are asked to recognise the
pictures described and to put them in the correct order according to the passage.
%elective$listening activities are designed to help ** deri"e specific information from a
text# for instance9
• !nswering display questionsD questions testing understanding of detail. The questions can be
answered indi"idually or in groups and may take "arious forms9 open1ended questions#
multiple choice questions# trueEfalse statements. The questions should be read and understood
in the pre1listening stage.
• Following instructions# that is# listen1and1do exercises in which they must listen to what
someone says# understand it and complete a task. They include picture dictation# where **
ha"e to draw a picture which the teacher or another * talks about without showing it)
completing a map or picture) tracing a route on a map in order to arri"e at a particular place.
These acti"ities in"ol"e careful listening without requiring a "erbal response.
• 'n completion1type acti"ities ** ha"e to complete a "ersion of a story# a description or a song
while they listen.
• !nother kind of while1listening acti"ity is 'dentifying mistakes or contradictions9 ** hear two
"ersions of a story or two accounts of an e"ent and ha"e to identify the points of difference.
<any games depend for their success on ** listening carefully to each other# e.g. %imon
says# in which a * in front of the class gi"es commands# some preceded by the words %imon
says and others not. The class obeys the former only.
P&'%:1$'%!n$ng a)%$,$%$!'
'n post1listening acti"ities ** take the information they ha"e gained from the listening
passage and use it for another purpose (composition# discussion).
*ome extension work can also be done based on the content of the passage.
1.: D!#$n$%$&n &# %7! -2&)!''
!s follows# wePll concentrate on the speaking skill. @uring the first half of this century# this
skill was neglected# since in the F4 teaching# the emphasis was on the written skills. <oreo"er#
speaking has recei"ed more attention in the last twenty years.
!lthough in the @irect and the !udio14ingual method the emphasis was on oral
communication# students could not do free acti"ities until they ha"e mastered the new language in
controlled exercises# in drills. =ow it is accepted that some sort of dynamic and meaningful
exercises should be included in speaking lessons from the beginning.
$hen ** are learning a F4# they want prompt results and speaking is the aim when they
come to class. They want to speak and thatPs the most important thing to them. $hen listening# the
input recei"ed can be in a higher le"er than expected) in contrast# when speaking# the speaker
choose the language according to hisEher le"el and thatPs an easy aspect in comparison with
!lthough the speaker can choose the le"el# speaking is one of the most problematical skills
since successful oral communication in"ol"es many things9
• To know some grammar and "ocabulary.
• !bility to make the foreign sounds correctly.
• To master the suprasegmental features.
• Fluency.
• *ome listening skills.
$hen a child is learning a F4# he usually makes mistakes. ! solution would be to guide oral
practice to a"oid the **P mistakes# or at least to try that they make as few as possible. Then# the
psychological aspect is important# because when children realise that they can speak without
mistakes# theyPll be moti"ated to go on speaking properly.
The main goal of speaking will be fluency# which can be defined as the ability to express
oneself intelligibly# reasonably# accurately and without too much hesitation.
(.: P1ann$ng a '-!a0$ng 1!''&n
$hen planning a speaking lesson# we must bear in mind that speaking acti"ities should
fulfill certain requirements9
• !cti"ities must pro"ide opportunities for language practice.
• They must be interesting.
• !s regard to the sub:ect matter# it must be within the studentsP experience) it must be close to
their li"es.
*.: S-!a0$ng a)%$,$%$!'
*peaking acti"ities fall into the following three categories9 acti"ities based on repetition
and imitation# controlled acti"ities and autonomous interaction.
A)%$,$%$!' 5a'!" &n 2!-!%$%$&n an" $+$%a%$&n
4ittlewood’s structural and quasi4communicative acti"ities belong to this group. They are
preparatory acti"ities# intended to prepare learners for communicati"e acti"ities. The former focus
on the grammatical system and on ways in which items can be combined. The latter consist of two
or more con"ersational exchanges.
@rills are an example of this type of structure1orientated exercises. They help to assimilate
facts about new language and enable the student to produce the new language for the first time by
helping him master the basic structural patterns of the language. They are usually "ery controlled
and ha"e a fairly limited potential. They shouldnPt be used either too frequently or for too long.
The teacher will insist on accuracy# correcting where ** make mistakes. 'n addition# the
**P talking time can be notably increased in large groups. There are different kinds of drills9
• R!-!%$%$&n "2$11'D ** ha"e to repeat the sample pattern accurately and quickly) e.g. O' went to
the market and ' bought[O
• S5'%$%%$&n "2$11'D ** are required to replace a word or phrase of the model sentence by the
cue wordEphrase pro"ided by the teacher.
• T2an'#&2+a%$&n "2$11'D e.g. putting affirmati"e sentences in the negati"e or acti"e sentences
in the passi"e.
• G!''$ng "2$11'D they get ** to try to find out through guessing. They are thus based on the
information gap principle. *ome examples are9
- ** think of something they did the pre"ious weekend and then they take turns to find
out what it is by asking.
- ** imagine that they ha"e been ill and they take turns to find out each other’s illness
by asking.
C&n%2&11!" a)%$,$%$!'
%ontrolled acti"ities help ** de"elop confidence and the ability to participate in simple
con"ersations. Texts (dialogues and prose passages) can be exploited for oral practice. The
ad"antage of the acti"ities based on them o"er the drills we ha"e looked at is that they offer a
well1defined context for practice.
• &uestion and answer practice is one of the commonest ways of gi"ing language practice in
the classroom.
• 7ther techniques are right ' wrong statements and corrections. ** are asked to say whether a
statement is right or wrong within the context of the text and# if it is wrong# they gi"e the
correct "ersion) or they are asked to correct statements.
• ! third technique can be '%a%$ng )&n'[email protected]!n)!'# in which the ** ha"e to say what happened as
a result of an e"ent or action described.
T9 %olumbus disco"ered !merica.
*-9 7ther people followed him.
*/9 't changes the story of the world.
+airwork acti"ities pro"ide ** with a greater amount of meaningful practice. There are
"arious types of pairwork acti"ities9 model dialogue and key words# gapped dialogues# cue words#
picture cards# language games# decision1making acti"ities and questionnaires. 4et us outline each
one of them9
• (odel dialogue and key words9 ** work with a set of 61A dialogues related to the same theme
together with a list of key words which they can use to produce different dialogues.
• 'n gapped dialogues one of the speakers has to supply the missing utterances. The speaker’s
missing words may also be cued by indicating what functions he has to express# e.g.
!.1 .......... (invite some!ody to go out with you).
.1 *orry# '’m busy.
!.1 .......... (suggest another day).
.1 >es# that would be fine.
!.1 .......... ( suggest a time).
.1 !ll right. *ee you then.
• )uewords9 ** are gi"en cards with a number of cuewords on them# around which a dialogue
can be modelled# and a model dialogue to work with.
• icture cards can be used for a range of acti"ities9
- )inding uses) ** ha"e to find uses for an ob:ect within a particular en"ironment# to
compare the uses for an ob:ect in two en"ironments# or to find two uses for an ob:ect#
one normal use# the other absurd.
- 'ssociation activities) ** ha"e to link two ob:ects e.g. in terms of use# material# etc.
• *anguage games also help to impro"e speaking skills# e.g. Hide and seek# where ** 0hide2
and ob:ect somewhere in a picture. They then take turns to find out where the ob:ect has been
hidden by asking questions like Is it on the !ookcase? Is it under the ;G?
• +ecision$making activities require ** to make certain decisions. They employ the information
gap principle# that is# ** ha"e to try to find out what each has decided. For instance# they are
gi"en a set of numbered places and they write the numbers on a street plan to indicate their
positions# which their partners ha"e to guess.
=on1pictorial aids such as maps# menus# radio and TV programmes are another way of
getting ** to interact using fairly controlled language. For example# with maps ** can practise
gi"ing directions. $ith menus they can decide what they are going to eat and drink. $ith TV
and radio programmes they can discuss what they are going to watch or listen.
• &uestionnaires with mixed structures are effecti"e ways of getting ** to draw on all their
linguistic resources. They in"ol"e identifying somebody who corresponds to a requirement of
the questionnaire. For example# the questionnaire may read9
F$n" '&+!&n! 67&: NAME
1 is wearing black socks
1 likes flying
1 can’t swim
1 has ne"er been abroad
1 would like to go to the moon
A%&n&+&' $n%!2a)%$&n
The last type of speaking acti"ities is related to the autonomous interaction# that aims to get
from the students a free production of language.
%ommunicati"e acti"ities pro"ide the learners opportunities to use the language for
themsel"es. The opportunity to say something has to be gi"en to them# so that they can see for
themsel"es the "alue and use of what they are learning. The acti"ities must be geared to the
learners’ needs and the teacher should formulate the tasks in terms that ** can understand and
ensure that the instructions are clear. 'f the task is "ery complex# it is ad"isable to set up a
rehearsal before asking ** to start. <oreo"er# the teacher should9
• make sure that e"erybody speaks &nglish and that e"erything runs smoothly.
• set up mixed ability pairsEgroups because ** learn from one another.
• elicit or pre1teach the language ** will need during the acti"ity.
• monitor the task discreetly. 3 E * should inter"ene only if heEshe is quite certain that learners
cannot manage on their own.
• should not keep correcting and demand too high a standard of accuracy.
4ittlewood distinguishes two types of communicati"e acti"ities9 functional communication
and social interaction.

a, -unctional communication acti"ities in"ol"e the communication of information. They ha"e
to o"ercome an information gap or sol"e a problem. y Minformation gap’ 4ittlewood means a
type of acti"ity in which one or more of the ** has to get information from someone else.
*ome examples of these acti"ities are the following9
♦ @isco"ering identical pairs9 one * has to find which of four other has the same picture as
♦ @isco"ering missing information9 two ** each ha"e an incomplete table and each has to
get missing information from other.
♦ @isco"ering secrets (guessing games). These games are accuracy1focussed games chose
purpose is to reinforce what has already been taught. For example 8;wenty questions9
(one player thinks of a famous person or place and the others try to find out what by
asking no more than twenty questions).
b, %ocial interaction acti"ities in"ol"e simulation and role1play. 'n a simulation ** act as
themsel"es (gi"ing directions to a passer1by outside the school)# while in a role1play they act
as someone else. For role play the class is usually di"ided into small groups who are gi"en
situations and roles to act out.
They are different ways of pro"iding a framework for role1play practice9
♦ ,pen4ended dialogues# e.g. dialogues which lea"e the learners free to decide how to
de"elop them.
♦ &apped dialogues9 ** are gi"en functional cues on separate cards. $e may define the
relationship between the two speakers# e.g. they are friends.
- 'n"ite to go out with you - @ecline
/ *uggest another possibility / !ccept
8 %onfirm arrangements 8 !gree
♦ /ole instructions describe the situation and tell the participants how they should interact.
&xample9 you go into a bookshop to buy a book (describe author and title). !sk the
bookseller is he has the book. 'f the book is not a"ailable# decide whether to order it.
7ther acti"ities are discussions and fluency1focussed games# i.e. games in which ** use
language rather than simply practise it# for example in a debate to choose the ** that will controll
the class library.
To summarise# in this topic we ha"e dealt with the oral skills (listening and speaking)#
which# in the Foreign 4anguage !rea curriculum# are stressed o"er the written skills (reading and
writing). $eP"e gi"en some guidelines in order to make a proper planning and weP"e suggest some
of the acti"ities we can do when teaching both skills.
• ;he techniques of anguage ;eaching by illows# F.4.
• ;eaching anguage as communication by $iddowson# 3.N. 7xford Tni"ersity +ress.
• ;eaching ,ral 0nglish by yrne# @. +ublished in -.?5.
• -etting %tudents to ;alk by Nolewiowska# !. +ublished in -..D.
T7+'% B. F7,&'N= 4!=NT!N& *+&&%3. T3& %7<+4&U'T> 7F N47!4 [email protected]&,*[email protected]'=N
'= 7,!4 '=T&,!%T'7=9 F,7< 3&!,'=N T7 !%T'V& 4'*T&='=N. *+&&%3 '+,[email protected]%T'7=9
'<'T!T'V& ,&+,[email protected]%T'7= [email protected] !TT7=7<7T* ,&+,[email protected]%T'7=.
*peech# or spoken language# is the most ob"ious aspect of language# it is the uni"ersal material of
human language. For many hundreds of thousands of years human language was transmitted and
de"eloped entirely as spoken means of communication.
Tsing a foreign language eefecti"ely requires ha"ing a number of different abilities. 4inguistists ha"e
identified four ma:or abilities# which are called linguistic skills. They are9 listening# speaking# reading
and writing. (about their classification and their integration# see topic 8).
'n this unit we are going to study the listening and speaking skills# first how our pupils e"ol"e from
hearing to acti"e listening# and second# from imitati"e speaking to autonomous talking.
(. 4'*T&='=N %7<+,&3&=*'7=9 F,7< 3&!,'=N T7 !%T'V& 4'*T&='=N
4istening in a foreign language is hard work. 't is a principle that listening should precede speaking. %learly#
it is impossible to expect our pupils to produce a sound which does not exist in their mother tongue or a natural
sentence using the stress# rhythm and intonation of a nati"e speaker of the foreign language without first of all
pro"iding them with a model of the form they are to produce. 't is not possible to produce satisfactorily what
one has not heard. The logical step# then# is attempting to achie"e oral fluency or accuracy is to consider our
pupilsR ability to listen.
!t first sight it appears that listening is a passi"e skill# and speaking is an acti"e one. This is not really
true# since the deconding of the message calls for acti"e participation in the communication between
the participants. ! recepti"e skill is in"ol"ed in understanding the message. Tnderstanding is usually
signalled in a face1to1face con"ersation by the nods# glances# bbody1mo"ements and often phatic
noises of the listener. This "isual and "erbal signalling confirms to the speaker that listening and
understanding has taken place so# while hearing can be thought of a passi"e condition# listening is
always an acti"e process.
*tudies of classroom interaction show that children spend a large part of their time listening L listening
to the teacher# to each otther or to pre1recorded material. +roblems are likely to arise if teachers do not
teach children how to listen# so that they can cope effecti"ely with these demands. esides# our work
as teachers of young learners is much easier if the children are moti"ated and en:oy what they are
doing. 't is up to us to ensure that the acti"ities they are engaged in are interesting andEor fun. $e also
ha"e to be clear that our students cannot understand e"erything they hear. $e should pro"ide
purposeful acti"ities where learners are asked to focus on specific points. $e must ensure that the
childrenRs learning is supported where"er necessary. 4earners will also of course listen :ust for fun#
without ha"ing to do anything with what they hear.
F,7< 3&!,'=N T7 [email protected]&,*[email protected]'=N
The first stage in the listening skill learning process is ear1training# if we cannot hear we will not
understand. 4ater on we must help our pupils de"elop their aural understanding abilities.
'f we want our pupils to be efficient listeners in &nglish we must gi"e them enough practice in both
intensi"e and extensi"e listening. 'ntensi"e listening is closer to ear1training. 'f we feel that our pupils
are not producing satisfactorily a certain sound or they ha"e not encountered it yet# we can get them to
listen carefully for the sound in a gi"en passage# as a first step towards imitation# then production of
the sound. This is called intensi"e listening.
7nn the other hand# we may be aware that our pupils cannot understand ordinatry &nglish of the type
that is used in our coursebook tape. 'n this case a more general familiaritty with the lexis and grammar
of the listening texts is required so we must prepare aural lessons which will not focus on a sound or
two but on general features of the style of sicourse materials. This is called extensi"e listening.
&FF&%T'V& 4'*T&='=N
4anguage comprehension is generally seen as part of an interacti"e process arising from the complex
interplay of the three main dimensions of interaction9 the social# the cogniti"e and the linguistic.
*tudies of young learnersRcomprehension skills show that many aspects of listening are mastered at an
early age# particularly in supporti"e# con"ersational contexts where social skills are highlighted.
3owe"er# when the listening focus in"ol"es more demanding cogniti"e skills# such as processing
information or monitoring the adequacy of a message# children frequently encounter problems.
<any authors currently take the "iew that there are se"eral parallels between the processes in"ol"ed in
4- acquisition and 4/ learning. 't is felt that children ha"e the ability to transfer some of the skills and
strategies in their 4- acquisition to second language learning. The kinds of information source used in
comprehension can be summarised under two main headings9
a. knowledge about the content of the spoken message
1 general knowledge to do with facts and information
1 sociocultural knowledge to do with topics# settings and participants in interaction
1 procedural knowledge about how language is used# for example# knowing that
questions generally demand responses
b. knowledge about the language used in the spoken message
1 recognition of items of "ocabulary and sentence patterns
1 understanding of phonological features such as stress# intonation and sounds
The role of the teacher is to encourage children to draw upon different information sources# skills and
strategies in order to learn how to help themsel"es understand. 7nce the teachers are aware of these processes#
they will be able to include in their planning interacti"e or specific listening tasks focusing on one or more of
these strategies. *ix types of strategy are gi"en below# described in the context of listening to a story9
-. Netting the general picture9 this strategy is used when children are being encouraged to listen to a
story simply for pleasure. 'n this case the learners do not attempt to focus their attention in or
remember details but to listen for gist to get a general idea of what the story is about
/. +redicting9 this strategy is useful when children are trying to follow the sequence of e"ents in a
story. 'f the children are moti"ated and ha"e some support for their understanding# they can be
encouraged first to predict and then to check whether what they hear matches their expectation.
This is an example of a learning context where knowledge of the language system and general
knoowledge based on pre"ious experience of 4- stories work together to facilitate comprehension
8. &xtracting specific information9 the focus here is on recognising specific components of the
language system# such as selecting rele"ant ad:ecti"es to describe particular characters in a story to
fill in a tick1chart or recognising specific "erbs and nouns when matching pictures with e"ents in a
story. 'f the aim of the acti"ity is listening comprehension rather than memory testing# for this
strategy to work the learners need to know what kind of information to listen out for. The support
materials (pictures and charts) help the learner distinguish rele"ant from irrele"ant parts of the
6. 'nferring opinion or attitude9 an awareness of stress and intonation# combined with knowledge of
lexical items and grammatical patterns# enables the learner to determine whether a character is
happy# angry or sad and therefore to work our some of the context of the story
A. $orking out meaning from context9 it must be made clear to children learning &nglish that they
will not be able or expected to understand e"ery word in a story. Thus the teacher needs to de"elop
their confidence in facing texts with new "ocabulary. Key words may be glossed beforehand while
"isual support or written framewords (charts# for instance) will help the learners understand detail.
*ome learners might be able to draw upon their knowledge of the langauge system.
5. ,ecognising discourse patterns and markers9 e"ery story will ha"e certain story1tellinng
con"entions# for example an introduction beginning# 0<any years ago there was a wicked
witch[2 The recognition of discourse markers used in logical relationships# as well as the use of
appropriate intonation# will help learners to work out some of the storyline.
T3& 4'*T&='=N %4!**
't is important to make a distinction between the teaching and testing of listening. The practice of
asking the childrren to listen to something with no support other than questions to answer after
listeniing has many drawbacks. 't concentrates too much on the testing of comprehension or memory
rather than encouraging children to de"elop strategies to coping with the spoken message. This kind of
methodology tends to o"erload the childRs capacity for porcessing and retaining information. Thus the
emphasis is placed on assessing what the children ha"e understood rather than in supporting their
understanding so that they can show that they ha"e understood.
't is only when teachers direct the childrenRs attention to the pupose of the listening task beforehand
and procde a suitable framework for pro"iding acees to the spoken message that they can be said to be
teaching listening. +ossible frameworks to be used can take the form of pictures# charts or questions
which aim to create interest and supply moti"ation and support for the successful completion of the
task. This kind of methodology reflects the "iew that the listening process is a form of interaction
between the listener and the text. The meanings which learners construct in this interacti"e process
depend on the one hand on their 0set2 to the text and on the other hand on the content and the language
contained in the ttext. The 0set2 can be described in terms of what the learner brings to the text# that is#
the schematic knowledte described earlier such as background knowledge and feelings# attitudes or
interest. The content of the text will of course draw upon linguistic items such as "ocabulary and
grammar as well as discourse geatures such as refference# lexical relations# logical connectors and
intonation. The linguistic content may ser"e to refer to e"ents# people# animals# places# ob:ects#
feelings# attributes# concpets and so forth. $ith the help of the teacher# who creates a context and a
purpose for liistening# the focus of the comprehension acti"ity can be on any of these aspects.
The teaching of comprehension is said to ha"e three phases9 pre1# while1 and post1 listening acti"ities.
The first stage is an introduction or orientation to the text during which the teacher might elicit what
the children already know about a topic by asking them questions# or create interest by relating aspects
of the content to the childrenRs own experiences.
The second stage in"ol"es an explanation of the pupose of the listening task so that the children are
quite clear what their role is and whether they need to focus on specific aspects of the text. The
purpose mau be simply to listen and en:oy a story# song or rhyme in which case they can participate if
the teacher wishes. 'f the listening purpose is to extract specific information it is at this point that the
teacher will explain the task and refer to any "isual or written support heEshe has planned. The learners
will then listen to the text# which may be pre1recorded or spoken by the teahcer or another child# and
complete the acti"ity.
The stage after this is then concerned with checking information by asking questions (oral or written)
or by asking for feedback on any other outcomes the learners may ha"e produced# such as completing
a game# finding the correct sequence of e"ents or drawing and labelling a picture.
T3& ,74& 7F T3& T&!%3&,
't requires patience# imagination and skill to create an interesting en"ironment for young learners to
de"elop confidence in listening. The teacherRs role is this respect is fourfold9
-. +lanning for listening
/. choosing appropriate texts and tasks9
8. +ro"iding support
6. "arying the learning context
4istening and speaking tasks should always be properly introduced9 the context of the text and the task
in"ol"ed needs to be clear to the students before they start an exrecise. Teachers should beware of setting
artificially high standards of correctness. &xperienced teachers accept different degreees of "ariation from the
0perfect2 model. !dditioanlly# there are teachers who use 0teacher talk2 at certain moments of the lesson.
0Teacher talk2 is using a "ery simplified "ersion of the target language so that the students can understand
better. There is no harm in doing this# as long as studnets also recei"e natural language input as well. ! teacher
might use 0teacher talk2 when presenting a langauge item) an unnaturally slow pronunciation would help the
students to identify the sounds better. 3owe"er# during the de"elopment session# oral drills practice should be
done using natural speech patterns.
!s for fluency and accuracy# the listening and speaking skills should be approached from both of these
perspecti"es9 there are moments in the lesson when accuracy is imperati"e. For example# when a language item
is presented# accuracy is of the utmost importance) it is equally important during oral drills sessions. 3owe"er#
during productiooon# especially during free pair work and groups work acti"ities# practice for fluency is
preferable. The teacheer can monitor the production of the studnets# noting language weakness which need to be
dealt with in subsequent class sessions.
4istening entails the following aspects9 guessing the meaning of unknownn "ocabulary) folowing the main
ideas of something spoken using natural speeach) summari(ing a speakerRs intention) recogni(ing style and
register differences) identifying the structures of a spoken statement) making inferences) formulating a
personaly opiniionn about a text) formulating an intellectual attitude and an emotional attitude towards a text)
taking notes while listening to a speech) identifying the amin phonological aspects of the &nglish language
("owels# dipthongs# tripthongs# consonants# rhythm# stress# intonaation# word :unction)) comparing pre1
kowledege with what is being said) the speakerRs intention) the speakerRs attitude) phonological aspects.
*peaking entails the following aspects9 formal and informal manner) preparing and gi"ing oral reports)
asking and answering questions (inter"iews)) telling a story and expanding narrati"es) connecting sentences)
di"iding speech into paragraphs and main ideas) constrciting dialogues) making correclty formed declarati"e
and interrogati"e statements) interpreting a picture story) summari(ing a peech hard using notes taken)
paraphrase what another person has ssaid) tell a story (in"ented or retold).
*peech uses phatic substance and writing# graphic substance. *peech is considered to be part of an
interaction which both participants are present and the speaker has a specific address in mind. 7n the
other hand# in written language the producer is distant from the recei"er and sometimes e"en do not know
who the recei"er is. $hile speech is time1bound and dynamic# writing is space1bound and static.
*o writing allows repeated reading and close analysis. 't needs careful organisation and structured
expression. *ome words must be a"oided when the meaning relies on the situation.
!mbiguity must also be minimised in writing# as there is no possibility of asking for immediate
*ome constructions might be fond only in writing (formal) and others# in speech (slang# swear words# [)
There are many different methods to teach reading9
• P7&n$) approaches try to identify the regular soundEletter relationship. +ermitted "ocabulary is
• G1&5a1 approaches try to recognise indi"idual words as wholes without breaking them into constituent
letters or sounds. 't is based on meaning.
=owadays there are some mixed schemes# integrating the strength of each.
Fluent reading needs some strategies9
• ,apid and selecti"e techniques (scanning)
• *ilent techniques (skimming)
For writing is necessary to acquire the motor skill of sequencing letters# using different shapes and si(es#
word spaces# spaces between lines# margins# etc. ut writing is more than that automatic exercise# it is the
ability to use the structures of the language in an appropriate and mature way.
There are different stages of writing acquisition9
a. asic motor skill and principles of spelling system are de"eloped.
b. Tsing the writing system to express what they can already say in speech.
c. $riting and speech split up# and writing de"elop its own pattern and organisation.
d. $riters can make stylistic choices and de"elop a personal way of expressing.
,eading is to distinguish the meaning of a chain of words in a text# quite quickly.
&nglish spelling is different from sounds# so words and structures must be worked first in an oral way.
efore reading# children must know most of "ocabulary structures and ha"e some knowledge about the
topic# culture and situation.
R!a"$ng %!)[email protected]!'
%hildren need some techniques in order to get the maximum information from a text with the minimum of
• &xtensi"e reading9 getting a global picture# a clear idea of the o"erall meaning of the text (skimming)
• 'ntensi"e reading9 paying attention to the details# getting particular points (scanning)
• 3a"ing an interpretation of the text based on reader’s own experience.
• Nuessing many unknown words by simply studying the context.
• +redicting what they are going to read next# recognising discourse linkers (although# but#[)
• 'nferring opinion and attitude# based on the recognition of linguistic style and appropriate purposes.
!fter reading comprehension learners must interpret the text9
• +icking the author’s intention
• @istinguishing facts and opinions
• Finding relations with personal experience.
R!a"$ng a)%$,$%$!' B%72!! '%ag!'C
• P2!:2!a"$ng tasks9 to familiarise with the topic. 4ooking at pre"ious knowledge. 't is necessary to
create expectations in order to increase their interest. They will read to confirm expectations and that
is moti"ating. (describing photographs or co"ers of the text# informal dialogues about the topic#
prediction of the content# gi"ing a tittle# [)
• /7$1!:2!a"$ng tasks9
• S0$++$ng9 reading a text to get the gist of it (suggesting the tittle of the passage#
matching text tittles with series of short texts#[)
• S)ann$ng9 extracting specific information from the text (underlining information
required# completing an information form# classifying under different headings# tick in a
list of ob:ects already read# [)
• C&+5$n$ng both# skimming and scanning (answering questions# describing main
characters physical and emotionally# completing a drawing# anticipate actions#[)
• <aking $n#!2!n)!'9 recognising opinion and attitudes (questions of possible
• P&'%:2!a"$ng tasks9 the main aim of these acti"ities is to internalise the language of the text
(crossword# drawing comics# role play# carry out a sur"ey# summarise# change the end# continuing the
story# preparing a similar text# boarding games#[)
Traditional methods used writing to fix linguistic forms in memory. There was no intention to teach the
learner to express anything of himself through the new language.
=owadays we need to identify the needs of communication of our pupils. 7ur pupils will spend most time
completing tightly controlled written exercises. *ometimes they might be encouraging to produce free
$riting needs some a5$1$%$!'9
• G2a-7$)a1 &2 ,$'a1 skills9 includes spelling# punctuation# capitalisation and format.
• G2a++a%$)a1 skills9 to use successfully a "ariety of sentence patterns.
• S%81$'%$) or !=-2!''$,! skills9 to express precise meanings in a "ariety of styles and registers.
• R7!%&2$)a1 skills9 cohesion and links of parts of the text into logical sequence.
• O2gan$'a%$&na1 skills9 sequencing the ideas# summarising rele"ant points and re:ecting irrele"ant
$riting acti"ities might be these ones9
• For -2a)%$)!9
• <aking lists# personal "ocabulary
• %ompleting crosswords
• <atching labels to pictures
• %lassifying words under headings
• $riting speech bubbles for cartoons
• &xplaining sur"eys or questionnaires
• %orrecting mistakes
• %opying sentences that ha"e been matched
• !nswering questions
• For )&++n$)a%$&n9
• $riting games (descriptions of famous people)
• &xchanging letters (playing a role)
• *tory construction (small pieces of paper)
• $riting reports and ad"ertisements)
%orrection of written work can be done by both# teacher and pupil. The teacher must show positi"e
aspects# showing the pupil where the work was effecti"e and where it was not.
The teacher can underline the error and write in the margin the type of error it is9 concordance# wrong
word order# unclear meaning# [
'n this unit# ' am going to explain the reading1writing process.
'n first place# ' will explain some aspects of this process in general# the relationship that
exists between both of them and how can be de"elop this process in order to acquire the
&nglish language.
'n the last part of the unit# ' will explain both skills# reading and writing. 'n addition# all its
features like the importance of the authentic or non1authentic material which is used to do
the exercises.
!nother important aspect that ' am going to be in mind in the last part is the techniques
and acti"ities# which can be carry out in class to impro"e both skills.
'n the first part of the unit# ' am going to explain the relationship that exists between the
reading and writing skills. oth terms are narrowing linked because these skills are present
from the first stages in the approach of the foreign language. The language is firstly heard
and then it is read.
R!a"$ng# is an important skill# which can contribute to the accomplishment of a language
in posterior stages. This skill can be useful in order to achie"e "ocabulary# or it can be a
moti"e to read for pleasure. ;he additional lecture# which is read in a "oluntary way# offers
the opportunity to learn in an unconscious way aspects like culture from the foreign
language. The main ad"antage of the reading for the students is that it impro"es their
general &nglish le"el. $e ha"e as teachers to encourage the complementary readings#
which has to be chose by the students.
$e ha"e to realise that# when we are going to teach a language in the first stages# our
students do not ha"e knowledge about grammar or syntax. @ue to that# the teacher will be
the guide in the learning. Teachers will ha"e to use some strategies like the comment of the
illustrations# the chose of easy situations[ 'n the first stages# it would be ad"isable direct
to our students with patters# which has the same structure.
'n order %& $+-2&,! %7! 2!a"$ng:62$%$ng -2&)!'', we can use a great "ariety of acti"ities
and techniques. 't is ob"ious that we ha"e to start from easy to texts that are more complex.
$e will try to offer to the students short tales with familiar situations related to their daily
life# alternating with fantastic stories like ad"entures with monsters.
'n class we have to e+ploit the illustrations, because they are "ery important in order to
understand the context of the situation. 'n a great "ariety of acti"ities# the introduction of
the teacher will help the students to understand the aim of the acti"ity.
Then# the teacher can ask some questions to check if they ha"e understood what is pretend
in the acti"ity. !fter that# we can do the reading. 'n the first curses# the texts are read aloud
to continue to silent reading# and later# to the summaries. Then# we can do the
comprehension exercise9
- questions made !y the teacher# from open to more close answers#
- judgements made !y the teacher# which can be true or false and
- summaries of te+ts using synonymous and paraphrases of a text.
't is ad"isable that# whene"er possible# the teacher relates the current situations that is carry out to more
familiar situations.
'n more ad"anced le"els we can use9
- charts#
- questionnaires and surveys where the ob:ect is to inter"iew a classmate# for example
according to their likes# dislikes# preferences#
- role4plays9 these acti"ities are connected with dialogues and performances. The students
are appointed a certain role and they must ask according to it.
'n these ad"anced le"els# it would be ad"isable9
- the use of the dictionary and
- the preparation of their own "ocabulary in personal dictionaries.
'n the last cycle is ad"isable that the students try to infer the meaning from the context.
=ow# it is time to discuss the reading comprehension. R!a"$ng in the foreign language
must start from the first year when the language is studied.
"e have to interact with the te+t in order to understand the message# e"en where the text contains
language which the students are not able to produce.
7ne aspect of reading that concerns many teachers# is the difference between authentic
and non4authentic te+ts.
T7! a%7!n%$) %!=%s are designed for nati"e speakers# not for language students. This kind
of material can be newspapers# ad"ertisements or radio1programmes.
A n&n:a%7!n%$) %!=% in language teaching terms is one that has been written especially for
language students. *uch texts sometimes concentrate on the language they wish to teach. 'n
these texts appear some particular grammatical structures# "ocabulary or some particular
$hen teachers choose the right kind of material and the students are successful# then the
benefits are ob"ious. $hat we need# therefore# are texts where the students can understand
the general meaning of# whether they are truly authentic or not.
;he jo! of the teacher is to train the students in a number of skills which they will need for
the understanding of reading and listening texts. These skills can be di"ide into two groups.
a) T8-! &n! '0$11', are those operations that students perform on a text when they tackle
(enfrentar) it for the first time. The first thing the students are asked to do with a text
concerns it treatment as a whole.
Thus# students may be asked to look at a text and extract specific information. They
might read or listen to perform a task to confirm or check expectations they ha"e about
a text. T8-! 1 '0$11' a2!:
- .redictive skills9 efficient readers or listeners predict what they are going to
read and hear.
- 0+tracting specific information9 students ha"e to focus on the specific
information they are searching for. This skill# when is applied to reading is
called 0scanning2.
- -etting the general idea* we often read or listen to things because we want to
0get the general idea2. $hen applied to reading this skill is often called
b) T8-! ( '0$11' are those that are subsequently used when studying reading or listening
material and they in"ol"ed detailed comprehension of the text.
They are practised after type - skills ha"e been worked on. T7!8 a2!9
- 0+tracting detailed information like9 what does the writer mean; $hat
precisely is the speaker trying to say; 3ow many[;
- /ecognising functions and discourse pattern. To recognise some discourse
markers are an important part of understanding how a text is constructed. $e
need to make students aware of these features in order to help them to become
more efficient.
- 6educing meaning from conte+t.
't is con"enient that in class# the student gets used to e+tensive and intensive reading.
F&2 %7! $n%!n'$,! 2!a"$ng'# the students will work with short texts# from which they
understand basically all the words.
In %7! !=%!n'$,! 2!a"$ng, students make the effort to understand the message using all
kind the strategies. These are some ideas of reading acti"ities9
- PRE QUESTION9 ! question is gi"en before reading# to find out a piece of central
- DO IT YOURSELF QUESTIONS9 *tudents compose and answer their own question.
- PROVIDE A TITTLE9 *tudents can suggest an alternati"e tittle.
- SUMMARISE9 *tudents summarise the content in two or three sentences.
- CONTINUE T3E TEXT9 4earners suggest what might happen next in a text.
- PREFACE9 4earners suggest what might happen before.
- GAPPED TEXTS9 Naps are left which can only be filled in if the texts ha"e been
- MISTA.ES IN T3E TEXTS9 Towards the end of a text# there can be some mistakes.
*tudents ha"e to know in ad"ance how many mistakes there are in the text.
- COMPARISON9 There are two texts on similar topics# students note points of
similarity or difference.
- RESPONDING9 The text is a letter or a pro"ocati"e article and the students discuss
how to respond to the letter or write an answer to the article.
- RE:PRESENTATION OF CONTENT9 The text gi"es information and students
represent its content through different graphics mediums.
'n the last part of the unit# ' am going to explain the written expression. Frequently# writing
is relegated to the status of homework. This is a pity since writing# especially
communicati"e writing# can play a "aluable part in the class.
,eading has a notable influence in the writing expression# the more we read the !etter we
write. 't can be said that# there is a better le"el in the written expression in those students
who use a more "ariety of written texts in their daily life.
$hen we are going to -1ann$ng %7! 62$%%!n a)%$,$%$!'# we ha"e to consider the following
a) #onte+tuali3ation9 when we write a message in real life# we always do it within a
context or situation# because who writes presupposes certain aspects determined by the
situation. $e ha"e to be in mind aspects like the type of the register.
b) 'im9 writing has always a purpose# according to this# there will be determined the
expressions# "ocabulary# etc. The purpose has to ha"e a meaning for the student. @ue to
that# the students need to know different kind of writings and practise them in order to
connect with the possible reader.
c) #reativity9 it seems con"enient to pro"ide the student with occasions where they can
create their own texts and feel that it is the product of their will and personal effort.
d) &otivation9 the essential ob:ecti"e in language production is to pro"ide the student with
moti"ation to learn. 'f the acti"ities are moti"ating# the students will feel an inner
satisfaction to learn# to communicate with others and carry a task they like.
e) Integration9 in a communicati"e approach of writing# it is necessary the integration with
other skills which contributes to se"eral purposes9
- allows the practise of the some linguistic or functional contexts in the same skills#
- de"elop two or more linguistic skills within the same context and
- approximates the use of the language to the real world.
! recepti"e or an oral acti"ity can precede the writing acti"ity.
The %8-!' &# 62$%$ng' can be di"ided in two groups9
- .ersonal te+ts*
♦ for personal use9 shopping lists# dates# recipes
♦ direct to other people9 messages# letters# in"itations[
- Institutional writings* commercial letters# information request# maga(ines[
!nother kind of di"ision can be9
a) !cti"ities where it is only necessary to copy a written text.
b) !cti"ities designed to encourage student’s creati"ity.
To practice handwriting# spelling and new "ocabulary at word le"el we can9
a) <ake lists.
b) <ake personal dictionaries.
c) %ompleting crosswords.
d) %lassifying words under headings.
'n addition# under the sentence le"el students can9
a) $rite tittles for pictures.
b) $rite speech bubbles for cartoons.
c) <atching hal"es of sentences and copying.
d) *equencing sentences and copying.
e) %orrecting mistakes in written sentences.
f) !nswering questions.
There are a lot of %!)[email protected]!' %& 7!1- '%"!n%' %& "!,!1&- %7!$2 62$%$ng !=-2!''$&n# from
the "ery controlled expression to the free writing. *ome techniques are9
- "riting guides with model and visual stimulus (description of a person). $e can use
photographs# drawings# maga(ines[
- "riting guides from a stimulus. Transferring information from the oral to the written
language# (the elaboration of questionnaires can be an example).
- "riting guided !y the esta!lishment of a situation and give instructions to write a te+t.
4ea"ing or taking messages can be an example.
- )ree writing# in order to de"elop the student’s imagination (creation of no"els# short
tales# stories# diaries about the &nglish class[).
- 6iaries can be interesting for the teacher. Thus# the teacher can obtain interesting data
about the student’s attitude.

 In%2&")%$&n
 The written foreign language9 aproximation# maturation# and impro"ement
 The reading comprehension
 The written expression
 %onclusion
!s a way of introduction is worth considering that the efecti"eness in the use of a
language requires we ha"e different skills# which are# called 0linguistic skills2.
$e can find two kind of skills. 7n one hand# the skills which are acquired by means
of oral interaction# listening and speaking# and on the other hand# the skills acquired by
means of "isual interaction# reading and writing.
'f we want to achie"e a communicati"e competence among our students# we must
work simustaneously the four skills.
'n relation to the written foreign language we ha"e to bear in mind we can find three
different styles according to writing purpose) the expresi"e style focuses on the expression
of the writerRs personal feelings) the trasactional style focuses on logical statements and the
poetic style which expresses imaginati"e experiences. 'n the same way# we can find a serie
of stages in writing. TheyRll be the preparatory stage where principles of the spelling
system are acquired) the consolidation stage in which children begin to use the writing
system to express what they can say in speech) the differenciation stage where the students
di"erge from speech and de"elop their own and finally# the integration stage where they
ha"e a good command of language and they can "ary their stylistic choices.
!long the +rimary &ducation we pretend students get basical necessities of written
language. <oreo"er# they must be able to answer in usual situations of written language#
they must express communicati"e intentions and recogni(e the characteristics in each
!s for the approach to reading1writing it is con"enient to begin to de"elop the
reading1writing capacity of the foreign language through simple and superfluous texts#
descriptions and brief narrations# class instructions# children and popular songs# tales
encouraging the pleasure to interpret the written texts and en:oy with the reading.
The reading allows the gradual addition of "ocabulary and the moti"ation for second
language learning.
*ome methods present a book for additional lecture. 'f the student reads texts
spontaneously and in a "oluntary way# the success will be complete# as the readings will
also gi"e him the opportunity to know and assimilate easily the culture from the foreign
!t the beginning# the contexts of the new lessons must be easy) in this stage# the
reading will be confined# most of the time# to repeat words and structures seen in the lesson
(in class)# offering new combinations# "isual help as pictures# etc. The teacher will read
aloud se"eral times and heRll ask them questions in order to answer yes or no.
!s for maturing of the reading1writing process we ha"e to take into account as the
course ad"ances# the reading1writing exercises will be# logically# more complex. TheyRll
ser"e to assimilate the structures we ha"e :ust seen and re"iew the pre"ious ones.
The procedure to follow could be based on an introduction of the teacher where the
students obser"e a picture# the teacher asks them some questions and then he relates the
text to other situations. The next step will be listening and reading the text and finally weRll
present a comprehension exercise using questions which can be open# that is# the answer
expected can change# or close where the expected answer is yes or no.
Teacher9 $here did mummy put the cake;
*tudent9 7n the cupboard.
Teacher9 's the cupboard small;
*tudent9 =o# itRs big.
,eaching this point# the student is able to interpret a complementary text. $e’ll try
to offer the student short tales with familiar situations# related to their daily li"es#
alternating with fantastic stories in order to get the success and arise the studentRs interest.
$e can work out different types of acti"ities9 in class# the teacher will comment
superficially the plot and then he will read the text) the first texts are read aloud# to
continue gradually to silent reading and later to the summaries or brief written
!fter the reading# the teacher suggests a series of :udgements that will ha"e to be
determined as true or false.
$e can propose different endings or return to writing the text but under another
point of "iew# composition of a text whose sentences appear disarranged# etc.
$e are going to continue with the impro"ement of the reading1writing process. $e
ha"e to consider the texts will present a greater difficulty# they may be more long extended
and# in some occasions# without pictures.
$hen finishing these readings# a simple comment will help understand and place the
text. $eRll elaborate in class a summary# we can di"ide the text in parts with subtitles# the
students can answer questions and they can explain their personal opinions about the
central idea.
7n the other hand# we can use complementary readings. The additional text will
consist on a reading already chosen by the student# although we can pro"ide him with
comics# series of cartoons# maga(ines# etc.
The traditional tales and the easy poems are a good source of reading materials.
=ow that the possibilities of the students reading1writing are better# it is ad"isable
the use of the dictionary# the preparation of their own "ocabulary and the elaboration of his
own notebook where he can register in alphabetical order.
'n relation to reading comprehension we ha"e to bear in mind that the reading
capacity of the students from +rimary &ducation# starts to acquire a more systematic
characteristic. 'tRs con"enient the student gets used to extensi"e and intensi"e reading.
For the intensi"e reading# the student will work with short texts# from which he will
understand basically all the words (labels# ad"ertisements# letters from friends# etc.).
'n the extensi"e reading# the student will make the effort to understand the messages
although he may not known the meaning of some words. 'n this case# he can ask for the
teacherRs help# other classmates# basic bilingual dictionaries and other communication
strategies (inference by the context# similarity with the mother tongue...).
'n the foreuign language class we can practise acti"ities of different kind focused on
global or specific comprehension.
!t first# the short of games proposed will be in relation with with what the student
already knows in his mother tongue so he can infer from his pre"ious experience the sense
of formal or referntial elements (headings# presentation...) which allow him to formulate
hypothesis about the content.
$e can work out a great number of clues which help the comprehension as
photographs# charts# pictures# presentation of the text# the headings# words in the text
which are repeated# familiar words# ask the students questions9 $ho; $hen; 3ow;
The age to start reading must start from the first year when the language is studied
(from the beginning).
The techniques will be suitable to the studentRs le"el# the complexity will "ary as he
is acquiring more knowledge and promoting to new courses. Firstly# they’ll read short
sentences and later theyRll achie"e the interpretation of a brief and simple text.
$e can find a serie of ad"antages in reading# which consists# ha"e learn other
cultures# re"iew structures and "ocabulary and a better1written expression.
'n the same way# we must distinguish three types of pupils. Those who find difficult
to get a global idea# those who donRt pay attention to details (quick reading) and those who
are imaginati"e readers because they interpret the text as they like.
!s result# we ha"e to be careful with the texts we choose. $e ha"e to adapt the
readings to the group and the indi"iduals.
'n relation to the techniques for the global comprehension# skimming# we ha"e to
consider that it can be achie"ed using the following strategies or techniques9
- The student relies on the clues pre"iously mentioned who writes; $hen;
$here; $hy;
- The text will be adpated to the studentRs le"el.
- %omprehension of the main idea in the text being neccessary to make student
understand that is perfectly possible to understand the main idea without knowing all
the words completely. =ouns and "erbs ha"e more important meaning than other words.
- @educe the neaning of unknown words from the context.
- ,egister the "ocabulary in a notebook.
- 4ook up words in the dictionary.
- 'dentify relations between sentences by connectors.
- ,ecognise discourse patterns (con:uctions# etc.)
!s examples we can include reading based on the inference system# reading carried
out by the teacher in aloud "oice# reading made by the students in class# reading aloud and
normal reading.
!s for the techniques for specific text comprehension# scanning# weRll take into
account reading performs by the teacher in aloud "oice where the students ha"e the text
and repeat it. !lso# they can infer# deduce a specific information by means of clues#
questions# etc.
The students reading in class aloud would be another strategie pro"ided them with
narrati"e or descripti"e passages or short poems) reading at home as an en:oyable acti"ity#
not as a school task. !d"ertising will be interesting at the time of finding specific
information. The teacher could bring a written example# preferably original and with
drawings or colour photos.
The scanning is a technique related to the speed in reading and in"ol"es the
attainment of information by means of searching words or key propositions. 'tRs a "ery
producti"e exercises where the student answers questions reading the text "ery quickly.
Finally# it is important to point out that although there are different techniqes for the
global and for the specific comprehension of texts# both will ha"e to be always together or
integrate in order to achie"e a better acquisition of the foreign language.
$e are going to continue with the written expression. Firstly we are going to expone
a serie of writing skills "isual or graphical as spelling# punctuation and capitali(ation)
grammatical as sentence pattern and constructions) expresi"e using different styles)
rethorical in order to link parts of the text into logical related sentences) organisational
re:ecting irrele"ant information or summari(ing rele"ant points and finally the fact of
knowing formal structures.
!lso itRs important to emphasi(e that the more we read the better we write.
Krashem de"elops the hypothesis that the written skill is acquired in the same way
as the speaking skill. The student would request a gi"en language# comprehensi"e input# in
a quantity enough to de"elop his capacity. This input should be accomplished for pleasure
and interest# so his attention would be focused on the message or content and not on the
form how the message is expressed.
$e ha"e to follow a serie of criteria for planning acti"ities of written expression# which consists of
contextuali(ation# because when we write a message in real life# we always do it within a context or situation.
The place where the written acti"ity is generated may be as well a determinant element of it. 'f this takes place
in a relaxed atmosphere# the result will be "ery different that the outcome obtained in an examination
!n another criterion is the aim# that is# writing has always a purpose which
determine the expressions# "ocabulary# etc.
The type of register is also important according to descriptions# informal or formal
letters# etc.
The creati"ity since when we write we elaborate ideas trying to express the contents
by means of words or sentences. 'tRs important to pro"ide the student with occasions where
he can create his own language and feel that it is the product of his effort. $e suggest the
importance of programming acti"ities# where the student writes spontaneously short
messages or informal notes in the target language# weRll select sub:ects about which the
students ha"e read or had a personal experience and therefore are interesting for him.
'tRs interesting the reasoning of the writers and the integration with other skills in
order to aproximate the use of the language to the real world# de"elop two or more
linguistic skills within the same context so the students aware of the written text# the
resources to achie"e# the con"entions of personal or institutional writings# headings#
address# greetings#etc.
The last criteria we are going to comment is to pro"ide the student with a moti"ation
to learn.
$e can de"elop two kind of moti"ation# intrinsic and extrinsic. 'f the acti"ities are
moti"ating# the student will feel satisfaction to learn# to communicate with others and carry
out a task he likes.
'n relation to the step from interpretation to text production we are going to consider
some acti"ities or preparatory techniques as well as techniques of written expression.
Firstly we ha"e to bear in mind we can find two main kind of writings. 7n one hand
the personal writings for personal use which appear reflected in shopping lists# telephones
and adresses# dates# reading books# recipes# etc. 7r directed to other people (messages#
in"itations# letters# postcards# etc.)
7n the other hand# the institutional or public writings that are found in daily life9
commercial letters# biographies# posters# songs# pu((les# crosswords# games# compositions#
The preparatory techniques are related to the de"elopment of reading
comprehension. $e may emphasi(e the inference technique of the meaning of a word in
the context# or the ones guessing the meaning of unknown words and the meanings implicit
in the text# and the techniques of predicting the content of a text from the knowledge of
one of its parts.
'n the first place# the students are pro"ided with a text where there are a key word
missing. $e ask them to pay attention to the context surrounding this word ("ocabulary#
structures# idioms# etc.) to infer the meaning. 'n pairs or small group# the students try to
guess which word it is.
7ther technique is the 0linguistic reflection2# which help the student to percei"e
specific aspects from the text.
4ater# the students can write letters to the students from another class or formal letter
to tra"el agencies. The next acti"ity is based on 0braimstorming2 and helps the student to
remember and learn the "ocabulary necessary to de"elop a sub:ect.
The students are asked to say the words they can think about a topic and later they
will write a composition using the "ocabulary noted down.
!fter the preparatory techniques# we suggest techniques to help students to de"elop
their written expression# so the task they carry out will be attracti"e and easy. These will
"ary from the "ery controlled to the free writing. 'n most of the acti"ities the student is
encouraged to write his own communicati"e text with his experiences# interests# feelings#
etc to a possible reader.
$e can work out acti"ities following a model where we can present an illustrati"e
drawing as orientation and stimulus# transferring information acti"ities as elaboration of
questionaires# acti"ities from a situation and gi"en instructions to write a text# acti"ities
without specific support (creation of tales# short no"els# writing diaries# etc.).
!s conclusion of the topic we consider "ery important students feel the interest and
curiosity towards the written text as well as the capacity to elaborate them.
The bibliography used has been9
- ello y otros. @idGctica de las segundas lenguas. !ula UU' &d. *antillana.
<adrid. -..D
- 3armer. The practice of &nglish 4anguage Teaching. 4ongman. urnt <ill.
- yrne. Teaching writing skills. 4ongman. urnt <ill. -.??
- $hite# ,. +rocess $riting. 4ongman. 4ondon. -..-
- %a:as ,o:as
Sistema fonológico de la lengua inglesa II: Acento, ritmo y entonación. Comaración con
el sistema fonológico de la lengua o lenguas oficiales de la Comunidad Autónoma
!. %&onetics and %&onology
'. %&onemes and Seec& Sounds
(. Stress)R&yt&m and Intonation
!. #egrees of Stress
'. %osition of Stress
(. Stress in t&e Canarian #ialect) Sanis& language
(. R*+T*M
!. ,ea- and Strong .orms
'. Regularity of R&yt&m
(. R&yt&m in t&e Canarian #ialect) Sanis& language
!. .alling Tone
'. Rising Tone
(. .all0rise Tone
/. Rise0fall Tone
1. 2e3el Tone
4. .all5rise Tone

The most noticeable feature of a foreign language is often intonation and rhythm. Some languages
are described as sounding "like music", other languages as being "flat and without melody". If the
pronunciation of individual sounds can be compared with the individual notes in a piece of music, the
intonation can be compared with the melody or tune.
When studying the pronunciation system of a language we differentiate two categories:
• Segmental elements: owel and consonant sounds.
• !rosodic elements: rhythm, stress and intonation.
!. %&onetics and %&onology
%*O"ETICS: is the science that studies the language sounds" how sounds are
produced in general.
%*O"O2O6+: is the study of the sound system in a particular language. It includes
intonation, rhythm, sounds patterns, etc.
'. %&onemes and Seec& Sounds
%*O"EME: is the smallest unit of speech that can change the meaning of a word.
S%EEC* SO$"#: is any unit of sound produced by the speech organs. They are the
muscles and parts of the mouth, which we use to speak.
The Phoneme is also defined as "only in terms of its differences from the other
phonemes in the same language".
#$: Ship sheep
Minimal airs: Such pairs, which differ only in one phoneme.
(. Stress, R&yt&m and Intonation
When dealing with the concepts of Stress, %hythm and Intonation, we should start by
referring to the concept of prominence
• %rominence: is the characteristic in common with all stressed syllables. &our different factors
are important:
a. 'oudness
b. 'ength
c. !itch: is closely related to the fre(uency of vibration of the vocal cords.
d. ) syllable will tend to be prominent if it contains a vowel that is different in (uality from
neighbouring vowels.
• Stress concerns the relative prominence with which one part of a word or a longer utterance
is distinguished from other parts.
• R&yt&m concerns the relative prominence, or pattern of the stresses being perceived as
peaks of prominence, occurring at somewhat regular intervals of time. #nglish is a language
with a tendency for a stress*timed rhythm.
• Intonation is the association of the relative prominence with pitch, the aspect of the sound
which we perceive in terms of "high" or "low".
Ot&er rosodic systems include factors such as tempo and the relative speed of utterance.
%ercetion of t&e r&yt&m 7ase may in3ol3e o7ser3ing 3ariations of loudness, itc& and
We can study stress from the point of view of roduction and of ercetion. The production
of stress is generally believed to depend on the speaker using more muscular energy than is
used for unstressed syllables. +any different sound characteristics are important in making a
syllable recognisably stressed.
In #nglish, stressed syllables are longer then unstressed ones, the vowels are more voiced
within them. Stress is not marked in the spelling system, but it can be transcribed
The importance of stress should be noted, given that incorrect stress on syllables is an
obstacle to communication, because it may lead the speaker to understand a different word,
that follows a different stress pattern.
!. #egrees of Stress
We can distinguish between the primary and secondary stress. The first one is also
called tonic strong stress, while the second one is also called non*tonic strong stress.
#$: ,presup,ose
There are other authors who consider that there e$ist three stresses.
#$: ,many ,lovely ,-girls
'. %osition of Stress
.ormally stresses are in a fi$ed position in a word.
• First syllable: ,precept
• Second syllable: to-night
• Third syllable: engi-neer
• Fourth syllable: misunder-stood
• Fifth syllable: palatali-/ation
a. Native words and early French loans
#$: ,kingly ,kingliness un-kingliness
b. All abstract nouns ending in –ion
#$: ,mission
c. Nouns ending in –ity
#$: ,vacuous va-cuity
d. Nouns and adjectives ending in –ian
#$: ,liberty liber-tarian
e. Adjectives ending in –ic
#$: ,phoneme pho-nemic
f. Words with more than one function
) wide selection of words that can operate e(ually well as nouns0ad1ectives or verbs, are
differentiated by their stress in the two functions:
#$: ,present 2.oun or ad1ective3 pre-sent 2verb3
g. Compound nouns
They are generally stressed on the first element with a secondary stress on the second
element in contrast to the normal noun phrase stress pattern:
#$: ,black ,bird 2compound nouns3 a ,black ,bird 2noun phrase3

h. Stress in phrases
When we come to stress in phrases and other syntactic units, we provide different underlying
relations between 1u$taposed items.
#$: )n ,#nglish ,teacher 2someone who teaches #nglish3
)n ,#nglish ,teacher 2a teacher who is #nglish3
!. Stress in t&e Canarian #ialect) Sanis& language
a. e!ical and secondary stress
The 4anarian speakers should keep in mind the different importance given to the secondary
accent in Spanish as compared with #nglish. The pronunciation of isolated words rarely occurs
in Spanish, it only happens in )dverbs ending in "*mente", and in a few compound adverbs.
#$: s5mplem6nte 7ptico*ac8stico
b. Contrastive secondary stress
The secondary stress occurs in the 4anarian dialect as well, but it is not prominent:
#$: las cuestiones tanto ,interiores como ,e$teriores
)lthough #nglish compounds generally turn into a secondary stress the one which was the
primary in the root, and this secondary stress still keeps a considerable strength" Spanish
moves the stress to the suffi$es:
#$: ,central 0 ,centra-li/e centr9l 0 centrali/9r
) secondary stress does not appear e$cept in the cases where the general rules of Spanish
regulate it.
c. Stress position and "ffect
In two*syllable words both languages have a preference for stressing the syllable before the last"
#nglish tends to stress the antepenultimate syllable in three or more syllables words whereas
Spanish keeps the penult position for stress.
#nglish vowels are deeply affected by their stress, whether primary or secondary. Stressed vowels
have a precise and clear pronunciation, whereas unstressed vowels have a tendency to become
&inally , in Spanish the stress is represented in the spelling, what makes it easier to be remembered
and pronounced , whereas in #nglish it-s not represented.
!. R*+T*M
%hythm may be defined as the regular succession of strong and weak stresses in utterances.
The notion of r&yt&m involves some noticeable event happening at regular intervals of time.
The theory that #nglish has stress0 timed r&yt&m implies that stressed syllables will tend to
occur at relatively regular intervals whether they are separated by unstressed syllables or not.
Some writers have developed theories of #nglish rhythm in which a unit of rhythm, the foot is
used. Some theories of rhythm go further, and point to the fact that some feet are stronger
than others, producing strong*weak patterns.

!. ,ea- and Strong forms
T&e 8ea- form, in which the vowel is pronounced with the schwa vowel, is more
common than the other.
The strong form in which the vowel is pronounced as it is written.
:bviously the use of one or another form may affect the meaning of the utterance.
#$: ,;ane and her ,mother ,-are ,stupid < it is not true that they are not stupid
,;ane ,-and her ,mother are ,stupid < not 1ust one, but both are stupid
Weak forms are a manifestation of stress and rhythm in #nglish, and must not be
avoided in teaching, or the learner will sound unnatural in connected speech.
'. Regularity of R&yt&m
The natural rhythm of #nglish provides roughly e(ual intervals of time between the stressed items.
The prevailing tendency in unstressed syllables and words is to reduce the vowels to the obscure 0 0,
thus we have 0 0 in a great many syllables:
#$: a kilo of potato 0 ,ki:l v p , te t /0
%egularity of rhythm is used for specific pourposes:
a. 4ounting:
#$: ,one, ,two, ,three,..., seventy ,four, seventy ,five
b. Inventory or lists
c. #mphasis:
#$: you should ,always ,look be-fore you ,cross the ,-road

!. R&yt&m in t&e Canarian #ialect) Sanis& language
It is essential in #nglish to have a sentence rhythm, which does not e$ist in Spanish.
In an #nglish sentence certain words which are too close to the initial rhythmic beat lose their le$ical
stress in spite of having le$ical stress. This does not happen in Spanish.
#$: Mary-s younger 7rother wanted fifty chocolate eanuts
In this e$ample we can see the difference with the Spanish stress, in Spanish all the words will be
stressed" however, in #nglish only the syllables in bold type are really stressed, thus favouring
The behaviour of prepositions and con1unctions differs in both languages: they are usually stressed
in #nglish" in Spanish only the preposition "seg8n" is stressed.
Stress also varies in #nglish depending on whether it is used on strong or weak forms of the same
words. There is nothing in Spanish, which resembles the #nglish strong and weak forms so this will
prove difficult for Spanish students.
Intonation is the tune within the sentence that may alter the meaning. =ere the itc& of the
voice plays the most important part. We describe itc& in terms of &ig& and lo8. There is
another necessary condition and that is that a itc& difference must be erceti7le.
Intonation is generally found in se(uences of stressed and unstressed syllables, though it can
be a single word. We call it the tone unit, within which there is the nucleus 9caital
letters:. The first stressed syllable in a tone unit is a onset 2,3, the end will be 2,-3
The rise and fall of pitch throughout is called its intonation contour. #nglish has a number
of intonation patterns which add conventionali/ed meanings to the utterance: (uestion,
statement, surprise, disbelief, sarcasm, teasing. )n important feature of #nglish intonation is
the use of an intonational accent 2and e$tra stress3 to mark the focus of a sentence. .ormally
this focus accent goes on the last ma1or word of the sentence, but it can come earlier in order
emphasi/e one of the earlier words or to contrast it with something else.
#$: She ,told S:+eone--
She ,7oug&t it for a %ARty--
" "
onset nucleus
Tone unit
!. .alling Tone
This is the commonest tone in #nglish affirmative sentences, wh*word (uestion, one
word answers to (uestions, and on words, names, numbers and letters said in
#$: ,What-s the T>+#--
,'[email protected]:.--
'. Rising Tone
It is used to suggest that what is said is not final.
#$: 4ounting: ,?.#-- ,TW?--...
:r because a response is needed 2though not in wh*word (uestion3:
#$: )re you ,=B!py--
:r when two clauses are 1oined together:
#$: When I ,CDT there-- I-ll =>T him--
) (uestion will use a rising tone while the (uestion tag uses the falling tone.
The fall and rise are by far and away the most common of the nuclear tones.
(. .all0rise Intonation
It often occurs in the nucleus of a doubtful condition, but it is particularly common with
the initial adverb:
#$: I-ll- see him if he 4?+#S--
/. Rise0fall Intonation
It e$presses as it does both genuine and assumed warmth, as well as feelings of shock
or surprise.
#$: ,That-s C%D)T--
1. 2e3el Tone
It sometimes used to the e$act predictability of what is to follow:
#$: he @%B.E-- he W?+anised he ,@>#@
4. .all0rise Intonation
It is common in everyday usage:
#$: She looks &>.# to +D--
It is often used with marked focus, the fall coming on the focus item and the rise on the last
le$ical item in the tone unit:
#$: It-s his ,+B.ners that I can-t [email protected] < ,What I don-t '>E# ,- are his F+9nners--
)ll languages have their own intonation patterns. Why is intonation importantF Intonation conveys
both meaning and attitude, so when a non*native speaker gets the intonation wrong, s0he can be
misunderstood or sometimes misinterpreted as sounding rude or demanding when this is not
intended. If a non*native speaker is almost fluent in the #nglish language, intonation is often the
only way in which one can tell that s0he is foreign. +oreover, if a foreign speaker is advanced in
terms of grammar, vocabulary, etc., native speakers will make fewer allowances for intonation
problems than they would with speakers who are obviously at a more elementary level. &or e$ample,
if an advanced level speaker unintentionally sounds rude or demanding, the listeners will assume
that s0he means it.
What can be done to improve intonationF &irst of all students should be aware of the differences
between their intonation and the #nglish one:
• Spanish intonation is much more measured, so we have to teach the students how to intonate
the different #nglish elements.
• Intonation in Spoken Spanish does not rise and fall as much as #nglish. Students should try
and keep the voice as levelled as possible.
Some useful techni(ues may be :
• 'isten to as much spoken #nglish as possible 2on cassette if you are unable to listen to native
speakers3 and be aware of where the voice rises and falls. When you listen, try to consider
the attitude and feelings being conveyed. :ne word, for e$ample, can be said in several
different ways, depending on the meaning you wish to convey.
• Stories motivate children to listen and learn, and help them to become aware of the sound
and feel of #nglish. ) selection of ready*to*tell stories is included although the activities can
be used with any story.
• 4reating @rama with poetry is an e$citing language learning e$perience. The use of poetry as
drama in the #nglish as a second language 2#S'3 classroom enables the students to e$plore
the linguistic and conceptual aspects of the written te$t without concentrating on the
mechanics of language. Through this techni(ue, apart from several other aspects the teacher
can model student-s pronunciation, intonation, stress, rhythm, and oral e$pression"
We as teachers have to take into account all the differences e$isting between 'G and 'H patterns of
stress, rhythm and intonation, and try our students to differentiate them. So #nglish people can
understand their speaking.

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&=T7=!%'7=&*# ,'T<7* > !%&=T7*. 4! %7,,&%%'W= F7=^T'%!.
-.1 @&*%,'+%'W= @&4 *'*T&<! F7=74WN'%7 @& 4! 4&=NT! '=N4&*!.
1.1.: OP&2 @P !' $+-&2%an%! 1a #&nP%$)aQ
-./.1 _XuK inglKs; _!centos;
1.*.: OC<+& 2!-2!'!n%a2 1&' >'&n$"&'?Q
1.4.: La ,&;: )!2"a' ,&)a1!', a2%$)1a)$<n 8 #&na)$<n. Ó2gan&' a=$1$a2!'.
1.4.1.: OC<+& '! -2&")! 1a ,&;Q
-.6./.1 FonaciHn.
-.6.8.1 !rticulaciHn.
(.1.: Pa-!1 "!1 -2&#!'&2.
/./.1 TKcnicas de comunicaciHn.
/.8.1 TKcnicas de producciHn.
8.1 +&,%&+%'W= @'*%,'<'=!%'W= > &<'*'W= @& *7='@7*# &=T7=!%'7=&*# ,'T<7* >
*.1.: In%2&"))$<n.
8./.1 Vocales y diptongos.
8.8.1 %onsonantes.
8.6.1 *emi"ocales.
8.A.1 &ntonaciHn# acento y ritmo.
6.1 4! %7,,&%%'W= F7=^T'%!.
-.1 @&*%,'+%'W= @&4 *'*T&<! F7=74WN'%7 @& 4! 4&=NT! '=N4&*!.
1.1.: OP&2 @P !' $+-&2%an%! 1a #&nP%$)aQ
@espuKs de muchos a`os de estudiar y ense`ar el inglKs a hispanohablantes# he llegado a la
conclusiHn de que la mayorJa de los alumnos persiguen un mismo ob:eti"o9 adquirir una fluide( de
comunicaciHn oral. &sto no es nada fGcil de conseguir# teniendo en cuenta que la lengua inglesa pertenece
a un grupo no romance 1como es el caso del espa`ol11# que el aparato fonKtico del hablante se OanquilosaO
con la edad 1siendo por ello menos capaces de emitir mayor "ariedad de sonidos11# y que por norma
general los alumnos no estGn en contacto con el OambienteO anglHfono necesario.
+ara alguien que estudie una lengua fuera del paJs de origen# se hace absolutamente necesario el
establecimiento de unos cHdigos que permitan la explicaciHn de los sonidos de dicha lengua. &l hablante
no nati"o sHlo tiene como recurso la '<'T!%'7= de dichos sonidos. &sta OimitaciHnO# lle"arG a un me:or
o peor grado de OexactitudO dependiendo de muchos factores. &ntre ellos# a mi modo de "er# el principal es
la comprensiHn exacta de todos los sonidos de la lengua que se estudia.
> para una buena comprensiHn de los sonidos# es necesaria una T&=! @&*%,'+%'7= de los
mismos9 el oJdo tiene tendencia a OasimilarO fonemas 1que a "eces distan bastante de los de la lengua
materna11. &sto significa que escuchamos lo que estamos acostumbrados a escuchar. @e forma muy
simplista# un espa`ol sHlo es capa( de distinguir una OaO# y todo lo que se pare(ca a ella lo OescucharGO
como una OaO.
1.(.: OQP $ng1P'Q OA)!n%&'Q
4o primero que uno descubre cuando quiere comen(ar a hablar inglKs# es la gran diferencia de
OformasO del idioma que existen(tanto habladas como escritas). 4a rique(a de acentos del inglKs es
realmente sorprendente# por lo que# teniendo en cuenta que hemos de '<'T!, a un angloparlante# _a
quiKn elegimos como modelo;
&sta es realmente una difJcil pregunta# a la que solo puedo responder9 eli:a el modelo que mGs le
guste# que mGs se adapte a sus necesidades y a sus posibilidades. +ero# sobre todo# el que le sea mGs
accesible y le permita un mayor namero de horas de audiciHn. +or e:emplo# si usted puede sintoni(ar con
la %# utilJcela como modelo. S*erJa absurdo pretender imitar un acento escocKs sin haberlo oJdo
nunca b
!quJ# se muestran las explicaciones que corresponden al denominado ,*+9 +ronunciaciHn
,ecibida *tandard (,ecei"ed *tandard +ronunciation). &l acento ,*+ es una "ariedad de acento del *ur
de 'nglaterra que es de los mGs utili(ados en la ense`an(a. &sta es la anica ra(Hn por la que aquJ se
muestra9 como di:e antes# cuGnto mayor sea la fuente de informaciHn y la posibilidad de contacto con una
"ariedad de inglKs# tanto me:or serG la '<'T!%'7= conseguida.
1.*.: OC<+& 2!-2!'!n%a2 1&' >'&n$"&'?Q
@espuKs de todo lo dicho anteriormente# sHlo nos queda contestar a una pregunta crucial9_cHmo es
posible representar sonidos mediante la escritura;. ueno# no es fGcil desde luego9 nada importante suele
serlo. Todo requiere un esfuer(o. > por suerte otros se han esfor(ado antes que nosotros por resol"er este
problema9 para representar sonidos utili(amos un con:unto de sJmbolos que los representan# incluyendo
signos menores que nos permiten indicar la fuer(a de pronunciaciHn# calidad del sonido# abertura de la
boca# posiciHn de los Hrganos de la fonaciHn# etc.
! ese con:unto de sJmbolos es a lo que se ha con"enido en denominar !4F!&T7 F7=&T'%7
'=T&,=!%'7=!4 ('+! Q 'nternational +honetic !lphabet).
1.4.: La ,&;: )!2"a' ,&)a1!', a2%$)1a)$<n 8 #&na)$<n. Ó2gan&' a=$1$a2!'.
<e parece fundamental explicar# aunque sea bre"emente# los mecanismos de producciHn de la "o(
humana y los elementos que en ella inter"ienen. *Hlo mediante un conocimiento de los mismos podremos#
de una forma consciente# poder influir en la producciHn de los sonidos que emitimos y asJ conseguir una
aproximaciHn mGxima a la pronunciaciHn del inglKs.
-.6.-.1 _%Hmo se produce la "o(;
@urante el proceso de la respiraciHn el aire pasa a tra"Ks de la traquea desde los pulmones. 4legado
a un punto 1la nue(11# se encuentra con un obstGculo primordial9 las cuerdas "ocales# situadas en la regiHn
conocida como laringe.
4as cuerdas "ocales son dos bandas elGsticas situadas una enfrente de otra. =o hay que pensar en
ellas como OtirasO# sino mGs bien como# repito# ObandasO. *us bordes estGn un poco engrosados y se
conocen como ligamentos "ocales. &l con:unto de cuerda y ligamento tiene la capacidad de aproximarse y
ale:arse de su opuesto# produciendo una obturaciHn total del OtuboO traqueal 1impidiendo el paso del aire
completamente11) o pueden separarse 1posiciHn de descanso1de:ando un hueco entre ellas que permite el
paso del aire. ! ese hueco le denominamos N47T'*# o abertura glotal.
4a "o( se genera durante el proceso de expulsiHn del aire# y se puede resumir en dos grandes
apartados9 (-) 4a fonaciHn) y (/) la articulaciHn.
-.6./.1 FonaciHn.
4a gran "elocidad a la que discurre el aire por la laringe pro"oca la ,$52a)$<n de las cuerdas# a una
"elocidad realmente sorprendente9 ?DD pulsos por segundo y mGs. &sa "ibraciHn tan rGpida y regular#
pro"oca una nota musical# que es# en esencia# la producciHn de la "o(.
&l tono de la nota# puede ser modificado# lo que produce una "ariedad de OsonidosO que pro"ocorGn la
esencia del lengua:e hablado. &se tono se modifica por dos mecanismos9
• &l estiramiento o rela:aciHn de las cuerdas# que produce una mayor o menor frecuencia de la
"ibraciHn(tonos altos o ba:os)
• 4a modificaciHn del "olumen de sus bordes9 el adelga(amiento para altas frecuencias) el
engrosamiento para ba:as frecuencias.
&l control de las cuerdas "ocales se produce mediante la participaciHn de "arios masculos y
ligamentos situados en la laringe (regiHn de la nue( 1 en inglKs !damPs apple 1). *implemente parGndonos
a escuchar una simple frase# podremos comprobar la comple:idad y el refinamiento de los masculos
citados# que permiten la articulaciHn rGpida y exacta de multitud de sonidos diferentes ( aparte de la
grande(a indiscutible del canto# el instrumento musical mGs perfecto :amGs creado).
-.6.8.1 !rticulaciHn.
&l sonido primario formado en la laringe# serG luego modificado en el transcurso del trayecto que le
queda al aire por recorrer. 4a participaciHn# unas "eces acti"a y otras pasi"a# de diferentes Hrganos#
modificarG ese sonido hasta con"ertirlo en un OfonemaO# es decir# la expresiHn lingIJstica mGs reducida.
4os Hrganos que participan en la articulaciHn se denominan tambiKn <2gan&' a=$1$a2!' y son los
• 4a lengua9 su posiciHn y su forma son pilares fundamentales en la articulaciHn del lengua:e. +ara
demostrarlo simplemente recordar la forma en la que habla un borracho9 su incapacidad
articulatoria deri"a# fundamentalmente# de la pKrdida del control sobre los mo"imientos de la
lengua. *in duda es el Hrgano auxiliar mGs importante para el habla.
+odemos distinguir en la lengua tres partes fundamentales9
• &l Gpice o punta de la lengua# que serG utili(ado con extrema precisiHn para articular ciertos
• *u parte media# en la que distinguiremos dos partes tambiKn9
• la parte que descansa ba:o los al"Kolos superiores# a la que denominaremos pala.
@isfruta de una mo"ilidad extrema y pude acceder# :unto con el Gpice# hasta los
labios# dientes# al"Kolos# etc.
• 4a parte que le sigue# a la que denominaremos cuerpo# y que descansa ba:o el
paladar duro. 4a posibilidad de modificar su forma# desde un aplanamiento a una
conca"idad notable# modificarGn en mucho la calidad del sonido emitido. TambiKn
puede contactar con el paladar produciendo una obturaciHn a la corriente aKrea.
• 4a raJ(9 puede tambiKn aplanarse o ele"arse para contactar con el paladar blando.

• &l paladar (o cielo de la boca). *e di"ide en dos partes9
• &l paladar duro# que permanece inmH"il y por lo tanto participa pasi"amente.
• &l paladar blando# que puede ser mo"ido "erticalmente pro"ocando la obturaciHn de la ca"idad
nasal# e impidiendo el paso del aire hacia la nari(.
• 4a ca"idad nasal9 actaa como una ca:a de resonancia.
• 4os dientes. *on fundamentales y podemos distinguir tres partes9
• 4os dientes en sJ mismos# es decir su borde cortante.
• 4os al"Kolos9 es decir# el lugar donde estGn Oenrai(adosO en la encJa. <Gs que los Oagu:erosO
1inaccesibles si existen los dientes1 nos referimos al borde que existe alrededor de cada pie(a
• 4a parte interna de las pie(as dentales que# desde el interior# puede ser utili(ada como apoyo
por la lengua# ademGs de una barrera fJsica en sJ misma.
(.1.: Pa-!1 "!1 -2&#!'&2.
&n todos los modelos y tKcnicas de aprendi(a:e el profesor debe tener e siguiente papel9
- @ebe ayudar a los alumnos a percibir sonidos. 4os alumnos tendrGn una fuerte tendencia a imitar
los sonidos del espa`ol. &l profesor debe comprobar que sus alumnos estGn escuchando sonidos
de acuerdo con las categorJas apropiadas y ayudarles a crear nue"as categorJas si es necesario.
- @ebe ayudar a los alumnos a producir sonidos que no ocurren en su lengua en este caso el
espa`ol. *i la imitaciHn no es suficiente# el profesor debe capa( de dar trucos y tKcnicas que le
ayuden a producir el nue"o sonido.
- @ebe dar feedback e informaciHn sobre la actuaciHn de los alumnos y resultados.
- @ebe ser capa( de reconocer posibles problemas con los que los alumnos puedan encontrarse.
- @ebe establecer prioridades y decidir en quK aspecto concentrarse primero.
- @ebe dise`ar acti"idades adecuadas para el ni"el y el propHsito a alcan(ar garanti(ando el
progreso y la moti"aciHn de los alumnos.
&l ob:eti"o a alcan(ar debe ser ra(onable en funciHn de las necesidades del alumno. Tn ob:eti"o
ra(onable para la ense`an(a primaria es el de Slegar a una mGxima comprensibilidad# es decir# ser capaces
de identificar con precisiHn el mayor namero de palabras.
(.(.: TP)n$)a' "! )&+n$)a)$<n.
+ara enfrentar a los alumnos con sonidos 0extra`os2 hay que e"itar que se perciban como "ariantes
de los sonidos que ya conocen. +ara ello deben practicar con e:ercicios de discriminaciHn auditi"a. Tna
"e( que son capaces de 0escuchar2 las diferencias# podrGn traba:ar hacia una me:or pronunciaciHn.
&xisten "arios tipos de e:ercicios de discriminaciHn9
1 'dentificaciHn del sonido#
• &n un contexto familiar9
$here is it; %ome in.
• &n palabras aisladas9 li"e# sit# if finish.
• &n un contexto mGs amplio9 %ome in# <rs <itchell.
- TKcnica de 0minimal pairs2#
• &ntre espa`ol e inglKs9 fin1fin
• &ntre sonidos similares del inglKs9 bitEbeet
- TKcnica de diferenciaciHn de sonidos#
• 'nglKsEespa`ol9
it, it (igual)
fin# fin (diferente)
"ida# "ida (igual)
• 'nglKsEinglKs9
eat# eat (igual)
feel# fill (diferente)
- VariaciHn9 <arcar la "ocal diferente en read# heat# his, crease# ease.
(.*.: TP)n$)a' "! P2&"))$<n.
<ediante estas tKcnicas# el alumno produce los sonidos que ya es capa( discriminar correctamente.
3ay "arios tipos9
- &:ercicios de producciHn imitati"a# en los que el alumno repite un modelo corregir o confirmar su
- &:ercicios de producciHn no imitati"a (guiada)9
Teacher9 $here is your book;
!lumno9 <y book is on the desk.
- &:ercicios de producciHn autHnoma# en donde la con"ersaciHn tiene lugar e alumnos.
8.1 +&,%&+%'W= @'*%,'<'=!%'W= > &<'*'W= @& *7='@7*# &=T7=!%'7=&*# ,'T<7* >
*.1.: In%2&"))$<n.
4a lengua inglesa tiene 65 fonemas o sonidos distintos# mientras que su alfabeto consta tan sHlo de
/5 letras. @e ello resulta que algunas letras responden a mGs de un sonido. +or otra parte# algunos sonidos
pueden escribirse con diferentes letras.
4a letra u# por e:emplo# en !us y put representa a dos fonemas diferentes y se pronuncia de distinta
manera# en tanto que# aun cuando su ortografJa no sea la misma# sJ es el mismo fonema o sonido el que se
da en las palabras9 she, east, receive, field, key, police.
4os sonidos de una lengua se agrupan en cfamiliasd constituidas por cada uno de estos sonidos y
sus "ariantes segan ocurren en las distintas secuencias) y cada una de estas cfamilias de sonidosd
constituye un fonema cuya pronunciaciHn puede "ariar ligeramente mientras no rebase los lJmites de la
frecuencia fundamental y las armHnicas correspondientes a dicho fonema.
%ada fonema tiene# pues# como hemos dicho# una o mGs letras que lo representan ortogrGficamente y# a la
"e(# corresponde a un sonido fonolHgico que# en ocasiones# no tiene una letra especial que lo represente.
+or ello# y para facilitar la adquisiciHn de todos los sonidos de una lengua# se recurre a la representaciHn
de los mismos por medio de unos sJmbolos especiales recogidos en el llamado alfabeto fonJtico, en el cual
cada fonema tiene una representaciHn grGfica especial que contribuye a identificarlo. &l alfabeto fonKtico
es# pues# de indudable utilidad en el aprendi(a:e de una lengua.
&l inglKs de 'nglaterra no difiere fundamentalmente del que se habla y escribe =orteamKrica.
&xisten# sin embargo# di"ersas peculiaridades terminolHgicas y que con"iene tener en cuenta.
! continuaciHn se especifican los sJmbolos del !lfabeto FonKtico 'nternacional que corresponden a
cada fonema y su representaciHn ortogrGfica.
*.(.: V&)a1!' 8 "$-%&ng&'.
1 T$:T. 4a i de tree es siempre una "ocal larga# anterior# casi cerrada# que se articula con los labios
distendidos y una apertura estrecha entre las mandJbulas. 4os bordes laterales de la lengua se apoyan
firmemente en los molares superiores &s siempre un sonido largo) mGs largo y mGs cerrado que la
espa`ola de 0sJ2.
e even
e Kfinal$ he
ee tree
ea speak
ie field
ei receive
i police
ey key
7bsKr"ese el fonema ei9f en algunas combinaciones poco usuales9 ay en quay) eo en people.
: T$T. 4a i de it es siempre una "ocal bre"e casi semicerrada. &s mGs bre"e y mGs cerrada que la anterior
y el contacto entre los bordes de la lengua y los molares superiores es tambiKn menor. *e articula con las
mandJbulas y los labios en posiciHn casi rela:ada. &s un sonido mGs bre"e y mGs rela:ado que la i espa`ola
de cinco# silbo.
i !ig
y only
e 0ngland
ie ladies
a Kte$ climate
a Kge$ village
ay %unday
ey money
7bsKr"ese el fonema eif en mountain, !iscuit, !uild, !usiness, !usy.
*e pronuncian con eif los siguientes morfemas9
!e4 !ecome
re4 return
de4 demand
4less careless
4ness goodness
4es glasses
4ed wanted
eif estG tambiKn presente en innumerables "ocales dKbiles (no acentuadas).
1 T!T. 4a e de pen es un fonema bre"e que se articula con los labios en posiciHn natural y una apertura
mediana entre las mandJbulas. *e parece a la e espa`ola de cla"el# pero es algo mGs abierta.
e pen
ea head
a any
ai said
7bsKr"ese el fonema eef presente en says, !ury, -eoffrey.
1 Ta!T. 4a a de man es un sonido bre"e# entre semiabierto y semicerrado. *e articula con los labios
distendidos y una apertura mediana entre las mandJbulas# ligeramente mGs abierta que para eef. *e articula
con cierta tensiHn de la lengua y la faringe) su timbre se aproxima a la a palatal de calle. =o obstante# la
calidad de este sonido sHlo se adquiere por imitaciHn directa. %orresponde a la a ortogrGfica y sHlo la
combinaciHn aS tiene idKntica pronunciaciHn.
a cat
ai plait
1 Ta:T. 4a a de car es un fonema posterior. &s siempre larga y totalmente abierta y se articula con los
labios en posiciHn natural y la apertura entre las mandJbulas bastante amplia. =o hay contacto entre los
bordes laterales de la lengua y los molares superiores. *e parece a la a "elar espa`ola de causa# pero es
aan mGs larga y mGs "elar. 4a 1r que en sJlaba trabada sigue a a no se pronuncia en posiciHn final excepto
cuando le sigue una palabra con "ocal inicial.
ar KL consonante$ car, cart
a KL f, s, n Lconsonante$ after, past, dance
a KL ff, as, th Lconsonante$ staff, father, glass
er clerk
ear heart
a KL<< muda$ calm
1 T&T. 4a o de not es siempre bre"e. &s un fonema totalmente posterior y abierto que se articula con los
labios ligerJsimamente abocinados y sin contacto alguno entre los bordes laterales de la lengua y los
molares superiores. &s mucho mGs abierta que la o espa`ola y parece un sonido intermedio entre y a "elar
o hot, not, dog
ou, ow cough, -loucester, knowledge
au !ecause, sausage
a was, what
7bsKr"ese el fonema eof en yacht.
1 T&:T. 4a o de short es una "ocal bastante larga que se articula con los labios medianamente
abocinados y sin contacto entre los bordes laterales de la lengua y los molares superiores. &s mGs cerrada
que la o bre"e inglesa# y la posiciHn de los labios es menos abocinada que para articular la o espa`ola d
,oma. *u timbre se aproxima# aunque es mGs abierto y mGs largo# a la o espa`ola de orden. &n los altimos
tiempos# la calidad de eo9f se ha ido despla(ando hasta aproximarse a la o cardinal# por lo que# hoy en dJa#
es un sonido mGs cerrado que el que aan se oye en hablantes mGs conser"adores.
or short
ou !ought
au daughter
aw saw
ore !efore
oor door
oar roar
our four
aLl all, talk
Kw$a walk, wall
oLf, th, s often, cloth, loss
4as palabras cuya ortografJa pertenece al altimo grupo pueden pronunciarse tambiKn con el fonema
eof# pronunciaciHn adoptada por mayorJa de la generaciHn mGs :o"en. *iguen tambiKn la misma tendencia
la palabras cuya ortografJa es au o a(l). !sJ se oyen# pronunciadas indistinta mente con eof o con eo9f#
palabras como 'ustralia, 'ustria, salt# etc.
&ste fonema eo9f ha despla(ado casi totalmente el diptongo final que# hace unos a`os# se empleaba
exclusi"amente para la ortografJa oZr.
1 TT. 4a u de full es siempre una "ocal bre"e que se articula exactamente por encima de la posiciHn
semicerrada y prHxima a la regiHn central. *e pronuncia con los labios bastante abocinados# la lengua
rela:ada# y sin tensiHn. =o hay contacto entre los bordes laterales de la lengua y los molares superiores
%omo la "ocal eif# tiene una posiciHn centrali(ada respecto a su correspondiente fonema largo. &n timbre#
es mGs abierta que la u abierta espa`ola de lu:o.
u pull# put
o woman
oo good#look
ou would# could
1 T:T. 4a u de moon es una "ocal posterior larga y cerrada que se articula un poco por deba:o de la
posiciHn cerrada y ligeramente centrali(ada. *e articula con los labios abocinados# pero sin tensar# y las
mandJbulas mGs cerradas que en el correspondiente fonema bre"e euf.
u Hune, %usan
ue !lue
o do
oo soon, too
ou soup, you
ew new, few
7bsKr"ese el fonema eu9f en shoe.
1 TUT. 4a u de !ut, tal como la pronuncia la generaciHn :o"en es un fonema bre"e y casi abierto. *e
articula hacia el centro# en posiciHn ligeramente anterior# con los labios abiertos y las mandJbulas bastante
abiertas# sin que la lengua llegue a tocar los molares superiores. &ste sonido no existe en espa`ol y ha de
adquirirse directamente por imitaciHn. 3ay otra "ariante de egf que usan las personas mayores# que es mGs
posterior y se aproxima a la a "elar espa`ola de la exclamaciHn M&adre!
u cup, much
o come, mother
ou young, couple
7bsKr"ese el fonema egf en !lood, flood, does
1 T*:T. 4a "ocal de girl es un fonema siempre largo que se articula con los labios distendidos y sin
contacto entre los bordes laterales de la lengua y los molares superiores. *e forma en un punto central
entre las "ocales posteriores y las anteriores# y en una regiHn que se extiende desde un punto ligeramente
superior al de las "ocales semiabiertas hasta un punto situado un poco por encima de las semicerradas. &n
espa`ol no hay un sonido seme:ante a Kste que podrJamos describir como intermedio entre e y o# pero con
los labios distendidos. *e parece a la "ocal compuesta francesa eu en feu# :eux# peu.
7rtogrGficamente# este fonema corresponde# en la mayorJa de casos# a un "ocal seguida de 1r# pero
dicha 1r no se pronuncia# excepto cuando estG en posiciHn final absoluta o final de sJlaba y le sigue una
ir, yr
!ird, myrtle
er, err
her, err
ear heard
7bsKr"ese el fonema e89f en colonel.
1 E E &sta "ocal# como la anterior# se articula en la regiHn central y es siempre dKbil. *e articula con 
los labios en posiciHn natural y su timbre "arJa segan su posiciHn en la palabra. !sJ# de articularse en una
regiHn por deba:o de la semiabierta# cuando estG en posiciHn final como en sister# pasa a ser entre
semiabierta y semicerrada# en otras posiciones# y puede llegar has semicerrada :unto a 1k# 1g y 1ng. @ado
que e(f sustituye con mucha frecuencia a otras "ocales en las sJlabas no acentuadas# es el fonema mGs
ampliamente usado del habla inglesa.
a along
e sentence
o ondon
oar cup!oard
u chorus
ou colour, famous
a Kfinal$ #anada
ar collar
er father
7bsKr"ese el fonema ef en the, picture.
1 T!$T. &l diptongo de lady es un fonema que se articula partiendo de una eef situada en un punto
mGs prHximo a la regiHn semiabierta que a la semicerrada# y que se desli(a hacia eif con los labios
a ta!le
ai %pain
ay day
ey they
ea !reak
1 T&T. 4a o no tiene dos "ariantes principales# una conser"adora y otra mGs moderna usada por las
generaciones mGs :H"enes. 4a primera reali(aciHn# e uf parte de una e f reali(ada en un punto en la regiHn
entre semiabierta y semicerrada y algo centrali(ada# y se desli(a hacia euf# a la "e( que el abocinamiento
de los labios se acentaa. 4a segunda "ariante eauf# parte de una posiciHn central# por deba:o de la
semicerrada de e f y se desli(a hacia euf con los labios en posiciHn natural# que se abocinan ligeramente 
hacia la altima parte del sonido.
o old
ou shoulder
ow know
oa road
1 Ta$T. &l diptongo eaif de child se articula partiendo de una eaf abierta situada mGs cerca de la posiciHn
anterior que de la posiciHn posterior# y se desli(a hacia eif sin alcan(arla. 4os labios pasan de una posiciHn
natural# al iniciarse el sonido# a una posiciHn rela:ada al terminarlo.
i wife
y why
ie cries
ei height
1 TaT. &l diptongo eauf de house se articula partiendo de un punto por delante de la regiHn posterior y
ligeramente por encima de la abierta y se desli(a# si alcan(arla# hacia euf. 4os labios pasan de una posiciHn
natural a un ligero abocinamiento.
ou !louse
ow !rown
1 T&$T. &l diptongo eoif de !oy se articula partiendo de una o# mGs prHxima a semiabierta que a abierta
y se desli(a sin alcan(arla hacia eif. 4a posiciHn de los labios pasa desde ligeramente abocinados# al iniciar
el sonido# a naturales hacia el final del mismo.
oi noise
oy !oy
!demGs de los cinco diptongos arriba mencionados# hay en inglKs cuatro diptongos cuyo segundo
elemento es aproximadamente un mismo punto central que corresponde a e f como se pronuncia al final 
de father.
1 Ei E. &l diptongo de  here se articula partiendo aproximadamente de eif y desli(Gndose hacia e f. 4a 
posiciHn de los labios es natural# ligeramente distendidos a comien(o de la articulaciHn.
ere here
eer !eer
ear dear
ier fierce
:T! T.  &l diptongo de chair se inicia partiendo de la posiciHn semiabierta de e f y desli(Gndose hacia 
el fonema e f# como se pronuncia en  father, con los labios en posiciHn natural.
air chair
ear pear
are care
7bsKr"ense las palabras their, heir, que se pronuncian con este diptongo.
1 T T.  &l diptongo de tour empie(a partiendo de la posiciHn de euf y se desli(a hacia e f como los 
anteriores# con los labios ligeramente abocinados al iniciar el sonido y realmente distendidos hacia el
ure sure
our tour
oor poor
ewer fewer
*.*.: C&n'&nan%!'.
1 T-T. 4a p de pen se articula con mayor fuer(a que la espa`ola. 4os labios# fuertemente comprimidos
uno contra otro# se separan con "iolencia y de:an es capar el aire acumulado detrGs. &n posiciHn inicial es
aspirada cuando ocurre en sJlaba acentuada) es decir# que al separar los labios se de:a escapar un ligera
espiraciHn de aire parecida a una bre"Jsima h que se articula entre la p y el sonido que le sigue# como en
1 T5T. 4a b de !ed es muy seme:ante a la ebf oclusi"a espa`ola despuKs de pausa# se articula con los
labios fuertemente comprimidos. %omo ocurre con epf# la ebf inglesa se reali(a con mayor fuer(a que la
espa`ola# y la explosiHn de aire que ocurre al separar los labios es mGs "iolenta. &n posiciHn final
precedida de m# la b es muda. TambiKn es muda en algunas palabras# precediendo a t9 dou!t NdautO.
: T%T. 4a t de ten se articula apoyando la punta de la lengua en los al"Kolos superiores# pero
e"itando que toque los dientes. &n posiciHn inicial es aspirada cuando se da en sJlaba acentuada.
: T"T. 4a d de do se articula con la punta de la lengua apoyada contra los al"Kolos superiores
pero sin tocar en absoluto los dientes. 3ay que e"itar articular una d seme:ante a la espa`ola# en la
que la lengua a"an(a hasta los dientes pues con ello entrarJamos en el Grea de otro fonema y podrJa
dar lugar a confusiHn. 4a d fricati"a espa`ola de venPdo no se da en inglKs.
1 EkE 4a c y la k de cat y key# respecti"amente# son seme:antes a la c espa`ola seguJda de a# o# u.
&n sJlaba inicial acentuada le sigue una ligera aspiraciHn como a t y p. &l fonema ekf seguido
inmediatamente de s eksf corresponde a la reali(aciHn fonKtica de +* !o+.
: TgT. 4a g de garden se parece a la g oclusi"a espa`ola de gana cuando precede a, o, u.
:T#T. 4a f de five se articula como la espa`ola. 4a reali(aciHn ortogrGfica de eff puede ser tambiKn ph#
como en telephone.
4 T,T. 4a " de give se articula apoyando ligeramente los dientes superiores en el labio inferior y
espirando el aire libremente. &s seme:ante a eff# pero sonora 4a calidad de esta e"f es muy distinta
de la espa`ola que se reali(a fonKticamente como !. 3ay que cuidar especialmente la articulaciHn
de dicho fonema para e"itar posibles confusiones de significado.
: T T.  4a th de think es una articulaciHn fricati"a que se reali(a apoyando la punta de la lengua
contra el borde y la parte posterior de los dientes# de:ando escapar el aire entre Kstos y la punta de la
lengua. &l contacto es menos firme con los incisi"os que con los demGs dientes laterales. &l sonido de
th inglesa es muy parecido al de c espa`ola seguida de e# i# aunque Ksta es algo mGs interdental y mGs
enKrgica que la th inglesa.
1 E E. 4a  th de the es un sonido fricati"o que se articula como el anterior# pero e menos
interdental. &ste sonido no se da normalmente en espa`ol# pero se aproxima a la d fricati"a
espa`ola de cada, aunque es menos rela:ada y mGs interdental.
: T'T. 4a s ortogrGfica se reali(a de dos maneras segan su locali(aciHn en la palabra9 como
consonante sorda esf y como consonante sonora e(f. *e articula de:ando escapar el aire entre la
punta de la lengua y los al"Kolos superiores &n posiciHn inicial se parece a la s espa`ola aunque
Ksta es algo mGs gra"e *e reali(a como consonante sorda NsO* en posiciHn inicial) en el morfema de
plural 1s y en el de la tercera persona del singular del presente de indicati"o# cuando sigue a una
consonante sorda9 p# t# k# f# th) en posiciHn final precedida de i# a# u) y en el fonema c seguida de e#
i# y.
: T;T. 4a reali(aciHn sonora del fonema esf# es decir e(f# no tiene equi"alencia exacta en espa`ol
y debe adquirirse por imitaciHn directa. *e aproxima a la s espa`ola de rasgo# a la francesa de
maison y a la catalana de rosa. 4os estudiantes que no posean este sonido en su lengua materna se
deben esfor(ar para que su reali(aciHn sea lo suficientemente sonora para que no se confunda con
la s sorda# lo que podrJa dar lugar a confusiHn. *e reali(an como fricati"a sonora e(f9 el morfema
de plural de los nombres cuyo singular termine en consonante sonora o en "ocal) el morfema de
tercera persona del singular del +resente de 'ndicati"o cuando sigue a una consonante sonora o
"ocal) y el morfema del plural o de la tercera pers. sing. del presente de indicati"o 1es. TambiKn se
reali(a como e(f la ( inicial y la final cuando "a seguida de e muda.
pens Npen3O
cars Nca*3O
days Ndei3O
ladies Nleidi3O
3oo N3u* O
si3e Nsai3O
7bsKr"ese que# cuando el morfema de plural 1es se a`ade a una palabra que termina en 1y precedida de
consonante# dicha 1y se cambia por 1i antes de a`adir la terminaciHn. &l morfema 1es se reali(a siempre
como ei(f.
1 E*E 4a sh de she se articula ele"ando la punta y el predorso de la lengua hacia los al"Kolos
superiores# estableciendo un ligero contacto entre ambos y espirando el aire por este conducto. =o tiene
equi"alencia en espa`ol# pero timbre se aproxima algo a la fricaciHn de la altima parte de la ch espa`ola
de techo. +ara reali(ar una e*f correcta hay que colocar la lengua mGs hacia atrGs que para articular esf y#
ademGs# abocinar un poco los labios. %orresponde a sh ortogrGfica.
1 T T.  &l fonema e f de  treasure se articula como el anterior# pero es sonoro. =o tiene
equi"alencia en espa`ol# aunque se aproxima un poco a la ll pronunciada en !ndalucJa# %anarias e
1 Et*E &l fonema et*f de chocolate se articula ele"ando la punta y el dorso de la lengua hacia los
al"Kolos superiores. &s muy seme:ante a la ch espa`ola pero la fricaciHn es menos aguda y mGs larga que
en la consonante espa`ola. %orresponde a ch ortogrGfica.
1 T" T.  &l fonema ed f de  jacket es muy seme:ante al anterior pero es sonoro. %orresponde a j y g
: T7T. &l fonema ehf de have se articula espirando libremente el aire de los pulmones de forma que
cause una fricaciHn sorda muy dKbil que puede ocurrir e cualquier punto de la boca# ya dispuesta para
reali(ar la "ocal que le siga. &ste sonido debe practicarse con suma atenciHn porque no es una j espa`ola
!unque se pare(ca# su sonido es mucho mGs sua"e. 4a mayor parte de lo espa`oles pronuncian este
fonema demasiado parecido a la : espa`ola. %orresponde a h ortogrGfica. &n inglKs# la h se pronuncia
siempre# exceptuando un namero muy reducido de palabras
: T+T. 4a m de man es seme:ante a la espa`ola pero algo mGs fuerte. *e articula comprimiendo los
labios y separGndolos con cierta "iolencia para de:ar es capar el aire acumulado detrGs# que a la "e(# sale
tambiKn por la nari(. *u ortografJa normal es m# mm o mb.
: TnT. 4a n de not se articula apoyando la punta de la lengua en los al"Kolos superiores y
separGndolos repentinamente a la "e( que el aire escapa por la nari(. &l fonema enf tiene la particularidad
de que# cuando estG precedido d t o d# forma sJlaba con ellas sin necesidad de "ocal intermedia. @ado que
una combinaciHn de este tipo no se da en espa`ol# debe ser practicada cuidadosamente para obtener la
calidad que requiere el sonido. *e apoya la lengua en los al"Kolos superiores como para articular t o d y#
sin mo"er la lengua de esta posiciHn# se procede a articular enf. &l aire espirado para articular t o d y
detenido por la presiHn de la punta de la lengua contra los al"Kolos se escapa repentinamente por la nari(
al articular la enf. &l sonido asJ obtenido es enf silGbica# como la oJmos en garden y en !utton.
: T T.  &l fonema e f tal y como se pronuncia al final de  king, se articula ele"ando el predorso de
la lengua contra el "elo del paladar y espirando el aire por la nari(. 7rtogrGficamente# corresponde a ng y
n seguida de k. +uede darse en posiciHn final# como en king y en wrong y en medio de palabra cuando la
terminaciHn de Ksta es un morfema separable# como en kingly, singer. +ero si se da en posiciHn intermedia
y la terminaciHn no es separable# ha de pronunciar se como enf mGs egf o ekf y no como e f. &ste 
fonema# por sJ solo# no se da en espa`ol (sal"o en posiciHn final 1con1 en algunas regiones como Nalicia
!ndalucJa y %anarias). =o obstante# ocurre cuando n precede a g y a k. .o lo tanto# el sonido final de king
o think se aproxima al espa`ol de tengo o de cinco.
: T2T. &l fonema erf de red se articula ele"ando la punta de la lengua hacia la regiHn postal"eolar#
para de:arla caer inmediatamente# sin tocarla y casi sin fricciHn y pasar a articular la "ocal siguiente. &l
fonema erf se pronuncia de esta forma cuando le sigue una "ocal aunque Ksta sea inicial en otra palabra
que siga inmediatamente erf. &n posiciHn intermedia la r se pronuncia como fuera inicial cuando precede
inmediatamente a una "ocal en la sJlaba siguiente. &n posiciHn final# no seguida de palabra con "ocal
inicial erf no pronuncia# ni tampoco delante de consonante.
1 T1T. &n inglKs el fonema elf tiene dos "ariantes principales. 4a primera corresponde de a una l
clara# parecida a la espa`ola# que se articula apoyando la punta de la lengua en los al"Kolos superiores y
de:ando escapar el aire por los lados de la misma. &sta "ariedad se emplea delante de "ocal# exceptuando
e muda. 4a segunda "ariante es una l "elar coscurad parecida a la l catalana# que se reali(a delante de e
muda# delante de consonante y en posiciHn final *e articula con la punta de la lengua en posiciHn
seme:ante a la primera "ariante de l pero con el predorso de la lengua ba:o y el postdorso retraJdo.
%orresponde a l y ll ortogrGficas9 feel# all.
*.4.: S!+$,&)a1!'.
&n inglKs hay dos sonidos que no enca:an en ninguno de los grupos descritos. *on fonemas que
lingIJsticamente funcionan como consonantes pero que me:or dirJamos que fonKticamente se reali(an
como "ocales por la forma de su articulaciHn. *on e:f y ewf.
1 EET. *e articula como una i muy bre"e con los labios distendidos o naturales y ella se pasa
rGpidamente al sonido que siga. %on frecuencia este sonido reali(a fonKticamente en ew# ue# ui# u. *u
reali(aciHn fonKtica responde principalmente a la semi"ocal y a la "ocal i. 4as palabras en las que ocurre
deben practicarse especialmente para que su reali(aciHn sea lo suficientemente rGpida. yes NjesO, new
: T6T. *e articula como una u# reali(ada con los labios muy redondeados# de la cual se pasa
rGpidamente al sonido que le sigue. %uando el sonido que sigue a ewf sea una "ocal que se realice con los
labios abocinados# como por e:emplo eof o euf# la posiciHn de los labios serG tanto mGs redondeada para
resaltar la diferencia. 3ay que cuidar especialmente la reali(aciHn de este sonido como queda dicho# sin
confundirlo con la g fricati"a espa`ola# con el que no tiene ninguna conexiHn. &sta asimilaciHn es
frecuente entre personas de habla espa`ola9 incluso llega a escribirse en palabras adoptadas del inglKs#
como ocurre con la "o( sandwich, reali3ada fonKtica y ortogrGficamente# en espa`ol# con g.
*.I.: En%&na)$<n a)!n%& 8 2$%+&.
4a cur"a melHdica de la "o( al hablar constituye la entonaciHn de una lengua. @entro de cada una
de Kstas# hay distintas "ariantes de ritmo y de entonaciHn por medio de las cuales se expone# no sHlo la
expresiHn fonolHgica de dicha lengua como distinta de las demGs# sino matices intelectuales y emocionales
debidos a circunstancias transitorias que alteran el ritmo usual de la oraciHn que podrJamos llamar bGsica.
!quJ nos limitaremos a dar las cur"as melHdicas fundamentales del inglKs# que todo estudiante de
dicha lengua debe conocer si quiere comunicarse con hablante nati"os sin correr el riesgo de que sus
palabras puedan ser incorrectamente comprendidas por su interlocutor.
&l ritmo del inglKs es muy uniforme. 4as palabras que tienen acento tHnico (nombre# "erbo#
ad:eti"o y ad"erbio) se suceden a inter"alos regulares en la cadena del habla# y cuantas sJlabas no
acentuadas se dan entre dos de estos acentos tHnicos han de pronunciarse en un perJodo de tiempo igual#
tanto si es una sola como si son "arias. @e aquJ que algunas sJlabas no acentuadas hayan de pronunciarse
con gran rapide(# en tanto que otras sean mGs largas. &sto da a la lengua un ritmo muy peculiar y ha
contribuido no poco a la neutrali(aciHn de muchos sonidos# que son por ello difJciles de recoger por un
oJdo poco acostumbrado.
3ay en inglKs tres cur"as melHdicas fundamentales. 4a primera de ellas se conoce como cur"a
descendente o entonaciHn melHdica final descendente. &n ella la "o( empie(a en una nota bastante alta y
desciende hasta una nota muy ba:a &ste descenso de la "o( se hace de manera gradual# partiendo de la
primera sJlaba acentuada de la oraciHn y descendiendo un tono en cada sJlaba acentuada en la que
desciende hasta una nota realmente gra"e. %uantas sJlabas no acentuadas se den entre los acentos tHnicos
que haya en la frase deben pronunciarse e el mismo tono que el acento tHnico precedente. 4as altimas
sJlabas despuKs del altimo acento son totalmente dKbiles y se pronuncian en un tono muy gra"e# sin que la
"o( se ele"e nunca por encima del tono del altimo acento9
I Qphoned him Qyesterday.
Q"here do you Rwant to Qgo?
@entro de esta misma cur"a existe la posibilidad de que haya una palabra que se quiera destacar
especialmente en la oraciHn o# sencillamente# aligerar la monotonJa de la inflexiHn. &n este caso# al llegar
a dicha palabra# la "o( se ele"a ligerJsimamente y desciende despuKs hasta el final como en la primera
Q"here do you Qthink he Qwants to Qgo?
4a entonaciHn descendente se emplea9
a$ en oraciones ase"erati"as firmes)
!$ en preguntas introducidas por palabras interrogati"as del tipo9 who, what, when, etc.# cuya
respuesta no es *J ni :oS
c$ en exclamaciones y Hrdenes)
d$ en preguntas confirmati"as (tag questions) que siguen a una oraciHn expositi"a cuando se
espera acuerdo por parte del interlocutor.
4a segunda cur"a melHdica es la cur"a melHdica ascendente. &n ella# la "o( desciende# como en la
anterior# hasta la altima sJlaba acentuada en la que alcan(a ni"el mGs gra"e de la inflexiHn# y el tono
"uel"e a ele"arse un poco# aunque sin alcan(ar gran altura. *i# despuKs de la altima sJlaba acentuada#
hubiese sJlabas dKbiles# la inflexiHn ascendente se reali(arG en Kstas.
're Qthose the ones you Q!ought?
Q're you Qcoming?
%omo en la "ariante anterior# puede recalcarse cualquier palabra de la oraciHn que se desee. &n
este caso# la "o( descenderG hasta alcan(ar su tono mGs gra"e en sJlaba acentuada de esta palabra y seguirG
en el mismo tono hasta la altima sJlaba acentuada# en la que efectuarG la inflexiHn ascendente.
4a entonaciHn ascendente se emplea9
a) en oraciones interrogati"as que requieren *J o =o como respuesta)
b) en oraciones enunciati"as empleadas como interrogati"as y que requieren *J :o como
c) oraciones subordinadas o frases introductorias en una oraciHn compuesta# cuando se sigue
d) preguntas confirmati"as cuando no se espera# necesariamente# acuerdo)
e) enumeraciHn de los distintos puntos de una lista (en el altimo la "o( desciende)
4a tercera cur"a melHdica es la descendente1ascendente. &n ella la "o( desciende en la palabra mGs
importante de la oraciHn y se ele"a de nue"o# ya sea en la misma sJlaba# ya en alguna otra de las
siguientes. 4as sJlabas no acentuadas antes la sJlaba en que la "o( desciende se pronuncian en un tono
gra"e# y las sJlabas acentuadas# si las hay# ba:an de tono gradualmente desde la primera# que se pronuncia
en un tono bastante alto hasta llegar a la palabra principal# que ba:a ha pronunciarse en un tono muy gra"e.
! partir de aquJ# la ele"aciHn de la "o( puede reali(arse en la misma sJlaba# o en otra de las siguientes#
como ya se ha dicho. &n este altimo caso# las sJlabas intermedias entre el tono mGs gra"e y el mGs agudo
han de pronunciarse en tono gra"e.
*e emplea la inflexiHn descendente1ascendente9
a) en oraciones ase"erati"as seguidas de algan determinante)
b) para expresar discrepancia# sugerencia# protesta# duda implJcita# correcciHn d algo dicho)
c) para expresar Knfasis.
3e PisnPt Pcoming# Pis he;
Nood Pmorning.
'Pm Pso Psorry.
&n toda tKcnica de aprendi(a:e existen una serie de factores que afecta aprendi(a:e de la
- 4a lengua nati"a. %uanto mGs diferencias haya# mGs dificultades e alumno.
- &l factor edad. 4os estudios demuestran conclusiones di"ergentes# debido interacciHn de la edad
con otros factores como la habilidad# la moti"aciHn# interKs# etc.
- %antidad de exposiciHn a la lengua. =o sHlo es importante este factor# tambiKn la manera en que
el alumno reacciona a las oportunidades para y usar el inglKs.
- 3abilidad fonKtica. !lgunos alumnos "en me:or las diferencias entre sonidos otros. @e todos
modos# la prGctica puede me:orar sus habilidades.
- !ctitud e identidad. 'mitar correctamente el habla de una persona puede ser forma de demostrar
respeto e interKs hacJa esa persona y hacia el grupo que representa. 4as personas con actitudes
positi"as hacia la lengua de desarrollar acentos mGs perfectos.
- <oti"aciHn y preocupaciHn por una buena pronunciaciHn. 4a mentalidad 0=o quiero decirlo si no
puedo hacerlo perfectamente2.
+ara corregir errores de pronunciaciHn# sobre todo aquellos que afectan ScomunicaciHn# es necesario
que el alumno practique con e:ercicios de discrJmii hasta la total identificaciHn de los sonidos. !quellos
alumnos que no son distinguir ciertos sonidos tampoco serGn capaces de producirlo. &s necesario#
concentrarse en posibles focos de errores9
- !quellos sonidos en inglKs que no tienen equi"alente en espa`ol# como 1s , 31 o 1f ,
- !quellos sonidos en inglKs que son aparentemente iguales a algunos en espa`ol#
como el inglKs E*E y el sonido espa`ol EchE.
!quellos sonidos en inglKs que son similares a algunos en espa`ol pero que tienen distinta
distribuciHn# como E E en this, que es un fonema en inglKs# pero un alHfono en espa`ol9 dado
(Eda oE).
Sistema fonológico de la lengua inglesa II: Acento, ritmo y entonación.
Comaración con el sistema fonológico de la lengua o lenguas oficiales de la
Comunidad Autónoma corresondiente.
!. %&onetics and %&onology
'. %&onemes and Seec& Sounds
(. Stress)R&yt&m and Intonation
!. #egrees of Stress
'. %osition of Stress
(. Stress in t&e Canarian #ialect) Sanis& language
<. R*+T*M
!. ,ea- and Strong .orms
'. Regularity of R&yt&m
(. R&yt&m in t&e Canarian #ialect) Sanis& language
!. .alling Tone
'. Rising Tone
(. .all0rise Tone
/. Rise0fall Tone
1. 2e3el Tone
4. .all5rise Tone

The most noticeable feature of a foreign language is often intonation and rhythm. Some
languages are described as sounding "like music", other languages as being "flat and
without melody". If the pronunciation of individual sounds can be compared with the
individual notes in a piece of music, the intonation can be compared with the melody or
When studying the pronunciation system of a language we differentiate two categories:
• Segmental elements: owel and consonant sounds.
• !rosodic elements: rhythm, stress and intonation.
/. %&onetics and %&onology
%*O"ETICS: is the science that studies the language sounds" how
sounds are produced in general.
%*O"O2O6+: is the study of the sound system in a particular language.
It includes intonation, rhythm, sounds patterns, etc.
1. %&onemes and Seec& Sounds
%*O"EME: is the smallest unit of speech that can change the meaning of
a word.
S%EEC* SO$"#: is any unit of sound produced by the speech organs.
They are the muscles and parts of the mouth, which we use to speak.
The Phoneme is also defined as "only in terms of its differences from the
other phonemes in the same language".
#$: Ship sheep
Minimal airs: Such pairs, which differ only in one phoneme.
4. Stress, R&yt&m and Intonation
When dealing with the concepts of Stress, %hythm and Intonation, we should
start by referring to the concept of prominence
• %rominence: is the characteristic in common with all stressed syllables. &our
different factors are important:
e. 'oudness
f. 'ength
g. !itch: is closely related to the fre(uency of vibration of the vocal cords.
h. ) syllable will tend to be prominent if it contains a vowel that is different in
(uality from neighbouring vowels.
• Stress concerns the relative prominence with which one part of a word or a
longer utterance is distinguished from other parts.
• R&yt&m concerns the relative prominence, or pattern of the stresses being
perceived as peaks of prominence, occurring at somewhat regular intervals of
time. #nglish is a language with a tendency for a stress*timed rhythm.
• Intonation is the association of the relative prominence with pitch, the aspect of
the sound which we perceive in terms of "high" or "low".
Ot&er rosodic systems include factors such as tempo and the relative speed of
utterance. %ercetion of t&e r&yt&m 7ase may in3ol3e o7ser3ing 3ariations of
loudness, itc& and seed.
We can study stress from the point of view of roduction and of ercetion.
The production of stress is generally believed to depend on the speaker using
more muscular energy than is used for unstressed syllables. +any different sound
characteristics are important in making a syllable recognisably stressed.
In #nglish, stressed syllables are longer then unstressed ones, the vowels are
more voiced within them. Stress is not marked in the spelling system, but it can
be transcribed phonetically.
The importance of stress should be noted, given that incorrect stress on syllables
is an obstacle to communication, because it may lead the speaker to understand
a different word, that follows a different stress pattern.
!. #egrees of Stress
We can distinguish between the primary and secondary stress. The first
one is also called tonic strong stress, while the second one is also called
non*tonic strong stress.
#$: ,presup,ose
There are other authors who consider that there e$ist three stresses.
#$: ,many ,lovely ,-girls
'. %osition of Stress
.ormally stresses are in a fi$ed position in a word.
• First syllable: ,precept
• Second syllable: to-night
• Third syllable: engi-neer
• Fourth syllable: misunder-stood
• Fifth syllable: palatali-/ation
i. Native words and early French loans
#$: ,kingly ,kingliness un-kingliness
j. All abstract nouns ending in –ion
#$: ,mission
#. Nouns ending in –ity
#$: ,vacuous va-cuity
l. Nouns and adjectives ending in –ian
#$: ,liberty liber-tarian
m. Adjectives ending in –ic
#$: ,phoneme pho-nemic
n. Words with more than one function
) wide selection of words that can operate e(ually well as nouns0ad1ectives or
verbs, are differentiated by their stress in the two functions:
#$: ,present 2.oun or ad1ective3 pre-sent 2verb3
o. Compound nouns
They are generally stressed on the first element with a secondary stress on the
second element in contrast to the normal noun phrase stress pattern:
#$: ,black ,bird 2compound nouns3 a ,black ,bird 2noun phrase3

p. Stress in phrases
When we come to stress in phrases and other syntactic units, we provide different
underlying relations between 1u$taposed items.
#$: )n ,#nglish ,teacher 2someone who teaches #nglish3
)n ,#nglish ,teacher 2a teacher who is #nglish3
'. Stress in t&e Canarian #ialect) Sanis& language
d. e!ical and secondary stress
The 4anarian speakers should keep in mind the different importance given to the
secondary accent in Spanish as compared with #nglish. The pronunciation of
isolated words rarely occurs in Spanish, it only happens in )dverbs ending in "*
mente", and in a few compound adverbs.
#$: s5mplem6nte 7ptico*ac8stico
e. Contrastive secondary stress
The secondary stress occurs in the 4anarian dialect as well, but it is not
#$: las cuestiones tanto ,interiores como ,e$teriores
)lthough #nglish compounds generally turn into a secondary stress the one which
was the primary in the root, and this secondary stress still keeps a considerable
strength" Spanish moves the stress to the suffi$es:
#$: ,central 0 ,centra-li/e centr9l 0 centrali/9r
) secondary stress does not appear e$cept in the cases where the general rules
of Spanish regulate it.
f. Stress position and "ffect
In two*syllable words both languages have a preference for stressing the syllable before
the last" #nglish tends to stress the antepenultimate syllable in three or more syllables
words whereas Spanish keeps the penult position for stress.
#nglish vowels are deeply affected by their stress, whether primary or secondary.
Stressed vowels have a precise and clear pronunciation, whereas unstressed vowels have
a tendency to become indistinct.
&inally , in Spanish the stress is represented in the spelling, what makes it easier to be
remembered and pronounced , whereas in #nglish it-s not represented.
'. R*+T*M
%hythm may be defined as the regular succession of strong and weak stresses in
utterances. The notion of r&yt&m involves some noticeable event happening at
regular intervals of time. The theory that #nglish has stress0 timed r&yt&m
implies that stressed syllables will tend to occur at relatively regular intervals
whether they are separated by unstressed syllables or not.
Some writers have developed theories of #nglish rhythm in which a unit of
rhythm, the foot is used. Some theories of rhythm go further, and point to the
fact that some feet are stronger than others, producing strong*weak patterns.

!. ,ea- and Strong forms
T&e 8ea- form, in which the vowel is pronounced with the schwa vowel,
is more common than the other.
The strong form in which the vowel is pronounced as it is written.
:bviously the use of one or another form may affect the meaning of the
#$: ,;ane and her ,mother ,-are ,stupid < it is not true that they are not
,;ane ,-and her ,mother are ,stupid < not 1ust one, but both are stupid
Weak forms are a manifestation of stress and rhythm in #nglish, and must
not be avoided in teaching, or the learner will sound unnatural in
connected speech.
'. Regularity of R&yt&m
The natural rhythm of #nglish provides roughly e(ual intervals of time between the
stressed items.
The prevailing tendency in unstressed syllables and words is to reduce the vowels to the
obscure 0 0, thus we have 0 0 in a great many syllables:
#$: a kilo of potato 0 ,ki:l v p , te t /0
%egularity of rhythm is used for specific pourposes:
d. 4ounting:
#$: ,one, ,two, ,three,..., seventy ,four, seventy ,five
e. Inventory or lists
f. #mphasis:
#$: you should ,always ,look be-fore you ,cross the ,-road

'. R&yt&m in t&e Canarian #ialect) Sanis& language
It is essential in #nglish to have a sentence rhythm, which does not e$ist in Spanish.
In an #nglish sentence certain words which are too close to the initial rhythmic beat lose
their le$ical stress in spite of having le$ical stress. This does not happen in Spanish.
#$: Mary-s younger 7rother wanted fifty chocolate eanuts
In this e$ample we can see the difference with the Spanish stress, in Spanish all the
words will be stressed" however, in #nglish only the syllables in bold type are really
stressed, thus favouring rhythm.
The behaviour of prepositions and con1unctions differs in both languages: they are
usually stressed in #nglish" in Spanish only the preposition "seg8n" is stressed.
Stress also varies in #nglish depending on whether it is used on strong or weak forms of
the same words. There is nothing in Spanish, which resembles the #nglish strong and
weak forms so this will prove difficult for Spanish students.
Intonation is the tune within the sentence that may alter the meaning. =ere the
itc& of the voice plays the most important part. We describe itc& in terms of
&ig& and lo8. There is another necessary condition and that is that a itc&
difference must be erceti7le.
Intonation is generally found in se(uences of stressed and unstressed syllables,
though it can be a single word. We call it the tone unit, within which there is the
nucleus 9caital letters:. The first stressed syllable in a tone unit is a onset
2,3, the end will be 2,-3
The rise and fall of pitch throughout is called its intonation contour. #nglish has
a number of intonation patterns which add conventionali/ed meanings to the
utterance: (uestion, statement, surprise, disbelief, sarcasm, teasing. )n
important feature of #nglish intonation is the use of an intonational accent 2and
e$tra stress3 to mark the focus of a sentence. .ormally this focus accent goes on
the last ma1or word of the sentence, but it can come earlier in order to
emphasi/e one of the earlier words or to contrast it with something else.
#$: She ,told S:+eone--
She ,7oug&t it for a %ARty--
" "
onset nucleus
Tone unit
!. .alling Tone
This is the commonest tone in #nglish affirmative sentences, wh*word
(uestion, one word answers to (uestions, and on words, names, numbers
and letters said in isolation.
#$: ,What-s the T>+#--
,'[email protected]:.--
'. Rising Tone
It is used to suggest that what is said is not final.
#$: 4ounting: ,?.#-- ,TW?--...
:r because a response is needed 2though not in wh*word (uestion3:
#$: )re you ,=B!py--
:r when two clauses are 1oined together:
#$: When I ,CDT there-- I-ll =>T him--
) (uestion will use a rising tone while the (uestion tag uses the falling
The fall and rise are by far and away the most common of the nuclear
(. .all0rise Intonation
It often occurs in the nucleus of a doubtful condition, but it is particularly
common with the initial adverb:
#$: I-ll- see him if he 4?+#S--
/. Rise0fall Intonation
It e$presses as it does both genuine and assumed warmth, as well as
feelings of shock or surprise.
#$: ,That-s C%D)T--
1. 2e3el Tone
It sometimes used to the e$act predictability of what is to follow:
#$: he @%B.E-- he W?+anised he ,@>#@
4. .all0rise Intonation
It is common in everyday usage:
#$: She looks &>.# to +D--
It is often used with marked focus, the fall coming on the focus item and the rise
on the last le$ical item in the tone unit:
#$: It-s his ,+B.ners that I can-t [email protected] < ,What I don-t '>E# ,- are his F
)ll languages have their own intonation patterns. Why is intonation importantF
Intonation conveys both meaning and attitude, so when a non*native speaker gets the
intonation wrong, s0he can be misunderstood or sometimes misinterpreted as sounding
rude or demanding when this is not intended. If a non*native speaker is almost fluent in
the #nglish language, intonation is often the only way in which one can tell that s0he is
foreign. +oreover, if a foreign speaker is advanced in terms of grammar, vocabulary, etc.,
native speakers will make fewer allowances for intonation problems than they would with
speakers who are obviously at a more elementary level. &or e$ample, if an advanced
level speaker unintentionally sounds rude or demanding, the listeners will assume that
s0he means it.
What can be done to improve intonationF &irst of all students should be aware of the
differences between their intonation and the #nglish one:
• Spanish intonation is much more measured, so we have to teach the students
how to intonate the different #nglish elements.
• Intonation in Spoken Spanish does not rise and fall as much as #nglish. Students
should try and keep the voice as levelled as possible.
Some useful techni(ues may be :
• 'isten to as much spoken #nglish as possible 2on cassette if you are unable to
listen to native speakers3 and be aware of where the voice rises and falls. When
you listen, try to consider the attitude and feelings being conveyed. :ne word, for
e$ample, can be said in several different ways, depending on the meaning you
wish to convey.
• Stories motivate children to listen and learn, and help them to become aware of
the sound and feel of #nglish. ) selection of ready*to*tell stories is included
although the activities can be used with any story.
• 4reating @rama with poetry is an e$citing language learning e$perience. The use
of poetry as drama in the #nglish as a second language 2#S'3 classroom enables
the students to e$plore the linguistic and conceptual aspects of the written te$t
without concentrating on the mechanics of language. Through this techni(ue,
apart from several other aspects the teacher can model student-s pronunciation,
intonation, stress, rhythm, and oral e$pression"
We as teachers have to take into account all the differences e$isting between 'G and 'H
patterns of stress, rhythm and intonation, and try our students to differentiate them. So
#nglish people can understand their speaking.

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+,7%&*7 @& '=T&,V&=%'W=.
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*on el con:unto de sistemas que se han desarrollado para facilitar la comunicaciHn de
los su:etos# que por distintas ra(ones# no poseen una emisiHn normal del lengua:e oral.
*e puede distinguir entre9
*istemas alternati"os9 se ofrecen como la anica forma de lengua:e que puede
desarrollar el su:eto.
*istemas complementarios9 "ienen a apoyar otra forma de lengua:e que el su:eto ya
@iferenciamos dos bloques de sistemas alternati"os yEo complementarios9
<Ktodos de comunicaciHn no "ocal9 *+% > 4'**# se emplearGn con su:etos
afectados de +.%.# con deficiencias fJsicas que impiden su comunicaciHn oral# con autistas y
deficientes mentales.
<Ktodos especJficos de los su:etos con deficiencias auditi"as9 lengua:e de signos#
bimodal y cued1speech.
=o deben ser considerados como definiti"os o excluyentes del lengua:e oral# sino que se
ofrecen como una herramienta de sustituciHn del mismo# aunque en algunos su:etos si se
pueden con"ertir en la anica forma de comunicaciHn debido a su grado de deficiencia.
*e basa# principalmente# en sJmbolos pictogrGficos# es decir# dibu:os sencillos e iconos. %ada
sJmbolo aparece acompa`ado de la palabra que representa# y en caso de tKrminos demasiados
abstractos# puede aparecer sHlo la palabra escrita.
4os sJmbolos del *+% presentan las siguientes caracterJsticas9
,epresentan las palabras y conceptos mGs habituales en el lengua:e cotidiano.
+uede ser utili(ado por distintos grupos de edad.
*Jmbolos fGciles y rGpidamente diferenciables.
&l "ocabulario# se di"ide en seis categorJas9
!d:eti"os y ad"erbios
!rtJculos# con:unciones...
TKrminos sociales
%ada sJmbolo es coloreado segan a la categorJa a la que pertenece# asJ tenemos9
TKrminos descripti"osQa(ul
TKrminos di"ersosQblanco
TKrminos socialesQrosa
&ste cHdigo cromGtico tiene como "enta:as9 facilitar una locali(aciHn mGs rGpida#
reestructurar las frases sencillas# moti"aciHn del ni`o.
! la hora de aplicar Kste mKtodo# hay que tener en cuenta algunas consideraciones9
!decuado para personas con un ni"el del lengua:e expresi"o simple.
=o indicado para personas con problemas "isuales.
4os su:etos deben poseer un mJnimo de habilidades cogniti"as.
&l su:eto debe sentir la necesidad de comunicarse.
Todas las personas implicadas# deben mostrar paciencia para ense`arlo.
3'*T7,'! Fueron creados por el australiano %3. 4'**# quien quiso crear un lengua:e
internacional que pudiera ser entendido por cualquier persona del mundo.
&n -.6. publicH su primer manual# pero no obtu"o ningan Kxito# hasta que en -.B- fue
utili(ado por un grupo de especialistas para la comunicaciHn en ni`os deficientes fJsicos.
_XT^ &* &4 4'**'<74'*<7; *istema de sJmbolos que utili(a formas para
transmitir significados# son formas geomKtricas bGsicas (cuadrado# cJrculo....) y cada uno estG
asociado a un significado especJfico. +ueden combinarse entre sJ para formar nue"os
significados. 4os sJmbolos se agrupan en cuatro categorJas9
*Jmbolos pictogrGficos9 recuerdan la forma de lo que representa.
*Jmbolos ideogrGficos9 no recuerdan la imagen pero la e"ocan.
*Jmbolos arbitrarios9 no pueden ra(onarse.
*Jmbolos combinados9 combinaciHn de los anteriores.
7tros factores# ademGs de la forma# sir"en para determinar el significado del sJmbolo9
Tama`o posiciHn direcciHn amplitud referencias.
Tna caracterJstica# es que los sJmbolos se agrupan en categorJas que reciben un color
especJfico (igual que en el *+%).
&l su:eto posee un tablero donde estGn los sJmbolos con un orden concreto# en cada uno
aparece escrito lo que significa facilitando asJ la interpretaciHn a personas que no cono(can el
mKtodo y quieran comunicarse con el su:eto.
&s un mKtodo especialmente indicado para personas con deficiencia fJsica.
4as habilidades bGsicas que debe poseer el su:eto son9
3abilidad de discriminaciHn "isual
3abilidad cogniti"a
3abilidades motrices
uena coordinaciHn entre comprensiHn auditi"a y "isual.
V&=T!F!* @&4 <^[email protected] 4'** son las siguientes9
FGciles de aprender
FGcil generali(aciHn
%ontribuyen a la estructuraciHn mental
!yudan a la adquisiciHn de la lectura
%4!*'F'%!%'W= 4os clasificamos en9
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[email protected]'77,!4&*
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%7<T='%!%'W= T7T!4
7+7*'%'W= 7,!4'*<71<!=T!4'*=7 3ay tres grupos claramente definidos9
&l grupo oralista# se basa en el uso del lengua:e oral# descartando el lengua:e de signos por
considerarlo poco estructurado y entorpecer el lengua:e oral.
&l manualista# defiende la expresiHn de la palabra mediante signos reali(ados con las manos y
los dedos.
&l tercer grupo lo forman los mKtodos mixtos#educar al su:eto sordo "aliKndose de todos los
recursos y procedimientos que estKn a nuestro alcance# ya sea mJmica# oralismo# gestos....
4&=NT!F& @& *'N=7* &l lengua:e mJmico# manual o gestual# es uno de los lengua:es
utili(ados por los su:etos con deficiencia auditi"a# consta de signos reali(ados con las manos
y dedos# acompa`ado de gestos (opuesto al oralismo).
@entro del lengua:e mJmico# podemos diferenciar "arios mKtodos9
4&=NT!F& <h<'%7 9 @!%T'4747Nh!
4&=NT!F& @& *'N=7*
Da)%$1&1&gXa 9 o alfabeto manual# representa cada una de las letras del alfabeto por medio
de distintas configuraciones de la mano. *e reali(a con una sola mano y suele ser"ir de
complemento al lengua:e de signos para designar nombres propios o tKrminos sin traducciHn.
L!ngaE! "! '$gn&' 9 a su "e(# puede comprender9
4engua:e de signos utili(ado en las comunidades de sordos
4engua:e de signos con estructura gramatical seme:ante a la de los
*istema que sir"e de apoyo al lengua:e oral.
=o es uni"ersal# lo que significa que sordos de distintos paJses ( o incluso del mismo paJs#
pero de diferente ciudad) utili(an signos distintos.
&n este tipo de lengua:e nos podemos encontrar signos icHnicos y signos arbitrarios.
=o consiste solamente en un con:unto de gestos# sino que presenta una estructura#
determinada por una serie de parGmetros9
%onfiguraciHn de la mano
%T&@1*+&&%3 7 +!4,! %7<+4&<&[email protected]! &s un complemento "isual a la
lectura labial que permite eliminar #las posibles confusiones de fonemas con el mismo punto
de articulaciHn. +ertenece a la corriente oralista.
*u ob:eti"o es facilitar la discriminaciHn y comprensiHn de los sonidos del habla por medio
de se`ales manuales que se reali(an cerca de la cara.
*u metodologJa # se basa en tres posiciones de la mano para las "ocales (lado# barbilla y
garganta)# y ocho para las consonantes.
Tn requisito bGsico# es su prGctica ante el espe:o# para fi:ar bien las posiciones de las manos y
e"itar mo"imientos inapropiados.
&l sistema se basa9
4a sJlaba es la unidad bGsica
4os kinemas en sJ no tienen significado
&l ni`o tiene que leer los labios del interlocutor
&l sistema es simple y puede ser aprendido por ni`os menores de / a`os
! partir de los estudios reali(ados a ni`os sordos espa`oles# se producen las siguientes
4a palabra complementada despe:a la ambigIedad del mensa:e
+arece indicado para sordos profundos
!similaciHn perfecta en ni`os con deficiencia auditi"a
*'*T&<! '<[email protected]!4 &xpresiHn simultGnea manual y oral de la lengua de una
comunidad de oyentes# utili(ando para su emisiHn el "ocabulario del lengua:e de signos. =o
es la utili(aciHn de dos lenguas# sino que se trata de un solo lengua:e (oral) acompa`ado de
signos("ocabulario de signos).
&ste tipo de comunicaciHn desempe`a dos funciones claras9
@esarrollar la comunicaciHn del su:eto
+ermitir el aprendi(a:e del lengua:e oral
&n la prGctica educati"a# tanto profesores# padres...# deberJan utili(ar este mKtodo para la
comunicaciHn. 4os signos deben aprenderse de forma natural# segan sur:an las necesidades
del ni`o# aunque es con"eniente traba:ar algunas de forma mGs sistemati(ada como las
nociones espaciales# temporales# causales# las categorJas y preguntas concretas.
&n este sistema# el ni`o adquiere ante los signos que las palabras# por lo que debemos
ense`arle a partir de nociones y construcciones ya adquiridas en el ni`o su correspondencia
4a elecciHn del sistema# estG condicionada por las posibilidades reales que presente el su:eto
con el que "amos a traba:ar. &s e"idente que son muchos los factores a tener en cuenta para
reali(ar la elecciHn9
+osibilidades del su:eto (tipo de deficiencia# grado de afectaciHn...)
!ctitud de padres y educadores
!mbiente educati"o en el que el su:eto estG inmerso# etc...
&V!4T!%'W= @& 47* *'T&<!* *+% > 4'**
!mbos mKtodos son muy similares en cuanto a su estructura y composiciHn# lo que incluso
puede lle"ar el uso con:unto de ambos sistemas.
V&=T!F!*9 *u aprendi(a:e y memori(aciHn pueden ser relati"amente fGciles# al incluir
muchos sJmbolos pictogrGficos e ideogrGficos.
+uede estar indicado para personas que no estKn preparadas para el uso del alfabeto#
pero que necesitan comunicarse con las personas de su entorno.
4os sJmbolos pueden ampliar mucho su significado mediante distintas
combinaciones y ampliaciones.
Fa"orece el desarrollo personal global del ni`o a ni"el social# emocional# y de me:ora
de la propia imagen.
'=%7=V&='&=T&*9 +ara que la comunicaciHn sea efecti"a es necesario que el interlocutor
cono(ca tambiKn el sistema liss o *+%.
+uede con"ertirse en una alternati"a al lengua:e oral# impidiendo su aprendi(a:e y
&s necesario elaborar el tablero con los sJmbolos# siendo casi siempre necesario
reali(arlos manualmente (por ausencia de impresoras que realicen estos sJmbolos).
&V!4T!%'W= @& 47* <^[email protected]* 4&=NT!F& @& *'N=7*# %T&@1
*+&&%3 > '<[email protected]!4.
4as V&=T!F!* son9
+roporciona un medio de comunicaciHn al su:eto con deficiencia auditi"a
desde muy temprana edad.
4os signos se aprenden antes que el lengua:e oral y escrito.
+ermite el desarrollo lingIJstico del ni`o.
&s fGcil de aprender por los padres y educadores.
4os '=%7=V&='&=T&* son9
+ara algunos autores# no potencia el desarrollo del lengua:e oral.
*on diferentes los signos empleados entre distintas comunidades de deficientes
3ay conceptos o palabras que no pueden ser representados si no es con ayuda
de otros mKtodos (dactilologJa).
4as V&=T!F!*# son9
Fa"orece la discriminaciHn fonKtica que facilita la lectura labial# y amplJa el
+uede aplicarse desde edades tempranas.
&l ni`o aprende a hablar antes que a leer y escribir# como ocurre con el ni`o
!l concentrar la atenciHn en los labios# se contribuye a desarrollar la aptitud
para la lectura labio1facial.
4a "elocidad de articulaciHn de las palabras es casi el doble que con el
lengua:e de signos.
4os '=%7=V&='&=T&*#son9
=ecesita un programa paralelo para desmuti(ar al ni`o.
@emasiada dependencia "isual y esfuer(o contJnuo de la atenciHn en la cara
del interlocutor.
@ependencia de la palabra complementada para entender a cualquier
4as V&=T!F!*# son9
*uponen un uso complementario de dos canales de informaciHn # lo que
aumentarG y facilitarG la comprensiHn del su:eto.
&l '=%7=V&='&=T&# es que no es de carGcter uni"ersal.
!*'4# % *istemas de %omunicaciHn no Vocal# para ni`os con disminuciones
fJsicas. Fundesco. <adrid. -.?A.
<!,%3&*'# !. &l desarrollo cogniti"o y lingIJstico de los ni`os sordos.
!lian(a. <adrid. -.?B.
<7=F7,T# <. 4os trastornos de la comunicaciHn en el ni`o. %epe. <adrid.
7$,!=# 4. 4os sJmbolos liss# una introducciHn. <ec. <adrid. -.?A.
!+4'%!%'W= @'@i%T'%! @&4 T&<! -D
+!TT!* %7=%,&T!* @& !%TT!%'W= %7= T= ='j7 +!,!4hT'%7
%&,&,!4 '=T&N,[email protected] &= T=! %4!*& @& +,&&*%74!,9
&=*&j!=\! @&4 4'**.
4as pautas de actuaciHn irGn encaminadas en estos sentidos9
%onseguir una posiciHn adecuada.
!daptaciHn del material didGctico.
+rofesor de !poyo a la 'ntegraciHn.
+autas concretas en la ense`an(a del liss.
[email protected]!+T!%'W= @&4 <7'4'!,'7 &*%74!,
<esa9 altura# semicJrculo cortado# tablas su:eciHn...
*illa9 altura# reposapiKs# ruedas# molde....
+etos9 cu`as...
[email protected]!+T!%'W= @&4 <!T&,'!4 @'@i%T'%7.
*e`ali(adores9 4icornios
*oportes9 Tablero
Todas estas adaptaciones "an encaminadas por una parte a posibilitar el acceso fJsico del ni`o
a los materiales didGcticos que mGs adelante se exponen# asJ como a conseguir una posiciHn
corporal que inhiba los mo"imientos refle:os anormales que caracteri(an a los ni`os con +.%.9
+osturas inhibidoras de refle:os y espasticidades.
+osturas que posibiliten el equilibrio.
+osturas que mantengan erguida la cabe(a.
+,7F&*7, @& !+7>7
4a presencia de un ni`o de cinco a`os con +arGlisis %erebral# en el aula de preescolar# es
posible que necesite del apoyo de otra persona que no sea el tutor de la clase. Tna posibilidad
es que el profesor de !poyo a la 'ntegraciHn o el profesor de !udiciHn y 4engua:e (logopeda)
estK un tiempo determinado en el aula de preescolar atendiendo a ese ni`o# sobre todo en los
momentos concretos en que se desarrolle el programa de liss.
&stG claro que estos detalles dependerGn de la dotaciHn de personal que hubiese en el centro#
y que la forma de lle"ar a cabo este traba:o no tendrJa que ser igual en todos los colegios.
+,7N,!<! 4'**
P2$+!2 -a'&
*erJa establecer las respuestas *hE=7 mediante dibu:os significati"os. +odrJan ser9
Tn ni`o coge sua"emente a un gato....................*h
Tn ni`o coge a un gato por el rabo......................=7
&stos dibu:os se harJan en la pi(arra# cada uno en un extremo# y ser"irJan para iniciar la
comunicaciHn entre los ni`os 0normales2 con el ni`o con +.%.
%ualquier pregunta que se hiciese serJa contestada con un mo"imiento de los o:os# que se
dirigen hacia el dibu:o representati"o de *h o =7.
<Gs tarde se a`adirJa a estos dibu:os los signos (Z) y (1)# como una iniciaciHn a la
S!gn"& -a'&
+uesta en contacto con los sJmbolos pictogrGficos bGsicos. &stos sJmbolos serJan
siempre en negro y se les a`adirJa color como ayuda.
&:emplo9 el sJmbolo 0alimento2 (cJrculo con una lJnea hori(ontal deba:o) se le a`adirJa un
tenedor y un cuchillo en color a los lados.
T!2)!2 -a'&
!cti"idades comunes para todo el grupo de clase9
+lastilina9 los ni`os hacen Grboles# barcos# animales...y los empare:an con los
sJmbolos correspondientes con 0churros2 de plastilina.
+lantillas9 recortamos las formas de los sJmbolos en cartHn.
<urales9 al reali(arlos# a los ob:etos mGs conocidos les colocamos al lado el
sJmbolo liss.
Franelograma9 usar los ob:etos con su sJmbolo al lado.
<arionetas9 pegar a cada persona:e el sJmbolo correspondiente.
%ompletar fichas9 dibu:os y sJmbolos) unir los que correspondan.
%on estas acti"idades# todos los ni`os se inician en el sistema liss como un :uego# se pueden
comunicar con su compa`ero +.%. y se sientan las bases de la aceptaciHn mutua.
&=N4'*3 7,T37N,!+3'% %[email protected]&*. ,&4!T'7=*3'+ &T$&&= *[email protected]
[email protected] 7,T37N,!+3>. +,7+7*!4* F7, T3& T&!%3'=N 7F T3&
$,'TT&= %[email protected]&. 7,T37N,!+3'% !++4'%!T'7=* '= $,'TT&=
+,[email protected]%T'7=*.
This unit is about &nglish orthography# how it changes depending on the morphological
functions of words.
The topic is di"ided into six different sections9
1 The first section is a brief introduction.
- The second one is the orthographic codes.
- The third one is the relationship between sound and letter.
- The fourth one is where we are going to talk about different acti"ities to
impro"e the pupil’s writing.
- The fifth one is the conclusion.
- !nd the last section is the bibliography.
!s an introduction to this topic we can say that &nglish orthographic system
was fixed between the ?
and .
'n &nglish there is no a uni"ocal system of orthographic reference for all the
different sounds such as in *panish. This is due to the e"olution of the
phonological system and the e"olution of the written system which took place in
different centuries.
The written system took place between -6
and -A
# whereas phonological one
appeared between -?
and -.
=ow we are going to go on the next point# which deals with spelling codes. ' am
going to talk about the main orthographic rules in &nglish# but of course# there
are so many that it would be impossible to remember each one of them.
' will start by these concerning capital letters.
The initial letter of the following cases must be written in capital9
- @ays# months and bank holidays.
- +eople first name and places.
- <r# <iss# <rs# @r.
- %ountries# places of origin and language.
- The first written word of tittles in books# films# places# etc# as well as the rest
of initial except prepositions and articles.
' will continue with plural formation. +lural is usually formed by adding Ls to
the singular. ut there are some cases which must be named9
- $hen singular words end in Ly and when preceded by a consonant will
change to Li and will add Les. ( ladyE ladies). ut Ly when preceded by a
"owel will :ust add Ls. ( boyE boys)
- $hen singular words end in Lch# 1sh# 1s# 1x# 1(#1o# in plural formation will
end in Les. ( church E churches). ut ending in Lo of foreign origin :ust
adding Ls.( pianoEpianos)
- !mong the words ending in Lf# 1fe there are three different solutions9
• there are twel"e nouns which form their plural by changing Lf # 1fe to
L"es. ( knifeEkni"es)
• nouns such as scarf# wharf and hoof form their plural :ust adding
1s# or L"es indistincti"ely. ( scarfsE sacar"es).
• other words ending in Lf# 1fe form their plural :ust adding Ls.
- There are other nouns which form their plural by means of a "ocalic change.
( man Emen). (an exception# childEchildren).
- There are nouns which do not admit any plural feature. !nimal species#
- To sum up the plural point ' will includ all those cases which don’t follow
the rules for se"eral reasons9
• *ome words ha"e only singular forms# (news# knowledge)
• 7thers always ha"e plural form# ( police# glasses# clothes)
• $ords ending in Lics# (mathematics). ut when they are referred as
sciences they are considered as singular words.
• There are words with plural form but the "erb accompanying them is
singular.( news)
- $ords of foreign origin.
Nreek and 4atin words which are kept exactly the same change to plural
according to the rules of the language where they come from.
3owe"er# there is an increasing tendency to assimilate those "ery common
words to the &nglish plural formation. (dogmaEdogmas).
*ometimes both forms# that of origin and the &nglish one co1exist# but the
meaning is different. (indexE indexesE indices)
- %ompounds. 'n compound words is normally the last word the one which
adds the plural form. (armchairE armchairs).
• 'f the first part of a compound word is man or woman# both parts will
take plural form. ( men students)
• $hen compounds words ha"e been formed by prepositions or ad"erbs
only the first part of the noun takes plural form.(brothers in law)
• $hen the last part of a compound word is an ad:ecti"e# the first word
is the one taking plural form. (courts martial)
• !bbre"iations may also take plural form. ($'+s)
!fter ha"ing seen plural formation# we are going to look at duplication of final
$hen we add the following endings9 1ed# 1ing# 1er# 1est# to a word in order to
form compounds# the final consonant duplicates whene"er it is Lb# 1d# 1g# 1l# 1m#
1n# 1p# 1r# 1t. (robE robber)
=e"ertheless# there are cases where the consonants don’t duplicate e"en though
the circunstances stated abo"e are gi"en. (openE opening).
't is due to the fact that the consonant duplicates only when the accent falls on the last
syllable of the word.
!nother item will be the suffix Lly.
The addition of this suffix to an ad:ecti"e makes it become a manner ad"erb.
(nice Enicely)
The addiction of this suffix sometimes implies an orthographic change in some
- $hen a word ends in Ly will change to Li. (happy E happily)
- 'f an ad:ecti"e ends in Lle will change its ending to Lly. ( possible E possibly)
- 'f the ad:ecti"e ends in Lic when adding Lly a "owel La also be added.
( tragic Etragically)
- &xceptions to this rule are9 ( truly# publicly)
=ow the change of Ly to Li. !part of the rules already stated abo"e# there are
some more changes9
- $hene"er any suffix is added to any word ending in Ly# it will change to Li .
(hurry E hurried# easy E easier)
- &xceptions# a suffix beginning in Li such as Lism# 1ish# 1i(e# 1ing makes Ly
be kept. ( boy E boyish). &xcept ( sayEsaid# layElaid# pay Epaid)
- $ords ending in Lie change this ending to Ly before Ling. ( dieE dying# lieE
!nother item is numerals.
3undred# thousand# million# when used as a specific number ha"e no plural
form. ( six hundred people)
3owe"er plural must be used when the idea of a large non specific number is
gi"en. ( hundreds of years)
7ne more orthographic rule in &nglish is weights and measures.
- 7unce# pound and ton take Ls when used as nouns. *tone doesn’t take plural.
( two pounds of sugar# my weigh is fi"e stone).
• =umerals ne"er take Ls when used as compound ad:ecti"es. ( six1
pound note).
14ength measures usually take plural Ls. ( six inches# two miles). Foot and feet
may be used.
• ne"er these measures change to plural when used as compounds. (a ten
mile walk# a six foot quilt).
7ne more rule is Le in final position.
- $e omit it when adding a suffix beginning with a "owel. ( writeE writing).
This doesn’t happen when the word ends in Lee. ( disagreeE disagreeable).
- $hen a word ends in Lce and the suffix Lous is added then Le changes to Li.
( "iceE "icious).
- 'f a suffix beginning with a consonant is added# then Le is kept. ( hope E
- &xcept in some words9 trueE truly# argueE argument.
!nother rule in spelling is the suffix Lfull.
The suffix Lfull loses the last consonant when added to a word to form an
ad:ecti"e. ( beautyE beautyful).
The original suffix is kept when ad"erbs from these ad:ecti"es are formed.
( beautiful E beautifully).
$hen the words to which the suffix is added ends in Lll one of them will be
lost. ( skillE skilful).
1'se or Li(e in final position is another rule.
oth groups Lise# .i(e appearing in some &nglish "erbs may sometimes be used
indistinctly. ( computerise E computeri(e).
The written form Li(e is preferred but with some exceptions.
- Two syllable words. ( re"ise# ad"ise).
- The following words.( ad"ertise# impro"ise# exercise)
- =e"ertheless Lise is used more in ritish &nglish# and Li(e is more in
!merican &nglish.
The last rule we are going to mention is hyphened compouns# but as we said
before there are too much rules that is impossible to explain each one.
- %ompound ad:ecti"es are usually :oined by a hyphen. ( blue1eyed).
- ! group of words which are commonly used as ad:ecti"es before a noun are
also :oined by a hyphen. ( a fi"e1pound note).
- 3yphen is also used in group of words forming a compound whose first
word is the stressed one.
7nce ha"ing studied some orthographic rules in &nglish we are going to mo"e
onto the next point in the topic which deal with the relationship between sound
and orthography.
$hereas the &nglish written form starts to be fixed during the ?
and .
centuries# the phonological system takes a more or less fixed structure about -?
and -.
This fact makes almost impossible to establish a correct correspondence
between phonemes and letters# in order to ha"e a model to follow both when
writing what we hear and when pronouncing what we read.
$hen an equi"alence is obser"ed and we try to systematise it# exceptions are so
many than it is useless to establish a rule.
=e"ertheless# among the "ery few equi"alences we will point out the following9
- !t the end of a word and after a "owel# both phonemes EkE and EtfE may be
represented by Lck and 1tch. ( pack# watch)
- !fter a consonant or two "owels both phonemes EkE and EtfE are usually
represented by Lk and Lch.( bank# bench).
- The "ocalic phoneme Ei9E is frequently written Lie and in some cases Lei.
( belie"e# ceiling).
- The consonantal group Lgh usually represented the phoneme EfE. *ometimes
it is no pronounced. ( cough# enough). &xception ( although)
- The phoneme EkE is represented by Lch when it is in between1"owel position.
( headache)
- The letter a is read as EeE in9 any# many.
- The letters ea are read as EeE in 9 breakfast# head.
- 'n other cases the letters ea are pronounced EeiE. (steak).
- The "owel o is pronounced as EgE in 9 mother.
- The phoneme EgE may be also represented by the letters ou9 country.
- The letter u is read as EuE9 put.
- The phoneme EaiE corresponds to se"eral different letters9 buy# dial.
- There are letters which in particular positions within the word don’t
represented any phoneme# they are not pronounced# M silent letter’.
• 4# should# walk.
• T# preceded by s# castle# listen.
• $ and K in initial position when following by a consonant9 writer#
• N# sign# campaign.
• %onsonants # = preceded by <# plumber# autumn.
• 3# when# where.
• , after a "owel makes the "owel be long# car# iron.
- $e can find three1syllable written words# the stress falls on the first one and
the central "owel is not pronounced. ( e"ening) .
- !s far as plurals are concerned# the regular ending is L(e)s has three different
• !fter EsE# E(E# EfE# EtfE and Ed8E the plural ending is Les# which
corresponds with the phoneme Ei(E. ( buses).
• !fter any "oiceless phoneme EpE# EfE# EXE# EtE and EkE the plural ending L
(e)s corresponds with the phonemeEsE. (caps).
• !fter all the "owels and "oiced consonants the plural ending L(e)s
correspond with the phoneme E(E. (plays).
• &xceptions to this rule are found in words where the plural ending
affects the pronunciation of the word root.(house).
- Third person singular of the present of "erbs and possessi"e case followed
these rules abo"e.
' should like to say that it is difficult to establish rules for the pronunciation of
words in &nglish that students should learn.
To follow with this topic we are going to analyse some proposals for the
teaching of the written code. !nd also# orthographic applications in written
$e shall start this section by saying that the pupils to whom we are teaching the
foreign language in the first year are likely to ha"e problems when reading or
writing their own mother tongue. Therefore# introducing them a new writing
code may be confusing for them. $e must also consider that in real life they
write "ery little# e"en in their mother tongue# that is why we propose that the
students should start by copying words.
$hich ser"es as a starting1 point for making this acti"ity en:oyable or boring
and monotonous.
- $e can try to a"oid it by gi"ing them a card with drawing and card with
words related to these drawings# they only ha"e to combine the words with
the drawings# by copying both in their notebook.
- $e can also gi"e them a strip of comics with the chosen words and the
students will ha"e to insert the words in the speaking bubbles of each comic.
<atching pictures to speech bubbles.
- !nother acti"ity is called word machines# consisting of obtaining one word
by means of two or more transformations of a pre"iously gi"en word. ( pin
from den).
- $e may also ask the students to group the words containing two or more
equal letters in different order.
- $e may gi"e them groups of four or fi"e words in which one of them is not
correctly written and they will ha"e to find one and tell why it is incorrect.
- !nother rather successful game is called hangman# where we can eliminate
as many elements as we think necessary according to the difficulty of the
words for our student’s le"el. *imilar to this game is the shark with stairs.
- $e cam also use crosswords or word games focused on words about a
particular topic. 't is useful for warming up and relaxing acti"ities.
- !nother game is M' spy with my little eye’ which has endless possibilities of
explotation. $ith good le"el# make sentences with mistakes and students
ha"e to correct them.
- The well1known game Mnoughts and crosses’ may be adapted to our
orthographic needs.
- $e find also "ery "aluable the use of a dictionary. 't is con"enient to ha"e a
dictionary in the class. Tasks and games in groups or pairs are particularly
useful# that is# when the teacher plays the role of a facilitator. !nother
encouraging task for the students is to make their own dictionary where they
can include the "ocabulary already studied in class.
- 'n order to make the students aware of how difficult it is the relationship
between sounds and letters we can also make colleges where to include
drawings referred to a word which they know both the orthography and the
pronunciation and then add a short clue referred to a different word which is
pronounced the same and# howe"er# is written differently.
!fter ha"ing studied some proposals to achie"e orthographic rules in &nglish#
we are going to finish the topic with a brief conclusion.
't will be interesting that all these different changes produced must be taught
little by little# and also in an en:oyable way to moti"ate students# otherwise they
will re:ect them because they will find them too difficult to be assimilated.
--. 4&U'%!4 [email protected] *&<!=T'%!4 F'&[email protected]* 7F &=N4'*3.
$ords are essential to communication. &"erybody learns to speak in isolated words
and then we begin to use chains of words and "erbs. *tudents tend to pick up "ocabulary first
and then a framework in which these words can be used.
!t the same time that students learn "ocabulary they must learn phonetics and
Tsually students ha"e a problem with the "ocabulary when they ha"e to use it in a
context and also with words that don’t ha"e the same meaning as in their mother tongue.
For that reason# they must practice to assimilate them.
$e can identify two groups9
4exical field9 which refers to the formation of words.
*emantic field9 which refers to the understanding of words.
To understand this sub:ect# first ' am going to explain what !*& and *T&< are# within the
rules of word1formation.
!*&9 is a form to which a rule of word1formation is applied.
*T&<9 is the part of the word that remaining after e"ery affix has been remo"ed.
For example9
9a'! S%!+
Friend18 Friend Friend
Unfriend18 Friendly Friend
The *T&< can be understood as the root of the word and the !*& as the original part from
which a mixture is made. 7nce a base has undergone a rule of word1formation# the deri"ed word
itself may become the base for another deri"ation.
For example9
Friend[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ =oun
(Friend)118[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[ =oun[[[[[[ !d:ecti"e
Un1((friend)1ly)[[[[[[[[[[[[[. !d:ecti"e[[[ !d:ecti"e
(Tn1((friend)1ly))1n!''[[[[[[[[.. !d:ecti"e[[... =oun
The chief processes of &nglish word1formation by which the base may be modified
*.1. A##$=a%$&n:
aC P2!#$=a%$&n
!dding a -2!#$= to the base9 happy111nhappy
4;ypes of prefi+es.
=egati"e prefixes
Un:: unfair
R!,!2'a%$,! -2!#$=!'
D$':: discontent
P!E&2a%$,! -2!#$=!'
M$':: misinform
P2!#$=!' &# "!g2!! &2 '$;!
*uper19 '-!2+a20!%
P2!#$=!' &# a%%$%"!
An%$:: anti1social
L&)a%$,! -2!#$=!'
S5:: subway
P2!#$=!' &# %$+! an" &2"!2
P2!:: precaution
N+5!2 -2!#$=!'
T2$:: trident
C&n,!2'$&n -2!#$=!'
En:: endanger
O%7!2 P2!#$=!'
V$)!:: "icepresident
5C S##$=a%$&n
!dding a '##$= to the base9 happy11111happi18
4;ypes of suffi+es.
1. N&n '##$=!':
:!29 gangster
D$+$n%$,! &2 #!+!n$n!
:!'': waitress
17&&": childhood
O%7!2 n&n '##$=!'
:#1: spoonful
N&nTa"E!)%$,!' '##$=!'
:!'!: %hinese
D!,!25a1 '##$=!'
:!2: dri"er
D!:a"E!)%$,a1 '##$=!'
:!!: employee
/. Verb suffixes9
:$#8: simplify
:B$;!C: popularise
:!n: sadden
*. A"E!)%$,! '##$=!':
S##$=!' a""!" %& n&n'
:#1: useful
S##$=!' )&++&n $n 5&22&6!" an" n!&:)1a''$)a1 6&2"'
:$): !rabic
O%7!2 a"E!)%$,! '##$=!'
:a51!: readable
4. A",!25 '##$=!':
:18: happily
:6a2" B'C: backwards
:6$'!: weatherwise
*.(. C&+-&n" 6&2"'.
!dding one base to another9 tea Z potQ teapot.
1. .$n"' &# )&+-&'$%$&n $n %7! n&n:
*ub:ect Z "erb9 playboy
Verb Z ob:ect9 storytelling
Verb Z ad"erbial compounds9 sun1bathing
=oun Z noun compounds9 frogman
!d:ecti"es Z noun9 blackboard
ahubrihi compounds9 paperback
(. .$n"' &# )&+-&'$%$&n $n %7! ,!25:
ack1formation9 housekeeper
Verb Z ad"erb9 outdo
*. A"E!)%$,! )&+-&n"':
7b:ect Z 1ing participle9 heartbreaking
Verb Z ad"erbial compounds9 homemade
Verbless compounds9 tax1free
,eduplicati"es or repetition compounds9 ping1pong
!s ' ha"e said# the semantic field refers to the understanding of words (homonyms#
synonyms and antonyms).
4.1. 3&+&n8+8 an" P&18'!+8.
3&+&n8+8 is when a single word has different meanings not closely related.
For example9
File 1 a box for keeping papers in order
1 a tool for smoothing surfaces
1 a line of persons or things one behind the other
$e can find two classes of homonymy9
-. 3&+&-7&n!'9 are the words that show identity of pronunciation9 0no21110know2
/. 3&+&g2a-7'9 are the words that ha"e the same spelling9 0saw (noun)211110saw
: 3&+&+&2-7 is the term to refer to those words which share the same morphological
form# the same stem. This concept is rele"ant to grammar9 fast (ad:ecti"e)kfast
!nd# P&18'!+8 is when a word has se"eral different but closely related meanings.
For example9
ranch 1 of a tree
1 family
1 railway line[
4.(. S8n&n8+8.
*ynonymy is the relationship between words that mean exactly the same. 't is a semantic
For example9
4.*. An%&n8+8.
!ntonymy is when a word is opposite in meaning to another. For example9 better111
aC C&+-1!+!n%a2$!'9 words that are incompatibles and there is no possibility of a
third lying between them9 true111false
5C M1%$-1! In)&+-a%$51!': @ays# seasons# months[ 0't’s <onday2 excludes all
other the days.
)C G2a"a51! An%&n8+': There are intermediate terms between them9 hotE warmE
coolE cold.
"C C&n,!2'!': The words are reciprocal9 husband111wife EE father111son.
$e call false friend to a word that is similar to another in our language.
For instance# *panish students must pay attention to 4atin fields because they may
0*uccess2111Kxito# not 0suceso2
0%ontamination21111infecciHn# not 0contaminaciHn211110pollution2
To learn "ocabulary words# the teacher should pronounce the new item# in association
to the orthographic reali(ation of the same and also to teach it meaning.
The teacher also has to use the new word on a context to help students assimilate this
word with its meaning.
!fter this# student must try to use the new item# inserting it in a context they think
suitable to use it.
Finally# the student should use this word as many time as possible to fix it in their
There are some techniques in "ocabulary teaching that may help /.?/.B/.-/Bstudents.
These are the followings9
aC T7! '! &# ,$'a1'
Flashcards) blackboard) transparencies) 0clock board2) labels) maga(ine pictures) props)
colour coding) classroom ob:ects) posters[
5C T7! '! &# g!'%2!'
*tudents can gesture when describing ad:ecti"es as tall#[
)C T7! '! &# 0n&6n ,&)a51a28
The teacher can use synonyms and antonyms) categories) definitions[ to explain the
new meanings.
There are many different methods to teach "ocabulary. These methods depend on the
le"el of the students and on the types of items we want to teach them.
3owe"er# as the students ad"ance in their learning process# their needs become more
and more important. For that reason# we must study which are the most common fields that
they would like to deal with in the class.
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The frst thing a child does in his/her Mother Tongue, once he/she has
carried out the emission of sound stage, is to say words, isolated words but
with meaning. They are connected with the world around him/her and are
probably those with which the child has a narrow relationship. According to
the increase of his/her perception and knowledge of the reality, his/her
vocabulary also increases.
So, in order to establish which vocabulary can have MORE INTEREST
for our students´ learning, we must take into account the world they live in
and the purpose they have when they learn a Foreign Language, with the
purpose of being a SIGNIFICANT VOCABULARY for them.
It must be a vocabulary for COMMUNICATION, based on the child or
being specially interesting to him/her.
So, vocabulary is an important factor in all language teaching :
students must continually be learning words at the same time they learn
Grammar and Phonetics.
Presenting new words is only the frst step in the process of language
learning, and students must remember them and make them part of their
own vocabulary. But sometimes it is quite difcult because there are SOME
PROBLEMS that do not allow the acquisition process to be easier :
• On the one hand, some of the words taught in Foreign Language lessons
occur naturally in sequence : days of the week, numbers, etc… and these
series are easily memorized, but the problem arises when students have
to use them out of the sequence.
• On the other hand, some similar words or COGNATES facilitate the
learning of new words ; some of them are “True cognates”, it is, their
meaning is more or less equivalent in both languages (ex., “real” =
“real” ), and some of them are “False cognates”, which lead students to
confusion (ex., “Actually” means “en realidad”, not “actualmente” ). In
the frst case they are easy to remember, but in the second case we have
to help our students.
• Another problem arises when the words in the Mother Tongue and in the
Foreign Language do not cover the same area of meaning. There are
words in the Target Language which do not make distinctions that the
Foreign Language does (ex., “trip, travel, journey,…”). These distinctions
imply that there is a change in the way of viewing reality and, therefore,
this change must be learnt too.
In order to remember this vocabulary better, it can be connected in
groups which have a common element: a topic, semantic associations, or the
formal relations used to form derivations of these words ; when words are
associated this way, we call it “SEMANTIC FIELDS” or “WORD FAMILIES”,
and when the connectors are the formal relations they form LEXICAL
At the same time we should look for general centres of our students´
interests so that we could choose the most suitable vocabulary for those
settings, which could be the following ones :
-Informal conversations with the classmates.
-Descriptions of objects, persons or animals.
-Telephone calls.
-Children´s stories, etc…
So, OUR MAIN TASK is to provide our pupils with a series of resources
that help them to have independence when they have to communicate in a
Foreign Language. The use of these resources will make their vocabulary,
more or less limited, be increased in a way that does not require a lot of
The frst step consists of making our students be aware of that in
English there is the same possibility as in their Mother Tongue to form new
words by means of the following TECHNIQUES :
It is a process in which an item is adapted or converted to a new
word-class without the addition of a sufx.
The most common are the following :
a)Verb to noun conversion. Ex., “to love” —> “love”
b)Adjective to noun conversion. Ex., “a daily newspaper” —> “a daily”
c)Noun to verb conversion. Ex., “bottle” —> “to bottle”
d)Adjective to verb conversion. Ex., “a brick garage” —> “the garage is
In this group we include :
a.)PREFIXES, which do not generally alter the word-class of the base.
Examples :
1. Negative prefxes : “un-“ , “in-“ , “il(l)-“ ,...
Ex., unfair, inhuman, illogical.
2. Prefxes of Degree/Size : “super-“, “under-“,…
Ex., superman, undercook.
3. Pejorative prefxes : “mal-“ , “pseudo-“,...
Ex., pseudoscientifc, maltreat.
4. Number prefxes : “uni-“ , “bi-“ , …
Ex., unisex, bicycle.
5. Prefxes of Time/Order : “pre-“, “post-“, “ex-“,…
Ex., pre-war, ex-president.
6. Prefxes of Attitude : “co-“, “anti-“,…
Ex., co-education, anti-war.
7. Locative prefxes : “sub-“ , “inter-“,…
Ex., subway, interplay.
8. Etc…
b.)SUFFIXES, which frequently alter the word-class of the base. Examples :
1. Verb to noun sufxes : “-er” , “-ing”,…
Ex., driver, painting.
2. Adjective to noun sufxes : “-ness”, “-ity”,…
Ex., happiness, diversity.
3.Noun to adjective sufxes : “-ist”, “-y”,…
Ex., masochist, hairy.

4. Noun to noun sufxes : “-hood” , “-ship”,…
Ex., boyhood, friendship.
5. Adjective sufxes. There are some adjective sufxes for
which it is impossible to specify a particular meaning,
that is, their semantic functions are extremely varied.
Ex., “-ive”, “-able”, “-al”, etc..., such as in “explosive,
criminal or acceptable”.

A compound is a unit consisting of 2 or more bases.
Ortographically, compounds are written :
b.) SOLID : in 1 word. Ex., “bedroom”, ”headache”, “hangman”,…
c.) HYPHENATED : Ex., “tax-free”, “sister-in-law”,…
d.) OPEN : Ex., “reading material”, “television screen”, “navy blue”,…
Phonologically, they have got a MAIN STRESS on the frst element and
a SECONDARY STRESS on the second one.
Ex., ´bed,room .
Semantically, they can be seen to be isolated from ordinary syntactic
constructions by having a meaning which may be related to but cannot
simply be inferred from the meaning of its parts.
Compounds may be :
1.- Reduplicative , which are compounds with 2 or more elements that are
identical or only slightly diferent, such as “knock-
knock”, “tick-tock”,…
2.- Clipping , which implies the substraction of 1 or more syllables from a
word, which is also available in its full form, such as
“phone” (telephone), “exam” (examination), “ad”
(advertisement), …
3.- Blend , in which, at least, 1 of the elements is fragmentary when
compared to its corresponding word for, such as “Interpol”
(International Police), Eurovision (European Television), …
4.- Acronyms , which are words formed from the initial letters of words that
make up a descriptive or a proper name, such as “FBI”
(Federal Bureau of Investigation), UFO (Unidentifed
Flying Object), …
Up till now we have made reference to word-formation, which is going
to be useful for our students in order to establish relationships between new
words and the previous known ones.
*At Primary School we know the vocabulary presented to our students
must be related to their necessities and world around them such as the
family, animals, toys, etc…and we also know we must provide them with the
Linguistic and Non-linguistic strategies to favour the INTERACTION WITH
THE OTHERS through, for example :
-simple greetings : “Good morning. How are you?”,…
-social English : “Have a nice weekend”,…
-asking for permission : “Can I go to the toilet, please?”,…
-communicative strategies : “Sorry, I don´t understand”,…
So, it is a very important point for us to bear in mind that we have to
help children relate the new vocabulary and expressions they are learning in
the foreign language to their lives, it is, they must realize that if they are
learning, for instance, the members of the family, it is going to be useful for
them to get information about their classmates´ families and vice versa too;
we mean that new words are learnt, not only to do the activities in the book
or to pass a test, but to favour their SOCIALIZATION, to know their
classmates better, and to exchange INFORMATION about their feelings,
needs, interests, lives, etc… So it is very important the GROUP WORK in the
English class.
But, as well as these FEATURES, when teaching new vocabulary, we
have also to take into account :
a.The students´ needs. It is very useful to study in depth which are the most
common felds that the children would like to deal with in class. These
felds will depend very much on the students´ age, social background,
interests and hobbies, etc…
b.The frequence of the item, because it is not very useful to keep on teaching
new words which are NOT frequently used.
c.The time we have at our disposal to teach new vocabulary.
d.The students´ conditions to learn new words, such as phonological
problems, difculties for memorizing, etc…
e.The lack of materials such as dictionaries, TV, fashcards,…
f.And the Receptive and Productive Vocabulary. The frst kind comprises the
words students recognize but which are not mostly used; the second type
are the words which are mostly used by them. For example, the Receptive
vocabulary is “pullover and sweater” and the Productive one could be only
We know that just telling the students the expressions and
mechanisms of the Foreign Language does NOT make them learn. Whenever
we do an activity for pupils to learn certain vocabulary we must try, in the
frst place, that this vocabulary is presented in REAL SITUATIONAL or
LINGUISTIC SETTING that let them guess the meaning; on the other hand,
new words and expressions must be always presented in an ORAL WAY to
avoid pupils getting wrong conclusions about their pronunciation when they
see the written form.
After this, students must try to use the new items productively, that is,
to insert the words in a context they think suitable to use it. This is the best
way to make them understand all the diferent meanings that the new words
have, since they always relate the meaning of these items in the Foreign
Language with the possible meanings that these words may have in their
Mother Tongue.
The classroom is where the most of the students´ interactions take
place, and we know these communicative exchanges are not always
spontaneous, it is, they are started, guided and controlled by the teacher,
and the main reason could be that pupils do not receive from the very
beginning of the Teaching and Learning process the necessary linguistic and
non-linguistic strategies or resources to do that on their own.
*There are many diferent methods to teach vocabulary. They
depend… :
-on the one hand, on the linguistic level that the students already have.
-and, on the other hand, on the type of items we want to teach them.
But, in broad outlines, some of the TECHNIQUES or ACTIVITIES we
can present to children in order to help them develop their autonomous
learning of lexicon little by little could be the following ones :
1.In order to INTRODUCE new vocabulary :
A.Using objects, because as much of the vocabulary at this educative stage
consists of concrete nouns, so introducing a new word by showing the
real object often helps them memorize it better.
B.Using fashcards or transparencies with the picture and the written form
of the new item.
C.Drawings, that is, objects can be drawn on the blackboard or in their
D.Mime, gestures,…may be used for certain descriptive adjectives,
prepositions of place, action verbs, etc…
E.Songs are another way of introducing new vocabulary. There is a great
variety of them we may use in class with this purpose :
-Songs that deal with certain topics: the colours, the family, etc…
-Songs to move their bodies.
-Songs to work rhythm, stress and intonation.
-Songs to repeat a certain structure.
F.Synonyms and Antonyms, what let pupils associate the new word with a
concept they already know.
G.Guessing the meaning from context. This meaning can be obtained by
means of the relation with the pictures, the orthographic or
pronunciation similarities with their mother tongue.
H.Names of categories can also be taught verbally if the students know
some names of items that belong within a particular category. Ex.,
“Tennis/Football/Baseball/Basketball/… is a sport”
I. Etc…

J.Translation, if none of those techniques works. The use or the avoidance
of the Mother Tongue is a matter that must be decided by each
individual teacher according to his/her group´s characteristics: some
students at the elementary levels feel more comfortable when they
mentally relate the new words with a native equivalent, but other
students like to discover the meaning of the new items that have been
explained without the resource of the Native Language and they feel very
proud of their discovery.
In any case, it must be minimized in the classroom.
2.Once we have presented the vocabulary, the following step is to give
the students the opportunity to PRACTISE it in suitable real contexts
within the classroom. Some of the techniques we may use are the following :
A. Games, such as :
-“Kim´s game” .
-“Dominoes” or “Bingo”.
-Memory games, such as:
. “Chinese Whisper” (the Spanish “Juego del Teléfono”).
. “I went to the market” (in which a child starts saying, “I went to the
market and I bought potatoes”, then the next student adds a word
and says, “I went to the market and I bought potatoes and tomatoes”,
and so on).
1 Etc…
B. Matching words to pictures.
C. Making handicrafts, slides, puppets, etc… related to the new vocabulary
worked out in the class.
D. Colour coding is another technique which help students to associate the
new concepts that they are learning to what they already know, so it is
easier for them to remember new words. For instance, we may associate
the “yellow” colour with nouns, the “red” colour with verbs, and so on
using coloured discs, or coloured symbols, etc...
E. Labelling pictures with the right word.
F. Picture dictation, in which the teacher gives instructions focusing on
specifc vocabulary. Ex., “Draw a red table/pencil/cat…”.
G. Ordering a text, in which we have a text and we cut it into stripes; then
we hand them out to pupils for making the text up.
H. Etc…
3.Many children learn new words relatively quickly, but they also forget
them quickly. Once vocabulary has been introduced and practised, some
techniques may be used to CONSOLIDATE and REVISE it, such as
A. Picture dictionaries/Vocabulary books created by the own student.
We can organize these alphabetically or by topics. It is useful to use a
ring-folder so they can add new pages when necessary. Pupils collect or
draw pictures to illustrate the meaning of a word and write the name
B. Collages or Posters, in which students collect pictures or photos around a
topic, then they stick them on to a large sheet of cardpaper and write
their names. These posters or collages are an element to remember the
vocabulary that has been learnt and, at the same time, they can be used
to decorate the classroom walls.
C. Word families/sets with pictures coloured and labelled. They are kept into
envelopes which can be labelled too, for example, “Clothes” , “Fruit”,
etc… and may be used, from time to time, as games to revise it.
D. Games, such as “Pictionary”, etc…
*We could conclude that, starting from our class´ characteristics, we will
select which vocabulary and which of the previous techniques explained are
the most suitable and useful.
The use of varied resources and materials will encourage children and will
make the English lessons be more efective and pleasant, which is very
important if we want to create a suitable atmosphere in the class and to
develop our students´ motivation.
!/A*A 00
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0. Introduction.
2. Ce,ical and semantic fields in the Anglish language.
2.0. *eaning.
2.2. Word formation.
1. ecessary le,icon for socialisation, information and e,pressing
1.0. .ocialisation.
1.2. Information.
1.1. A,pressing emotional attitudes.
1.4. A,pressing intellectual attitudes.
4. !ypology of activities tied to teaching and learning vocabulary in the
4.0. !eaching vocabulary.
4.2. Activities.
4.1. !he importance of dictionary.
5. +ibliography.
0. I!"#$%&!I#.
An ability to manipulate grammatical structure does not have any potential
for e,pressing meaning unless words are used. We talk about the importance of
'choosing your words carefully( in certain situation, but we are less concerned
about choosing structures carefully. !hen structural accuracy seems to be the
dominant focus. In real life, however, it is even possible that where vocabulary is
used correctly it can cancel out structural inaccuracy.
For many years vocabulary was seen as incidental to the main purpose of
language teaching ) namely the ac=uisition of grammatical knowledge about the
language. Hocabulary was necessary to give students something to hang on to
when learning structures, but was fre=uently not a main focus for learning itself.
"ecently methodologists and linguists have increasingly been turning their
attention to vocabulary, stressing its importance in language teaching and
reassessing some of the ways in which it is taught and learnt. !eachers should
have the same kind of e,pertise in the teaching of vocabulary as they do in the
teaching of structure.
!here are a vast number of words that are not found everywhere,
words that are restricted to a particular country or to a particular part
of the country. Attending the le,ical and semantic fields, there are a
great number of varieties. We can emphasise regional and collo=uial
"egional dialect words have every right to be included in an Anglish
vocabulary count. !hey are Anglish words even if they are used only in a
single locality. +ut no one knows how many there are. *ost regional
vocabulary )especially that used in cities ) is never recorded. !here must
be thousands of distinctive words inhabiting such areas as +rooklyn, the
Aast And of Condon, .an Francisco,... none of which has ever appeared in
any dictionary.
!he more collo=uial varieties of Anglish, and slang in particular, also
tend to be given inade=uate treatment. In dictionary writing, the
traditional has been to take material only from the written language, and
this has led to the compilers concentrating on educated, standard forms.
!hey commonly leave out non) standard e,pressions, such as everyday
slang and obscenities, as well as the slang of specific social groups and
areas, such as the army, sport, public school, banking or medicine.
0.0. *eaning.
!he first thing to realise about vocabulary items is that they
fre=uently have more than one meaning.
When we come across a word and try to decipher its meaning we will
have to look at the conte,t in which it is used. .ometimes words have
meanings in relation to other words. !hus students need to know the
meaning of 'vegetable( as a word to describe any one of a number of
other things >cabbages, carrots,...? We understand the meaning of a word
like 'good( in the conte,t of a word like 'bad(. Words have 'opposites(
>antonyms? and synonyms.
What a word means can be change, stretched or limited by how it is
used and this is something students need to know about.
Word meaning is fre=uently stretched through the use of
'metaphor( and 'idiom(. We know that the word 'hiss( for e,ample,
describes the noise that snakes make. +ut we stretch its meaning to
describe the way people talk to each other.
Word meaning is also governed by collocation ) that is which word go
with each other. In order to know how to use the word 'sprained( we
need to know that whereas we can say 'sprained ankle(, 'sprained wrist(,
we cannot say 'sprained rib(.
We often use words in certain social and topical conte,t. What we
say is governed by the style and register we are in. If you want to tell
someone you are angry you will choose carefully between the neutral
e,pression of this fact 'I3m angry( and the informal version 'I3m really
pissed off(. !he later would certainly seem rude to listeners in certain
conte,ts. At a different level we recognise that the two doctors talking
about an illness will talk in a different register than one of them who then
talks to the patient in =uestion, who has never studied medicine.
.tudents need to recognise metaphorical language use and they
need to know how words collocate. !hey also need to understand what
stylistic and topical conte,ts words and e,pressions occur in.
2.2. Word formation.
Words can change their shape and their grammatical value too.
.tudents need to know facts about word formation and how to twist
words to fit different grammatical conte,ts.
.tudents also need to know how suffi,es and prefi,es work. !here
are over 0;; common prefi,es and suffi,es in Anglish.
Another important techni=ue is to join two words together to make
a different word, a compound, as in blackbird, shopkeeper and frying)pan.
ote that the meaning of a compound isn3t simply found by adding
together the meaning of its parts. Also not that compounds aren3t always
written as single words.
1. A&A..A"G CAKI&# F#" .#&IACIJA!I#, IF#"*A!I# A$
AK<"A..IB A!!I!%$A..
!he purpose of language is to communicate, whether with others by
talking and writing or with ourselves by thinking. In verbal communication, si,
main categories within the functions of language can be distinguished:
Ÿ &ommunicating and searching for information based of facts.
Ÿ A,pressing and finding out emotional attitudes.
Ÿ A,pressing and finding out moral attitudes.
Ÿ A,pressing and finding out intellectual attitudes.
Ÿ !elling someone to do something >persuasion?
Ÿ .ocialising.
!his list of functions is not e,haustive. First of all, it is difficult to make a
complete list. .econdly, the list represent a list contemplated for the 'threefold
level(. *ore functions can be added at higher levels.
1.0. .ocialisation.
#ur aim in teaching Anglish is enable students to use the language in real
life and to develop hisFher communicative competence. We are going to see now,
at a elementary level, the necessary le,icon and structures to develop social
Ÿ !o greet people: /ello, Bood morning. ice to see you...
Ÿ When meeting people:/ow are youE I3m fine, thanks. What about youE
Ÿ Introducing and being introduced: *y name is... /ave you met...E
Ÿ When leaving: Bood bye. .ee you later. Bood night.
Ÿ Asking for things: &an you give me...E &ould you lend me...E
Ÿ "e=uesting others to do something: &ould you ..., pleaseE
Ÿ A,pressing sympathy: I3m sorry. !hat3s too bad. what a shameO
Ÿ Apologising: I3m sorry about ...gerund.
Ÿ &ongratulating: &ongratulations. I3m gladO !hat3s wonderfulO
Ÿ #ffering things: $o you want...E Would you like...E $o you fancy...
Ÿ #ffering to do sth: $o you want me to...E .hall I...E
Ÿ Asking for permission: *ay I...E $o you mind if I...E
Ÿ Inviting: Would you like to...E
Ÿ Agreeing to meet: I3ll see you... Cet3s meet...
Ÿ !hanking: !hank youF !hanks.
1.2. Information
Information also implies its transmission.
/alliday divides this function into two: the logical function and the
e,perience function. !he latter is used to communicate ideas and the former
relates these, places them on the same level or on a subordinate level.
Affirmative sentences are used to give information and =uestions to ask
for information.
Ÿ <ersonal identification:
)ame: What3s your nameE I3m...
)Address and telephone number: Where do you liveE
)$ate and place of birth, age and nationality: Where was he bornE Where are
you fromE
)@obs, family, character, physical appearance: What does he doE /ow many
brothers have you gotE What3s he likeE What does she look likeE
Ÿ "eporting, $escribing, arrating: What happenedE I came...
Ÿ &orrection: Gou3ve never been in CiverpoolO
Ÿ Asking: Where do you spend...E Who3s your favourite...E
In Anglish we have also the direct or indirect speech, and the =uestion
tags as special structures for giving and receiving information.
1.1. A,pressing emotional attitudes.
It3s important to establish some general objectives bearing in mind that
our students possess this affective ability. !hese are mainly:
)!o benefit from the new language.
)!o find enjoyment in the new language.
)!o discover a new form of communication.
)!o discover a new source of diversion.
Ÿ Feelings:
)<leasure: What funO I love watching...
)$ispleasure: I hate homework. I don3t like washing up.
).atisfaction: I3m so pleased you have come.
)$isappointment: What a pityO Gou3ve missed the party.
)<reference: I prefer skating to skiing.
)Bratitude: !hanksO
Ÿ Wishes:
)Want, desire: I would like to have long hair.
)<olite re=uest: Would you mind picking up my suitcasesE
)#ffering to help: .hall I help you downstairsE
)"e=uest for oneself: *ay I borrow your classnotesE
)*aking re=uests: *ay I have a glass of waterE
Ÿ Intentions:
)A,plaining intentions: I3m going to work hard this term.
)<ersuading: #h, come !omO Gou will enjoy the party a lot.
)*aking plans: Cet us meet at 631; in the post office.
)<romises: I will be there.
)Asking about intention: What are you going to doE
1.4. A,pressing intellectual attitudes.
A very important group of communicative functions is the one which serve
to e,press intellectual attitudes that are developed by means of a huge and
comple, series of specific structures and le,icon.
Ÿ A,pressing agreement and disagreement: I agree with you. I don3t think so.
Ÿ In=uiring about agreement and disagreement: $o you think soE
Ÿ $enying something: o, I never go there.
Ÿ Accepting or denying an offer or invitation: !hank you. All right.
Ÿ #ffering to do something: &an I help youE
5. +I+CI#B"A</G.
+illows F.C. !he !echni=ues of Canguage !eaching >Congman 0:88?
+right /.A. *cBregor. !eaching Anglish as a second language >Congman
$off A. !each Anglish >&ambridge %niversity <ress 0:99?
/armer @. !he <ractice of Anglish Canguage !eaching.
Widowson /.B. !eaching Canguage as &ommunication >#,ford %niversity
<ress 0:99?.
'=T,[email protected]%T'7=
'n this topic we will go into detail some aspects of semantics (study of meaning in
language). The unit of semantics is the lexeme or lexical item.
$e will discuss 7&6 ,&)a51a28 $' &2gan$;!"# the "ocabulary needed to express common
communicati"e functions and some acti"ities that we can use in learning and teaching
There are se"eral 6a8' &# &2gan$;$ng 1!=!+!'. $e can study also the paradigmatic
$e will now focus on lexical and semantic items.
/. 4&U'%!4 [email protected] *&<!=T'% F'&[email protected]* '= &=N4'*3
(.1. L!=$)a1 T S!+an%$) #$!1"'
*emantic or lexical fields can be defined as semantically related groups. The words of a
language can be classified into sets which are related to conceptual fields and divide up
the semantic space* feeling# possession# perception# speech# existence.
(.(. S!n'! 2!1a%$&n'7$-'
They are the internal organising principle that creates lexical fields. There are two types9
l syntagmatic relationships9 are the relationship on the hori(ontal axis when two items
are often used together e.g. rural life, green area, dark, hair..
l +aradigmatic relationships9 are the relationships on the "ertical axis. $e can find
se"eral types9
a$ *ynonymy EsinonimiE9 it should be noted (es importante decir) synonymy is not
frecuent in the language. They are groups of words that share a general sense and
so may be interchangeable in a limited numbers of contexts. e.g. die Kmorir$, pass
away Kpasar al otro mundo$
!$ !ntonymy9 antonymy is the relationship of oppositeness of meaning.
• :on4grada!le or ungrada!le antonyms, are mutually e+clusive, eg.
alive1dead, male1female...
• -rada!le antonyms permit the e+pression of degree, e.g. !ig1small,
cold1hot. 'nd the comparative Kwarm, cool, chilly, cold$.
• #onverses denote a reciprocal relationship* one term presupposes the
other Kfamily and social relation4 e.g. parent1child...$
c$ 3yponymy9 it is the relationship of inclusion in that the meaning of the general
term (superordinate) is included in the meaning of the specific term e.g.
flowerErose# colourEblue# season (superordinate)Ewinter (hyponymy).
d$ 'ncompatibility9 exclusi"e members of the same superordinate category are
referred to as incompatibles# e.g. winterEsummer. ,elationship between
(.*. C&+-&n!n%$a1 ana18'$'
%onsists of 52!a0$ng "&6n %7! 1!=$)a1 items within the same semantic field into their
constituent parts in order to examine the similarities and differences between them.
1 *7%'!4'\!T'7=# '=F7,<!T'7= [email protected] !TT'[email protected]& &U+,&**'7= V7%!T4!,>
'n this section we will deal with the "ocabulary our students need to express themsel"es
with fluency in common situations.
*.1. S&)$a1$;a%$&n ,&)a51a28
't is the "ocabulary used to introducing oursel"es. 'n sociali(ation we will study the
language related to9
a) Nreetings9
• In%2&")$ng &n!'!1# an" 5!$ng $n%2&")!":
This "ocabulary is used when people meet for the fist time.
1 3ello# '’m E 3ello my name is...
1 +leased to meet you (formal) E =ice to meet you (informal)
• S&)$a1 a552!,$a%$&n': <r# <rs# <iss# <s# *ir# 4ady...
• G2!!%$ng -!&-1!:
1 3ello E Nood morning (formal)E morning (informal)
1 Nood night (formal) E =ight 1 night (for children)
• Sa8$ng g&&"58!:
1 Nood bye E bye E *ee you later
• C&ng2a%1a%$ng:
1 $ell done E congratulations
• S!a'&na1 g2!!%$ng':
1 3appy birthdayb E <erry %hristmasb
b) &xpressing good wishes9
1 3a"e a good time E day E &n:oy yourself
c) 'n"iting9
1 %an E could ' see you tonight; $hat time is good for you;
1 $ould you like to come round for dinner on *aturday;
d) Thanking9
1Than you E thank you "ery muchE thanks a lot
e) !pologi(ing9
1 ';m sorry E sorry E ';m terribly sorry about that....
f) &xpressing symphaty9
1 $hat a pity E ';m sorry E 3ow terribleb...
g) 7ffering to do something9
1 @o you want me to ... ; E *hall ' .....;
*. (. In#&2+a%$&n ,&)a51a28
Typical structures to gi"e or get information
AC A'0$ng #&2 an" g$,$ng $n#&2+a%$&n
a) 'nformation about oneself9 name (what’s your name;)# origin# =ationality# date of birth#
address# telephone numbwer# age# mental status# :ob# family#..
b) 'nformation about the time9 $hat time is it; E what’s the time;
c) 'nformation about physical cahracteristics9 $hat does he look like; 3e is tall...
d) 'nformation about pri(es9 3ow much is this book; E 't is A pounds
9C D!')2$5$ng '&+!&n! T '&+!%7$ng
7ur pupils must learn to describe people and common places
1 @eclarati"e sentences9 't is ... # 't has ...
1 !d:ecti"es
1 +repositions
1 Vocabulary9 colours# si(es# materials# weight# etc..
CC Na22a%$ng
$e can list the elementos that are essential for narration
1 Verbal tenses
1 4ink (%onnectors) (then# afterwards# later# so...)
DC A'0$ng #&2 an &-$n$&n
1 $hat do you think about...; E ' think ... $hat about you; E
1 3ow do you feel about;
EC C1a2$#8$ng
1 ' mean E in fact E in other words
FC A'0$ng #&2 )1a2$#$)a%$&n
1 +ardon; E %ould you repeat that; E *ay that again# please E $hat do you mean by..;
8.8. !ttitude expression "ocabulary
AC In%!11!)%a1 a%%$%"!'
a) &xpressing agreement and disagreement9
1agreement9 ' share your opinion E ' agree E That’s :ust what ' think E That’s all right
b) &xpressing opinions9
1 'n my opinion E ' belie"e E 'f you ask me E From my oint of "iew
c) &xpressing certainly E uncertainly9
1 %ertainly9 ' am sure E ' certainly think.
1 @oubt9 <aybe E +erhaps E ' wonder if...
1 Tncertainly9 ' don’t know if they are well E '’m not sure if they are well
d) &xpressing possibility and impossibility9
1 't is possible that... E 't is impossible that... E They may be in Fuly by now ...
e) &xpressing obligation9
1 ' must begin working now (internal obligation)
1 you ha"e to be here by fi"e again (external obligation)
f) &xpressing appro"al E disappro"al9
1 ' appro"e of ... E you are right in..
1 '’m apposed to ... E ' ob:ect to E ' strongly disappro"e of...
9C E+&%$&na1 a%%$%"!'
a) &xpressing a feeling9
1 4ikes and dislikes9 ' like E ' lo"e fish E ' en:oy E ' am ford of E ' hate
' dislike E ' can’t stand E ' am tired of ..
1 *adness9 ' really feel down today E ' am under the weather
1 'ndifference9 ' don’t care at all
1 *urprise9 This is a surprise E 't is surprising E 3ow ama(ing E $hat a surprise..
1 3ope9 ' hope so E ' expect to come tonight
1 Fear9 '’m afraid of exams
1 Nratefulness9 thank you "ery much
b) &xpressing intention9
1 '’m going to Z infiniti"e (intention to do something)
1 ' intend to come back on *unday
6. !%T'V'T'&* T*&@ '= T&!%3'=N [email protected] 4&!,='=N V7%!T4!,> '= T3&
F7,&'N= 4!=NT!N& %4!**,77<
There are three crucial factors in "ocabulary learning9
-) 7nce the teacher has introduced the new lexical item# hEs should pro"ide the students
!n&g7 &--&2%n$%$!' %& 52$ng %7! $%!+ $n%& a)%$,! +!an$ng#1 '!.
/) The lexical items taught '7&1" 5! 2!1!,an% %& %7! 1!a2n!2'K n!!"' an" $n%!2!'%'.
8) 'n introducing "ocabulary# the teacher '7&1" '! ,$'a1 a$"'. Visual back up is "ery
important to help con"ey meaning and to help pupils memori(e new words. (Flash cards#
photos# realia# mime...)
a) !cti"ities to practise language structures or -a%%!2n' $n )&n%!=%9
1 <emori(ing short dialogues E role plays E making dialogues with a similar
structure# e.g. to do a menu# timetable....
b) !cti"ities using the "$)%$&na28:
1 <atching with their word definitions E looking up homophones
c) !cti"ities based on '!+an%$) #$!1"' . !cti"ities based on "$ag2a+':
:!.g.: pupils must complete a diagram with different types of ad:ecti"es related to
1hair (colour) (type)...
:!.g. : $hich word do not belong in their groups; (for example words related to food)
1 The students are pro"ided with a list of words. They ha"e to draw a diagram
1 7dd man out (one word is different)9 Tick the word which does not belong in a
1 *equencing acti"ities9 *utdents ha"e to put a series of words rin the appropiate place
on the cline# ladder# scale....e.g. bad# good# terrible# quite good# horrible# so1so# awful#
fabulous# great
d) !cti"ities based on an%&n8+'.:
1matching antonyms# gi"ing antonyms# antonym card game (complete pair of
e) !cti"ities based on -$)%2!':
1<atching or labelling ob:ects E =arrati"e based on pictures
f) <ultiple choice acti"ities
g) Names9 Nuessing games E %rosswords E word bingo E a word begining with...
A. *T<<!,>
'n this topic we ha"e expounded the different ways in which lexemes can be organised9
semantic or lexical fields# sense relationships and componential analysis
$e ha"e then presented the "ocabulary our pupils need to communicate with others in
habitual situations. $e ha"e grouped this "ocabulary into sociali(ation "ocabulary#
information "ocabulary and attitude expression "ocabulary.
'n last section of the topic we ha"e suggested "arious types of "ocabulary acti"ities.
1 982n!, D. Teaching writing skills. 4ongman. 4ondon (-.??)
1 3a118"a8, M.A... Functional Nrammar. !rnold. 4ondon. (-.?/)
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4n this unit we will stud& how we can order voca$ular& 9le6ical felds: and how
voca$ular& is organised 9semantic features:, then we will see some voca$ular& needed to
e6press some common communicative functions 9socialiEation, information and attitude
e6pression and fnall& techni(ues used in learning and teaching voca$ular&.
Without voca$ular&, structures and function havenFt got an& sense. We can see
the importance of voca$ular& when we donFt fnd the words we need to e6press
something. 8owever, man& teachers spend more time in teaching grammar than in
teaching voca$ular&.
2irstl&, 4 am going to start tal!ing a$out the se$#ni! s"u!u"e. There are
several wa&s of oraganiEing le6emes. We can tr& to group them into felds of meaning, or
stud&ing the t&pes of paradigmatic relationships e6isting $etween them, or anal&Eing
le6ical items into a series of semantic features or components.
Tal!ing a$out semantic or le6ical felds we can sa& that le6emes can $e organised
into a s&stem, in which these le6emes interrelate, and defne each other in specifc wa&s,
2or e6ample, the various le6emes for G parts of the $od&H 9head, nec!, shoulders, etc.: 4t
has $een argued that the whole of a languageFs voca$ular& is structured into felds* $ut
there is in fact a great deal of variations as we move from one part of the language to
another. There would $e little diIcult& gathering together all the ,nglish le6emes for
G$od& partsH, for e6ample* $ut it would $e ver& diIcult to do the same 3o$ for GnoiseH or
There have $een man& philosophical and linguistic attempts to classif& the
concepts or words in a language. 4n recent times, the most infuential and popular wor!
has $een the Thesaurus of %eter )ar! Coget 9+>>5-+B65:, fr pu$lished $& Longman in
+BJ-. Coget divided the voca$ular& into si6 main areas: a$stract relations, space, matter,
intellect, volition and a'ections. ,ach area was given a detailed and e6haustive
su$classifcation, producing +.??? "emitic categories in all. The frst three classes cover
the e6ternal world. A$stract relations deals with such ideas as num$er, order and time*
"pace is concerned with movements, shapes, and siEes. )atter covers the ph&sical world
and human!indFs perception of it $& means of the fve senses. The last three classes deal
with the internal world of human $eings. 4ntellect studies the human mind. Aolition deals
with the human will. A'ections, whose original tittle is emotion, religion and moralit&,
deals with the human heart and soul. There is a progression from a$stract concepts
through the material universe, to man!ind itself, culminating in what Coget saw as
humanit&Fs highest achievements: moralit& and religion.
1ral: 1ne path through the thesaurus is the following:
general terms personal s&mpathetic moral religious

o$ligation sentiments conditions practice institutions

temperance intemperance sensualism aceticism
Thesauri of this !ind have now $een produced for several languages, and prove to
$e a useful ad3unct to man& practical linguistic activities, such as professional writing,
translating, and setting or solving crosswords. 2or the semanticist, however, their value is
limited, as the& contain no information a$out the sense relationships $etween individual
le6emes, and items that come from di'erent regional, social, or professional varieties are
3u6taposed without comment. To stud& the structure of a semantic feld, more precise
means of plotting the sense relations $etween le6emes need to $e used.
4n this point we have to tal! a$out sense relationships too. The organiEation of the
le6emes of a language is $ased on our intuitions that groups of le6emes are related in
sense. The relationships $etween le6emes can $e anal&Eed under two main headings:
+. "&ntagmatic relationships that refer to the tendenc& of le6emes to wor!
together or collocate in predicta$le wa&s, for e6ample we !now what items are
commonl& associated with G!itchenH, for instance.
-. %aradigmatic relationships that refer to the wa& in which le6emes can su$stitute
for each other. "everal t&pes of paradigmatic relationships have $een recogniEed. These
a: s&non&m& that is the relationships of GsamenessH of meaning, for instance,
!ingl&, ro&al, regal. And the search for s&non&ms is a traditional pedagogical e6ercise
$: 8&pon&m& that refers to the notion of inclusion, where$& we can sa& that
something is a !ind of something else, for e6ample, an orange, or an apple are fruits.
apple or orange are h&pon&ms.
c: Anton&m& that is the relationship of oppositeness. where there are a variet& of
di'erent forms of oppositeness, such as: complementar& 9the& cannot $e graded
9singleKmarried:, converseness 9two-wa& contrasts that are interdependent:
9hus$andKwife:, grada$ilit& 9 permit the e6pression of degrees:9$ig Ksmall:.
d: 4ncompati$ilit& that refers to groups of le6emes that are mutuall& e6clusive
mem$ers of the same superordinate categor&. 2or e6ample red and green are
incompati$le le6emes within the categor& colour.
2or language learners, there is a further t&pe of sense relation $ut most learners
fnd this useful to ma!e a conscious e'ort to lin! words $etween a foreign language and
their own.
The second main point of the theme refers to the ne!ess#") le>i!(n ,("
s(!i#li?#i(n9 in,("$#i(n #nd e>p"essing #iudes. 4n ver$al communication, si6
main categories within the functions of language can $e distinguished:
+. ommunicating and searching for information $ased on facts.
-. ,6pressing and fnding out emotional attitudes.
.. ,6pressing and fnding out moral attitudes.
/. ,6pressing and fnding out intellectual attitudes.
J. Telling someone to do something 9persuasion:.
6. "ocialiEing.
,ach one of these categories, and each one of the functions, can $e carried out
separatel& in speech acts. 1ften, however, two or more functions will com$ine in the
same speech act. )oreover, a person can search for information and at the same time
e6press surprise 9emotional attitude:.
This list of functions is not e6haustive. 2irst of all, it is diIcult to ma!e a complete
list. "econdl&, the list represents a list contemplated for the Gthreshold levelH 9nivel
um$ral:. )ore functions can $e added at higher levels.
We will then e6amine the structures and le6icon needed for social relations and to
give and receive information, as well as how emotional and intellectual attitudes are
+. "ocialiEation voca$ular&.
=nderstanding and controlling interactions in discourse are important for a child
$ecause the& ena$le him to enter communicative spaces, to understand accepta$le
presentation procedures, to understand the rights of others in communication, to
interpret the message of a pu$lic advertisement, to use the telephone properl&, or to $e
a$le to as! for information at pu$lic entities, etc. 7ow we will see the structures and
lexicon necessary for social relations.
a: "tarting and ending a conversation:
L #reetings: responses:
8elloM K8i hello hi
8ow are &ouN 4 am fne, than!s.
8ow are &ou doingKgetting onN 4 am ver& well, than!s
4 am not too $ad, than!s.
#ood morning #ood morning.
L 2arewell:
#ood $&e, good night the same
<&e, cheers, see &ou later, so long, cheerio.
7ice to have met &ou Oes, 4 hope we meet again.
4tFs $een nice !nowing &ou.
#ive m& regards to &our wife Oes 4 will.
Cemem$er me to &our parents.
"a& hello to Pim.
Ta!e care.
L 4ntroductions:
8ello 4 am Pim. 8ello, Pim.K 7ice to meet &ou.
8ow do &ou doN )& name is Pames 8ow do &ou do, PamesN
$: omplimenting and congratulating:
L complimenting: responses
What a marvellous mealM 4Fm glad &ou li!ed it.
That was one of the $est $oo! 4Fve ever read 4tFs nice of &ou to sa& so.
L congratulating: responses
Well doneM than!s a lot.
)a& we congratulate &ou on... 4tFs ver& !ind of &ou.
: 1'ering and than!ing:
L o'ering:
Would &ou li!e another helpingN Oes, please, 7o, than! &ou.
L than!ing:
than!s a lot. OouFre welcomeK 7ot at all.
d: Apologising and regretting:
LApologising:1h , forgive me, 4Fm terri$l& sorr&.- ThatFs (uite all right, no
harm done.
4 do apologiEe- 4t doesnFt matter.
"orr& a$out that- DonFt worr&.
L regretting:
4 regret that
e: ,6pressing condolences:
%lease accept m& deepest s&mpath& on the death of &our mother.
f: ,6pressing good wishes, seasonal greetings and toast:
L #ood wishes:
#ood luc!M <est wishes for..M 8ave a good time...M ,n3o& &ourselfM
L "easonal greetings:
)err& hristmasM 8app& $irthda&M
L Toasts:
#ood healthM heersM $ottoms upM
g: spea!ing on the phone:
L receiving the call: 8ello,/J6>BB
L )a!ing a call: an 4 spea! to Pim, pleaseN
We have alread& listed some simple acts of communication where$& people
esta$lish and maintain social relations with one another. 7ow we are going to stud& the
expression of information.
%ro$a$l& one of the most important reasons we use language for is to give
someone some piece of information which we thin! the& do not !now. Questions and
statements are the structures we t&picall& use to conve& or as! for information. The& do
not need, however, the use of a specifc voca$ular&, with the e6ception, perhaps of
interrogative pronouns. Where we do need to teach our pupils specifc voca$ular& is
when we consider peopleFs reactions to information, for instance opinion, agreement,
interruption and so on.
a: 1pinion:
L as!ing for an opinion: What do &ou thin! a$outK What are &our
feelings a$out , What &our attitude is to..
L giving an opinion: in m& opinion, as 4 see it, )& own view of the matter
is that...
L as!ing without giving &our opinion: 4 donFt !now what to thin! a$out, 4
have no particular views on, 4 have no strong feelings a$out...
$: ,6pressing agreement and disagreement:
L Agreement: 4 agree, 4 couldnFt agree more, ThatFs 3ust what 4 thin!, "o
do 4 . 4 share &our opinion.
L Disagreement: 4 canFt agree with &ou, 4 disagree, 4 donFt thin! that is
true, it is awful.
L %artial agreement: itFs true that..., $utK 4f 4 accept this &ou must
c: 4nterrupting: ,6cuse me, sorr&, 3ust a moment.
d: corro$oration: 4 agree, and what is more,K Oes, in fact,
d: larifcation:
L larif&ing: , 4 mean...K..., in other words...
L as!ing for clarifcation: sorr&N, %ardonN, ould &ou repeat thatN, What
do &ou mean $&..N
The last thing we will see in this point is the vocabulary needed to express
attitudes, where we have to distinguish in the ne6t functions:
a: Aolition:
L willingness: 4 am read& to paint &our homeK4 will do an&thing for &ou
L wish: 4 wish &ou ever& happiness in &our wedding da&Would &ou li!eN
L4ntention: 4 intent to see &ou tomorrowK 4 am going to see her
L 4nsistence: 4 insist on overcome the issue.
$: Li!ing and disli!ing:
LLi!es: 4 li!e, 4 love, 4 en3o&, 4 am fond of, 4 am !een on
L Dis!i!es: 4 donFt li!e, 4 disli!e, 4 hate, 4 detest , 4 canFt stand, 4 am fed up
L 4ndi'erence: 4 donFt mind
L %reference: 4 prefer reading
c: 8ope: 4 hope she arrives on time.
d: Anticipation of pleasure: 4 am loo!ing forward to hearing from &ou,
e: Cegret: 4 wish 4 were tall, 4 am sorr& to hear that,
f: Approval and disapproval:
L approval: &ou are (uite right to, 4 am in favour of,
L disapproval: 4 must o$3ect to, 4 am opposed,
g: "urprise: 4tFs rather surprising that, what a surprise
h: oncern: 4 am worried that, 4tFs distur$ing that...
i: ,motive emphasis:
L 4nter3ections: Whoops, mm, gosh, whoah
L ,6clamations: What a manM, 8ow e6traordinar&M
Lrepetition: 8e is ver& ver& sill&.
L ,mphasiEers: "heFs an a$solute $eginner.
As we can see there are man& le6ical items that our pupils must $e a$le to use in
order to ac(uire a $asic communicative competence.
To fnish we will see the third main point in the theme, &e e!&ni/ues used in
le#"ning #nd e#!&ing %(!#'ul#").
7ow we will point out the most common techni(ues to introduce the new
voca$ular&. The frst thing we will see is how we must introduce the new voca$ular&.
The frst step is introducing the new vocabulary, the main thing here is the meaning. To
e6plain the meaning there are several techni(ues and these are:
a: Aisual techni(ues: We can use fashcards, photographs, $lac!$oard drawings,
wall charts and realia that we can carr& to our class easil&. A picture has a great
importance $ecause a pupil can remem$er more easil& a word when we have showed
himKher the picture than we have onl& translated the word. 9TACP,TA" ),#4A":
$: Aer$al techni(ues: We can give a defnition in simple ,nglish with words that
the& !now. We ma& also use s&non&ms. We ma& also use an& of the t&pes of anton&ms
we have descri$ed.
c: The use of records with sounds that the& can associate with the o$3ect $efore
the& listen to the word in ,nglish for instance the transports li!e a car, train, motor$i!e,
d: The use of mime, action and gesture: With gestures the teacher can e6plain a
lot of words, action ver$s such as drin!, eat, wal! as well as ad3ectives li!e happ&, sad or
deictic words such as from, to there...
e: Translation: when other techni(ues are not useful to e6plain an& diIcult word,
the teacher can use the translation into the mother tongue. 8owever, translation cannot
$e the main techni(ue if we donFt want our pupils to continue to use "panish as a
framewor! on which to attach ,nglish items.
The second step in teaching voca$ular& is that our pupils remember them, and if
we want our pupils to remem$er the voca$ular& we will have to practice it and there are
three main wa&s of practising it:
a: Cevision through denotation: These activities are $ased on showing our pupils
the real o$3ect or action, or a picture:
+. La$elling: our pupils are given a picture and have to write the names of the
o$3ects in the picture.
-. 4 sp&: a pupil thin! in an o$3ect that the rest of the class can see and heKshe
gives a clue that is the frst vowel. The rest of the class tr& to guess the word. The
phrase the& use is: 4 sp& with m& little e&e something $eginning with <. 4s it a $oo!N
.. spot the di'erence: our pupils are put into pairs. ,ach mem$er has a slightl&
di'erent picture. Without showing it to one another the& have to discover the di'erences.
/. Descri$e and draw: This activit& is similar to the last one, one mem$er of the
pair has a drawing and the other one a $lan! piece of paper. The pupil with the picture
must tell his partner what to draw.
J. %icture dominoes and picture rumm&: this games are $ased on the associations
our pupils ma& esta$lish $etween the o$3ects appearing in cards. 4n dominoes the& do it
with pairs of cards, while in rumm& the& do it with threes, fours.
[email protected] game: we show our pupils a picture or a tra& with o$3ect on it, or series of
di'erent fash cards or magaEine pictures. The& have two minutes to memoriEe as man
as the& can, and afterwards the& will have to sa& or write what the& saw. And we can
transform this game into hinese whispers if onl& one child sees the tra& and then
whispers the o$3ects into his partnerFs ear. The process goes on and we see the
similarities and di'erences $etween the initial and the fnal list.
>. 4 sp&: A pupil thin!s a$out an o$3ect that the rest of the class can see and he or
she sa&s: 4 sp& with m& little e&e something $eginning with... and the frst letter of the
o$3ect and the rest of the class tr& to guess it.
$: Cevision through word families: 4n this activities we revise voca$ular& in
relation to other words in the same le6ical feld. "ome e6amples of these activities are
the following:
+. Word thermometers: these are useful for indicating degree. 2or e6ample place
these words in the correct place on the thermometer: alwa&s, sometimes, usuall&, never,
rarel&. 9di$u3ar un termometro:.
-. "eries: this game uses le6ical felds. 1ur pupils must write as man& words as
the& !now in one feld. We can use these words in Word <ingo. 1ur pupil write ten words
relating to one le6ical feld. We call out words connected with this le6ical feld. The frs
pupil who crosses out all the words on his page is the winner.
.. "piders: we draw a spider in the $lac!$oard with a topic or a word and the&
have to write in the legs all the words the& can thin! of connected with this word.
/. 1dd man out: the teacher sa&s four or fve words $ut one of them isnFt related
to the rest and the& have to guess it.
J. ategories: we use 3um$led words which must $e categorised into le6ical felds.
c: Cevision through e6planations: 4n these activities where paraphrase the words
we are revising. "ome e6amples are the following:
+. rosswords: These can $e divided round topic ideas.
-. o'ee-pot: is a word which is used instead of a particular ver$ a pupil has
thought of. The rest of the class must fnd out this ver$ $& means of (uestions such as:
When do &ou co'ee potN
..Aoca$ular& (uiEEes: 4n groups the& prepare (uestions that elicit the correct
answer. Then, the& as! them in turns.
7ow we are going to see to fnish the learner-centred techniques. Cecent
developments have emphasised the importance of e(uipping our pupils with the
necessar& strategies for dealing with s!ills activities. 4n learning voca$ular& his involves:
+. As!ing others, in ,nglish, if possi$le, can foster co-operative learning and it also
ma!es our pupils to o'er the $est conte6t to elicit the word the& want This is a s!ill we
have in our mother tongue, and we use it ver& fre(uentl& when we do not !now a le6ical
-. =sing a dictionar& is one of the most important s!ills we must teach our pupils.
Teaching students how to use a dictionar& should include the following aspects: The
students must !now how a dictionar& is organiEed regarding ideas, et&molog&,
s&non&ms, etc., The& must $e familiar with the s&m$ols and a$$reviations used in the
dictionar&.. A s!ill that the teacher should practice with his students is understanding the
dictionar& defnitions of words. The learners must ac(uire a critical a$ilit& that will ena$le
them to discern the advantages of using a certain t&pe of dictionar& as opposed to
another in specifc situations. 2inall&, the student must develop the a$ilit& to choose the
correct use of word $ased on a specifc concept. At initial levels it is $etter to use
pictorial dictionaries.
.. Another s!ill we can teach our pupils is to deduce meaning out of conte6t. This
is a predictive s!ill that the& must use $oth in listening and in reading.
1ral: 2or evaluating voca$ular& we have man& e6amples of activities:
+. loEe test: the pupil must write the words that there arenFt write in the te6t
$ecause the& are necessar&.
-. )atching anton&ms.
.. )atching words with their defnition.
Al$ur(uer(ue. C et al. ,n el aula de 4ngles. Longman. London, +55?
#airns CR Cedman " Wor!ing with words. =%. +5B6.
Wallance ) Teaching Aoca$ular& 8einemann +5B-
%ropuesta de "ecuencia. Lenguas ,6tran3ersa. )ec. ,scuela ,spaSola. )adrid. +55-.
%icture dictionaries.
A$$s < %icture Wor!$oo! Longman +5B6
16ford hildrenFs %icture Dictionar& 1=%. +5B+
T3&<& -/9 &**&=T'!4 <7,+37*>=T!%T'%!4 &4&<&=T* '= &=N4'*3.
&4&<&=T!,> %7<<T='%!T'V& *T,T%TT,&* [email protected] T*& 7F N,!<<!T'%!4
%!T&N7,'&* '= 7,!4 [email protected] $,'TT&= +,[email protected]%T'7=*.
1. .ntroduction.
The structures of a language# the rules go"erning the
changes of their forms and the combination of elements
composing it# constitute the grammar of that language. 'f our
intention is to learn a language# we cannot :ust learn its
"ocabulary but we will ha"e to learn also the elements making
it up.
!part from learning a language# if we want to communicate with it producti"ely# we will
ha"e to learn that there are other factors shaping the meaning of a grammatically correct sentence
in a language# such as9 situations# speakers and social background# that is# the context.
-. &ssential elements of morphosyntax.
The range of constructions studied by grammar is
di"ided into sub1fields. The oldest and most widely1used
di"ision is that between morphology and syntax.
The most basic units of syntax are the '!n%!n)! and the 6&2". The sentence is the largest
unit of syntax9 as we mo"e upwards beyond the sentence we pass from syntax into discourse
analysis) the word is the lowest unit of syntax9 as we mo"e downwards beyond the word we pass
from syntax into morphology. The most elementary words# such as girl# car# to# ha"e only one
+&2-7!+!# the smallest units of meaning and the units of morphology. 'n this theme we will study
the main grammatical units9
- morpheme
- word
- sentence
1.1. /he morpheme.
I# 6! '%"8 %7! '%2)%2! &# %7! #&11&6$ng 6&2"': un$friend$ly, cat$s, bring$ing, 6!
see that the elements friend, cat, !ring# ha"e a meaning# as do the elements attached to them (the
affixes). 7ther words cannot be di"ided into different meaningful units.
'n &nglish is difficult to analy(e irregular nouns and "erbs) mice is the plural of mouse, but
it is not ob"ious how to identify a plural morpheme in the word# analogous to the Ls ending of cats.
!nother complication is that morphemes sometimes ha"e more than one phonetic form# eg. The
past tense morpheme Ted in &nglish is pronounced in three different ways. These "ariant forms of a
morpheme are known as allomorphs.
Two main fields are traditionally recogni(ed within morphology9
a) In#1!)%$&na1 +&2-7&1&g8: studies the way in which words "ary in order to
express grammatical contrasts in sentences# such as singularEpast or pastEpresent.
These grammatical contrasts are called grammatical categories9
- a'-!)%9 perfecti"e# imperfecti"e progressi"e# nonprogressi"e
- )a'!: nominati"e# "ocati"e# accusati"e# geniti"e# partiti"e
- g!n"!2: masculine# feminine# neuter# animate# inanimate
- +&&": indicati"e# sub:uncti"e# optati"e
- n+5!2: singular# dual# trial# plural
- -!2'&n: first# second# third...
- %!n'!: present# past# future
- ,&$)!: acti"e# passi"e
b) D!2$,a%$&na1 +&2-7&1&g8: studies the principles go"erning the construction of
new words# without reference to the specific grammatical role a word might play
in a sentence. There are three chief processes in &nglish by which new words are
- A##$=a%$&n: di"ided into prefixation (adding prefixes) and
suffixation (adding suffixes).
- C&n,!2'$&n: a word changes its class without any change of form e.g.
aim and to aim.
- C&+-&n"$ng: adding one base to another e.g. !lack!oard.
- R!"-1$)a%$&n: type of compound in which both elements are the same
e.g. knock4knock.
- C1$--$ng: informal shortenings e.g. flu, ad, telly.
- 91!n"$ng': two words merge into one# e.g. smog U smoke L fog.
- In#$=a%$&n: emphatic structures such as a!so4!ooming4lutely.
1.2. /he word.
!s we ha"e already pointed out# words sit at the boundary between morphology and syntax.
$ords are usually the easiest units to identify in the written language# as they commonly ha"e
spaces on either side. 't is more difficult to decide what words are in the stream of speech as pauses
do not occur between each word in natural speech.
$ords ha"e been grouped into word classes# traditionally labelled the parts of speech.
aC C1&'!" )1a''!': They can be composed of all the existing elements or of those
that may be created. 'n order to define them in relation with other words# we
must do it with those with which they ha"e a semantic relation.
- -2!-&'$%$&n': of, at, in without, in spite of.
- -2&n&n': he, they, any!ody, one, which
- "!%!2+$n!2: the, a, that, when, although
- )&nEn)%$&n': and, that, when , although
- +&"a1 ,!25': can, must, will, could
- -2$+a28 ,!25': !e, have, do
- a2%$)1!': the, a, an
- "!+&n'%2a%$,!': this, that, these, those
5C O-!n )1a''!': The components of this group do not admit any addition of other
- n&n': Hohn, room, answer, play
- a"E!)%$,!': happy, steady, new
- #11 ,!25': search, grow, play
- a",!25': steadily, completely, really
)C T& %7!'! 6! +a8 a"" %6& 1!''!2 )a%!g&2$!':
- n+!2a1': one, first
- $n%!2E!)%$&n': ugh, phew
- 6&2"' &# [email protected]! #n)%$&n: not, to
1.3. /he sentence.
'n the discourse# the basic unit is the '%a%!+!n% which is defined because it is a fragment of
communication# no matter what its extension is# within to marked pauses or the pre"ious silence
plus a marked pause. For the fragmentation we do not take into account its grammatical structure or
its context# which may be insufficient and incomplete.
*tatements can be isolated9
a, *ome organise all its constituents in relation to a "erb con:ugated in a personal
form. These are named '!n%!n)!'.
b, 7ther statements are characterised in relation to the lack of a "erb in personal
form according to the nucleus# e.g. yes. These are called -72a'!'.
1.3.1. arts of a sentence.
!ccording to Xuirk and Nreenbaum when analysing the smallest parts of the sentences# they
distinguish between '5E!)% and -2!"$)a%!:
S5E!)% P2!"$)a%!
&ary pointed at him.
P2!"$)a%!: has a close relationship with what is being dealt with# what the sentence is about#
and it generally implies that something new is being told about a sub:ect which has
pre"iously appeared in another sentence.
S5E!)%: determines the agreement and it is also the changing part within the sentence# that
is the reason why few generalisations are permitted.
The predicate can be sub1di"ided into a=$1$a28 and ,!25a1 -2!"$)a%$&n:
S5E!)% P2!"$)a%!
A=$1$a28 V!25a1 -2!"$)a%$&n
He will write 'rthur a letter.
0, 0uxiliaries as 1operators2.
The "erb may be composed of se"eral auxiliaries# e.g. ;hey would have
!een..., in these cases the first auxiliary is considered the 0operator29 would.
'n declarati"e affirmati"e sentences where there is no auxiliary# when an
operator is needed do is introduced# e.g. 6id you tell him? and the "erb to be and
have perform as operators whether they are auxiliary or not9
Hohn is a student T .s Hohn a student?
;hey have Kgot$ a cottage T 3ave they Kgot$ a cottage?
1.3.2. #lements of a sentence.
There are fi"e elements we can split the sentence in.
-. *ub:ect
/. Verb
8. %omplement
a) *ub:ect complement or atribute.
b) 7b:ect complement.
6. 7b:ect
a) @irect ob:ect
b) 'ndirect ob:ect
A. !d"erbial /he %ub4ect.
The sub:ect of a sentence can be a clause with nominal function9
K;hat he came quickly$ was unusual.
but it is normally a nominal clause and in its simples forms are a personal pronoun or a
proper noun. 'n affirmati"e sentences the sub:ect is always placed before the "erb and in
interrogati"e sentences the sub:ect is placed after the operator. 't also keeps person and
number agreement with the "erb. !erb categories.
T7! ,!25a1 '!n%!n)! +a8 5! )&+-&'!" &# &n! &2
%6& 6&2"'. In %7! )a'! &# %6& 6&2"', $% $' )&+-&'!" &# a +a$n
,!25 -2!)!"!" 58 &n! &2 +&2! >a=$1$a28? ,!25'.
Hohn wrote a letter  He had given her an apple.
There are different types of "erbs# in close correspondence to other types of
ob:ects and complements. Xuirk and Nreenbaum distinguish between9
-) In%!n'$,! ,!25': sentences with sub:ect complement.
/) E=%!n'$,! ,!25': the rest. !ll the extensi"e "erbs admit a direct ob:ect# some
also admit an indirect ob:ect.
8) In%2an'$%$,! ,!25': they are followed by no obligatory element
.rices rose.
6) T2an'$%$,! ,!25': they are followed by and ob:ect.
a) <onotransiti"e9 %he likes carrots.
b) @itransiti"e9 He gave me a pen.
c) %omplex transiti"e9 %he lead me to my seat.
A) P2&g2!''$,! ,!25': they admit a progressi"e aspect9
"e wrote 'rthur a letter.
5) N&n:-2&g2!''$,! ,!25': they do not admit a progressi"e aspect9
Hohn is a student T Hohn is !eing now a student K"/,:-$
M&2-7&1&g$)a118 %7! ,!25 )an 5! )1a''$#$!" $n %6&
a, 4exical "erb9 walk, write
!$ !uxiliary "erb9
: primary: 7a,!, 5!
: modal: +a8, )an, '7a11
T7! Eng1$'7 ,!25' 7a,! #$,! )&+-&n!n%':
1C 4exeme9 -2!'!n% B!=)!-% %7$2" -!2'&n '$ng1a2C,
$+-!2a%$,!, '5En)%$,! an" $n#$n$%$,!.
(C L(e)s form9 %7$2" -!2'&n '$ng1a2.
*C +resent participle (1ing)9 )&n%$n&' #&2+ an"
-2!'!n% -a2%$)$-1! '!n%!n)!' BM!!%$ng 7$+ 6a'
4C +ast participle (1ed)9 -!2#!)% %!n'!' &# 2!g1a2
,!25', -a''$,! ,&$)! an" -a'% -a2%$)$-1! $n Z!"
IC 4exical irregular "erbs9 #2&+ * %& H, !.g. 5!, a+,
a2!, $', 6a'...
LC <odal auxiliaries9 '-!)$a1 ,!25' 6$%7 n&
$n#$n$%$,!, n& Z$ng -a2%$)$-1!, n& Z!" -a2%$)$-1!
an" n& $+-!2a%$,!. )omplements.
These elements may ha"e the same structure as the sub:ect itself.
$e must distinguish between9
1C S5E!)% )&+-1!+!n%: this type of complement has a direct
relationship with the sub:ect.
Hohn is a student  sub4ect complement 5attribute6with stative
He !ecame richer  sub4ect complement 5predicative6with
dynamic ver!s as the result of the action,
(C O5E!)% )&+-1!+!n%: this complement has a relationship with the direct
ob:ect similar to the one the sub:ect complement keeps with the sub:ect.
/he pri7e made him rich  o!ject complement Kresulting attri!ute$
. drank the coffee cold.  o!ject complement Kcurrent attri!ute$ 9b4ects.
The ob:ects are placed after the sub:ect and the "erb. $hen the sentence is
passi"e# both of them assume the sub:ect status.

1C D$2!)% &5E!)%: 'n general it is a name referred to a person and the
semantic relation between them is that something is done for or recei"ed
by someone. 't is more frequent than the indirect ob:ect and this always
appears whene"er there is an indirect ob:ect# preceding it.
(C In"$2!)% &5E!)%: 't is normally the recipient or recei"er of the
Hohn wrote his friend a letter  direct ob4ect

indirect ob4ect
1.8. 0dverbial categories.
!d"erbials may be many and "aried. From a syntactic point of "iew the only classification
which is important to make is that between obligatory ad"erbials and the remainder. *ome
ad"erbs can be omitted and the sentence would only suffer a slight change# remaining its sense
almost untouched# like this %$+! a",!25$a1:
7esterday she opened the door noisily T %he opened the door noisily.
3owe"er# other types of ad"erbial like +ann!2 a",!25$a1': noisily and use carefully,
silently, etc.# when they are replaced by other# the meaning of the sentence would change although
the sentence will continue being grammatically correct. The same happens when we place some
of these ad"erbials in a sentence with a stati"e or non1progressi"e "erb9
Hohn is a student noisily K"/,:-$
The ad"erbials can be performed by9
1C A",!25$a1 1&)%$&n' with and ad"erb as nucleus9
He went home slowly.
(C N&+$na1 '8n%ag+a:
"e go on holiday every summer.
*C P2!-&'$%$&na1 '8n%ag+a (nominal clause introduced by a preposition)9
"e live in a large house.
4C C1a'!' with !$%7!2 -!2'&na1 or $+-!2'&na1 #&2+':
"atching him go she cried 1 &y father took me to the 3oo when I was C.
1.:. /ypes of sentence structure.
P1a)! A",!25$a1  Hohn is at home.
S5E!)% C&+-1!.  Hohn is a student at ,+ford at
the moment.
S5E!)% N '%a%$,! V.
E=%!n'$,! an" %2an'$%$,! N D$2!)% &5E!)%  He saw the parcel on his
desk at seven
In%!n'$,! N S5E!)% C&+.  He got angry little !y little at work
M&n&%2an. (@irect 7b:ect)  %he carefully
opened the
parcel in his office at B.
S5E!)% N D8na+$) V. T2an'$%$,! D&51! ('ndirect 7b:ect E @irect ob:ect) 
"e happily
wrote him a postcard from +aris
during our holiday.
E=%!n'$,! C&+-1!= (@irect ob:ect E 7b:ect comple.)
 ;he pri3e
suddenly made him rich last

In%2an'$%$,!  He came home slowly last night.

1.;. +iscourse elements.
1. <oun.
$e must make the difference between proper and common nouns.
$ithin the common ones# apart from any other subdi"ision# we can take into account
the difference between countable and uncountable nouns and those which can be both
depending on the way they are used. =ouns ha"e no genre indication# but they do
ha"e number indication.
2. 0d4ective.
The ad:ecti"e has neither genre nor number. 'n most cases# it admits
inflexion to form the comparati"e (1er) and the superlati"e (1est). 7ther ad:ecti"es
which do not admit inflexion form their comparati"e and superlati"e differently9
good, !etter, !est, !ad, worse, worst.
!d:ecti"es are placed before the noun. $hen there is more than one
ad:ecti"e referred to the same noun the order is as follows9
<$ S5E!)%$,! &-$n$&n': careful, naughty,...
=$ S$;! an" 6!$g7% &2 &%7!2 '5E!)%$,! &-$n$&n': small,
>$ Ag!: old, young...
?$ S7a-!: round, square, oval...
E$ C&1&2: !lue, green, red, !rown
D$ C&n%28 &2 &2$g$n: -erman...
B$ Ma%!2$a1: glass, leather, woollen...
3. 0dverb.
The main characteristic of an ad"erb is of morphological type9 most
ad"erbs add the Lly suffix. They are formed by adding the Lly suffix to an ad:ecti"e.
*yntactically# ad"erbs are characterised by two types of functions9
1C A",!25$a1 #n)%$&n.
There are three different types of ad"erbial clauses9
a) a"En)%' (they are integrated in the sentence)9
"e usually go there.
b) "$'En)%' (not integrated and used to express an
opinion about what is being said)9
Honestly, I am tired.
c) )&nEn)%' (not integrated and ha"e a connecting
If you go on smoking, them, I am leaving.
(C A"E!)%$,! an" a",!25 +&"$#$!2
The ad"erbs also admit to establish comparison relationship. The inflexion to form the
comparati"e and superlati"e has the same characteristics as the ones already stated before9
well, !etter, !est 1 little, less, least
8. reposition.
They expresses the existing relation between two entities# being one of
them the one represented by the prepositional complement.
*emantically# they are di"ided into9 place# time# cause# instrument. !
prepositional phrase is composed of a preposition followed by a prepositional
reposition rep. )omplement.
at home
There are '$+-1!# like at, in, for... and )&+-&n"# like in front of, along with...
:. ronoun.
They substitute the noun. There are personal# reflexi"e# reciprocal#
possessi"e# relati"e# interrogati"e# demonstrati"e uni"ersal (each# all# e"ery and its
compounds# partiti"e and quantifying pronouns.
;. /he articles.
$e must distinguish between specific reference article and generic
reference article. The reference is specific when we refer to a specific element within
a group9
' man and two women are waiting outside.
$hen we refer to the group to which the element belongs to# then the
reference is generic9
;he monkey is a funny animal.
=. ro$forms.
$e shall refer to two subdi"isions9
- P2&n&n': they substitute the noun9
"e wrote 'rthur a letter T "e wrote him a letter.
- P2&:,!25': they also substitute nominal clauses9
#ome home T #ome here.
>. &uestion and negation.
1C Q!'%$&n.
aC /7:@!'%$&n'.
$ithin the category of substitutes there is a series of words
forming a special class which substitutes certain parts of a sentence
which may need explanation. These substitutes are9 which, when,
why, where, who, whose and how.
"ho writes her a letter every day?
5C Y!':n& @!'%$&n'.
There are questions demanding an affirmati"e or negati"e answer with reference to a full
6id Hohn write her a letter?
(C N!ga%$&n.
'ts use implies a full predicate negation with the operator and the
negati"e ad"erb not# placed between the operator and the "erbal
Hohn did not write her a letter.
2. #lementary communicative structures and progressive use of grammatical categories in
oral and written productions.
A% %7! '%ag! &# P2$+a28 E")a%$&n, )7$1"2!n 7a,! n&% 8!%
a)@$2!" %7! )a-a)$%8 &# a5'%2a)%$&n. F&2 %7!+ %& 1!a2n a #&2!$gn
1angag! 6$11 5! %& )&++n$)a%! 6$%7 &%7!2 -!&-1! #&2 "$##!2!n%
a$+'. /! +'% %a0! a",an%ag! &# %7$' )&n)!-%$&n an" g$,! -2$&2$%8
%& %7! )&n%!n% &# +!''ag!', %& %7! '$%a%$&n' an" %& %7! a)%$,$%$!'
67!2! %7! 1angag! $' -2!'!n% an" %7! 1angag! $' '!", +a0$ng
%7! 1!a2n$ng &# g2a++a2 '&+!%7$ng 7$""!n.
'nteraction will make possible that in particular moments specific needs of certain
structures# either new or more complex ones arise. Then# first of all# the student will be able
to use non linguistic resources and when the latter are not sufficient# the pupils can ask their
teacher so that he can gi"e them the appropriate mechanisms. 't is the teacher duty to design a
series of acti"ities progressi"ely demanding more complex linguistic uses.
!fter that# we may go through the following phases9
- In 62$%%!n -2&")%$&n: copying short messages and lists, writing
daily sentences for dictation...
- In &2a1 -2&")%$&n: descri!ing family and friends, referring to
age, si3e, weight, hair colour, etc...
2.1. /he place of grammar in language teaching and learning.
These are the aspects of the teaching and learning of grammar categories9

+erception and recognition of the
spoken form of the grammar
%omprehension of what the
spoken grammar category means
in context.
+roduction of well1formed
examples in speech.
Tse of the grammar categories to
con"ey meanings in speech.
,&[email protected]'=N
+erception and recognition of the
written form.
%omprehension of what the
written grammar categories
means in context
+roduction of well1formed
examples in writing.
Tse of grammar categories to
con"ey meanings in writing.
2.2. ?ule [email protected] induction and explication.
Nrammar rules may be acquired in either of two ways9
-) Through induction.
't is not possible to learn the rules of a language entirely through explication
gi"en the current state of knowledge. The process of induction is one whose essence is
learning through self1disco"ery. $e present our pupils with rele"ant language data and
they# first# abstract a rule based on the presented data# and secondly# de"elop a basis
for its application.
/) Through explication.
4earning through explication requires two essentials9
- basic knowledge of the language of the explanation
- ad"anced cogniti"e de"elopment
The formal learning of grammar is not our ob:ecti"e when teaching
&nglish to our pupils. $e want them to use grammar categories to impro"e
their communicati"e competence. $e can do this using# for example# songs
and stories# which can introduce our pupils to the grammatical patterns of
&nglish in a natural and authentic way.
2.3. /he organi7ation of grammar teaching.
$e can distinguish three stages9
- -2!'!n%a%$&n: the aim is to get the learners to percei"e the grammar
categories in both speech and writing and to take it into short term
- )&n%2&11!" -2a)%$)!: the aim is to cause the learners to transfer
what they know from short1term to long1term memory preparing
them to use them for communication.
- -2&")%$&n '%ag!: production or comprehension of meaning for
some non1linguistic purpose# for some real1life purpose.
There are some principles which definitely contribute to successful grammar learning and
1. P2!1!a2n$ng: familiari(e learners with the material# not to introduce it.
(. V&1+! an" 2!-!%$%$&n: 4anguage structures are easily forgotten so our
pupils need initial "olume to absorb them and follow1up repetition to
maintain their knowledge.
*. S))!'':&2$!n%a%$&n.
4. 3!%!2&g!n!$%8: The exercises ha"e different le"els of proficiency.
I. T!a)7!2 a''$'%an)!: $e must support and assist our pupils in the
production of acceptable responses rather that correct or assess them.
L. In%!2!'%: ! well1designed acti"ity must be interesting to our pupils.
!. I"TRO#$CCI>"
'a morfosinta$is ha sido el componente lingI5stico (ue ha go/ado de un
ciera preminencia sobre los dem9s. ) la oraci7n "=e go to the bank", (ue
contiene suficiente informaci7n l6$ica, le falta la morfosint9ctica
correspondiente, por(ue no sabemos si el (ue la ha pronunciado o escrito
se refiere a algo (ue va a hacer, o le gustar5a hacer, o ha hecho o debe
hacer, o har5a, etc. #s decir, le falta la informaci7n morfosint9ctica (ue nos
indi(ue las relaciones (ue e$isten en la cadena hablada entre las
palabras, es decir, la concordancia, el r6gimen, la fle$i7n, etc.
!referimos hablar de morfosinta$is, en ve/ de gram9tica, por las
siguientes ra/ones:
G. 'os l5mites del 9rea de estudio (ue abarca parecen estar m9s claros.
H. 'a palabra gram9tica tradicionalmente tambi6n ha incluido otros
sectores 2la prosodia, la ortograf5a, la sinta$is, etc.3.
J. #n las teor5as lingI5sticas m9s recientes 2gram9tica
transformacional*generativa de 4homsky, gram9tica de los casos de
&illmore, etc.3, la pralabra "gram9tica" abarca tambi6n cuestiones
K. #n la lingI5stica, o en did9ctica del ingl6s, la palabra "gram9tica"
se emplea para referirse a estructuras sint9cticas agrupadas en
repertorios de tipo conceptual, como las llamadas "gram9tica
funcional o nacional".
'a morfosinta$is se mueve entre dos unidades: la mayor, llamada oraci7n,
y la menor, morfema. #ntre ellas hay otras intermedias (ue ahora
citaremos. !ero previamente precisaremos una distinci7n (ue se suele
hacer en la lingI5stica entre oraci7n 2sentence3 y elocuci7n 2utterance3.
Se conocen con el nombre de sentences las formas abstractas (ue
constituyen el conocimiento (ue el hablante nativo tiene de su lengua
2langue3" y utterances son las reali/aciones concretas de esas formas.
4omo unidad de e$presi7n es la m9$ima en sinta$is, y por medio de ella
manifestamos un 1uicio o pensamiento completo, estando constituida por
un su1eto y un predicado, los cuales pueden ir e$pl5cito o t9citos.
a3 'as cl9usulas o proposiciones son el t6rmino (ue se suele aplicar a las
oraciones constitutivas de una oraci7n compuesta, en especial a las
oraciones subordinadas.
b3 'os sintagmas. Toda oraci7n simple consta te7ricamente, y, en
principio, de dos sintagmas: el sintagma nominal, (ue cumple la funci7n
de su1eto, y el sintagma verbal, (ue reali/a la funci7n de predicado. )hora
bien, el predicado puede, a su ve/, tener alg8n sintagma nominal, (ue
desempeLe cual(uiera de las funciones del nombre 2complemento directo,
indirecto, etc.3.
c3 'a frase. Tradicionalmente, las palabras frase y oraci7n han sido
sin7nimos. )(u5 la empleamos en el sentido pr7$imo a frase adverbial o
secuencia de palabras precedidas por una preposici7n: in the morning,
with a hat, after lunch, etc.
d3 'a palabra ha sido definida convencionalmente como sonido o con1unto
de sonidos (ue e$presan una idea o representa una persona, animal o
una cosa.
e3 #l morfema es la unidad m5nima significativa. 4uando el significado es
referencial estamos ante le$emas 2boy, cat, house, etc.3. 4uando el
significado es gramatical 2"s" del plural o del genitivo sa17n, etc.3,
estamos ante los morfemas llamados gramemas.
!.'. E"[email protected]$ES SOARE 2A MOR.OSI"TA?IS
#n el estudio de la morfosinta$is se pueden detectar tres direcciones
principales: la tradicional, la estructural y la generativa. #sto no (uiere
decir (ue no haya m9s corrientes. 4ada cierto tiempo se acuLan nuevos
t6rminos: gram9tica estratificacional, gram9tica sist6mica, gram9tica de
los casos, etc. !ara nuestros intereses, nos es suficiente con las tres
a3 'a gram9tica o morfosinta$is tradicional se basa en el lat5n como
modelo de descripci7n, es prescriptiva o normativa y de car9cter
mentalista, es decir, la definici7n de las partes de la oraci7n y sus
relaciones se establecen de acuerdo con criterios sem9nticos.
b3 'a gram9tica estructural es descriptiva en el sentido de (ue no trata de
legislar sobre lo (ue se deber5a decir o sobre c7mo se debe usar la
lengua" s7lo pretende describir hechos o pautas lingI5sticas, las llamadas
patterns. #s antimentalista, ya (ue huye de criterios sem9nticos, pero es,
en cambio, ta$on7mica y distributiva. #stos tres t6rminos 2pattern,
ta$onom5a y distribuci7n3 son clave. 4on los dos 8ltimos nos referimos a
la tendencia a buscar unidades o constituyentes de la oraci7n, de acuerdo
con el comportamiento distributivo. )s5, en ingl6s, el ad1etivo es la
palabra (ue se coloca entre el art5culo y el nombre y no acepta el
morfema "s" de plural. #n realidad, en la morfosinta$is estructural no se
habla de nombres, verbos, etc., sino de clase I, clase II, etc.
'as t6cnicas empleadas son la segmentaci7n y la sustituci7n. +ediante la
sustituci7n intentamos reempla/ar la unidad (ue es ob1eto de nuestro
estudio por otra, en el mismo conte$to, y si la sustituci7n se puede
reali/ar sin cambios fundamentales en el conte$to, entonces decimos (ue
la nueva unidad y la sustituida pertenecen a la misma clase.
'a teor5a de los constituyentes inmediatos de una oraci7n es una de las
principales aportaciones del estructuralismo americano. #ste an9lisis
ayud7 a revelar los principios por los (ue se organi/a lingI5sticamente la
estructura de un mensa1e. !ara representar los constituyentes inmediatos
se emplearon diversos tipos de cuadros y diagramas. =e a(u5 algunos:
#1emplo G:
The Old Man Looked at me
#1emplo H:
#l concepto de pattern practice se basa, por una parte, en el e1e
paradigm9tico del lengua1e, y por otra, en las ca1as de los constituyentes
c3 !ero para la gram9tica generativa, la morfosinta$is estructural es
bidimensional o est9tica por(ue s7lo e$plica las relaciones (ue e$isten
entre los constituyentes. 4homsky reconoce (ue esta gram9tica tiene
algunos m6ritos, pero es escasa, insuficiente y con poca altura de miras,
ya (ue no presta atenci7n a la producci7n e interpretaci7n de la oraci7n,
(ue impl5citamente lleva a cabo todo hablante nativo. #s la gram9tica
generativa la (ue aLade la tercera dimensi7n o proceso de generaci7n de
las oraciones, por medio de las transformaciones.
)un(ue son atractivos y originales los puntos aportados por la gram9tica
transformacional*generativa, el 6nfasis se ha puesto en los procesos
cognoscitivos del aprendi/a1e.
#n la gram9tica tradicional, la presentaci7n de la morfosinta$is se hace de
un modo e$pl5cito y cognoscitivo. Se facilita una regla, seguida de
e1emplo y de e1ercicios de aplicaci7n. !or e1emplo, "must" e$presa la
obligaci7n ineludible" "should", el conse1o, etc.
#n la estructural se tiende a restar importancia al aspecto te7rico, para
centrarse lo antes posible en la creaci7n de h9bitos por medio de pattern
practice 2pr9ctica con un modelo3, (ue consta de e1ercicios llamados
drills, dirigidos a la automati/aci7n. .o obstante, conviene aclarar (ue se
aplica este nombre tambi6n a e1ercicios (ue no contienen patterns. 'os
defensores de los drills manifiestan (ue con ellos se consigue:
a3 Superar las transferencias negativas de la lengua materna.
b3 )utomati/ar la e$presi7n por medio de la generali/aci7n anal7gica.
c3 &avorecer la "reorgani/aci7n cognoscitiva", creando la abstracci7n
2regla3 en el subcons*ciente, mediante las repeticiones constantes.
'a finalidad curricular de esta 9rea es enseLar a nuestros alumnos a
comunicarse en la lengua inglesa. #sto implica y e$plica (ue se adopte un
enfo(ue basado en la comunicaci7n y orientado a la ad(uisici7n de una
competencia comunicativa. #sta competencia, a su ve/, incluye diferentes
subcompetencias como la competencia gramatical, o capacidad de poner
en pr9ctica las unidades y reglas de funcionamiento del sistema de la
lengua inglesa, y la competencia discursiva, o capacidad de utili/ar
diferentes tipos de discurso y organi/arlos en funci7n de la situaci7n
comunicativa y de los interlocutores.
'as estructuras comunicativas elementales (ue deben dominar los
alumnos de !rimaria en lengua inglesa son las siguientes:
#s esencial desde este punto de vista el dominio de los siguientes puntos
* !resente Simple de los verbos 2to be, have got3, thereMs, thereMre.
* )rt5culos indefinidos 2a, an3.
* .ombres plurales.
* !ronombres personales y posesivos.
* Cenitivo sa17n 2Ms3.
* !roposiciones de lugar 2near, by, ne$t to, ...3, tiempo y distancia.
* This0that0the.
* Imperativos 2sit down, stand up, open the door, etc.3.
* Some0any 2nombres contables e incontables3.
* )dverbios de tiempo, frecuencia y lugar 2early, sometimes, there, etc.3.
* "*ing" para actividades espec5ficas 2reading, swimming, etc.3.
* !asado simple de los verbos.
* !resente continuo con sentido futuro 2IMm going to 'ondon tomorrow,
* )d1etivos comparativos y superlativos 2estructuras de comparaci7n3.
* !resente !erfecto 2I have gone to the doctor, etc.3.
* Some0something en ofrecimientos 2"@o you like some coffeF", etc.3.
* &uturo con "Will" 2IMll stay at home tomorrow", etc.3.
* #structuras condicionales 2"If I go to 'ondon IMll buy a dress", etc.3.
* 4an y Ne able to.
* !osici7n de los adverbios de frecuencia, etc.
* Secuenciaci7n y uni7n de palabras 2ne$os3 2and, both, but, etc.3.
'.'. #ES#E E2 %$"TO #E CISTA .$"CIO"A2
@esde este punto de vista, los alumnos aprender9n a:
* Saludarse y presentarse.
* 4omen/ar una conversaci7n con una persona e$tran1era.
* !articipar en conversaciones m9s largas.
* @ecir adios.
* @ar y pedir informaci7n 2edad, nombre, direcci7n3.
* Identificarse a s5 mismos y a otras personas.
* @escribir a las personas.
* Solicitar (ue repitan algo (ue no se ha entendido bien.
* !reguntar acerca de la salud de las personas.
* @isculparse.
* #$presar arrepentimiento.
* @istinguir distintos niveles de formalidad.
* @eletrear y contar los n8meros.
* #$presar opiniones 2gustos y man5as3.
* @ecir la hora.
* #$presar una (ue1a.
* #$presar educaci7n 2ser "polite" en una conversaci7n3.
* @escribir ob1etos y lugares.
* !reparar informaci7n acerca del idioma ingl6s.
* :frecer cosas y responder a ofrecimientos de otras personas.
* .arrar sucesos o eventos.
* =acer la compra.
* =acer preguntas en una agencia de via1es o solicitar informaci7n sobre
* =acer una reserva en un hotel o un restaurante.
* 4ambiar dinero en un banco.
* 4omparar personas, cosas, situaciones, etc.
* #specular.
* =acer invitaciones y responder a invitaciones.
* @escribir actividades, planes, hobbies, etc.
* Telefonear a alguien.
* )l(uilar una bicicleta, una casa, etc.
* !edir prestado algo a algien.
* #$presar desacuerdo o acuerdo y negociar con alguien.
* %epetir las palabras de otra persona.
* @ar permiso y no conocederlo a alguien para hacer algo.
* +ostrar inter6s por algo o alguien.
* !reguntar la opini7n de alguien sobre alguien.
* !edir los platos en un bar, restaurante, etc.
* =acer predicciones sobre el tiempo, etc.
* )divinar acontecimientos, opiniones, etc.
* =acer sugerencias.
* #$presar simpat5a hacia algo o alguien.
* @ar instrucciones de uso de alg8n ob1eto o de c7mo llegar a un sitio.
* )conse1ar a alguien.
* )dvertir a alguien.
* )nunciar p8blicamente una opini7n.
* !rotestar.
'.(. #ES#E E2 %$"TO #E CISTA "OCIO"A2
@esde este punto de vista, los alumnos al finali/ar la etapa !rimaria
habr9n aprendido:
* 'os nombres de las personas, apellidos.
* 'a edad.
* #l estado civil.
* #l origen y la nacionalidad.
* 'as direcciones 2addresses3.
* 'os empleos 21obs3.
* 'a salud 2cuerpo humano3.
* 'a familia 2los miembros (ue la componen y la relaci7n entre 6stos3.
* 'a apariencia f5sica de personas, animales y cosas.
* 'as relaciones entre las personas.
* 'os n8meros y las letras.
* 'os lugares.
* 'os n8meros de tel6fono.
* 'os muebles.
* 'as casas, edificios, etc.
* #l traba1o.
* #l tiempo libre.
* 'a comida y la bebida.
* #l precio de algunas cosas.
* Custos y mam9s.
* !referencias.
* 4osas comunes y diferentes entre ambas culturas.
* @5as de la semana.
* .8meros ordinales.
* #l tiempo.
* 'a posici7n relativa 2cerca, le1os, etc.3 de las personas, animales y
* Cenerali/ar.
* 4uantificar.
* Craduar.
* 'as rutinas.
* 'os colores.
* #l estado f5sico y emocional de las personas.
* 'a ropa.
* 'as tallas.
* 'a historia de algunas personas.
* 'a pobre/a y la ri(ue/a.
* 'a felicidada y la infelicidad.
* #l racismo.
* 'a infancia.
* 'a educaci7n.
* 'as habilidaes personales y de otras personas.
* 'as cualidades de las personas.
* 'os pesos y medidas.
* 'a personalidad propia y a1ena.
* 'os meses y las estaciones del aLo.
* #l clima.
* !lanes futuros.
* 'as vacaciones.
* 'as similitudes y diferencias.
* 'os contrastes.
* #l tiempo pasado.
* 'os deportes.
* 'a m8sica.
* #l cine y la televisi7n.
* 'a lectura.
* 'as m9(uinas.
* 'os hor7scopos.
* #l peligro.
* 'os prop7sitos e intenciones.
* #l futuro.
Ona de las t6cnicas m9s aplicadas en la enseLan/a de una lengua
e$tran1era es el uso de los denominados "drills" a la hora de practicar la
morfosinta$is y aplicarla directamente tanto en e1ercicios orales como de
e$presi7n escrita.
(.!. 2OS #RI22S
)lgunos de los principales "drills" utili/ados actualmente son los
G. %epetici7n: es el primer drill, o, al menos, el m9s conocido.
#l profesor enuncia diferentes oraciones o e$presiones y los alumnos las
repiten al ob1eto de asimilar su pronunciaci7n, el orden de las palabras, la
entonaci7n, etc.
H. Sustituci7n: @ada una estructura gramatical, el alumno se familiari/a
con ella sustituyendo, dentro del mismo paradigma, una palabra por otra.
) este e1ercicio lo llamamos sustituci7n simple:
#1emplo: ) book I buy a book
) car I buy a car
) comb I buy a comb, etc.
4uando cambiamos de paradigma dentro del mismo e1ercicio, estamos
ante una sustituci7n m8ltiple:
#1emplo: I I get up at seven
eight I get up at eight
+ary +ary gets up at eight
we We get up at eight
go to bed We go to bed at eight
ten We go to bed at ten, etc.
#n las sustituciones m8ltiples, normalmente hay (ue decir, cuando se dan
las instrucciones, "introduciendo los cambios necesarios". !or e1emplo, en
el e1ercicio anterior hemos tenido (ue aLadir el morfema "s" al presentar
el su1eto "+ary".
'as palabras o elementos (ue han de ser sustituidos se pueden presentar
oralmente, con realia, es decir, mostrando o seLalando los ob1etos reales,
o con tar1etas, tambi6n conocidas con el nombre de "flash cards".
J. Transformaci7n: #s un e1ercicio tradicional (ue consiste en pasar
oraciones activas a pasivas, o de presente a pasado, o de afirmativas a
negativas, o a la inversa, o ad1etivos atribuidos en predicativos.
2#1emplo: "The door is white" P "ItMs a white door"3, etc.
)d1etivo )d1etivo
atributivo predicativo
#1emplo: +ary works in a bank @oes +ary work in a bankF
!eter is a doctor Is !eter a doctorF
Susan has got a new car =as Susan got a new carF
;ohn arrived last night @id ;ohn arrive last nightF
#ste e1ercicio ha empleado distintos tiempos verbales y distintos tipos de
verbos. 4omo es evidente, se puede hacer con un solo tiempo verbal o
con un solo tipo de verbo.
K. #$pansivo: #n este e1ercicio el alumno va ampliando una oraci7n inicial
con los elementos
(ue le facilita el profesor. Tambi6n se le llama a este e1ercicio "pir9mide".
#1emplo: always: =e reads books
=e always reads books
#nglish: =e always reads #nglish books
at night: =e always reads #nglish books at night.
R. %educci7n: #1ercicio opuesto al anterior, tambi6n conocido con el
nombre de "pir9mide invertida".
#1emplo: She always gets up at seven and has breakfast has breakfast
Se always gets up at seven at seven
She always get up always
She gets up
S. %econstrucci7n: @ados unos elementos desordenados, el alumno debe
darles el orden sint9ctico correcto, efectuando los cambios necesarios.
#1emplo: To come, he, yesterday P =e came yesterday
T. 4ontestar preguntas preparadas estructuralmente:
#1emplo: Why donMt you payF 2loose my money3
* I donMt pay because I lost my money
Why didnMt she comeF 2forget it3
* She didnMt come because she forgot it
U. &ormular preguntas a respuestas dadas:
#1emplo: I visit my grand parents very often
* when did you visit themF
I write to my friends very often
* when did you write to themF
V. Traducci7n inversa controlada: #ste e1ercicio es conveniente para
practicar puntos gramaticales (ue son muy distintos de una lengua a otra.
#1emplo: !uede (ue 6l venga P =e may come
!uede (ue llueva P It may rain
!uede (ue 2ella3 llame por tel6fono P She may call
#studio desde hace un mes P IMve been studying for one month
#stos e1ercicios o drills se pueden hacer m9s comple1os combinando
sustituciones, transformaciones, e$pansiones, etc. 'o importante es dar
las instrucciones bien claras y un e1emplo o modelo antes de cada
pr9ctica. 4omo es evidente, la mayor5a de ellos se pueden hacer tanto
oralmente como por escrito" es el maestro (uien debe decidir la
conveniencia de un medio o del otro.
':S I.4:.#.I#.T#S @# ':S @%I''S:
'os drills tienen dos inconvenientes importantes. Si se usan en clase m9s
de un tiempo prudencial, el inter6s y la motivaci7n decaen" el otro
inconveniente es la situaci7n absurda en (ue se encuentran muchos
alumnos, (ue, cuando se trata de manipular las estructuras en clase, lo
hacen perfectamente, pero al pasar a situaciones reales cometen errores
como "want you a cup of teaF" despu6s de haber practicado
insistentemente la forma interrogativa del presente habitual con todo tipo
de drills.
!oco a poco, los drills se han ido acomodando a una posici7n m9s
situacional y cognoscitiva por medio de la conte$tuali/aci7n. W esto es
posible en el aula, ya (ue en ella hay personas reales, con un presente,
un pasado y un futuro, con posesiones, anhelos, problemas, familia, etc.
)dem9s, el ser humano es un animal curioso: le gusta enterarse de lo (ue
hacen los dem9s. #s mucho m9s provechoso, por tanto, (ue las pr9cticas
(ue se hagan sobre estructuras determinadas se relacionen directamente
con la vida de los miembros de la clase.
Suponiendo (ue los alumnos ya hayan visto la estructura a trav6s de una
presentaci7n por di9logo o te$to, (ue se les haya e$plicado su funci7n y
sus variantes, y (ue se hayan puesto a su disposici7n unos cuantos
verbos corrientes, como work, play, cook, drive, eat, drink, write, etc., se
pueden seguir los siguientes pasos a fin de (ue los alumnos asimilen
totalmente esta categor5a gramatical en ingl6s:
a3 #l profesor hace un dibu1o en la pi/arra de su propio padre 2o esposa,
madre, novia, etc.3. 'os alumnos le hacen preguntas:
* Is your father working in his officeF
* Is your father playing footballF
* Is your father cooking lunchF
* Is your father driving his carF
)ntes de contestar, el profesor consulta su relo1. #sto indica claramente a
los alumnos (ue se trata de ahora mismo. #ntonces contestar9 la verdad:
* Wes, he is.
* .o, he isnMt.
* !robably.
* !robably not.
* !erhaps.
b3 ) continuaci7n, se invita a un alumno a dibu1ar en la pi/arra a alg8n
pariente suyo, y se repite el e1ercicio.
'a forma afirmativa puede practicarse si cada alumno piensa en un
miembro de su familia y menta lo (ue probablemente est9 haciendo,
teniendo en cuenta la hora (ue es:
* +y father is probably working in the factory.
* +y mother is probably watching T..
* +y sister is probably studying in the library.
Tambi6n se puede decir lo (ue seguramente no est9n haciendo los
miembros de su familia:
* IMm sure my father isnMt dancing in a disco.
* IMm sure my mother isnMt playing cards.
* IMm sure my brother isnMt studying.
#l 8nico problema (ue se presenta con este tipo de pr9ctica es el del
vocabulario. 2"#s (ue mi hermana debe estar estudiando en la biblioteca.
X47mo se dice "biblioteca"F3. .o es un problema grave" se le dice
simplemente al alumno (ue pregunta (ue biblioteca es library. .o es
necesario (ue toda la clase aprenda la palabra library, aun(ue muchos lo
har9n por simple curiosidad" la necesidad s7lo ataLe al alumno (ue (uiere
decir lo (ue est9 haciendo su hermana, y a los (ue (uieren entenderle.
@e todas formas, es un error restringir en este nivel de !rimaria el
vocabulario a "lo (ue poner el libro" por(ue los alumnos tienen siempre
una curiosidad muy grande por saber palabras sueltas, y por(ue cada
alumno tiene sus necesidades l6$icas, (ue para 6l ser9n vitales, aun(ue a
otros les pare/can poco importantes. )dem9s, evita el uso constante del
llamado "classroom vocabulary" *la ti/a, las sillas, las mesas, los
bol5grafos" o del "te$tbook vocabulary" *los niLos, la nevera, el coche, la
casa, etc.*.
!ara practicar el futuro simple se presentan varias situaciones, ilustradas
con dibu1os, acompaLadas de "promts" o vocabulario de apoyo, etc. 'os
e1ercicios han sido diseLados para (ue haya traba1o individual y por
pare1as. Tanto en 6ste como en otros e1ercicios (ue se pueden reali/ar, el
maestro no debe olvidar (ue, aun(ue est6 prestando toda la atenci7n al
componente morfosint9ctico, no se pueden descuidar ni la fonolog5a ni el
Suponiendo (ue los alumnos ya se hayan familiari/ado con la estructura
del futuro simple en ingl6s y (ue se les hayan e$plicado las funciones de
6ste, se pueden seguir los siguientes pasos:
SIT$ACI>" !:
a3 #l profesor presentar9 la situaci7n o conte$to.
") construction company is building a house for +r. #vans. They promised
him a lot of thing for 4hristmas."
put the roof0complete the kitchen0etc.
b3 Traba1o individual:
* What have the construction company promised they will do by
* They promised they will put the roof, they will complete the kitchen, etc.
c3 Traba1o por pare1as: Wou are +r. #vans, and your friend is the manager
of the construction company. Wou are impatient, and you are asking him
(uestions with will you
..... by 4hristmasF
* Will you put the roof by 4hristmasF Wes, we will.
* Will you finish the kitchen by 4hristmasF Wes, we will, of course.
SIT$ACI>" ':
a3 #l profesro presentar9 la siguiente situaci7n: ")nthony ;ones is a
young writer. =e wants to be very famous, he wants to do many things by
the year HYYY".
* become internationally famous 0 win the .obel pri/e 0 write more than
JY novels 0 etc.
b3 Traba1o individual:
* What does )nthony think he will do by the year HYYYF
* =e thinks he will be famous, he will write many books, etc.
c3 Traba1o por pare1as: Wou are a television interviewer asking (uestions
to )nthony ;ones. )sk him (uestions like:
* )re you optimistic about your futureF Wes, I am very optimistic.
* What will you do by the year HYYYF I will write many novels, I will win
the .obel pri/e, etc.
SIT$ACI>" (:
a3 #l profesor presentar9 la situaci7n: "Neatrice Wood is pessimistic about
the ecologial situation. She thinks we will do many terrible things by the
end of the century".
Eill all the whales 0 destroy the )ma/on forest 0 Eill fish 0 etc.
b3 Traba1o individual:
* What does Neatrice Wood think we will do by the end of the centuryF
* She thinks we will kill all the whales and fish, etc.
c3 Traba1o por pare1as: Wou are talking to Neatrice Wood. )sk her these
* What will happen to the whales by the end of the centuryF
* What will happen to the )ma/on forestF
* What will happen to the fishF
Ny the end of the century we will kill the whales, fish and we will destroy
the )ma/on forest.
)'4)%)Z [ +::@W. 'a did9ctica del ingl6s. #d. )lhambra. +adrid. GVUH
+.#.4. 4a1as ro1as para la %eforma. Brea de lenguas e$tran1eras. +adrid.
N#'': y :T%:S. @id9ctica de las segundas lenguas. #d. Santillana 2)ula
\\I3. +adrid. GVVH
SW)+ [ W)'T#%. The new 4ambridge english course. 4.O.!. 4ambridge.
1. #* (A/9+9 1/?0+.).9<0*2
&n la ense`an(a de idiomas# cualquier metodologJa que se presente o se imponga no debe
entenderse como algo que surge casualmente o como un fenHmeno aislado. Toda metodologJa
responde a una realidad comple:a# preexistente o concomitante a un con:unto de moti"aciones
di"ersas# aunque siempre dentro de las coordenadas del pensar de una Kpoca.
!ntes de empe(ar a hablar del mKtodo tradicional debemos puntuali(ar que el empleo de
dicho tKrmino no es muy apropiado) estudiando la historia de la ense`an(a de las lenguas se
constata inmediatamente# y como "eremos a continuaciHn# que no ha habido 0mKtodos
tradicionales2sino que mGs bien los distintos mKtodos se han ido sucediendo o turnando. &n
inglKs se ha utili(ado una denominaciHn mGs a:ustada a la realidad9 8mJtodo de gramVtica y
traducciWn2# respondiendo asJ a las prGcticas mGs comunes y caracterJsticas del mencionado
+or mJtodo tradicional, esquemati(ando y simplificando# podrJamos reducir el contenido de
esta metodologJa a los siguientes puntos9
-. VisiHn normati"a y prescripti"a del lengua:e# como base sobre la que se asientan los
contenidos que se ense`an.
/. +redominio de un modelo de lengua:e deri"ado del legado escrito de autores
0consagrados2# es decir# encontraremos una lengua formal # correcta y relacionada con
las corrientes puristas.
8. %on"encimiento y creencia (consciente o no) en el hecho de que los procesos
lingIJsticos son procesos fundamentalmente lHgicos# adquiridos por deducciHn. &n
consecuencia# se hace necesario aprender primero las reglas gramaticales) despuKs la
aplicaciHn de tales reglas permitirG la formaciHn de frases y oraciones bien hechas#
utili(ando lKxico "ariado en combinaciones distintas.
6. &l concepto de lengua oral yEo coloquial es sinHnimo de 0"ulgar2 de ba:o ni"el o
calidad. =o solamente no se toma como modelo sino que incluso se debe e"itar en el
uso y recha(ar como incorrecto.
A. 4a memori(aciHn de reglas gramaticales por un lado y de largas listas de "ocabulario
por otro# son los ob:eti"os prioritarios en una lecciHn del mKtodo tradicional.
5. 4a tKcnica de la traducciHn directa e in"ersa es la mGs ampliamente utili(ada en clase.
B. &l "ocabulario utili(ado es el que me:or sir"a a la aplicaciHn de las reglas gramaticales#
no necesariamente el que mGs se use en la comunicaciHn interpersonal.
@esde el punto de "ista histHrico# parece lHgico asumir que el mKtodo tradicional habrJa sido
difJcil de aplicar cuando la gramGtica no estaba clara o la conceptuali(aciHn gramatical no
habJa alcan(ado un grado de desarrollo analJtico mJnimo. &n este sentido las aportaciones de
los griegos# particularmente# 'ristWteles y 6ionisio ;racio fueron hitos importantes que
permitieron acercarse mGs al estudio de las lenguas desde un punto de "ista analJtico. %on
toda seguridad# en aquel entonces# las lenguas se aprendJan por contacto lingIJstico entre los
hablantes# mediante la prGctica en el medio adecuado. !sJ el latJn se aprendia sobre todo
mediante tutores que con"i"Jan con el educando# hablando ambos en esa lengua. &n siglos no
le:anos# <ontaigne toda"Ja nos cuenta cHmo Kl aprendiH latJn con ese sistema# llegando a
hablarlo con soltura y prontitud.
&n el contexto que nos ocupa no podemos de:ar de lado el tema de la 0gramVtica
especulativa2. 4os gramGticos de esta tendencia hablan de los aspectos lHgicos de la lengua
mediante el estudio de la relaciHn lenguaje1mente4intelecto. Traba:an en la basqueda de
elementos comunes a todas las lenguas# elementos que deben existir 1afirman1 puesto que la
mente humana tambiKn tiene muchos elementos en coman y todo ello se debe refle:ar en los
lengua:es naturales porque todos se fundamentan en la mente y son creaciHn del hombre. &ste
hecho es de gran rele"ancia para entender el Knfasis dado a los aspectos gramaticales y
normati"os# Knfasis que acaba instalGndose por largo tiempo en el pensar lingIJstico europeo.
%omo consecuencia de este pensar aparece en el campo de la ense`an(a de idiomas lo que se
podrJa llamar 8escuela austriaca9 con ,llendorf Ksiglo XIX$ primero# y #.lot3 despuKs .
Fue en aquella corte prusiana en la que se desarrollH el mKtodo denominado 8tradicional9#
dicho mKtodo se expandiH de forma excepcional por toda &uropa. 4os libros de 7llendorf
para la ense`an(a de lenguas extran:eras alcan(aron gran difusiHn y se podrJan definir
diciendo que en ellos es muy importante que la gramGtica constituya la parte mGs importante
de la ense`an(a de la lenguas. +ero 7llendorf no descubre nada nue"o) que la ense`an(a y
aprendi(a:e de las reglas gramaticales son el ingrediente fundamental sobre el cual los
alumnos han de cifrar su atenciHn ya habJa sido centro de polKmicas en siglos anteriores. <uy
ilustrati"a a este respecto es la discusiHn protagoni(ada por Brookes y "e!!e en 'nglaterra# en
el siglo UV''. <ientras $ebbe# buscando la me:or manera de ense`ar latJn intentaba
prescindir de toda gramGtica# rookes# defiende los esquemas de la ense`an(a tradicional.
+ara el altimo resultaba escandaloso intenta aprender una lengua sin aprender la gramGtica.
$ebbe# por su parte# trataba de demostrar que tambiKn era posible aprender mediante la
experiencia y la repeticiHn de actos.
Vol"iendo de nue"o a ,llendorf, "ale la pena estudiar mGs a fondo cHmo se estructura cada
lecciHn de su mKtodo# puesto que durante muchos a`os no cambiH.&n el siglo UU #hubo un
intento de cambio# aparecieron libros de texto con el tJtulo de 07llendorf reformado2# pero
tales reformas fueron siempre mJnimas y no sustanciales. %omo decJa# en una lecciHn tJpica
ollendorfiana encontrarJamos los siguientes apartados9
-. Tna lista de palabras en ambas lenguas encabe(ando la unidad) a "eces# en "e( de lista de
palabras# se presenta una lista de frases que refle:an lo que posteriormente se "a a exponer
en la regla gramatical.
&l palacio del rey
The king’s palace.
&l :ardJn de la se`ora
The lady’s garden.
/. *e enuncian a continuaciHn las reglas gramaticales (aunque a "eces pueden aparecer antes).
&:emplo9 0FamGs se hace uso de este geniti"o con los ad:eti"os empleados sustanti"amente2
> se a`aden e:emplos para ilustrar la regla9
0 4a felicidad del mal"ado es pasa:era2.
0The happines of the wicked is but transitory2.
8. 4uego# se introducen las prGcticas9 e:ercicios de traducciHn directa e in"ersa# siempre
tratando de que la regla
expuesta anteriormente encuentre en la prGctica un refuer(o adecuado. &l lengua:e
seleccionado por el autor
nunca es arbitrario# de ahJ que el lengua:e resulte con"encional e irreal# en ningan momento
se preocupan por reproducir un diGlogo normal.
&:emplo9 0_Tiene su hi:o# papel para escribir un billete;
=o# no lo tiene.
4a filosofJa de esta orientaciHn metodolHgica estG contenida en los prHlogos de diferentes
autores que siguen a 7llendorf9 0*iempre el maestro comen(arG cada lecciHn llamando la
atenciHn del alumno hacia los "ocablos de mayor importancia gramatical# y hacia las reglas
que en cada lecciHn se encuentren2. &l mismo autor dice9 0%i se sigue este mJtodo sin
acortarlo, garanti3o formalmente que no ha!rV discPpulo alguno, siempre que no sea im!Jcil
o idiota, que deje de aprender !ien el inglJs2.
*in embargo# es fGcil encontrar una notable falta de exactitud en la enunciaciHn de las reglas
gramaticales# y en lo relati"o a la pronunciaciHn# las explicaciones curiosas abundan9
&:emplo9 Vocal 0e’especial2# que es preciso oJr a un inglKs.
+or otro lado# los mKtodos de idiomas no deben estar desconectados de la realidad social en la
que aparecen y se desarrollan. &n la actualidad# el mJtodo tradicional estG fuera de lugar#
despla(ado y desfasado. > es natural que asJ sea# entre otras ra(ones# porque los estudios
linguJsticos apuntan en otra direcciHn y porque la consideraciHn de quK es necesario en el
aprendi(a:e de una segunda lengua ha cambiado sustancialmente. +ensemos# por e:emplo# en
la primacJa de la lengua oral# fa"orecida actualmente por los medios de comunicaciHn#
medios que facilitan el contacto entre las gentes y exigen incluso la necesidad de conocer una
segunda lengua para poder entendernos en los frecuentes "ia:es.
&n cuanto al mKtodo 0,llendorf reformado2encontramos algunas "ariantes. &=7T# por
e:emplo# dice9 06ada la lecciWn, y enterado ya el alumno de todo lo mVs importante, no
de!en oirse en la clase mVs pala!ras en espaYol que las advertencias que el profesor ju3gue
necesario hacer2.
&ste tipo de mKtodo presenta con frecuencia al inicio de cada lecciHn no listas de palabras
aisladas sino frases o expresiones cortas que se refieren a las reglas gramaticales que se
encuentran a continuaciHn. 4a palabra se presenta pues# dentro de un contexto (aunque a
"eces sigue refle:ando un lengua:e artificial y for(ado). *al"o este incon"eniente# se a"an(H
bastante con respecto al empleo del mJtodo tradicional que implicaba el uso casi exclusi"o
de la lengua materna del alumno. ,ecordemos tambiKn que la ordenaciHn del material por
lecciones y la estructuraciHn de las lecciones# en cuanto tales# tenJan una base y un
fundamento gramatical.
&n -?AD ..H. /ojas publicH un mKtodo para ense`ar inglKs a espa`oles# basado en el del
doctor /o!ertson., @urante mucho tiempo se pretendiH ense`ar idiomas explanando teorJas#
haciendo reglas y de:ando la aplicaciHn prGctica a la impericia o al capricho del discJpulo# sin
embargo# mediante el mJtodo de /o!ertson se comen(aba a leer# a traducir# a escribir# a
hablar# a adquirir conocimientos gramaticales desde la primera lecciHn (decJan)# pero la
realidad no se a:ustaba a tales ob:eti"os) en la primera lecciHn se ofrecJa un texto de caracter
histHrico y con un "ocabulario y sintaxis poco usual en la "ida cotidiana.
asGndose en el texto# el autor# se`ala como se pronuncia cada palabra y cada sonido# se hace
la "ersiHn literal y 0casti(a2# y# una y otra "e(# se hacen preguntas en castellano y se
responden en inglKs para hacer entender el texto. 4uego se hace lo mismo en inglKs y
castellano y# mGs adelante# siguen -B pGginas dedicadas a anali(ar la pronunciaciHn# la
morfologJa y la sintaxis.
&n este tipo de mKtodo encontramos variantes# pero no ruptura real con lo anterior. 4a
ruptura reside mGs bien en la organi(aciHn del material9 no sigue ningan orden preestablecido
como se hacJa en las gramGticas anteriores# ahora los textos que aparecen ademGs de ficticios
son# generalmente# comple:os. ien es cierto que esa comple:idad es anali(ada en detalle y
organi(adamente en las abundantes pGginas explicati"as que componen cada lecciHn.
:,;' )I:' 7 B'':#0
a) &l imperio de la gramGtica.
4a insistencia de los aspectos gramaticales no deberJa# a pesar de todo# cifrarse
exclusi"amente en el mKtodo tradicional. &l 8'rs -rammatica 8 de 6onato, contaba con una
base didGctica importante# fue elaborada a modo de preguntas y respuestas. &n el siglo U'''#
'lejandro Gilledien escribiH tambiKn otra gramGtica con fines didGcticos.
&sta insistencia tan pertina(# ya desde tiempos tan le:anos# nos re"ela al menos dos cosas9
-. Xue la gramGtica ha sido considerada siempre como bGsica en el estudio de las lenguas y
del lengua:e.
/. Xue si tanta importancia le ha sido dada por lingIJstas de todos los tiempos# las ra(ones
deben haber sido serias.
b) *obre el mKtodo tradicional.
&s preciso e"aluar un mKtodo partiendo de los ob:eti"os que se propone y tratando de
apreciar si los ha obtenido o no. &n este sentido# si el ob:eti"o del mKtodo tradicional era
fundamentalmente aprender a leer y traducir una lengua extran:era# los resultados obtenidos
con el mismo son considerablemente positi"os. &l aprendi(a:e del cHdigo gramatical# del
"ocabulario y# por otro lado# los e:ercicios apuntaban a ello. %riticar este mKtodo diciendo
que con Kl no se aprende a hablar# es distorsionar la realidad9 el mJtodo tradicional no
pretende enseYar a ha!lar al alumno. ;ampoco tiene como o!jetivo el aprendi3aje de la
lengua coloquial# ya que no lo considera correcto. &s la lengua literaria formal la que se erige
en norma.
&n cuanto al "ocabulario# diremos que con frecuencia se ofrece sin contexto# aisladamente# y
el aprender "ocabulario fuera de contexto es un peligro para el que aprende. 4a traducciHn #
estG supeditada a los puntos gramaticales que se trata de aprender. 4a consecuencia inmediata
es la apariciHn de frases atJpicas. *in embargo# no estG demGs decir que los mismos ob:eti"os
podrJan lograrse con frases que ofreciesen mayor naturalidad# extrayKndolas de contextos
=o ol"idemos# tampoco# que la memori(aciHn de reglas se exagerH excesi"amente# llegH a
constituirse en fin# en "e( de ser un medio para lograr un fin.
(. #* (A/9+9 +.?#)/9
&n el siglo UV'' el gran didacta #,&0:I, publicaba su 0Ianua inguarum9# complemento
de otro mKtodo "isual para la ense`an(a de las lenguas# 8,r!is %ensualium .ictus9. *in
embargo# no fue una idea original suya# copiaba el tJtulo de un manuscrito de un :esuita
irlandKs# B';H0, que en sus a`os de estancia y docencia en la Tni"ersidad de *alamanca#
habJa escrito el primer Inaua inguarum. &n este libro escrito para aprender latJn# el autor
habla "arias "eces de algo equi"alente al &Jtodo directo*
0 3asta el presente solamente se han desarrollado dos mKtodos para el aprendi(a:e de
idiomas. *on el regular Kes decir, indirecto o gramVtica4traducciWn) y el irregular Ko directo$#
ampliamente usado por todos aquellos que aprenden idiomas mediante la prGctica oral y la
lectura. &l primero de ellos consigue una mayor precisiHn# mientras que los segundos
consiguen una mayor fluide( lingIJstica...2
+ero el mKtodo que hoy denominamos directo# encontrH su mGximo exponente# desde el
punto de "ista de su di"ulgaciHn y concreti(aciHn en un libro de texto# en las obras y labor
docente de &.6. B0/I;Z. *u mKtodo es una amalgama de elementos de distinta Jndole#
pro"enientes en parte de autores tan sobresalientes como %omenio y +estalo((i# y# en parte#
resultado de una reacciHn frente al mKtodo mGs extendido hasta entonces# el tradicional.
Berlit3 da como principios de su mKtodo los siguientes 9
-. !sociaciHn directa de la percepciHn y el pensamiento con la lengua y sonidos de la lengua
que se aprende.
/. Tso constante y exclusi"o de la lengua que se estG aprendiendo.
> a partir de estos dos puntos cardinales# llega a conclusiones que definen y condicionan la
metodologJa a seguir.
&s fundamental la utili(aciHn de ob:etos reales para la ense`an(a de una lengua. &ste
principio encuentra su origen en los 0realia2 aludidos en muchas obras de siglos pasados.
#omenio ya decJa que las palabras no podJan ser aprendidas separadas de las cosas y
.estalo33i (-B651-?B/)# habla del mJtodo natural. +ara Kl# el aprendi(a:e de una lengua es
uno de los elementos cla"e de todo aprendi(a:e humano. &n su obra 6e cWmo -ertrudis
enseYa a sus hijos# nos lega su filosofJa del aprendi(a:e referido a las lenguas. &n primer
lugar# trata del aprendi(a:e de la lengua materna. &l proceso es 0natural2# influyendo de forma
decisi"a la impresiHn por los sentidos# y dichas impresiones pro"ienen de experiencias
exteriores# entre las cuales estGn los ob:etos. @ice que se debe buscar# en el proceso de
aprendi(a:e# la aplicaciHn y la basqueda de estJmulos que ofre(can los ob:etos y cosas de las
cuales suele estar rodeado el ni`o# y# utili(ar dichos ob:etos de formas di"ersas presentando al
ni`o las sensaciones mGs "ariadas.
4a utili(aciHn de los ob:etos del mundo real# y la insistencia en el mKtodo natural# hacen que
poco despuKs ). )rancke trate de explicar tal proceso aplicado a la ense`an(a de idiomas.
'ntenta de:ar claro que el proceso de %2a"))$<n utili(ado en la ense`an(a de idiomas es poco
econHmico# porque sigue la lJnea eLE:LM:Cf# es decir# 1!nga !=%2anE!2a:1!nga +a%!2na:
)&n)!-%&# cosa innecesaria# puesto que basta seguir la trayectoria 1!nga !=%2anE!2a:
)&n)!-%&,eLE:Cf. *e puede aprender la palabra de la lengua extran:era relacionGndola con el
ob:eto en cuestiHn. &s mGs#lo primero# dificulta el aprendi(a:e mGs que facilitarlo.
%uando erlit( habla de 0leyes naturales2 en el proceso de aprendi(a:e# a`ade a lo dicho por
+estalo((i que el ni`o al aprender la lengua materna# no aprende gramGtica# ni reglas# ni
nada seme:ante y es capa( de hablar una lengua . !demGs# su aprendi(a:e es mGs seguro y
*in embargo hay que tener en cuenta que el aprendi(a:e de la lengua materna es diferente al
de una lengua extran:era9
-. !l aprender la lengua materna# el ni`o no dispone de otro medio lingIJstico de
/. !prende una lengua por primera "e(.
8. 4a lengua que aprende le es "ital para poder comunicarse con lo que le rodea y con
aquellos con quienes con"i"e a diario.
6. Vi"e hora tras hora en un contexto lingIJstico apropiado para aprender el idioma que usa#
sin nada que se lo impida y con todo a su fa"or.
+estalo((i exprime el tema al ampliarlo al mundo de los adultos) dice que no se puede
comparar el aprendi(a:e del ni`o y del adulto porque a la hora de aprender una lengua
extran:era# el adulto estG me:or equipado al poseer un sistema y estar habituado ya a
establecer relaciones ob:eto1pensamiento1palabras. <ientras# el ni`o ha de empe(ar por lo
mGs elemental9 la captaciHn e identificaciHn del ob:eto en cuanto a tal (e"identemente se
refiere a ni`os muy peque`os).
%ercano a +estalo((i y a sus seguidores# estG -,FI:# quien basa su metodologJa en la
obser"aciHn de cHmo aprende el ni`o9 :ugando# comentando# preguntando y relacionando
significado# acciHn y palabras ( con el consiguiente Knfasis en las formas "erbales# que el
autor resalta expresamente en el margen derecho de la situaciHn en que se desen"uel"en sus
unidades didGcticas).
&n realidad# este mKtodo que nos ocupa estG enfocado al aprendi(a:e de una lengua extran:era
por adultos# y sus defensores lo que quisieron fue encontrar un paralelo con el proceso de
aprendi(a:e de la lengua materna de un ni`o. +ero dicho paralelismo era sHlo parcial porque9
!1 &l ni`o estG adquiriendo el lengua:e y una lengua concreta.
1 &l adulto tiene una capacidad de lengua:e bien o suficientemente desarrollada. TambiKn
posee una primera lengua ya adquirida.
!1 &l ni`o tiene muchas horas para aprender# dJas# meses# a`os...
1 &l adulto busca economJa en el tiempo# aprender lo mGximo en el mJnimo espacio de
tiempo posible.
!1 &l ni`o estG inmerso en el ambiente lingIJstico que aprende.
1 &l adulto no# a no ser que estK "i"iendo en un paJs extran:ero donde se hable la lengua en
!1 &l ni`o no estG condicionado por otro sistema de comunicaciHn.
1 &l adulto sJ. !demGs los habitos lingIJsticos pesan y se interfieren.
!1 &l ni`o "a adquiriendo a lo largo de los a`os su capacidad de abstracciHn.
1 &l adulto ya ha dado esos pasos. &n consecuencia# el sentido que las reglas gramaticales
tienen para el ni`o y para el adulto es diferente. +ara el adulto la abstracciHn de las reglas
gramaticales no es nada nue"o# generalmente# pueden ayudarle en su aprendi(a:e y qui(G las
exi:a porque estG habituado a ellas. &n el otro caso# el del ni`o# la explicaciHn y presencia de
reglas puede llegar a ser contraproducente si no se aplica un buen criterio y metodologJa.
@ebemos pensar tambiKn que la abstracciHn de las reglas gramaticales ayuda a desarrollar la
capacidad intelectual y abstractora del ni`o# precisamente dos pilares bGsicos en el
aprendi(a:e de un idioma.
Vol"iendo de nue"o con erlit(# a`adamos algunas de sus palabras# decJa que con su mKtodo
se aprende 0como si se estuviese en el paPs en que se ha!la el idioma2. +ero tal comparaciHn
no se da ni en el me:or de los casos# falla la premisa fundamental# el que aprende
permaneciendo en su paJs de origen# estudia dos# tres# cuatro# seis u ocho horas diarias#
dificilmente mGs. &l resto del dJa se sumerge de nue"o en el ambiente que le es propio#
escucha la tele"isiHn# la radio# lee...en su idioma nati"o. &n cambio el que reside en el paJs de
la lengua que estG aprendiendo tiene otra composiciHn mucho mGs fa"orable. +ara empe(ar
tiene que aprender el nue"o cHdigo de comunicaciHn para sobre"i"ir# integrarse...#aprende la
lengua todo el dJa# t"# radio# traba:o...
&V!4T!%'W= @&4 <^[email protected] @',&%T7
&n lJneas generales los defensores del <Ktodo directo se oponen a la explicaciHn de las reglas
gramaticales y la traducciHn en una clase de lengua extran:era. +retenden la asociaciHn
ob:eto1palabra. +ero bien pensado el alcance de este resorte es mGs bien reducido9 los ob:etos
que se pueden lle"ar al aula no son muchos# en tal momento tenemos el recurso de los
dibu:os. &s el recurso ya preconi(ado por %omenio9 0podemos recorrer la sel"a sin salir de
nuestra aula2# aunque la "ariante es que se utili(a la imagen# no el ob:eto real.
Frente a lo ofrecido por los mKtodos tradicionales# basados en la gramGtica y traducciHn# este
mKtodo representa una alternati"a totalmente opuesta9 ausencia de gramGtica# ausencia1 en los
primeros ni"eles al menos1 de textos literarios# ausencia de listas iniciales de palabras a las
cuales se habJan de aplicar las reglas gramaticales. &n contrapartida se ofrece la lengua 0 tal
cual se habla 0 en la "ida diaria# y el inmediato uso de la misma en situaciones de interacciHn
comunicati"a a ni"el oral.
!l alumno se le ofrece la lengua sin anali(ar# se espera de Kl un aprendi(a:e por inducciHn# de
la misma manera que aprendiH su primera lengua# por exposiciHn a la misma y uso de ella.
&l profesor del <Ktodo @irecto suple la traducciHn mediante el uso de ob:etos# mJmica o
similares. +ero este procedimiento en sJ inocuo# encierra muchos peligros. *obre todo el
peligro de que el alumno no capte el significado correcto y aprenda un error que si no se
soluciona lo repita siempre y pueda ser el origen de una cadena de errores o de acumulaciHn
de deficiencias.
+or otro lado# a medida que a"an(a el ni"el # las frases sencillas de la "ida cotidiana "an
de:ando paso a otras mGs comple:as# que seguramente requerirGn un anGlisis mGs detallado#
incluyendo las explicaciones gramaticales.
%on el <Ktodo @irecto se intenta sumergir al alumno desde el principio en el contexto de la
lengua que aprende# pero no cabe esperar que esa inmersiHn sea del mismo calibre que la del
ni`o que aprende su primera lengua. &l hGbito de pensar en el idioma que se aprende es un
ob:eti"o primordial. @e hecho una "e( logrado eso# ya se puede decir que en "erdad se ha
llegado a un pleno dominio de esa lengua. +ero es un ob:eti"o difJcil de alcan(ar y muy pocos
lo logran. %on este mKtodo se supone que al utili(ar siempre la lengua que se aprende se
facilita tal ob:eti"o. %ontrastando esto con el mKtodo tradicional el cambio de Knfasis y
direccionalidad es muy notable.
@esde el punto de "ista de el profesorado# el profesor del &Jtodo 6irecto ha de tener dos
cualidades sobresalientes9
-. 3ablar muy bien la lengua que ense`a y desen"ol"erse en ella con agilidad y facilidad.
/. *er acti"o en la clase.
&n cuanto a lo primero# uno de los moti"os del fracaso inicial de dicho mKtodo fue la carencia
de personal docente preparado. *in el excelente conocimiento de la lengua a ense`ar es
imposible lle"ar la clase# es mGs# es muy difJcil que el profesor transmita al alumno una
creati"idad en la lengua que ense`a cuando Kl mismo carece de ella. ,eferente al segundo
punto# al ser una metodologJa acti"a se necesitan profesores con temperamento acti"o# de lo
contrario no podrJan lle"ar este tipo de clases con desen"oltura.

3. #* (A/9+9 0B+.9$9?0*
&sta nue"a orientaciHn se debe principalmente a los estudios lingIJsticos y al nacimiento
fuerte y pu:ante de la lingIJstica como ciencia ampliamente aceptada. > tambiKn a las ya
establecidas crJticas contra el empleo excesi"o de la gramGtica en la clase de idiomas. &n el
siglo UV' u!inus ya consideraba esta prGctica como contraria al sentido coman) en el s.
U'U# tambiKn se decJa que los 0mKtodos antiguos tenJan el incon"eniente de atribuir sobrada
importancia a la gramGtica# sin de:ar paso al la prGctica# exponiendo al que aprende a que
quede para siempre imposibilitado de hablar y escribir la lengua extra:era con genuinos
giros# con franca propiedad# a trueque de haber logrado escribir o hablar sin faltas
%on el &Jtodo audio4oral# no estamos ante nada realmente nue"o# sigue esta lJnea# es decir#
fueron profesionales de la ense`an(a de idiomas del siglo U'U los que dieron el primer paso.
&n nuestros dJas# tenderJamos a asumir que cualquier mKtodo del siglo U'U deberJa caer
dentro del denominador coman de 0mKtodo tradicional2. *in embargo# existJan mKtodos
como el del se`or 'F%'% o el se`or /,B0/;%,: que lo criticaban. +ero tambiKn en
estos a`os se dieron reacciones de signo totalmente opuesto a las ideas de 4lausas. ! Kl se
opone el mKtodo H'#,;,; # quien opina que todos esos mKtodos que estaban in"adiendo
&uropa y !mKrica tienen defectos capitales al desterrar todo estudio gramatical y fiar a la
prGctica# hecha sin plan ni gradaciHn# el conocimiento de un idioma extran:ero.
4a metodologPa audio4oral, intentarG a"an(ar en el campo de la ense`an(a de idiomas. Fue
un mKtodo muy circusncrito a los &stados Tnidos de !mKrica# Kaudiolingual method$,
particularmente desarrollado y e+tendido por la Fniversidad de &ichigan . *u base principal
se encuentra en la lingIJstica# en el estructuralismo. ! ello se aa`aden elementos tomados de
la psicologPa aplicada # especialmente del conductismo skinneriano.
4os lingIJstas estructuralistas# aplicando los criterios de la ob:eti"idad cientJfica en boga#
estudiaron la lengua desde un punto de "ista descripti"o. =o se pretendJa acomodar la
realidad de la lengua a moldes o reglas preconcebidas a las cuales el hablante se deberJa
a:ustar. &l proceso era in"erso9 se estudiaba el sistema de una lengua para tratar de describir
su comportamiento) de ahJ podJan establecerse despuKs estructuras o 0comportamientos
lingIJsticos2. *e estudiaba la lengua tal cual era en la prGctica de los hablantes de cada dJa.
&l cambio de orientaciHn es radical# 0 la lengua es como es y no como alguien piense que
debe ser2 acostumbran a decir algunos lingIJstas. &n consecuencia# se aceptan palabras y
estructuras que anteriormente eran consideradas incorrectas y se admiten construcciones que
en a`os anteriores habrJan herido a muchos puristas. *e amplJan los hori(ontes de lo
0aceptable2 a todos los ni"eles9 pronunciaciHn# morfologJa y sintaxis. 4a norma lingIJstica
"endrG dada no por grupos selectos o Klites# sino por el con:unto de hablantes de cada lengua.
%on ello se admite que no hay norma ling[Pstica inmortal y dogmVtica) las normas pueden
ser cambiantes si asJ lo admiten los hablantes en la prGctica real de la lengua. &sta nue"a
"isiHn darG lugar a nue"os libros de texto en los que no se explicarGn o expondrGn reglas a las
que se ha de a:ustar algo# sino que se expondrG la lengua tal cual se da en la prGctica oral y
escrita. *erGn muy apreciados los estudios contrasti"os para mostrarle al alumno quK se
aseme:a o quK es diferente entre la lengua que aprende y su lengua materna. &"identemente#
estos estudios estGn reali(ados a un ni"el de estructuras superficiales# fGcilmente ob:eti"ables#
puesto que en esta Kpoca lo ob:eti"o era lo que se admitJa como "Glido desde un punto de
"ista cientJfico.
!demGs si la lengua era uso# no tenJa por quK basarse exclusi"amente en la gramGtica o en el
texto literario# habJa que aprender ( y ense`ar) la lengua tal cual era usada# la lengua
ha!lada. ! esto se unJa la necesidad o el afGn de comunicarse oralmente en otra lengua (afGn
que no es gratuito9 las confrontaciones bKlicas lo habJan hecho importante# al igual que los
nue"os medios de comunicaciHn).
4a lengua hablada se con"ierte asJ en el ob:eti"o prioritario de la ense`an(a# ob:eti"o que
coincide plenamente con el de los estudios de los lingIJstas. 3ay otro elemento que apunta
tambiKn en esta direcciHn9 la creencia de que la lengua hablada es la primera modalidad de
lengua que todos aprendemos cuando nacemos y que# en consecuencia# este proceder en el
proceso de aprendi(a:e# es el mismo que ha de seguirse al adquirir una segunda lengua. @e
aquJ deri"a el eslogan2 .rimero la lengua ha!lada, luego la escrita2. 3ay que apuntar que de
esta forma se reaccionaba contra la prGctica predominante de las escuelas en las que la lengua
escrita era la anica protagonista.
&n la prGctica# y con la ayuda de los poderosos medios de comunicaciHn# surgieron algunos
lemas que acabaron por con"ertirse en dogmas para muchos profesore. &l lingIJsta ".
&oulton enunciaba asJ los principales puntos de la nue"a metodologJa9
-. 4a lengua es la lengua oral# no la escrita.
/. 4a lengua es el resultado de un con:unto de hGbitos.
8. 3ay que ense`ar la lengua# no algo sobre la lengua.
6. 4a lengua es lo que hablan los hablantes nati"os de la misma.
A. 4as lenguas son diferentes.
&l segundo principio# estG estrechamente relacionado con los principios skinnerianos de
conductismo o !ehaviorismo. *egan %kinner# la lengua es la consolidaciHn de un con:unto de
hGbitos lingIJsticos. 7pina que la lengua es un hGbito porque es un con:unto de destre(as y
habilidades y# en consecuencia# se adquirirG mediante la repeticiHn de aquellos elementos que
constituyan el sistema lingIJstico ( en este caso# el "ocabulario y las estructuras lingIJsticas).
&sa fue precisamente la tarea de los lingIJstas estructuralistas. +or otro lado# aceptando que
*kinner tenJa ra(Hn# solamente era preciso que el alumno repitiese# practicando una y otra
"e(# los mismos modelos y las mismas estructuras9
el E hombreEcomeEpan.
el Eni`o EdaE limosna.
laEni`aEpideE agua.
*on frases que tienen la misma estructura# y# sus distintos elementos desempe`an la misma
funciHn. <Gs aan9 los elementos que desempe`an la misma funciHn pueden ser sustituidos
por otros equi"alentes sin que la estructura cambie. !sJ# Oel hombre2puede ser cambiado por
Ola mu:erO# Ola ni`aO... 4a conclusiHn que se "a a extraer con relaciHn a la ense`an(a es que#
aprendiendo la estructura# el discente serG capa( de aplicarla en cualquier otro caso solamente
mediante el cam!io de unos elementos por otros funcionalmente iguales# que a su "e(#
tambiKn serGn sustituibles por otros equi"alentes. &n esta premisa se basan los e:ercicios de
repeticiHn mecGnica y los e:ercicios de laboratorio.
+ero de nue"o# sobre la no"edad de este proceder es preciso hacer algunas obser"aciones9 la
repeticiHn de frases y estructuras es un elemento beneficioso para el aprendi(a:e de idiomas#
este principio ya lo habJa aplicado anteriormente 0rasmo en sus #olloquia) Brookes en la
'nglaterra del siglo UV''...# y por estar mGs estrechamente relacionado con los
procedimientos del mKtodo audio1oral# merece la pena citar a ;h. .rendergast y su &astery
%istem (-?BD). +rendergast habJa obser"ado cHmo los ni`os aprendJan repitiendo una y otra
"e( estructuras que les llamaban la atenciHn# entreteniKndose con ellas y utili(ando cuanto
"ocabulario les era posible utili(ar. &n tales obser"aciones patentH su mKtodo. =o habJa
gramGtica# pero sJ un sistema graduado con el fin de adquirir progresi"amente hGbitos
linguJsticos. %on una tabla en la que aparecen elementos diferentes# con:ugados entre ellos de
maltiples y posibles formas# el namero de combinaciones es impresionante9
$hy did you not ask him to come with two or three of his friends to see my brotherPs
%ome to my brotherPs withE three of his friendsE to see his gardens.
%ome whitEtwo or three of his friendPsE to my garden.
!sk my three friends Eto come toE my friendPs garden.
y asJ sucesi"amente.
@e todos modos# el supuesto# tanto de +rendergast como de los defensores del audio1oralismo
mGs tarde# no es plenamente sostenible# aunque a primera "ista pueda parecer asJ. &s "erdad
que cuando el ni`o aprende una lengua repite lo que escucha# pero el hablante ademGs de ser
capa( de repetir lo que escucha# crea constantemente estrucuturas que no habJa practicado
7tro punto a anali(ar es el siguiente9 las estructuras lingIJsticas a que se refieren los del
mKtodo audio1oral han de estar basadas en el uso real de la lengua# sin embargo# topamos de
nue"o con una contradicciHn metodolHgica. =ada mGs re`ido con la lengua coloquial que los
e:ercicios mecGnicos o estructurales del cari( siguiente9
1 @Hnde estGn los estudiantes;Elos chicos;E las cerillas;E...
1 &stGn en la claseE en el armarioE en el suelo...
! pesar de que se diga que este tipo de e:ercicio se reali(a para consolidar la estructura# dicha
estructura no se consolidarG realmente porque el alumno fuera de ese contexto no sabrG o no
serG capa( de producir o generar frases diferentes de las que le fueron inculcadas en los
e:ercicios de mecani(aciHn. Todo lo humano es mGs comple:o y por eso la reducciHn del
lengua:e a esquemas simples# fi:os y mane:ables de manera mecGnica no da resultados
Hptimos. 4a repeticiHn como tKcnica se torna en arma arro:adi(a cuando se con"ierte en
tKcnica casi exclusi"a. > esto es asJ porque la creati"idad# que forma parte del uso de la
lengua por cualquier hablante#queda totalmente anulada y excluida.
&n general# hemos de partir de la base de que cualquier tKcnica utili(ada debe reunir dos
requisitos bGsicos9 ser eficiente y favorecer la motivaciWn del alumno. Tna tKcnica no serG
todo lo efica( que se desea si no moti"a al alumno. @e otro lado# un alumno bien moti"ado#
"erG entorpecido su aprendi(a:e si las tKcnicas utili(adas no son adecuadas. > es precisamente
en este sentido en el que el mKtodo audio1oral difJcilmente podrG moti"ar a muchos alumnos
debido a los e:ercicios de repeticiHn mecGnica. *uponJan sesiones demasiado largas en las
que se repetJan machaconamente determinadas estructuras# se sobrepasaba con frecuencia la
capacidad de retenciHn de la mente humana porque normalmente despuKs de "einte minutos
ya no suele ser biolHgicamente capa( de mantener una atenciHn intensa. 4as sesiones de
laboratorio solJan durar una hora.
&l primer contacto de una clase con el mKtodo audio1oral solJa ser muy positi"o y hasta
altamente moti"ador para el alumno9 Kste entraba en el aula y se "eJa enfrentado de inmediato
con la lengua que querJa aprender) desde el principio se usaban palabras atiles# estructuras
sencillas y relacionadas con la "ida diaria) no se empleaba la lengua materna del alumno y la
gramGtica ni se mencionaba. +ero no era un mKtodo milagroso y de hecho era frecuente
comprobar que a partir de las -D H -A primeras horas de clase# algunos alumnos ya no seguJan
el ritmo de la clase y se sentJan perdidos. %on frecuencia no sabJan por quK hacJan lo que
hacJan y# lo que es mGs gra"e# no entendJan lo que repetJan. +or tanto# la perfecta gradaciHn y
estudio del material que les era ofrecido de poco les ser"Ja# ya que no lo asimilaban de forma
7tro de los principios de este mKtodo es que se enseYe la lengua y 8no algo so!re la
lengua9 . *e trata de e"itar la insistencia en las explicaciones de tipo gramatical# pero _+or
quK ha de existir una contradicciHn entre ense`ar la lengua y dar informaciHn analJtica de la
misma; 4os ni`os no suelen aprender mediante explicaciones analJticas sobre la lengua 1se
dice1 y sin embargo# la aprenden. +ero el ni`o# aunque empie(a aprendiendo la lengua en el
entorno familiar# despuKs recibe el complemento y la ayuda proporcionada por la educaciHn
estatal# entre cuyos ob:eti"os se encuentra el perfeccionamiento del lengua:e. +or otro lado# el
conocimiento de las normas gramaticales sir"e de gran ayuda a la hora de aprender un
segundo idioma. =o hay pues oposiciHn# sino complementariedad.
&l cuarto principio 0 la lengua es lo que ha!lan los nativos 0# es un principio que deri"a# con
toda lHgica# de las bases en que se fundamenta el estructuralismo. &l sistema lingIJstico es
fruto del con:unto de hablantes que lo usan como sistema de comunicaciHn) pero constituye
igualmente# un entramado o cHdigo al cual todos los ha!lantes de!en a su ve3 sujetarse. *in
este requisito# la arbitrariedad de cada hablante conducirJa a un caos# a una carencia total de
comunicaciHn por desconocer el cHdigo del otro. &l hablante# pues# no es autHnomo respecto
a la lengua porque tiene reglas y entre otras# el significante ha de significar lo mismo para el
hablante y el oyente. 4os indi"iduos somos su:etos y ob:eto de un todo coherente que hemos
creado entre todos# y# ese todo es anali(able# abstracto# pero sometido a unas normas que hay
que respetar.
&ste mKtodo aporta una no"edad sin precedentes y es que nunca se habJa dado una liga(Hn
tan estrecha entre lingIJstas y profesores de idiomas . 4os primeros se apoyan en los
segundos para lle"ar a la prGctica unos principios determinados) y los profesores "en en las
teorJas de los lingIJstas la 0sal"aciHn2 a muchos de sus problemas en el aula. &sta fraternidad
no durH mucho tiempo y el lingIJsta acabarG defendiKndose# cobi:Gndose en su teorJa#
aduciendo que Kl no estudia lo que pasa en la clase o cHmo se ha de aplicar su teorJa a la
prGctica. #homsky consolidarG esta posiciHn en -.5? ante un millar de profesores de idiomas
congregados para oJrle.
4a la lingIJstica# sin embargo# con o sin pretensiHn ha aportado muchos puntos positi"os a la
ense`an(a de idiomas# entre ellos9
1 la insistencia en la necesidad de que el profesor estK me:or preparado profesionalmente)
1 la mayor concienciaciHn del mismo en su traba:o)
1 la aplicaciHn de nue"as tKcnicas en la clase)
1 una in"estigaciHn mGs intensa en torno al tema metodolHgico)
1 la discusiHn y populari(aciHn del tema de la ense`an(a de las lenguas extran:eras.
8. *9% (A/9+9% 9 /A)<.)0% 0B+.9!.%B0*#%.
4os mKtodos audio"isuales tienen como punto de partida mGs prHximo la metodologJa audio1
oral. +ero# si nos ale:amos en el tiempo# los elementos "isuales tambiKn aparecen en la
ense`an(a de idiomas de hace tiempo. 4os chinos los usaron y en 7ccidente# el ,enacimiento
ofrece testimonios consistentes en este sentido. &s #omenio en el siglo UV''# quien ofrece
por "e( primera una obra en la que los elementos "isuales estGn presentes lecciHn por lecciHn
y coordinados con los elementos lingIJsticos. &n su ,r!is %ensualium .ictus (-5A6)# cada
lecciHn o secciHn estG encabe(ada por un dibu:o y los tKrminos lKxicos "an se`alados con
nameros que se corresponden con los ob:etos# animales o personas presentes en los dibu:os.
!sJ# %omenio ponJa en prGctica su con"encimiento de que en el aprendi(a:e han de participar
todos los sentidos o tantos cuantos sea posible utili(ar. &l libro supone una "erdadera
inno"aciHn. +ero el coste econHmico de la impresiHn debJa ser toda"Ja un importante
obstGculo para continuar por tal camino. Hoole maestro de inglKs de aquel entonces# se
que:aba precisamente de que el libro de %omenio era demasiado caro para ser accesible a la
!ntes de %omenio ya otros habJan sugerido la con"eniencia de utili(ar grabados baratos
(Gossius, gramVtico holandJs del siglo XGI$, asJ los alumnos podrJan aprender los nombres de
las cosas sin tener que recurrir a la lengua materna (traducciHn). &sta idea era uno de los
ob:eti"os fundamentales de la utili(aciHn de mKtodos audio"isuales. *e dice# en efecto# que
con la imagen el alumno podrG prescindir de su lengua nati"a porque asociarG
inmediatamente el ob:eto con la palabra correspondiente y e"itarG pasar por el intermediario
ahorrando tiempo en el aprendi(a:e.
*in lugar a dudas# la in"enciHn de la imprenta es el principal elemento no"edoso que facilita
el uso de elementos "isuales en la docencia. 4o que antes tenJa que dibu:arse en carteles
murales o pi(arras# se reproducJa fGcilmente por medio de la imprenta. ># aunque en un
principio era en blanco y negro# las facilidades fueron considerables en relaciHn con lo que
existJa anteriormente. Xue %omenio publicase todo un libro con dibu:os para ense`ar latJn
fue el inicio de lo que ocurrirJa despuKs y siempre estarJa presente hasta nuestros dJas.
+odrJamos decir que los medios audio"isuales se populari(aron por "arias ra(ones9el simple
hecho de que inter"enga un sentido mGs# la "ista# es positi"o por sJ mismo) se sustituye el
empleo de la lengua materna por la representaciHn pictHrica del ob:eto# y# no ol"idemos que a
tra"Ks de las imGgenes se pueden ofrecer materiales mucho mGs atracti"os# moti"antes para
el alumno al refor(ar su atenciHn y predisponerlo para que en su con:unto la clase sea mGs
agradable y apetecible a la "ista.
&n el siglo UU la utili(aciHn de la imagen no sHlo se ha enriquecido en ra(Hn de las
posibilidades tKcnicas que estGn a nuestro alcance#sino que tambiKn se ha profundi(ado en su
uso. &n este campo hay que destacar lo reali(ado en Francia# especialmente en la escuela de
%t. #loud, donde se insistJa en la utili(aciHn de la imagen como sugeridora de un contexto
global. %ada elemento se considera estrechamente unido a otros elementos# formando
con:untos o estructuras interrelacionadas. +or un lado# los elementos indi"iduales conducen a
un todo# y por otro# ese todo es anali(able y conducente a cada uno de los elementos
indi"iduales. &n realidad# lo que se hacJa era seguir las pautas del estructuralismo en cuanto
que este mo"imiento considera!a el lenguaje como un conjunto de estructuras
jerVrquicamente interdependientes.
*e parte# por tanto# de un todo concebido globalmente. *e entiende mediante la memori(aciHn
y se memori(a mediante la repeticiHn y posterior anGlisis de las partes. ^ste era el mKtodo ya
propuesto anteriormente por Hacotot (-BBD1-?6D)# quien afirmaba9 0Il faut apprendre quelque
chose et y rapporter tout le reste2 (03ay que aprender algo relacionGndolo con el resto2). &l
principio de Facotot aparecerG reproducido con nue"os elementos en el &Jtodo
estructuroglo!al# que podrJa definirse como la mGs importante aportaciHn# original o no# que
en Francia se ha hecho en relaciHn con la utili(aciHn de medios "isuales en la clase. &ste
mKtodo estructuroglobal audio"isual# %-'G# parte de tres supuestos9
-. 4a lengua estG constituida por un con:unto de estructuras# 0 un ensemble# un systeme de
rapports2. &sto nos recuerda que la base de partida es la lingIJstica estructural9 cada unidad
no tiene "alor por sJ misma# aisladamente# sino solamente dentro del todo al cual pertenece.
/. &xiste una realidad que no es precisamente lingIJstica# pero que afecta directamente a la
lengua9 la realidad socio1biolHgica que hace que la persona tienda a recha(ar todo nue"o
sistema cuando ya posee uno adecuado a su entorno# sus necesidades# etcKtera. *e trata de una
resistencia incosnciente pero real.
8. 4a lengua oral es prioritaria. 4a lengua escrita debe ser introducida mGs tarde. &ste sistema
de prioridades deri"a del hecho de que 1segan ellos1 la lengua escrita pro"oca en el alumno la
rememori(aciHn de los mecanismos articulatorios propios de su lengua materna# actuando
como interferencia importante en el proceso de aprendi(a:e de cualquier otro sistema
lingIJstico. &n consecuencia hay que eliminar ese obstGculo# al menos hasta el momento en
que el alumno ya tenga las defensas bGsicas necesarias para enfrentarse a tal interferencia.
Tna de las tKcnicas consiste precisamente en eliminar en cada sonido aquellas frecuencias
que puedan recordar al alumno el sistema de sonidos de su lengua materna. &l +rofesor
-u!erina# in"estigador fundamental# tenido en cuenta por los defensores de esta metodologJa#
ideH y construyH un aparato (%FG'I:-F') para filtrar los sonidos# haciendo concentrar la
atenciHn en aquellos que interesa que el alumno capte con mayor rapide(# teniendo en cuenta
en todo momento las interferencias pre"isibles en relaciHn con la lengua materna del alumno.
&l +rofesor -u!erina decJa que9
-. &l alumno es sordo a los sonidos de la lengua que aprende si Kstos no son iguales o
similares a los de su lengua materna. &l alumno que aprende una segunda lengua ha de ser#
pues# estimulado para captar esas peculiaridades de los sonidos que no son propias de su
lengua materna. +ara ello ha de ser entrenado mediante el estJmulo de su capacidad
perceptora# capacidad que depende de comple:os mecanismos cerebrales. !sJ# un :aponKs
pronunciarG calo o lalo# por caroEraro# al aprender espa`ol) Kl# naturalmente piensa que ha
pronunciado 0caroEraro2# pero no es consciente de que en realidad Kl oye en un principio
(hasta que su oJdo sea entrenado para ello) 0caloElalo2.
/. @e lo que antecede se deri"a que el condicionamiento auditi"o y percepti"o es un factor
cla"e en el aprendi(a:e de una lengua. > de ahJ se deduce9
1 4a necesidad de una continuada e intensa exposiciHn del alumno al idioma que aprende.
1 4a insistencia en la entonaciHn como mKtodo para asimilar el sistema global y configuraciHn
de los sonidos de la lengua cuya adquisiciHn se pretende lograr.
1 &l traba:o intensi"o y regular por parte del alumno.
8. 4as tKcnicas audio"isuales pretenden enfocar la ense`an(a de las lenguas a tra"Ks de la
repeticiHn y la audiciHn. 4a audiciHn que es el primer estadio# pasa por la exigencia de una
perfecta reproducciHn) despuKs entrarG en :uego la ilustraciHn mediante dibu:os# asJ como la
mJmica# el mo"imiento y las acti"idades de toda Jndole.
4os elementos audio"isuales tienen tambiKn como finalidad expresa el e"itar el uso de la
lengua materna# para ello se requiere que cada imagen se a:uste de la me:or manera posible y
con la debida precisiHn a los contenidos del texto. 4a imagen# dicen# tiene la funciHn de
sugerir el contexto y no sHlo el texto# de acompa`ar al sonido para asociarlo a la imgen y
e"itar el recurso a la lengua materna.
&l mKtodo %FG'-# en definiti"a# aporta como no"edad la insistencia ra(onada en el hecho de
que la percepciHn de los sonidos estG condicionada por el sistema lingIJstico que poseemos.
&xige# por otra parte# una especiali(ada preparaciHn del profesor y una ense`an(a
practicamente indi"iduali(ada# difJcil de lle"ar a cabo en nuestras aulas. 4a insistencia en la
comprensiHn global es positi"a# aunque no nue"a. &n la prGctica# el enfoque basado en
0situaciones2 es muy similar al anterior. %on la diferencia de que este se centraba en el
significado del texto y el mKtodo estructuroglobal amplJa los ob:eti"os insistiendo en la
percpciHn global del sistema fonolHgico.
7tro de los incon"enientes que plantea este mKtodo es que el hecho de utili(ar la imagen para
sugerir un contexto puede lle"ar a sugerir lo que no deseamos sugerir si los dibu:os no estGn
bien reali(ados. !demGs superado el ni"el elemental# en que una imagen puede fGcilmente
ilustrar una oraciHn# en ni"eles superiores# lo que se suele hacer es ilustrar una idea# la idea
central del texto o situaciHn. !penas se podrJa hacer mGs. > el hecho de e"itar la traducciHn
es muy difJcil porque la asociaciHn significante1significado es enormemente Jntima y nada
fGcil de destruir o esqui"ar.
:. *0 (#/9+9*9"C0 <9).9<0*$-B<).9<0*
4os di"ersos mKtodos basados en el estructuralismo# abra(ados por tantos como soluciones
milagrosas# se de:aron de lado con furia. &ste desencanto no fue ocasional sino que llegH de
la mano con la llamada teorJa lingIJstica
transformacional# que hacJa hincapiK en la creati"idad del lengua:e. *upuso una reacciHn
diametralmente opuesta a la teorJa estructuralista y a los mKtodos audio1orales al obser"arse
que ambos procederes carecJan de creati"idad y que la lengua ense`ada estaba demasiado
disociada de los aspectos comunicati"os que mGs la caracteri(an en su utili(aciHn cotidiana.
%on el ad"enimiento de la ling[Pstica chomskiana# los profesores# cansados de las
repeticiones propias del mKtodo audio1oral quieren "er en estos nue"os enfoques una salida
afortunada para solucionar los problemas de la clase de lengua. 4a constante se repite de
nue"o9 por una parte el profesor de idiomas gusta de tachar a los lingIJstas de 0teHricos2 por
hablar de cosas que no interesan o estGn ale:adas de la prGctica) de otro lado buscan en sus
teorJas explicati"as de la realidad del lengua:e# soluciones e ideas que faciliten la docencia y
les orienten en su labor. !sJ pues# los profesores volvieron sus ojos hacia el
transformacionismo, pero la respuesta de #homsky fue realmente muy concisa* 8 el ling[Psta
no tiene por quJ solucionar los pro!lemas de la clase) Kse es un problema concreto que
compete al profesor. *in embargo# debemos decir inmediatamente# completando esta
obser"aciHn# que las explicaciones y anGlisis de la lengua y del lengua:e son la base mGs
firme que han de ser"ir al profesor de idiomas en cuanto que a tra"Ks de ellas accederG a un
me:or conocimiento y entendimiento del fenHmeno lingIJstico. @e ese me:or entendimiento
surgirG un mGs adecuado mane:o y presentaciHn de la lengua concreta que se ense`e.
&l hecho de que el transformacionalismo insistiese sobre todo en la creati"idad del lengua:e#
en las reglas ( en cuanto que son los motores generadores de nuevas estructuras desde la
estructura profunda a la superficial) implicaba una firme toma de posiciHn frente a la
extendida prGctica de los mKtodos audio1orales que precisamente excluJan las reglas e
insistJan en la repeticiHn de estructuras y sus correspondientes e:ercicios mecGnicos.
&n realidad# la teorJa generati"o1funcional no ofreciH ni sustento ni cobi:o suficiente para que
la metodologJa de la ense`an(a de idiomas encontrase en ella un apoyo definiti"o# pero
siempre se da un paso mGs y la meta en este campo se orientaba cada "e( con mayor
insistencia hacia un ob:eti"o muy claro9 la lengua como instrumento de comunicaciWn
H0%.0/%0: como gran lingIJsta y profesor# ya habJa afirmado que no se debe pensar en un
sHlo enfoque o mKtodo para la ense`an(a de idiomas# tambiKn se habJa adelantado a nuestros
tiempos se`alando que las lenguas deben ser aprendidas en conte+to y en situaciones
comunicativas. 4a 01!nga !' )&+n$)a)$<n2 era uno de sus lemas. &n nuestros dJas todo
apunta hacia esa meta# los medios de comunicaciHn# a todos los ni"eles son la realidad
4a metodologJa estructuralista no habJa penetrado con tanta insistencia y fuer(a en &uropa
como en &&TT. &n &uropa# en cambio se desarrollaron mGs las tKcnicas audio"isuales y#
sobre todo en 'nglaterra# la "ertiente que se podrJa llamar situacional. &ste tKrmino incluye no
solamente el marco lingIJstico dentro del cual todo acto de comunicaciHn tiene lugar# sino
tambiKn el entorno cultural y social dentro del cual la comunicaciHn lingIJstica se desarrolla.
&n este campo fueron influyentes dos nombres )irth# y despuKs Halliday.
0l mJtodo situacional es en !uena parte eclJctico. &n un libro de texto de estas
caracterJsticas# la situaciHn inicial incluye# de manera ordenada y programada# aspectos
gramaticales y lKxicos# pero tomando en consideraciHn situaciones normales (usuales) de la
"ida diaria# segan criterios de frecuencia.
> todo ello porque se entiende que la lengua es un instrumento de comunicaciHn y el alumno
debe# por tanto# aprender el lengua:e propio de aquellas situaciones en las que se desarrolla
realmente la comunicaciHn interpersonal. &n dichas situaciones se introducen tambiKn
aspectos tradicionales y gramaticales# elementos audio"isuales para facilitar una comprensiHn
global de la situaciHn y e"itar el recurso a la lengua materna del alumno.
=o obstante# los mKtodos situacionales no alcan(an qui(Gs una autonomJa real# a pesar de ser
ampliamente utili(ados. &stGn muy ligados al audio"isualismo en general# a la preocupaciHn
por aspectos gramaticales# a la ordenaciHn e introducciHn gradada# a aspectos conductistas
relati"os al apredi(a:e# a la introducciHn del "ocabulario en funciHn de listados de
frecuencia...# es decir# intentan reunir todo lo hecho hasta el momento en los mKtodos de
idiomas. &n este contexto nace lo que en inglKs se denominH# al principio de los a`os sesenta#
<otional$functional syllabus 5programa nocional$funcional$.
4as definiciones de dicho mKtodo no coinciden plenamente entre sJ# pero todas ellas se
reducen a dos elementos cla"e9 ausencia de aspectos gramaticales e insistencia en los
aspectos comunicativos de la lengua a enseYar .
$'4K'=* precisa diciendo 0 el mKtodo nocional1funcional contrasta con el gramatical y el
situacional porque toma como punto de partida la necesidad comunicati"a del lengua:e... &n
"e( de preguntar cHmo se expresan los hablantes o cHmo y cuGndo utili(an la lengua# nos
fi:amos mGs en quK es lo que se comunica mediante la lengua. !sJ podemos organi(ar la
ense`an(a de la lengua en fuciHn del contenido y no de las formas lingIJsticas.2
!nali(ando por puntos diremos que9
-. &l mKtodo nocional1funcional parte de la consideraciHn de la lengua que se "a a ense`ar
como un instrumento de comunicaciHn interpersonal.
/. 4a elaboraciHn del material docente en un libro de texto# no toma como punto de partida
una organi(aciHn por temas gramaticales# ni lKxicos de frecuencia# ni situaciones de la "ida
real# sino aquellas unidades de comunicaciHn (actos de comunicaciWn ling[Pstica$ que forman
parte integrante de la comunicaciHn en la "ida real.
8. &sas unidades del lengua:e se ordenan adecuadamente de acuerdo con las necesidades de
comunicaciHn de aquellos que aprenden un idioma.
6. @ado que los actos de comunicaciHn lingIJstica admiten "arias formas# se debe proceder
tambiKn a una selecciHn de las formas o estructuras lingIJsticas# de acuerdo con el grado de
dificultad o comple:idad de las mismas y siempre teniendo en cuenta las necesidades y
ob:eti"os de quien aprende.
&s preciso admitir que la sola aceptaciHn de los principios y procedimientos anteriormente
rese`ados ya supone un "uelco considerable en relaciHn con los mKtodos a los cuales se
estaba acostumbrado) e incluso a la larga tradiciHn# siempre subyacente# de considerar la
gramGtica como punto de partida primordial. &n el mKtodo nocional1funcional se parte de otra
perspecti"a9 una selecciHn de los actos de comunicaciHn mGs pertinentes para cada ni"el y
con las formas tambiKn mGs adecuadas a los distintos estadios del aprendi(a:e.
=o quiere ello decir que los problemas gramaticales se eliminen# pero se abordan de manera
distinta9 no mediante la programaciHn gramatical pre"ia a la que se estaba habituado# sino
como exposiciHn descripti"a #a posteriori# de lo que resulta de los actos de comunicaciHn
lingIJstica# que constituyen el ob:eti"o de cada lecciHn. !sJ# por e:emplo# si el acto de
comunicaciHn lingIJstica que queremos ense`ar se refiere a saludar# apareceran registros
como el siguiente9
1 MHola!, (quJ tal? (#Wmo estVs?
4 &uy !ien, gracias, (y t\?
&sta simple manera de saludar a un amigo# a ni"el coloquial# implica una serie de "ocabulario
y de estructuras9 flexiHn del "erbo estar) quJ, cWmo...+ero dichas estructuras se pueden tornar
mGs comple:as# dentro de la misma situaciHn comunicati"a a otro ni"el ( el formal)9
1 0ste es el %r. .ere3
4 &ucho gusto
> asJ sucesi"amente... @e aquJ se deduce que el material didVctico se ordena en funciWn de
los actos de comunicaciWn y de acuerdo a criterios de frecuencia y uso, y, teniendo en cuenta
tam!iJn el grado de complejidad de los elementos ling[Psticos implicados en cada caso.
*i la gramGtica no es el punto de partida en la ordenaciHn del material docente# tampoco ha de
constituir el ob:eti"o del profesor en la clase. =o debe usarse de la misma manera que en un
mKtodo audio"isual o estructural. &ntiKndase# por otra parte# que si los mKtodos nocionales1
funcionales parten de fundamentos extremadamente pragmGticos# no significa# sin embargo#
que los elementos de gramGtica hayan de estar ausentes en la clase de manera total y por
definiciHn. 4o que importa es que no se con"iertan en el ob:eti"o prioritario y fundamental de
la clase. &sta metodologJa no es tan ingKnua como para pensar que la gramGtica# la fonKtica o
el "ocabulario no deben constituir parte integrante de la ense`an(a de una lengua.
4a presentaciHn del material lingIJstico a la clase se hace en tKrminos de globalidad# tal cual
se da en la realidad de los actos de comunicaciHn. > el profesor no deberJa actuar de forma
distinta porque los problemas pueden incrementarse y desbordar la situaciHn debido a que en
los actos de comunicaciHn presentados en los textos las implicaciones gramaticales pueden
ser muy heterogKneas. > su explicaciHn explJcita podrJa dar lugar a sesiones interminables e
incluso complicadas que perderJan tanto al alumno como al profesor. @e hecho# puede ocurrir
que algunas estructuras gramaticales consideradas como difJciles por los mKtodos
tradicionales# apare(can desde las primeras lecciones# simplemente porque aparecen en actos
de comunicaciHn lingIJstica de importacia bGsica. +or e:emplo# para pedir un fa"or a alguien
en espa`ol podrJamos encontrarnos algo asJ9
1 _ HarPa usted el favor de decirme donde estV correos?
4 %P, coja usted la primera a la derecha. 0stV a unos <]] metros de aquP.
4a estructura HarPa usted el favor de...# tanto en la gramGtica tradicional como en los
mKtodos audio1orales# aparecerJa en los libros de texto con toda probabilidad sHlo despuKs de
que el alumno hubiese "isto ya las formas de presente y qui(G tambiKn las de futuro. *in
embargo# el acto de comunicaciHn que implica el uso de estas formas de condicional es
e"identemente de importancia suma y capital en la comunicaciHn interpersonal. Xueda pues
:ustificada su apariciHn temprana en el material de aprendi(a:e. +ero que el profesor se
entretenga en explicar las formas del condicional serJa imprudente) posiblemente es lo que
harJa un profesor inexperto en el uso de esta metodologJa y acostumbrado a hGbitos propios
de otros mKtodos.
as e+plicaciones gramaticales en un mKtodo nocional1funcional suelen presentarse como
GRAMWTICA FUNCIONAL #al final de cada unidad. *i tomamos como modelo el e:emplo
de pedir un fa"or "erJamos como esta estructura puede ser"ir para contextos similares (pedir
un fa"or# puede aplicarse para 0ir a correos2# 0 a la estaciHn2# 0pedir fuego2# etcKtera). &n
tales casos# la estructura no experimenta "ariaciones) sHlo cambian algunos elementos
lKxicos. 4o que importa es que el alumno se fi:e en la funcionalidad de la estructura y la
consolide mediante transferencia a otros contextos similares desde el punto de "ista de la
comunicaciHn. !hora no se pretende que el alumno memorice la estructura (estrategia que se
seguJa en los mKtodos anteriores).
&ste mKtodo espera que los alumnos aprendan una lengua basGndose en actos de
comunicaciHn sin que necesariamente tengan que aprender todas las implicaciones
gramaticales. 4a idea es Hptima para lenguas como el inglKs# pero con el francKs# el espa`ol y
todas aquellas que son mGs flexionadas# el problema de la morfologJa es ciertamente menos
%omparando con otros mKtodos# el mKtodo nocional1funcional no estG muy le:os del mKtodo
situacional. Tanto las nociones lingIJsticas como los actos de comunicaciHn lingIJstica se
dan dentro de un contexto mGs amplio9 la situaciHn. > tambiKn este mKtodo tiene elementos
estrucutralistas# en el sentido de que la explotaciHn y transferencia# asJ como el refuer(o de
las funciones# se lograrG mediante la repeticiHn de contextos paralelos y en base a las mismas
estrucuturas funcionales. Tiene igualmente elementos "isuales# porque tambiKn Kstos pueden
ayudar a comprender me:or un acto de comunicaciHn# global o especificamente. > tiene
elementos de gramGtica tradicional porque la 0gramGtica funcional2 puede tambiKn
explicitarse en aquellos casos en los que sea mGs comple:a o# sencillamente porque los
alumnos pidan que se den explicaciones para comprender me:or lo que estGn aprendiendo..
&"identemente# aprender y consolidar elementos lingIJsticos comple:os a tra"Ks de esta
metodologJa puede enfrentar al alumno a problemas serios# desde el punto de "ista
gramatical# debido a que los actos lingIJsticos mGs necesarios y bGsicos de la "ida real suelen
implicar estructuras frecuentemente comple:as. Todo esto supone que a partir de un cierto
ni"el elemental# tal "e( sea necesario recurrir a tKcnicas que se aproximen mGs a los mKtodos
anteriores# es decir# a la metodologJa audio"isual# situacional o tradicional.
&l mKtodo nocional1funcional responde muy bien# sin embargo# a los ob:eti"os que se
propusieron en el %o:nse:o de &uropa9 una homogenei3aciWn de niveles de aprendi3aje
mPnimos para facilitar la comunicaciWn interpersonal entre quienes, por ra3ones polPticas y
comerciales, han de estar en contacto permanente. > esto ocurre sin lugar a dudas entre los
paJses que forman la TniHn &uropea.
@e todos modos# y para finali(ar# lo que debe quedar muy claro es que la metodologJa
nocional1funcional requiere un cambio de mentalidad en el profesor y en el alumno# un buen
entrenamiento del profesor para que no fracase en su uso y '&52! %&"& %!n!2 !n )!n%a @!
7a'%a a7&2a n& !=$'%!n +P%&"&' +\g$)&' @! -!2+$%an a-2!n"!2 & !n'!]a2 na 1!nga
'$n !'#!2;& 8 -2!')$n"$!n"& "!1 #a)%&2 %$!+-&.

T&<! -6
<^[email protected]* > T^%='%!* &=F7%[email protected]* ! 4! [email protected]'*'%'W= @& %7<+&T&=%'!*
%7<T='%!T'V!*. [email protected]!<&=T7* <&[email protected]'%7* &*+&%hF'%7* @& 4!
&=*&j!=\! @&4 '=N4^*.
D. '=T,[email protected]%T'7=.
- . *+&%'F'% <&[email protected]'%!4 [email protected]!<&=T!4* 7= &=N4'*3 4!=NT!N&
-.-. !++,7!%3# <&[email protected]# [email protected] T&%3='XT&.
-./. !++,7!%3.
-./.-. Theory of language.
-././. Theory of language learning.
-.8. @esign.
-.8.-. 7b:ecti"es.
-.8./. The syllabus.
-.8.8. Teaching and learning acti"ities.
-.8.6. The roles of the learner.
-.8.A. The roles of the teacher.
-.8.5. The roles of materials.
-.6. +rocedure.
-.A. %onclusion.
/. %7<<T='%!T'V& 4!=NT!N& T&!%3'=N.
/.-. !pproach.
/.-.-. Theory of language.
/.-./. Theory of language learning.
/./. @esign.
/./.-. 7b:ecti"es and syllabus.
/././. 4earning and teaching acti"ities.
/./.8. The roles of the learner and teacher.
/./.6. The roles of materials.
/.8. +rocedure.
8. '4'7N,!+3>.
+!N -
D. '=T,[email protected]%T'7=.
'n the long search for the best way of teaching a foreign language# a
proliferation of new
approaches and methods has been de"ised. %rertain methods are widely
recogni(ed because
of their influential role in the history of ideas surrounding this
sub:ect# for example# the grammar1translation method# the natural method#
the direct method or the audio1lingual method.
@uring the -.BD# howe"er# there was a strong reaction against methods that
stressed the
teaching of grammatical forms and paid little or no attention to the
way language is used
in e"eryday situations. !concern de"eloped to make foreing language
teaching more
These methods differ in the way they address fundamental methodological
issues such as9
1 $hat should the goals of language teaching be;
1 $hat is the basic nature of language;
1 $hat are the principles for the selection of language content;
1 $hat are the best principles of organi(ation# sequencing and presentation;
1 $hat should the role of the nati"e language be;
1 $hat processes do learners use in learning a language;
1 $hat are the best teaching techniques;
The answer to these questions will enable us to understand the
fundamental nature of
methods in &nglish language teaching. !s the analysis of these
specific methodological
fundamentals is pre"ious to the study of any particular approach# method or
technique we
will discuss first the essentials of &nglish as a foreign language
teaching. =ext# we will
thoroughly study communicati"e language teaching.
-. *+&%'F'% <&[email protected]'%!4 [email protected]!<&=T!4* 7F &=N4'*3 4!=NT!N&
The change from one methold to another or from one set of classroom
techniques and
procedures ha"e reflected responses to a "arietiy of historical issues and
circumstances. !s
the study of methods and procedures assumed a central role within applied
linguistics from
the -.6Ds on# "arious attempts ha"e been made to conceptuali(e the nature
of methods.
-.- !pproch# method# and technique.
'n describing methods# the difference between a philosophy of language
teaching at the theoretical le"el# and a set of procedures and techniques
for teaching in the classroom# is
+!N /
%entral. The !merican linguist &dward !nthony proposed a clarifying scheme
in -.58. 3e
identified three le"els of conceptuali(ation and organi(ation9
1 !pproach
1 <ethod
1 Technique
!n approach is a set of correlati"e assumptions which the all with the
nature of language and
its teaching. Therefore# and approach is axiomatic and is formed by a
theory of language and
a theory of language learning.
! method is not axiomatic) it is procedural. ! method is a glo"al plan for
the presentation
of language material. This presentation is based on a theory of language
and language
learning# and approach# and so a method cannot contradict its approach# but
it is possible to
ha"e more than one method within a certain approach.That is the reason for
the plural in
the title of this topic metodos y tecnicas ) there are many possible methods
within the
communicati"e approach.
Techniques are implementational# what really occurs in the classroom. They
are consistent
with a method and therefore with and approach as well.
!=T37=>P* <[email protected]&4
!pproach11111111111111111111111111111 Theory of language
11111111111111111111111111111 Theory of language
<ethod111111111111111111111111111111111 Theory into practice9
*kills to be taught
%ontents to be taught
7rder of presentation
Technique11111111111111111111111111111 %lassroom procedures
,ichard s and ,odgers (-.?5) ha"e re"ised and extented the original model.
They see
approach and method treated at the le"el of design# that le"el in which
ob:ecti"es# syllabus#
and content are determined# and in which the roles or teachers# learners and
materials are.
specified. !nthonyPsle"el of technique is referred to as procedure. They
see# therefore# that
a method is theoretically related to and approach# organi(ationally
determined by a desing#
and is practically reali(ed in a procedure.
+!N 8
,'%3!,@* [email protected] ,[email protected]&,*R* <[email protected]&4
!pproach111111111111111111111111111111111 Theory of language
Theory of
language learning
@esign11111111111111111111111111111111111111 7b:ecti"es
The syllabus
Teaching and
learning acti"ities
The roles of the
The roles of the
The roles of the
+rocedures111111111111111111111111111 %lassroom techniques
-./. !pproach
!pproach refers to theories about the nature of language and language
learning that ser"e
as the source of practiques and principles in language teaching.
-./.-. Theory of language
Three different theories of language and language proficiency underline
current approaches
and methods in language teaching9
1 *tructural "iew
1 Functional "iew
1 'nteractional "iew
The structural "iew is the "iew that language is a system of structurally
related elements
for the coding of meaning. The tar:et of language learning is seen to be the
mastery of the
units of the system ( phonological# grammatical and lexical ). The
audio1lingual method#
Total +hysical ,esponse# or the *ilent $ay embody this particular "iew of
The funcional "iew is the "iew that language is a "ehicle for the expression
of functional
meaning. $e will see later how the communicati"e mo"ement in language
embodies this "iew of language .
The third "iew is the interactional "iew. 't sees language as a "ehicle for
the reali(ation
of interpersonal relations and for performance of social transactions
between indi"iduals.
%ommunity 4anguage 4earning seems to ha"e embodied this point of "iew
+!N 6
-././. Theory of language learning.
! learning theory underlying an approach must take account of the
psycholinguistic and
cogniti"e processes in"ol"ed in language learning# and the optimal
conditions for these
processes to be acti"ated. 4earning theories may emphasi(e one or both
+rocess1oriented theories build on learning processes# such as habit
formation# induction#
inferencing# hypothesis testing# and generali(ation. %ondition1oriented
theories emphasi(e
the nature of the en"ironment# both human and physical# in which language
learning takes
place. For example# KrashenRs <onitor <odel is an example of a learning
theory on which
a method has been built (the natural method). !t the le"el of process# he
between acquisitions and learnin. 3e also addresses the conditions necessary
for the process of adquisition to take place9 the input must be
comprehensible# roughly 1 tuned#
rele"ant# in sufficient quantity# and experience in low 1 anxiety contexts.
These principles may or may not lead to a method. $e may di"ise our own
+rocedures following a particular approach# and then change this procedures
on the basis
7f the performance of our pupils. Theory does not dictate a particular set
of teaching
procedures. $hat links approach with procedure is what ,ichards and ,odgers
call design.
-.8. @esign.
@esign is the le"el of method analysis where we consider the
ob:ecti"es# the syllabus# the
types of learning tasks# the roles of learners and teachers# and the
roles of instructional
-.8.-. 7b:ecti"es.
!t the le"el of design we must deal with the specification of the general
and specific
7b:ecti"es of the method. *ome methods may focus on oral skills. *ome
methods may focus
7n communication skills. 7ther may place a greater emphasis on accurate
grammar or
$e may distinguish between these methods whose ob:ecti"es are expressed in
Terms (product1oriented) and those which define their ob:ecti"es in terms of
eha"iours (process1oriented). 3owe"er# some methods that claim to be
*how a great concern with accurate grammar and pronunciation.
-.8./. The syllabus.
!s we ha"e to use the target language in order to teach it# we must make
decisions about
The selection of language items we are going to use. These languages items
are to be
+!N A
*elected not only in linguistic grounds but also according to
sub:ect1matter# i.e.. we must
make decisions about what to talk about and how to talk about it. 'n
traditional# grammar1
based courses# contents were selected according to the difficulty of the
items. 'n
communicati"e courses the sequence of the elements is normally based on our
communicati"e needs.
+rocess1oriented methods (e.g.# %ounselling 4earning) normally ha"e no
language syllabus#
as considerations of language content are secondary. 4earners select content
for themsel"es
by choosing topics they want to talk about.
-.8.8. 4earning and teaching acti"ities.
The ob:ecti"es of a method are attained through the interaction of teachers#
learners and
material in the classroom. The acti"ity types that a method ad"ocates may
ser"e to
differentiate methods. The *ilent $ay# for example# uses problem1sol"ing
acti"ities which
in"ol"e the use of coloured rods. %ommunicati"e language teaching ad"ocates
the use of
tasks that in"ol"e an information gap# as this is considered to be one of
the elements of real1
life communication.
@ifferences in acti"ity types may result in different arrangements and
groupings of learners.
drills# for instance# require different groupings than problem1sol"ing
acti"ities. &"en if we
use the same acti"ity# differences at the le"el of approach may determine
different goals for
it in two different methods. For example# interacti"e games are often use in
courses for moti"ation and to pro"ide a change of pace from drill) in
language teaching they are used to practice particular types of interacti"e
exchanges which
are useful in real communication.
@ifferent assumptions in ob:ecti"es# syllabuses# and acti"ities result in
different roles to
learners# teachers and instructional materials.
-.8.6. The roles of the learner.
@esign is greatly influenced by how learners are regarded. The learnerRs
contribution to the
learning process# i.e.# his passi"ity or acti"ity and in which degree# marks
the types of
acti"ities they will carry out# the groupings# the degree to which they will
influence the
learning of others# and their "iew as processors# performers# initiators or
problem sol"ers.
!udiolingualism# for example# saw learners as
stimulus1response1reinforcement mechanisms
whose learning was a result of repetiti"e practice. =ewer methodologies
exhibit more
concern for "ariation among learnersRroles. The teacher must create the
conditions for
learning to take place. 4earner1centred learning tries to teach languages in
a en"ironment
of quasi1independence form the teacher.
+!N 5
-.8.A. The roles of the teacher.
=ew methodologies ha"e resulted in a proliferation of teacher roles# such as
conductor# diagnoser# corrector# consultant# model... !ll these roles are
related to essential
methodological issues9
1 the types of functions the teacher is expected to fulfil
1 the degree of control the teacher has o"er how learning takes place
1 the degree of control the teacher has about the content of the course
1 the interactional patterns that de"elop between teachers and learner
$e must be aware of the roles we can play in the classroom# as only when we
are sure of
our role and our pupilsRconcominant one will we depart from the security of
coursebook1oriented teaching.
-.8.5. The roles of materials.
The role of materials will reflect decisions concerning the primary goals of
the materials (to
present content# to practice content# to facilitate communication#...) the
form of the
materials (textbooks# audio"isuals# supplementary readers#...) the relation
of materials to
other sources of input (whether they are the principal source or not)# and
the abilities of the teacher (degree of training and competence).
Therefore# the role of materials will be different in different
methodologies. For example#
within a communicati"e approach materials will focus on the communicati"e
abilities of interpretation# expression# and negotiation. 7n the other hand#
an indi"iduali(ed
instructional system may include as the main role of the materials to allow
the learners to
progress at their own rates of learning. These roles do not need to be seen
as antithetical#
in fact# both roles must be played by our materials according to our
The third and last le"el of conceptuali(ation is the le"el of technique
(!nthony9-.58) or
procedure (,ichards and ,odgers9-.?5).
-.6. +rocedure.
+rocedure consists of the techniques# practices# and beha"iours that operate
in the real
teaching situation according to a particular method. $e are concerned with
the use of
teaching acti"ities to present# practice and produce language# and with the
procedures and
techniques used in gi"ing feedback to our pupils (e"aluation techniques). $e
also take
account of the resources in terms of time# space# and equipment used by the
teacher and the
interactional patterns obser"ed during the lessons.
+!N B
-.5. %onclusion.
$e ha"e described the specific methodological fundamentels of &nglish
4anguage Teaching
with reference to approach# design and procedure. 't is clear that
de"elopment does not always proceed neatly from approach# through design# to
3owe"er# national curricula# which draw on the expertise of
interdisciplinary working
committees# usually do. *panish Foreign 4anguages curriculum departs from a
theory of learning and a "iew of language as communication towards generally
procedures to allow for indi"iduali(ation through a design le"el in which
the syllabus#
acti"ities# learner roles# teacher roles# and role of the instructional
materials are defined not
"ery strictly to allow for ad:ustments in particular teaching situations.
7ne of the basic ingredients of our curriculum is its adaptability. This
howe"er# is limited by a communicati"e framework as the main aim of teaching
&nglish in
our educational system is to achie"e communicati"e competence. $e are now
going to study
the essentials of communicati"e language teaching.
/.%ommunicati"e language teaching.
%ommunicati"e language teaching draws on %homskyRs criticism to structural
theories of
language# which are incapable of accounting for the creati"ity and
uniqueness of indi"idual
sentences# as well as ritish applied linguist criticism of current
approaches to language
teaching# which inadequately addressed the functional and communicati"e
potential of
!nother impetus for different approaches came from changing educational
realities in
&urope. The %ouncil of &urope took a great interest in education. !s a
result# a group of
experts was set up in -.B- to in"estigate the possibility of de"eloping
language courses on
a unit1credit system. 7ne of the members of this committee# $ilkins#
proposed a functional
or communicati"e definition of language that could ser"e as a basis for
communicati"e syllabuses. They were based on two types of meanings 9 notions
(such as
time#sequence# quantity...) and categories of communicati"e function (such
as requests#
denials# offers# complaints...)
This work was rapidly followed by an almost uni"ersal acceptance of the
principles of the %ommunicati"e !pproach# and its rapid application in
curriculum de"elopment centres and go"ernments. ecause of this# the
!pproach to language teaching is the most extended foreign language teaching
system. 'ts
aims are to make communicati"e competence the goal of language teaching and
procedures for the teaching of the four skills. =ext we analy(e it in
detail# following
,ichards and ,odgers di"ision into approach# design and procedure.
+!N ?
/.-. !pproach.
/.-.-. Theory of language.
The communicati"e approach in language teaching starts from at theory of
language as
communication. The main goal is to acquire what 3ymes defined as
competence. %homsky ( -.AB ) defined language as a set of sentences# each
finite in length
and constructed out of a finite set of elements. !n able speaker has a
knowledge of the grammar rules of his language which allows him to make
sentences in that
language. 3owe"er# @ell 3ymes thought that %homsky had missed out some "ery
information9 the rules of use. $hen anati"e speaker spekas he does not only
gramatically correct forms# he also knows where and when to use this
sentences and to
whom. 3ynes# then# said# that competence by itself is not enough to explain
a nati"e
speakerPs knowledge# and he replaced it with his own concept of comunicati"e
3ymes distinguished four aspects of this competence9 systematic potential#
occurrence and feasibility.
*ystematic potential means that the nati"e speaker possesses a system that
has a potential
for creating a lot of language. This is similar to %homskyPs competence.
!ppropriacy means that the nati"e speaker knows what language is appropiate
in a gi"en
situation. 3is choice is based on the following "ariables# among others9
setting# participants#
purpose# channel# topic...
7ccurrence means that the nati"e speaker knows how often something is said
in the
language and act accordingly.
Feasibility means that the nati"e speaker knows whether something is
possible in the
language. &"en if there is no grammatical rule to ban /D1ad:ecti"e pre1head
we know that these constructions are not possible in the language.
These four categories ha"e been adapted for teaching purposes. Thus# ,oyal
-DD5E -..-# of -6 Fune ( 7& /A Fune)# which establishes the teaching
requirements for
+rimary &ducation nationwide sees communicati"e competence as comprising
1 Nrammar competence9 the ability to put into practice the linguistic units
according to the rules of use established in the linguistic system.
1 @iscourse competence9 the ability to use different types of discourse and
organi(e them according to the comunicati"e situation and the speakers
in"ol"ed in it.
+!N .
1 *ociolinguistic competence9 the ability to adequate the utterances to
the specific
context in accordance with the accepted usage of the determined
1 *trategic competence9 the ability to define# correct or in general# make
ad:ustments in the course of the communicati"e.
1 *ociocultural competence9 this competence has to be understood as a
awareness of the social and cultural context in which the foreign language
Nrammar competence refers to what %homsky called linguistic competence and
systematic potential.'t os the domain of grammaticak and lexical capacity.
@iscourse competence os the aspect of communicati"e competence whoch
describes the
ability to produce unified written or spoken discourse that shows coherence
and cohesion
and which conforms to the norms of different genres. 7ur pupils must be able
to produce
discourse in which successi"e utterances are linked through rules of
discourse or discourse
*ociolinguistic competence refers to an understanding of the social context
in which
communication takes place# including role relationships# the shared
information of the
*ociolinguistic competence refers to an understanding of the social contexr
in which
describes the ability of speakers to use "erbal and non1 "erbal
communication strategies to
compemsate for breakdowns in cmminication or to impro"e the effecti"eness of
*ociocultural competence refers to the learnerPs lnowledge of the cultural
aspects of rhe
target language speaking countries.
!ll these elements are part of the language as language is not something
abstract but a tool
for effecti"e communication.
/.-./. Theory of language learning.
@ifferent learning theories may be found in communicati"e language teaching.
!ll of them
share the same principles. The communication principle establishes that
acti"ities that
in"ol"e communication promote learning. The second element is the task
principle# acti"ities
in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks promote
learning. ! third
element is the meaningfulness principle# language that is meaningful to the
learner supports
+!N -D
The learning process. 4earning acti"ities#as we will see# are consequently
selected according
to how well they engage the learner in meaningful and authentic language
/./. @esign.
/./.-. 7b:ecti"es and syllabus.
$e ha"e already studied the main ob:ecti"e of communicati"e language
learning as it is
central to its theory of language9 to reach communicati"e competence.
@ifferent syllabuses
may fulfil this ob:ecti"e. @iscussions of the nature of the syllabus ha"e
been central in this
approach. The early notional1functional approach was soon criticised as it
seem only a
replacement of grammatical lists by notional1functional lists. !fter that
many syllabuses
ha"e been designed# though some linguists e"en re:ected the notion of
syllabus# the most
fa"oured of which is rumfitRs model# which has a grammatical core around
which notions#
functions# and communicational acti"ities are grouped. The range of the last
is really
unlimited# but we now try to define and classify them.
/././. 4earning and teaching acti"ities.
%ommunicati"e acti"ities must fulfil a series of conditions9
1 enabling learners to attain the communicati"e ob:ecti"e of the curriculum
1 engage learners in communication
1 require the use of communication processes (information sharing#
<ost communicati"e techniques are based in the information gap principle. 'n
information gap acti"ity# one of our pupils knows something that another
pupils needs# to do
the acti"ity. y means of negotiation# interaction and information transfer
techniques the gap
is bridged.
4ittlewood (-.?-) distinguishes between functional communication acti"ities
and social
interaction acti"ities. Functional communication acti"ities include such
tasks as learners
comparing sets of pictures and noting similarities and differences) working
out a likely
sequence of e"ents in a set of pictures) disco"ering missing features in a
map or drawing)
following directions# etc. *ocial interaction acti"ities include
con"ersation and discussion
sessions# dialogues and role plays# simulations# debates#...
3armer (-.?8) has defined a set of characteristics that communicati"e
acti"ities share9
1 a desire to communicate
1 a communicati"e purpose
1 content not form
+!N --
1 "ariety of language
1 no teacher inter"ention
1 no materials control
3e also di"ided communicati"e acti"ities into oral and written. 7ral
acti"ities may be studied in se"en areas9
1 reaching a consensus 1 comunication games 1 problem sol"ing
1 interpersonal exchange 1 story construction 1 simulation and role
'n reaching a consensus acti"ities our pupils must agree with each other
after a certain
amount of discussion. %onsensus acti"ities are "ery successful in promoting
free an
spontaneous use of &nglish# e.g. they ha"e to decide what ten ob:ects they
will take with
them if they ha"e to go to a camping site near a mountain range.
'n relaying instructions we gi"e the necessary information for the
performance of a task to
a group of pupils. $ithout showing this information to a different group
they ha"e to enable
this group to perform the same task# e.g.. a dance# a drawing# a model# a
%omunication gap games are based on the principle of the information gap.
exchange acti"ities are "ery similar to information gap ones. The only
differece is that the
difference is not in factual knowledge# but rather of opinion so they can be
called Oopinion gapO acti"ities# e.g. your fa"orite food# film# book...
*tory construction uses the principle of the information gap and adds the
:igsaw principle.
$e gi"e our pupils partial information and then ask them# to use that
information as part
of a story they must complete by asking other pupils who ha"e other items of
*imulation- and role play/ in"ol"e the pretence of a real1life situation in
the classroom. 'n
simulations our pupils are in the situation as themsel"es while in a role
play we ask them
to play a role following a role card. &.g. police officer...
3amer distinguishes six main types of written communicati"e acti"ities9
- The idea in simulations is to create a pretence of real life in the
classroom. The
difference simulations ha"e with role plays is simply that in the former#
the students are asked to dramati(e the situations with no guide about their
characteres (they# thus# play as
themsel"es)# while in the second their beha"iours are guied by means of the
role card
pro"ided. 't seems clear# then that role plais are a specific kind of
/ ! role play is an acti"ity for which the context an the roles of the
students are
@eterminated by teacher# but in which students ha"e freedom to produce the
Thei feel appropiate to that context and assigned roles
+!N -/
1 relaying instructions 1 exchanging letters 1writing games
1 fluency writing 1 story construction 1 writing reports and
'n relaying instructions one group of pupils has information for the
performance of a task#
and they ha"e to get another group to perform the same task by gi"ing them
instructions. $e may use this acti"ity gi"ing directions# writing messages
which requiere an
&xchanging letters is a type of acti"ity in which one of our pupils write a
letter to each
other and then recie"e a reply. They may be playing a role# such as writing
to agony
column# to make the letter more interesting. 't is important to teachElearn
the special lay1out of &nglish letters.
$riting gamesmay be used to produce written language in a moti"ating way#
e.g. our
pupils can write descriptions of famous people or places. Then# they ha"e to
read it aloud.
The first pupil to identify the described person or place wins.
'n fluency writing we get our pupils to write as much as possible in a
definite period of
time. ,esearch has suggested that if this is done quite frequently# our
pupils will be able not
only to write greater quantities# but the quality will impro"e as well. For
example we can
gi"e them a series of pictures# sequence them and tell a story with a time
'n story construction we gi"e indi"idual pupils partial information which
they must pool
together with other pupils to write a narrati"e.
Finally# in writing reports and ad"ertisements we may use some acti"ities
based on our
pupilsRfields of interest. For example we can prepare a smoking
questionnaire. 7ur pupils
will de"ise a questionnaire and then write a report based on the results
they obtain.
/./.8. The roles of the learner and teacher.
%ommunicati"e language teaching emphasis on communication# rather than the
mastery of
language forms# leads to different roles for learners and teachers form
those found in
traditional teaching. *uccessful communication is an accomplishment :ointly
achie"ed an so
the main role of the learner is that of negotiator. y means of cogniti"e
and social
interaction# i.e. with himself# his classmates# the teacher# and the
materials# he must be able to communicate.
The teacher must assume se"eral roles in communicati"e language teaching#
such as needs
analyst# counsellor# group process manager# informant#... ut all these
roles ser"e two main
functions. First of all# the teacher must facilitate the communication
process in the
classroom. *econdly# he must be a participant within the learning1teaching
+!N -8
/./.6. The roles of materials.
%ommunicati"e language teaching sees materials as a way of influencing the
quality of
classroom interaction# The primary role of materials is therefore to promote
language use. $e can distinguish three types of materials9 text1based)
task1based and realia.
Text1based materials are sometimes no more than structurally organi(ed texts
whih some
interspersed communicati"e acti"ities. 3owe"er# there are communicati"e
texts# which are
"ery different from traditional organi(ed texts. For example# they may
consist of cues to
initiate communication# or be based in information gap pair work# ...
Task1based materials consist of games# role1plays# simulations#... sometimes
the information
is complementary 1 the information gap again 1 and parterns must fit their
parts of the
:igsaw into a composite whole.
Finally# realia may include the use of maga(ines# newspapers# maps#
pictures# ob:ects...
/.8. +rocedure.
ecause of the wide range of communicati"e acti"ities and techniques that we
can use# it
is not possible to describe a typical classroom procedure. $e can say#
howe"er# that
traditional procedures are not re:ected and that they may be used in the
first stages of
language learning# such as presentation and controlled practice# while
acti"ities are mainly used in the free production stage. Therefore we can
establish a
sequence of acti"ities as follows)
*tages acti"ities
+resentation *trucutural +re1communicati"e
+ractice quasi1communicati"e +re1communicati"e
+roduction Functional communication communicati"e
+roduction social interaction communicati"e
!s a conclusion# we can say that communicati"e language teaching uses a wide
range of
techniques and acti"ities# which in"ol"e different roles for teachers#
learners and material
as well as different syllabuses# to reach its main aim9 the attainment of
+!N -6
8. '4'7N,!+3>.
rumfit# %# and Fohnson# K# The communicati"e approach to language teaching.
7xford# -.?-.
%rystal# @. The %ambridge &ncyclopedia of language. %T+. %ambridge# -.?B.
3armer# F. The +ractice of &nglish 4anguage Teaching. 4ongman. 4ondon# -.?8.
3owatt# !.+.,. ! 3istory of &nglish 4anguage Teaching. 7T+. 7xford# -.?8.
Fohnson# K. %ommunicati"e *yllabus @esign and <ethodology. 7T+. 7xford#
4ittlewood# $. %ommunicati"e 4anguage Teaching. %T+. %ambridge# -.?-.
<athews# !. !t the %halkface. =elson. 3ong Kong# -..-.
+ygmalion# &quipo. 4a &nse`an(a del 'nglKs. =arcea. <adrid# -.?B.
,ichards# F.%.# +latt# F. !nd +latt# 3. 4ongman @ictionary of 4anguage
Teaching Y !pplied
4inguistics# 4ongman. 4ondon# -../.
*teinberg# @[email protected] +sycholinguistics. 4ongman. 4ondon# -.?/.
Theme -A9 +eriods# authors and most suitable literary genres to be used in the &nglish class.
Types of texts.
D. .ntroduction.
&"en at the early stages students can in fact do a great deal with the language9 identifying
sounds) produce them orally) recogni(e then in a text. 'n short# e"en the "ery beginners can do
something with the language. $e must build from that point by adding input which is neither too
ad"anced# nor too easy.
%inema# music and literature are rich and moti"ating materials. 'f we manage to know how to
select and to present content in such a way that it will both challenge and moti"ate them.
7ur curriculum establishes two general aims which are related this topic. They read as follows9
9b4ectives 0ssessment
-. To understand easy written and oral texts... B. To read with the help
of the teacher...
6. To read short and easy texts...
!ccording to this it is clear that we can and# it is possible# we should use literature in our
classroom. The general aim of our approach to the teaching of literature is to let our pupils deri"e
the benefits of communicati"e acti"ities for language impro"ement within the context of suitable
works of literature.
$e also ha"e the following specific aims9
- <aintain our pupils’ interest and in"ol"ement by using a wide range of pupil
centred acti"ities.
- Try and bring to life the printed page# exploiting as fully as possible the interest
that well1chosen literature has for our pupils.
- $e must help our pupils "alue their own responses to the printed page.
$e may find three types of :ustification for using literary texts. &ach one deals with a different
type of content9
• %oncepts9 literary texts offer genuine samples of a wide range of styles# register
and text1types# they pro"ide a rich context in which indi"idual lexical or
syntactical items are made more memorable.
• *kills or procedures9 the opinion gap between one pupil’s interpretation and
another’s can be bridged by genuine interaction.
• !ttitudes9 the genuine feeling of literary texts is a powerful moti"ator.
1. eriods, authors and most suitable literary genres to be used in the
#nglish class.
1.1. T7! 1$%!2a28 g!n2!' an" #$g2!' $n EFL.
The &nglish language is certainly rich in literary figures and genres) and the literary ages are
full of intriguing aspects that students can find extremely moti"ating. !s long as we know how to
select and to present the content (keeping in mind Krashen’s model of 0input Z -) L input :ust a
little abo"e the students’ le"el L a great many literary figures can be successfully used in T&F4.
1.(. /!11:0n&6 %a1!' an" 278+!'.
The following is a selection of authors# genres and periods that could be used in T&F4.
/!11:0n&6n %a1!'. /!11:0n&6 278+!'.
8;he elves and the shoemaker9S 8;he tree little pigs9
8;he little red hen9S 8;he princess and the pea9S
8#hicken icken9S 8;he ugly duckling9S 8;he
emperor^s new clothes9S 8%leeping !eauty9S 8.uss in
!oots9S 8ittle red riding hood9S 8Hansel and
-retel9S 8#inderella9S Beauty and the !east9S 8%now
white and the seven dwarfs9S 8;he wi3ard of ,39S
8ady!ird9S 8/umpelstiltskin9S 8-oldylocks and the
three !ears9.
8,ne, two, put on your shoe9S 8/ain, rain go away9S
8;his is the way9S 8,ld &acdonald had a farm9S
8Hickory, 6ickory, 6ock9S 8Baa, !aa, !lack sheep9S
8;hree !lind mice9S 8Insey "insey spider9S 8.ussy cut,
pussy cat9S 8Humpty 6umpty9S 8Hack and Hill9S 80any,
&eeny, &iny, &o9S 8;here is a hole in my !ucket9S
8;he house that Hack !uilt9S 8%he sells seashells9S
8;hirty days %eptem!er9S 8;here was an ,ld "oman
who swallowed a fly9
$hen selecting a work of literature we must bear in mind that we want our pupils engage
interacti"ely with the text# with classmates# and with us# the teachers. To reach this we must follow
these g$"!1$n!':
a) The text itself# and not information about it# is of central importance.
b) 7ur pupils must genuinely interact with the text# their classmates and the
teacher and not be mere recipients.
c) 7ur acti"ities must be designed so as to enable our pupils to share their
personal experiences# perceptions and opinions.
d) 7ur acti"ities must be "aried and interesting.
e) The selection must be based on their potential interest for our pupils and
not in the literary qualities of the works.
1.(. S%&285&&0'.
-. %riteria for selecting storybooks.
$e can find many simplified storybooks which ha"e been graded with children learning
&nglish in mind. <ost authors# howe"er# consider that the use of authentic materials can be more
fruitful (real language and moti"ation). $e can also find authentic books with high1quality
illustrations which will play an important role in aiding comprehension.
a) 7ur pupils’ needs and abilities.
The chosen texts should always be appropriate to the age# interests and goals of our pupils. 'n
order to understand literary texts our pupils need to be able to read at a reasonable speed for an
extended period without fatigue. This speed should# for extensi"e reading# be at a rate of at least
/DD words per minute.
7ur youngest pupils# those in the second cycle# will not be able to read at this speed in &nglish
so we must use short# simple texts with illustrations. $e can also use 2!a"$ng %!)[email protected]!' to
impro"e our pupils’ reading speed. These are normally di"ided into %!)7n$)a1 or -2a)%$)! +!%7&"'.
• T!)7n$)a1 +!%7&"': use a de"ice of some kind to co"er up the written words as
our pupils read# forcing them to speed up their reading. These methods may be
more useful for the *panish language classroom.
• P2a)%$)! +!%7&"' are more suitable for the &nglish class our oldest pupils# as the
texts they are able to cope with begin to increase in si(e# e.g. texts followed by
certain tasks# decrease the time allowed for reading.
N!!"' an" a5$1$%$!'.
1. C&n%!n%T'5E!)% +a%%!2. a) ,ele"ant) b) 'nteresting) c) !musing) d) <emorable.
(. V$'a1'. a) Tse of illustrations) b) !ttracti"eEcolourful) c) *i(e) d) Target culture.
*. En)&2ag! -a2%$)$-a%$&n. a) ,epetition) b) +rediction) c) @e"elop memory) d) uild confidence.
4. M&%$,a%$ng. a) ,elate to their experiences and characteristics.
I. A2&'! )2$&'$%8. a) 'nterest in getting to know more about &nglish language and culture.
L. C2!a%! -&'$%$,! a%%$%"!'. a) Target language# b) Target culture) c) 4anguage learning.
$e can see how these first criteria of suitability depend on each particular group of pupils#
their needs and interests.
b) 4anguage difficulty9 linguistic and stylistic le"el.
• L$ng$'%$) 1!,!1:
'f we want our pupils to en:oy reading a text we should bear in mind the
following points9
- the "ocabulary and syntax of the text should be within our pupils’ grasp
- idiomatic language should be kept at a minimum
't would be a5'2" to use the +a'%!2-$!)!' of children’s literature in our
classes. Tnknown words should not occur more frequently than one or two
e"ery hundred. $e must also bear in mind complex structure. This may also
hinder comprehension as they will not see how one part of the text relates to
Therefore# if both sentence structure and "ocabulary must be at a le"el
they can understand# we will not be able to use classic children storybooks
masterpieces. 'n fact the only type of classic children’s literature we can use
will be 278+!' and '&ng'. $e must use +&"!2n '%&285&&0' with simple#
short texts and meaningful illustrations.
Ni"en the problems that lexical and structural difficulty pose# we may
need to assess linguistic difficulty in a systematic way. From the point of
"iew of &F4 it would be better# as 3ill suggests to use a clo(e test9
1 $e prepare a reasonably typical extract from the book and delete words from the passage
on a regular basis (e"ery sixth or se"enth word).
1 $e instruct our pupils to supply the missing "ocabulary# so we will need -A deletions to
ha"e "alidity. 7b"iously we assume we cannot really use it with our youngest pupils.
1 !"erage class results are9
a) M&2! %7an IG -!2 )!n% )&22!)%: our pupils can read the text on their own.
b) 9!%6!!n 44 Z IG -!2 )!n%: our pupils can read it with us or with the dictionary
c) 9!1&6 44 -!2 )!n%: they cannot read the text.
• *tylistic le"el.
The use of unusual word order# di"ergent "ocabulary# and son will produce instances of
foreground that cannot be appreciated if we do not ha"e a solid knowledge of what
constitutes the linguistic norm.
't is useless therefore to choose texts of great stylistic complexity for the early stages of
language learning. *tyle analysis should be based on the linguistic features with which our
pupils are already familiar.
!s a summary# based on &llis and rewster# we ha"e9
L$ng$'%$) an" '%81$'%$) 1!,!1
-. L$ng$'%$) 1!,!1. a) Vocabulary) b) *tructures) c) Functions.
/. S%81$'%$) 1!,!1. a) Foregrounding of "ocabulary and structure.
c) !mount of background information required.
7ur pupils’ understanding of a text can also be hindered by their lack of background
knowledge of &nglish speaking countries culture. $e must therefore bear in mind the amount
of time we will ha"e to explain background knowledge when choosing the texts.
't is clear that our pupils’ limited knowledge of the world will not allow us to expand on
most of these topics. 7nce and again we can ob"iously see that the linguistic# stylistic and
background knowledge which is required for a fully understanding of most classic children’s
literature works is #a2 beyond our pupils’ ken. M&"!2n '%&285&&0' are also more suitable
from needed background knowledge point of "iew.
d) &ducational and follow1up potential.
7nce we ha"e analy(ed the pre"ious aspects# we can finally ask oursel"es
about the educational potential of the story in terms of9 learning &nglish
language and culture) learning about other sub:ects) learning about the world)
learning how to learn and also about the #&11&6:- -&%!n%$a1.
e) %onclusions.
The study of the pre"ious sections enables us to come to the following
conclusions about the most suitable periods# literary genres and authors.
1. P!2$&". <ostly nowadays works but we can also use traditional tales with an e"erlasting
appeal such as 8ittle /ed /iding Hood9.
(. A%7&2'. Traditional storytellers such as +errault and authors on the +uffin or &arly ird
series such as Fack Kent# ,aymond riggs# Fohn urningham or ,oald @ahl.
*. G!n2!'. $e can use small poems but mostly storybooks.
$e will now study how to use these storybooks in our classroom.
/. Tsing story books in the classroom.
Tnderstanding a story in &nglish is hard work for our pupils# so the first
thing we ha"e to pay attention to is how to help our pupils understand the
-. $e must pro"ide a )&n%!=% for the story and introduce the main characters.
/. P2&,$"! ,$'a1 '--&2%: drawings on the blackboard# cut1out figures# flash cards#...
8. E=-1a$n the context# keywords and ideas in the mother tongue# if necessary.
6. 'dentify your 1$ng$'%$) &5E!)%$,!'.
A. ,elate the story or associated acti"ities to work in other '5E!)% a2!a' if possible.
5. @ecide 7&6 1&ng you will spend on the story.
B. @ecide in which &2"!2 to introduce or re"ise the language necessary for understanding the story.
?. @ecide 67!n and 7&6 you will read the story.
.. 'f necessary# modify the story to make it +&2! a))!''$51! to your pupils.
-D. Find out if there are any 278+!' or '&ng' to reinforce the language introduce.
--. @ecide #&11&6:- a)%$,$%$!' to pro"ide opportunities for pupils to use the language in different contexts.
7nce we ha"e decided on the pre"ious questions we can begin to plan a story1based lesson9
• P1ann$ng '%&28:5a'!" 1!''&n'.
There are many ways to plan a lesson. 3owe"er# a predominantly oral lesson normally
follows quite a fixed plan with small "ariations. $e may ha"e for example9
- /a2+:- an" 2!,$!6: informal chat to maintain rapport with our pupils. $e
remind our pupils of what we did during the last lesson.
- P2!'!n%a%$&n: both of the aims of the lessons and subsequently of the new
- P2a)%$)!: controlled stage.
- P2&")%$&n: communicati"e stage.
- F$na1 2&n"$ng:-.
2. /ypes of storybooks.
There is a wide range of texts that we could use for the teaching of &nglish. 3owe"er# we
consider storybooks as one of the most useful for that purpose# hence# we will mainly focus on this
&llis and rewster ha"e classified storybooks under three headings9
Na22a%$,! #!a%2!' C&n%!n% La8&%
1 ,hyming words
1 ,epeating words
1 %umulati"e content and language
1 'nteracti"e
1 3umorous
1 &"eryday life
1 !nimal stories
1 TraditionalEfolkEfairy tales
1 Fantasy
1 Flap
1 %ut1away pages
1 <inimal text
1 =o text
1 *peech bubbles
$e ha"e also made distinctions based on the le"el of difficulty but it is e"en more important to
distinguish between a%7!n%$) and graded or a"a-%!" %!=%'. $e prefer to use authentic texts if this
is not possible# at least we should use real1simulated texts gi"ing suggestions to adapt too difficult
(.1. A%7!n%$) ,' g2a"!" %!=%'.
The main aim of all our teaching is to enable our pupils to reach communicati"e competence.
!s the focus will be on assisting our pupils to do in class what they will need to do outside# the
materials to be used will reflect the world outside.
=unan describes authenticity as follows 0authentic materials are usually defined as those which
ha"e been produced for purposes other than to teach language ("ideo clips# recordings of authentic
interactions# extracts for TV[).
!uthentic materials are easily :ustified on the grounds that specially scripted texts are artificial.
<anipulating these texts does not mean that our pupils will comprehend and manipulate language
in real communicati"e situations.
3owe"er# especially with our pupils# who are beginners# it may be necessary to edit authentic
materials in a way. &dited materials can be classified into simulated authentic and artificial.
! non1authentic text# in language teaching terms# is 0one that has been designed especially for
learners2 (3armer). $e can make a distinction here# howe"er# between texts which ha"e been made
to illustrate particular language points for -2!'!n%a%$&n (artificial) and those which a--!a2 %& 5!
<anipulating and comprehending simulated authentic texts will help our pupils to acquire the
necessary skills they will need when they come to handle authentic material. *o we can conclude
saying that the material designed to foster the acquisition of communicati"e competence must a%
1!a'% be simulated authentic.
$e will finally see how we can adapt authentic texts which are slightly abo"e our pupils’ le"el.
(.(. A"a-%$ng '%&2$!'.
$hen adapting a story we face a "$1!++a9 if we simplify too much our pupils will lose the
fla"our of real stories# so# what we can do is to try and adapt stories without losing much of the
original magic following &llis and rewster guidelines.
V&)a51a28 an"
g!n!2a1 +!an$ng.
-. %heck unfamiliar content or words.
/. %heck idioms.
8. %heck clarity
G2a++a2. -. %heck tenses.
/. %heck use of structures.
8. %heck word order.
O2gan$;a%$&n &# $"!a'. -. %heck sentence length and complexity.
/. %heck time references.
8. %heck the way ideas are linked.
6. %heck the way ideas are explained.
S%&28 1!ng%7. -. %heck the number of ideas in the story.
y following the pre"ious criteria of selection and use of storybooks we will intend to make the
most of literature in the classroom.
3. Eibliography.
%hildren’s literature9
• The %ambridge Nuide to &nglish literature. %T+. %ambridge# -..D.
• &44'*# N. and ,&$*T&,# F.9 /he storytelling 3andbook for rimary
/eachers. P!ng$n. L&n"&n, 1MM1.
• $&44147V&@ T!4&* *&,'&*9 L&g75&2&g7: La"85$2" 9&&0', 1MG4.
'f we consider that le"el is what students can actually do with the language# it will become
ob"ious that e"en at the early stages students can in fact do a great deal with the language9
They can identify sounds ("owels. consonants# intonation# stress# rhythm)# certain words and
structures. They can produce these orally) recogni(e them in a text and# at the "ery least#
underline words# if they canPt actually set them down on a separate sheet of paper. 'n short#
e"en the "ery beginners can do something with the language. The teacher then must build
from that point by adding input which is neither too ad"anced# nor too easy. The input must
be moti"ating enough for them to want to try to understand# first# and then try to reproduce in
some way.
%inema# music# and literature are rich in moti"ating material# if the teacher knows how to
select and to present content in such a way that it will both challenge and moti"ate them.
/.-. T7! 1$%!2a28 g!n2!' an" F$g2!' $n EFL
The &nglish language is certainly rich in literary figures and genres) and the literary ages are
full of intriguing aspects that students can find extremely moti"ating. %haucer# for example#
is not merely an author who wrote a few famous tales in a strange dialect that nobody uses
today. ut rather he tells some "ery good stories which# if a teacher can get beyond the
purely academic side of the great literary figure# could well be introduced to students in such
a way that suits their particular age group and le"el. ;he #anter!ury ;ales, for example# is
tremendously full of material that will moti"ate students. !s long as the teacher knows how
to select and to present the content (keeping in mind KrashenPs model of Oinput Z -O (input
:ust a little abo"e the studentsP le"el) a great many literary figures can be successfully used in
$ithout forgetting# of course# that literature must be suitable to the studentsP le"el and age
group# and that any text can be adapted to suit the needs and capabilities of &F4 students# the
following is a selection of authors. genres# and periods that could be used in T&F4.
/./. /!11:0n&6n %a1!'
The following are some of the well known tales which are often published in colourful and
easy1to1read graded readers9 OThe el"es and the shoemaker#O OThe three little pigs#O OThe
gingerbread boy#O OThe little red hen#O OThe princess and the pea#O OThe sly fox and the little
red hen#O OThe three billy1goats gruff#O O%hicken licken#O OThe three bears#O OThe ugly
duckling#O OThe emperorPs new clothes#O OTown mouse and country mouse.#O*leeping
beauty#O O+uss in boots#O O,umpelstiltskin ,apun(el#O OThe wolf and the se"en little kids#O
O4ittle red riding hood#2 The bra"e tailor#O OFack and the beanstalk#O O3ansel and Nretel#O
O%inderella#O Oeauty and the# beast#O O*now $hite and the se"en dwarfs#O OTomb ThumbO#
OThe little mermaid#O and OThe $i(ard of 7(2 (O$ell1lo"ed talesO 4adybird9 -.55).
o /!11:.n&6 R78+!'
!dditionally# the following are a few well known rhymes and songs9 O7ne# two# put on your
shoe#0 O$here is thumbkin#O O+olly put the kettle on#O O,ain# rain# go away#2 Two little birds
sitting on a wall#2 This is the way#2 07ld <lacdonald had a farm#O O3ickory# dickory. @ock#2
[email protected]# diddle# dumpling#O OThis little pig#2 0This old man2# 0aa# bas# black sheep#O OThree
blind mice#2 03ere is a church#2 2'nsey winsey spider#O O+at a cake#O O+ussy cat# +ussy cat#O
O3umpty dumpty#O O,ide a cock horse#2 0Fack and Fill#O O3ey diddle# diddle#2 04ittle miss
muffet#O O4ittle Fack horner#2 0$ee $illie $inkie#O O7ne potato# two potatoes#2 0Ten green
bottles#O O&eny# meeny# miny# mo#O OThere was a girl#2 0'tPs raining# itPs pouring#2 0Fie# fie#
foe# fum#2 0The bra"e old @uke of >ork#O OTherePs a hole in my bucket2# 0There was an old
woman who li"ed in a shoe.O O3ush little baby#O O4ittle bo1peep#O O*ing a song of sixpence#O
O7h dear# what can the matter be;#O O4ittle boy blue The house that Fack built#O O*he sells
seashells#O O+eter piper.O OThirty days has *eptember#2 There was an old woman who
swallowed a fly#O OTen green and speckled frogs The owl and the +ussy cat#O (@akin -.5?).
(.4. 92$%$'7 A%7&2' an" T!=%'
Beowulf The text# in 7ld &nglish. is from the -Dth1cent. ut it was belie"ed written in the
5th1cent. The tale is about the life of the Neatish hero eowulf who in his youth fights and
kills Nrendel# a monster and then kills the monsterPs mother. Fifty years later he battles a
dragon and both are killed.
%haucerPs ;he #anter!ury tales, in prose and "erse# was written in the late -6th1cent. The
story begins when twenty1nine pilgrims on their way to %anterbury agree to tell tales as they
go to make the time pass by quicker. There are twenty1four tales told altogether. They
include the following9 OThe knightPs tale#O OThe millerPs tale#O OThe ree"ePs tale The cookPs
tale#O OThe man of lawPs tale#O OThe wife of bathPs tale#O OThe friarPs Tale#O OThe summonerPs
tale#2 0The clerkPs tale#2 0The merchantPs tale#O OThe squirePs tale The FranklinPs tale#O OThe
physicianPs tale The pardonerPs tale#O etc.
%ir -awain and the -reen @night is an alliterati"e poem from the second half of the -6th1
cent. The story begins at King !rthurPs court in %amelot during a new yearPs feast. ! large
green man appears and dares the knights to cut his head off. >oung Nawain obliges him#
after accepting the challenge that he will allow his own head to be cut off on the same day the
following year. The Nreen Knight picks up his se"ered head and retires. ! year later#
Nawain sets out to meet his fate# coming to a castle# where he is in"ited in as a guest. The
lord of the castle comes to an agreement with him# that whate"er comes to pass the young
knight will report it to the lord. $hen the lordPs wife tries to seduce him# he resists. but the
lady insists and he allows her at last to make a present to him of her garter. 3e does not
report this to the lord of the castle who re"eals his true identity9 he is the Nreen Knight. The
Nreen Knight honors him for his honesty and courage# and pardons Nawain the debt he has
come to pay. =e"ertheless# he cuts the young knightPs neck with his axe# for not telling him
about his wifePs garter.
.iers .lowman, a late -6th1cent. poem in <iddle &nglish by $illiam 4angland# tells of how
the narrator fell asleep in the forest one day and of the many things that passed in his dream.
*ir +hilip *idney (-AA61?5) is an attracti"e figure9 3e was a romantic poet and a courageous
knight who was killed in Flanders in an attack he led on a *panish supply con"oy. There are
aspects of his life1if not some of his literary work1which students would find interesting.
&dmund *penser (c. -AA/1..) was author of# among other works# ;he )aerie Iueene, which
contains some interesting material about courtiers and knights# dragons and medie"al castles.
*penserPs life is of some interest# especially his friendship with *ir $alter ,aleigh and his
encounter with the 'rish people.
$illiam *hakespeare (-A561-5-5) has a great many plays which are of particular interest to
the young. 3is history plays are full of intriguing stories of &nglish kings and queens KHenry
GIII, /ichard III$. There are parts of some of his tragedies which are particularly moti"ating#
such as the three witches in &ac!eth, or the ghost scene in Hamlet, and of course# /omeo
and Huliet attracts much attention among the young. *e"iral of his comedies are appealing to
young students# especially ! &idsummer :ightQs 6ream and ;he ;empest # both of which
ha"e a good many# scenes in"ol"ing youths about the same age as the students.
Though the 0metaphysical2 writings of Fohn @onne (-AB/1-58-) are "ery difficult to
appreciate# the life of the man can be of interest to you and students. The poet sailed with
&ssex to sack %adi( in -A.5 and with ,aleigh to hunt the *panish treasure ships off the
!(ores in -A.B.
en Fonson (-AB/E81-58B) is another intriguing literary figure whose life is of particular
interest to students. %oming from the lower class# he struggled to educate himself and
e"entually became one of the known playwrights in &ngland. +arts of his comedies are
moti"ating9 Golpone is about a man who pretends he dying to get money from people who
pretend to be honest but are in fact rogues. 3e wrote ;he &asque ofBlackness for Xueen
!nne because she had always wanted to appear on stage as a =egress. !nd ;he 'lchemist is
an hilarious comedy about a ser"ant# Face# who# with a fake alchemist# takes ad"antage of the
absence of the owner of a house in lackfriars in 4ondon during an epidemic. They use the
house to trick roguish people out of money.
Fohn <ilton (-5D?1B6) li"ed during a "ery crucial period in the history of ritain. 3e was a
+uritan who sided with those who fa"ored the execution of King %harles '. The sub:ect of the
ci"il war is intriguing and full of anecdotes. <iltonPs .aradise ost, an epic poem in twel"e
books written in blank "erse# is the story of !dam and &"e and the Narden of &den. The
character of *atan was unique in that the demon was presented in "ery humanlike# and at
times sympathetic# terms. There are scenes in long the poem that are worth summari(ing#
such as when *atan# ee(elbub# and the legions of the rebellious angels ha"e an assembly) or
when *atan and &"e first meet.
!phra ehn (-56D;1-5?.) is a tremendously intriguing figure. *he was a spy for King
%harles '' and worked under co"er in !ntwerp during the @utch war. 3er play ;he /over is
about the ad"entures of a band of &nglish ca"aliers in =aples and <adrid. !nd ,roonoko, or
;he /oyal %lave, one of the first no"els e"er written# is about !fricans who are captured and
sold into sla"ery in *outh !merica. The no"el is full of interesting anecdotes.
!nimals were used in Oooks for boys and girlsO and O%ountry rhymes for childrenO#
published in -5?5. The stories had a moral to teach. They were well known not only in
ritain but also in 'taly# France# and *pain. Furthermore# some of the "erse from [email protected]"ine and
moral songs for childrenO are still heard to this day9 O3ow doth the little busy bee;O
@[email protected](-55D1-B8-) is best known fo rhis no"e 0,obinson%rusoe2 .The time in which
he wrote is particularly interesting# since it coincided with the growth of the colonies in =orth
!merica. The no"el is based on the experiences of !lexander *elkirk on the island of Fuan
Fernande(. The relationship between the shipwrecked ,obinson and an indigenous
inhabitant of a deserted island is of particular interest.
Fonathan *wift (-55B1-B6A) is especially well known for his -ullivers ;ravels, about a
shipwrecked surgeon on the island of 4illiput# where the inhabitants are a mere six inches
high. 'n the second part# the surgeon is shipwrecked on an island where the inhabitants are as
tall steeples. 'n the third part# the surgeon finds himself on a flying island# and in the fourth
part he is in a country ruled by horses with more sense (reason) than most humans.
$illiam %ongre"e (- 5BD1-B/.) is of inter est to young students in that he wrote his satirical
plays during the ,estoration period# when the monarchy was restored after twenty years of
exile in France. %ongre"e# &therege# Farquhar# Vanbrugh# and $ycherley wrote hilarious
satires in the comedy of manners style. The fashion and the influence of the French court on
&nglish society is an interesting topic to de"elop) it is something which the comedy of
manners style has preser"ed.
+erhaps less intriguing for the young than @efoe and *wift# loseph !ddison (-5B/1-B-.) and
*ir ,ichard *teele (-5B/1-B/.) are of interest in that they wrote for newspapers and
periodicals such as the ;atler, ;he %pectator, ;he -uardian. Fournalism is a "ery important
literary style today as it was in !ddison and *teelePs day. %omparing bhe two ages and
making periodicals or newspapers in class can be quite moti"ating.
The writings of the poet !lexander +ope (-5??1-B66) typify the =eoclassical style in ritish
literature. 3is poem in rhyming couplets ;he /ape of the ock is interesting as a story in
itself. !t a card game# a young gentleman# enamored with a young lady# bra(enly cuts off a
lock of her hair in front of e"eryone. 't is not only an excellent piece for discussing the
manners of that time# but also representati"e of the kind of encounters of a sexual nature that
young people normally face.
*amuel Fohnson (- BD.1?6) is an example of a writer who was born with few economical
means and became one of the most renowned man of letters in the -?th1cent. 3is early
friendship with @a"id Narrick# before the latter because a famous actor# is interesting# as
there are many of oswell’s anecdotes in his biography of Fohnson’s life. /asselas, .rince of
'!ysinia is a no"el which is full of ad"entures about a young prince and his sister on a
:ourney to exotic far away places.
Fohn =ewbery (-B-815B) was one of the earliest known publishers of childrenPs books. 3e
published fables# poems# tales and no"els. ONoody Two *hoesO# considered the first book
created especially for children# may ha"e been written by the playwright 7l"ier Noldsmith (;
- B8D1B6) 1the author of the uproariously funny play %he %toops to %onquer1for =ewbery. 'n
-BA8# he published OThe 4illiputian <aga(ineO# in -B5/# OTuiii TelesuupeO# and O<other
Noose Fairy TalesO in -B5A. =ursery rhymes or O"erse for childrenO were a mixture of
popular folklore# myths and age old songs. 3a"ing been created for entertainment more than
for didactic reasons# they tended to be playful and imaginati"e. 't is for this reason that they
often seem strange or absurd.
<ary $ollstonecraft (-BA.1.B) is a tremendously appealing figure whose life was a
continuous ad"enture. 'n -B./ she went to +aris to participate in the French ,e"olution# and
there fell in lo"e with an !merican writer# by whom she had a daughter who would die soon
afterwards. <ary managed to escape the ,eign of Terror in France. @own and out in
4ondon# she tried to take her life# but was nurtured back to health by $illiam Nodwin# a
philosopher of anarchical opinions# with whom she later had a daughter# <ary# who would
one day marry the poet *helley and write the no"el )rankenstein. <ary $ollstonecraft is
known for her two books# ! Gindication ofthe /ights of men and ! Gindication of the /ights
of "omen, written two years later. *he died shortly after gi"ing birth to her daughter. There
are ob"iously a great many aspects worthy of attention not only with regard to the authorPs
life# but also to the messages of her books.
<ary $ollstoneeraftPs daughter# <ary $ollstoneeraft *helley (-B.B1-?A-)# eloped with the
young +erey ysshe *helley at se"enteen# and li"ed with the poet abroad till his premature
death in -?//. *he knew yron and Keats "ery well# and her life is an example of the young
romantic world "iew of the early nineteenth century. 3er novel )rankenstein is still an often
read classic# and many "ersions of it ha"e been reenacted.
$illiam lake (-BAB1-?/B) is an alluring figure and his poetry# especially %ongs of innocence
and of e+perience, and is full of material suitable for young people. !nd as he was also a
painter and an engra"er# there are prints a"ailable of much of his work. %ongs of Innocence
and of 0+perience contains some "ery moti"ating poems# such as OThe %himney *weeperO
(O$hen my mother died - was "ery young#E !nd my father sold me while yet my tongueE
could scarcely cry mmPweepb Pweep# PweepbnnO)# or OThe TygerO (OTygerb Tygerb burning
brightE 'n the forests of the nightO) or OThe 4ittle lack oyO (O<y mother bore me in the
southern wild#E !nd - am black# but 7hb my soul is whiteO). !nd an added plus is that his
poems are generally expressed in a "ery simple language.
,obert urns (-BA.1.5) was an extra"agant figure who wrote poems in *cottish dialect. 3is
life is of interest9 !s a young man he greatly belie"ed in the equality of all mankind# and so
he defended the cause of the French ,e"olution. 7ne of his poems# O!uld 4ang *yneO#
though in a language which is difficult to understand# is still sung by a great many nati"e
speakers of &nglish the world o"er on =ew >ears &"e9 O*hould auld acquaintance be forgot#E
!nd ne"er brought to minP;E *hould auld acquaintance be forgot#E !nd days oP lang syne;E For
auld lang syne# my dear# For auld lang syne#E $ePll take a cup oP kindness yet#E For auld lang
$illiam $ordsworth (-BBD1-?AD) was a poet who was in fa"our of the French ,e"olution
when he was young# but who later spoke out against it. 3e left a French girl# with child and
returned to &ngland and settled down with his sister @orothy. 3is yrical Ballads, which he
coauthored with %oleridge is considered a landmark in &nglish ,omanticism. 7f particular
interest to the young is his long poem ;he .relude, in which he spends a great deal of time
speaking about his infancy and school days. The psychological insight into his childhood
experience is remarkable.
*amuel Taylor %oleridge (-BB/1-?86) as a young man was an idealist who fa"oured the
French ,e"olution and in -B.6# along with ,obert *outhey# planned to start a +antisocratic
commune in !merica# which ne"er came to be. %oleridge became addicted to opium# as did
people in ritain in the early -.th1cent. after doctors prescribed huge quantities of laudanum
(opium dissol"ed in alcohol) to ease pain. There is a lot to his long poem OThe ,ime of the
!ncient <arinerO that can be adapted9 ! ship in the *outh +ole region runs into a streak of
"ery bad luck when a madner kills an albatross for no particular reason. The story is told by
the mariner# and the scenes he narrates command attention.
*ir $alter *cott (-BB-1-?8/) wrote no"els of medie"al sub:ects which were popular
in ritain and !merica. Ol"anhoeO is still widely# read among young people9 'n it# $ilfred of
'"anhoe# son of a noble *axon# :oins ,ichard the 4ion 3earted at the %rusade in the 3oly
4and. Fohn# ,ichardPs younger brother# tries to o"erthrow him in his absence. '"anhoe helps
,ichard restore authority. 'n the no"el# ,obin 3ood and Friar Tuck also appear. 7ther no"els
by *cott include ;he &onastery, ;he '!!ot, and ;ales ofv the #rusades.
Neorge Nordon yron (-B??1-?/6) belonged to the generation of &nglish ,omantic poets
that followed $ordsworth and %oleridge. 3e ga"e up a seat in the 3ouse of 4ords to li"e in
exile. 3is poem O%hilde 3aroldPs +ilgrimageO made him famous in -?-/. The poem
describes the poetPs tra"els# among other places# through +ortugal and *pain. yronPs
personal life was the talk of &urope at the time# for he was rich and handsome and notorious
for his escapades of pleasure and OsinfulO beha"iour. 3e is said to ha"e swum the 3ellespont
with a friend for the fun of it. 3is [email protected] FuanO contains parts which young *paniards may find
interesting# especially the part that describes Fuan as a youngster in *e"ille and# when he gets
older# his mother# [email protected] 'ne(# sends him away to %adi( and then abroad. 3e was also an
idealist who armed a body of troops with his own money in order to help the Nreeks in their
filht against the Turks. 3e died of fe"er# though# before the Oyron rigadeO saw real action.
The poet +ercy ysshe *helley (-B./1-.//) was a friend of yron. !s a student at 7xford#
he was notorious for his uncon"entional dress and his eccentricity. 3e was a rebel#
denouncing royalty# and a "egetarian. 3e eloped with <ary Nodwin $ollstonecraft when she
was se"enteen# and he li"ed abroad for the remainder of his life. O+rometheus TnboundO is
perhaps the most promising of his poems for the &F4 teacher. +rometheus is said to ha"e
disobeyed \eus by teaching mankind how to use fire. *helley has him chained to a rock as
punishment for disobeying the supreme god. ut +rometheus does not repent his act# and in
the end# +rometheus triumphs o"er tyrany. *helley was drowned when# returning from
"isiting yron# his boat capsi(ed near 4i"omo.
Fohn Keats (-B.A1-?/-) was a friend of *helley. 3e didnPt write poetry until he was eighteen#
and :ust in a few years he had earned a name for himself and had a "ery successful future
ahead of him. ut he died of tuberculosis at the age of twenty1six. 3is poem OThe &"e of *t.
!gnisO is particularly promising in its treatment of legend that says that if a young girl
performs a certain ritual# she will dream of her future husband on the e"ening before *t.
!gnesP @ay (Fanuary /-st). Keats writes a breathtaking story of how a young maid is "isited
that night by a youn ( man who is in lo"e with her# and what betides them.
!lfredTennyson(-?D.1./) was a popular poet in both &ngland and the Tnited*tates. 7ne of
his most often read poems still is OThe %harge of the 4ight rigade#O which he wrote after
reading in ;he ;imes about a heroic ca"alry charge at alacla"a during the %rimean $ar in
which three quarters of the six hundred ca"alrymen were killed or captured by the ,ussians
who defended the position.
!nother example of expatriate &nglish writers were the poets ,obert rowning (-?-/1?.)
and &li(abeth rowning (-?D515-) who were married in -?65 and went to li"e in 'taly. The
fact that both were famous poets# married# and expatriates is sufficient enough material to
pursue. ,obertPs O*oliloquy of the *panish %loisterO and O%hristmas1&"e and &[email protected]
are alluring titles# but hardly material for young &F4 students.
%harles @ickens (- ?-/1BD) is by far one of the most useful authors for &F4 teachers.
&specially popular are his no"els 6avid #opperfield, ,liver ;wist, and -reat 0+pectations,
and his ! #hristmas #arol is still customat >uletide reading for the yourth.
The ronto sisters# %harlotte (-?-51AA)# &mily (-?-?16?) and !nne (-?/D16.)# are interesting
figures. Their father was an 'rishman who was curate of 3aworth# >orkshire. Their mother
died in -?/A# lea"ing them to be cared for by their aunt. They were sent to a %lergy
@aughtersP *chool which# it is belie"ed# pro"ed to be such a harsh place that it impaired their
health and may ha"e hastened the deaths of two elder sisters. The girls grew up reading and
admiring such authors as yron and $alter *cott# and such exotic tales as ;he 'ra!ian
:ights. The harshness of schools and schoolmasters at that time is a sub:ect of interest for
young students# as is the story of three girls who e"entually became famous authors. !nnePs
'gnes -rey was originally published under the pseudonym !cton ell. %harlottePs Hane 0yre
is especially well known because of the 7rson $ells film that was made of it. !nd &milyPs
"uthering Heights was also made into a film in -..6.
4ewis %arroll# whose real name was %harles 4utwidge @odgson# (-?8/1-?.?) is famous for
two books which he wrote especially for children9 'lice in "onderland and ;hrough the
ooking4-lass. 7f the two# perhaps the &F4 teacher will find the former more useful9
%ertainly many of the scenes# such as the rabbit rushing down the hole after consulting his
watch# are quite well known. The story of how %arrol had made up the tale to entertain the
two daughters Lone of whose names was !lice1 of a friend on a boat trip offers possibilities
of capti"ating the attention of the students as well. 3e apparently later created the second tale
specially for !lice.
/oald 6ahl K<A=D4<AA<$ wrote some of the most popular novels for children in recent years*
#harlie and the #hocolate )actory, ;he "iiches, -remlins, and a many others. !s a boy he
was educated in &nglish boarding schools# and many of his no"els reflect the many
unpleasant experiences he had there.
(.I. A%7&2' an" %!=%' #2&+ %7! Un$%!" S%a%!'
Though it did ha"e a few high spots in the early years of the ,epublic# The Tnited *tates
had no flourishing literature of its own until the middle of the -.th1cent. 't is a good idea for
&F4 teachers who are non1nati"e speakers to familiari(e themsel"es with !merican authors
and their works in order to better understand the culture and the language that !mericans use.
Though students can hardly be expected to read these authors themsel"es# the teacher can
help them to appreciate the literature# in the hope that at some time in the future they will
read the texts on their own. %ertainly :ust talking about any one of the following authors and
the time and place they li"ed would pro"ide ample moti"ating material for &F4 class
$ashington 'r"ing (-B?81-?A.)# a =ew >orker# published his well known tale O,ip Van
$inkleO in -?/D. Th5 still often told story is about a man who falls asleep on a mountain and
wakes up many years later to find that the colonies ha"e become a republic. The tale offers
many possibilities of comparing life in the T.*. before and after the @eclaration of
=athaniel 3awthorne (-?D61-?56) was a from =ew &ngland +uritan stock. 3is stories and
no"els depict some of the harshest realities of +uritanism and its effect on people. !side
from his well known no"els ;he %carlet etter and ;he House of the %even -a!les, he also
wrote some works for children# such as ! "onder Book and ;anglewood ;ales. 3is short
story O>oung Noodman rownO is an intriguing tale of how a man meets a demon in the
forest who in"ites him to a party.
&dgar !llan +oe (-?D.1-?6.) was from oston# <assachusetts# but he spent fi"e years in a
primary school in &ngland. 3is ;ales of the -rotesque and 'ra!esque includes one of his
most famous stories# OThe Fall of the 3ouse of Tsher#O a Nothic tale in which the narrator
"isits a childhood friend in his decayed old mansion. !dditionally# his poem OThe ,a"enO is
still popular.
3erman <el"ille (-?-.1-?.-) was friends with =athaniel 3awthorne. !s a boy# <el"ille
sailed to 4i"erpool# found work on a whaler bound for the *outh *eas# :umped ship and
:oined the T* =a"y# ser"ing for three years. From his experience on the high seas he wrote
his famous no"el &o!y46ick, about an obsessed captain in relentless pursuit of a great white
whale. Billy Budd, )oretopman is about a sailor who is abused by an officer whom he strikes
dead in a fit of anger and is hanged for it. ! well known short story is Oartleby the
*cri"enerO# about a law1copyist who decides to mo"e into the office where he works in the
$all *treet district of <anhattan# and his bossPs repeated and unsuccessful efforts to get him
to lea"e. 't is a good story for discussing how scri"eners used to copy e"erything by hand#
and what $all *treet was like then and what it is like now.
<ark Twain (-?8A1-.-D) was *amuel 4anghome %lemensP pseudonym. 3is years growing
up on the banks of the <ississippi ri"er and later as a pilot on the ri"er were recreated in his
two most famous no"els ;om %awyer1about the antics of Tom in a small town1 and
Huckle!erry Finn1about the orphan 3uck and his excursion down the <ississippi with an
escaped sla"e. ;he .rince and .auper narrates how a prince changes places with a beggar.
! #onnecticut 7ankee in @ing 'rthur #ourt is perhaps one of his most imaginati"e works#
telling of how a >ankee businessman is clubbed o"er the head by his factory workers and
comes to in during King !rthurPs legendary reign in early medie"al &ngland. The no"el can
introduce a comparison of medie"al life to what life was like in the late -.th1cent. and to
modern life. <ark Twain also wrote some entertaining stories# such as OThe %elebrated
Fumping Frog of %ala"eras %ountyO and OakerPs lue:ay >arnO.
ret 3arte (-?851-.D/) wrote a good many stories about life in the !merican $est.
OTennesseePs +artnerP. OThe 7utcasts of +oker Flat#O and OThe 4uck of ,oaring %ampO
pro"ide excellent descriptions of what it was like to li"e in the $est. !nd his poem O+lain
4anguage from Truthful Fames#O does honour to a culture that respects directness and
unadorned simplicity.
!mbrose ierce (;-?6/1-.-6) also wrote about the !merican $est. 3e ser"ed in the
!merican %i"il war. 'n 0The oarded $indow2 he narrates what it was like in the area
around %incinnatrti# 7hio in the early -?8Ds# where there is 0an inmense and almost
unbroken forest. The whole reghion was sparsely settled by people of the frontier Lrstless
souls[ (*tegner -.AB9 -A6).2
3enry Fames (- ?681-.-5) came from a rich family and was therefore able to tra"el a great
deal and to study in 4ondon# +aris# and Nene"a. !s a young man he felt more at home
among the &uropean upper class society and thus settled in &urope in -?BA. 3is writings are
a blending of !merican and &uropean world "iews9 3is no"el 6aisy &iller is a mar"elous
example of the impact of !merican "er"e on &uropean staidness. @aisy is an energetic and
freespirited young !merican whom the narrator# an !merican who has spent most of his life
li"ing on the %ontinent and# as such# is more &uropean than !merican# becomes attracted to.
ut because he is inhibited by manners and con"ention# he cannot get close to her. @aisy
scandali(es the members of Orespectable societyO with her uninhibited language and
beha"iour. 7ther well1known no"els of his include "ashington %quare, ;he Bostonians, and
.ortrait oflady.
7. 3enry (-?5/1-.-D)# pseudonym of $illiam *ydney# famous for his amusing short
stories which he began writing when he was in prison. OThe ,ansom of ,ed %hiefP is about
the kidnapping of a child who causes his kidnappers so much trouble that they are willing to
throw away the ransom :ust to get rid of him. OThe Nift of the <agiO narrates how a woman
sells her hair to buy her husband a watch chain and how he sells his watch to buy her a set of
combs for %hristmas. OThe 4ast 4eaf relates how a young lady# bedridden with pneumonia#
is con"inced that she will die when the lea"es fall from the trees. 3er neighbour paints lea"es
on her window# thus keeping her ali"e.
&dith $harton (- ?5/1-.8 B) was a close friend of 3enry Fames. !nd like him# she wrote
about. !mericans in &urope. O,oman Fe"erO tells of two elderly !merican ladies in ,ome
recalling an incident that happened to them in# that "ery city when they were young.
*tephen %rane (- ?B-1-.DD) became famous at the age of twenty1four with his no"el ;he /ed
Badge of #ourage about a young soldier in battle during the !merican %i"il $ar. 3e was a
:ournalist and he wrote about the *panish1!merican $ar of -?... 3e had tremendously
promising career ahead of him when# on "isit to Nermany# he died of tuberculosis.
*herwood !nderson (-?B51-.6-) was famous for "ines!urg, ,hio, a collection of short
stories about life in a small town. ;ar* ' &idwest #hildhood is semi1autobiographical.
Fames Thurber (-?.61-.5-) his humorous short stories# written for the maga(ine ;he :ew
7orker of life in OmiddleO !merica were "ery popular. 3is short story OThe *ecret 4ife of
$alter <ittyO is still customary reading.
$illiam Faulker (-?.B1-.5/)# though a difficult no"elist for many# wrote a great deal from
the perspecti"e of a boy9 ;he %ound and the )ury, 's I ay 6ying, and O$asO in -o 6own
&oses. ! southerner from the state of <ississippi# he ser"ed with the %anadian !ir Force in
the First $orld $ar because he was not accepted in the T* !ir Force. 3is books narrate life
in the OdeepO south. 3e won the =oble +ri(e in -.AD. F. lotnerPs biography of him# as
recently translated and published in *pain. ! reading of his childhood would gi"e the teacher
a great deal of information about what growing up in the *outh was like. -o 6own &oses
tells of a boyPs friendship with an indian and his hunting a bear for the first time. !nd O$asO
narrates in humorous terms an incident that occurred when a sla"e runs off to "isit his
girlfriend on a nearby plantation. 7ne of the main characters in 's I ay 6ying narrates how
his dead mother is transported in a wagon to a family burial ground in another county.
Fohn *teinbeck was from %alifornia. <ost of his no"els and stories deal with the state. ;he
-rapes of "rath is about a family# the Fodes# which has been forced off its land during the
depression and tries to get to reach *tate %alifomia is full of immigrants who had to lea"e
their <idwestern homes as a result of the Nreat @epresion. There are children in the family
and parts would certainly interest young people. , f&ice and &en is also useful for teahers#
since one of the characters is a "ery large man who# in reality# is a big kid. OThe +earlO is a
"ery good short story to consider for &F4. 3e won the =oble +ri(e in -.5/.
&. 3emingway (- ?..1-.5 -) is particularly useful to the &F4 teacher for his close
connection with *pain in the -.8Ds. ;he %un !lso /ises, )iesta, and )or "hom the Bell ;olls
are directly about *pain. ;he ,ld &an and the %ea is about a %uban fiisherman who catches
an enormous fish hePll ne"er manage to bring to port# and nobody belie"es him. 3e won toe
=obel +ri(e in -.A6.
F. @. *alinger (-.-.1) is still popular among young readers for his no"el ;he #atcher in
the rye (-.A-) about an adolescent who runs from a boarding school in a small town to =ew
>ork %ity. !nd )ranny and \ooey (-.5-) # who is also about two adolescents# a brother and
a sister# members of an eccentric family.
Two !fro1!merican writers in particular offer material that can be of interest. !lice
$alkerPs no"el ;he #olor .urple was made into a film. 't is an excellent story about the life
of an !fro1!merican woman in the *outh. 't is specially useful for the many parts it has that
in"ol"e children. !nd Toni <orrison# who :ust recently won the =o"el +ri(e of 4iterature#
writes excellent stories about !fro1!mericans. 3er no"el Beloved, which won the +ulit(er
+ri(e in -.??# has some good scenes in"ol"ing adolescent girls.
!,!<*# <. 3.# ed.9 (-..8). ;he :orton anthology of 0nglish literature. 4ondon9 $. $.
=orton. %T,,&=T1N!,%F!# &. and +. $!4T7=# ,.9 (- AC=$. 'merican short stories. 6th
ed. 4ondon9 *cott# Foresman and %ompany.
@!K'=# F.9 (-.?B). %ongs and rhymes for the teaching of 0nglish. 3arlow9 4ongman.
@,!4&# <. and *T,'=N&,# F. eds.9 (-..D). ;he #oncise ,+ford #ompanion to
0nglish literature. 7xford9 7xford Tni". +ress.
*!<+*7=# N.9 (-.BD). ;he #oncise #am!ridge History of 0ngllish iterature. 8rd ed.# re".
and enl. by ,. %. %ambridge9 %ambridge Tni"ersity +ress.
$&44147V&@ T!4&* *&,'&*. (-.B6). 4oughborough. 4adybird ooks.
8rd cycle (5th grade)
7ne week# in !pril# to be finished by the day dedicated to the childrenPs book.
8.-. G!n!2a1
1 To read and comprehend short texts (=arrati"e form)
1 To produce a short written text gi"ing information
8./. S-!)$#$)
: ,ecogni(e the importance of reading habits
: 'mpro"e reading skills in the foreign language 1 4earn about the literature written in the
foreign language.
The methodology used should be suitable to a communicati"e approach to teaching &nglish
as a foreign language. That is# taking into consideration the age# ability and needs of the
students# as well as the criteria specified in the o"erall ob:ecti"es of the course# the &F4
teacher should apply learning strategies which are based on learning by doing# i.e.# task
oriented strategies. The tasks required elicit a participati"e attitude on the part of the learners
and a guiding role on the part of the teacher. !dditionally# the teacher should help the
students to learn both to think and to do in the target language.
1 "ocabulary9 words related to literature (authorE different genres etc.)
1 phonological aspects9 the pronunciation of the names of the authors worked.
1 grammar structures9 Q-ulliverQs ;ravels by[ E't is the story of[ EF. *wift was born in[
and died in [
1 group work
1 note taking
1 in"estigation in the 4ibrary.
%ociological aspects.
1 cross curricular acti"ities interactio"n
5.-. The Teacher (T) brings se"eral graded books tc the class and checks# how many
authors are known by students and starts the 8"eek of ;ravels around 0nglish
iterature _ (ONulli"er’s Tra"els2).
L.(. (T) di"ides students in groups of four and gi"es each group an assignment9 a
research pro:ect on an author and his or her books.
L.*. &ach group decides on its own class pro:ect which is to be finished by the end of
the week
L. 4. (T) helps students with the# bringirig all the materials from the resource1
room need (books# maga(ines# slides# postcards# mo"ies# music# etc.)
L.I. &ach group will be gi"en a big piece of butcher paper where they can stick their
L.L ! class field trip to the local 4ibrary# to look for translations of the authors
L.G. Nuided readings of famous stories so the students will be able to write short
sentences informing about some data (name of the author) place and date of birth)
names of the most well known books9 what is the story about and famous
The materials ha"e already been mentioned.
&ach group exposes its work to the rest of the class9 they may paste the information (texts#
photocopies# drawings) on the wall paper and perform something about it9 ,ead aloud) sing a
song) read a poem) perform a skit# etc.
(!ccording to Theme =p -6.)
1. Ìntroduction
Before analysing the literary periods,authors or genres more
suitable for their application and use in English class it´s necessary to study the
student body´s needs, their preferences and expectations in facing and English
class first.
The pupil of this age always desires inmediate results. Ìt is possible
that they will go out being able to speak something in this language ,being anxious to
show what he has learnt ,without worring about mistakes and he´ll be prepared to
use this language according to his needs,experimenting with sounds and words or
using ,gestures.Therefore it is easier to acquire a language by being expposed to it
than learning a series of rulers which involve a series of complicated mechanisms of
the language.
Other characteristic of this stage is restlessness
We shoould desing activities:
-Which can keep their attention - an overlong activity leads to boredoom
-and understandable to the pupil .They should be near the reality of the pupil
which will facilitate starting mechanisms of expression.
Literature would suppose a good way of approaching these interests and it
would give an inexhaustible soource of resources to satisfy the pupil´s needs of this
Before analysing periods,authors or genres we have thought about pupils´
underlying needds in the classroom .Now wwe have to decide the linguistic and
extralinguistic characteristics of thr text which will allow us to use it to develop the
basic aims.
The emotional factor plays a main role in everything we do,read think or say ,
and literature transposes us to all kind of real or imaginative situations ,and it close
us to all kinds of characteres -reallistic or fictional- and seeing ourselves reflected in
situation bring us close to literature .Ìf the literature is in a foreing language in a
pleasant form.
The vocabulary should be contextualise and should be a kind of language
easy to imitate:by rhythm or by intonation, it has to have frequent repetitions ,and it
also has to be composed of words which can be used in a natural form in the
organitation of the class, in games ,...which suggests that it has to be presented in
simple sintactic structures.
Lastly , if pupils can anticipate what comes next,they will have more
confidence, because their problems of comprehension will be reduced ,which helps
them to learn with less effort.
According to what has been stated above the traditional tales ,fairy
tales,picture stories,nursery rhymes,jokes,modern or traditional songs and limericks
are considered as Literary Genres more ssuitable to the pupilss of this stage.
Normally ,we can take texts (oral or written )from popular tradition so
the text is as important or more than the authors,especially in the case of the
traditional tales,which are -in most cases-compilattions of tales and oral traditions
which have been translated to the different european languages
The tales
The use of the tale offers an ideal system of introduction to foreing language
and culture and it creates a possitive atmosphere so that the pupil wants to carry on
Ìn the psychological field ,the tales exercise the imagination and they offer an
inexhaustible source of experiences and emotions and if the tales are related by the
teacher ,they offer a collective experience of feelings,laughter,sadness...,which
makes the pupil feel integrated in the group ,develop self-confidence and mature
emotionally and socially.
One of the characteristics of tales is the natural repetition of certain elements
of vocabulary, if they are narrated in class .the intonation ,the sense of the rhythm
and the possibility that pupils want tohear the whole story again,this allows the
teacher to use these resources to get a larger number of repetitions of certain
elements of interest without the problem of saturation of the student body.
Respecting the narration of the tales we have the dilemma of the teacher as
narrator or the use of the cassette .The latter has some advantages such as
music,however,the teacher can give to his narration the human factor ,and the
pronuntiation and the intonation can be improved through recordings.Teacher as
narrator facilitates the intervention of pupils with questions when they have not
understood something ,the repetition of fragments which they have not understood
or the slowing down of the narration when it is necessary.
Respecting the suitability of adapting tales in class ,for children from eight
years old, we should thinK of the techniques which are used when tales are
narrated for the first time and howthe narration developes slowly.One of the
characteristic of tales is that they can be narrated in a thousand different ways,which
facilitates the adaptation of the same tale to different levels .The tale is a flexible tool
in our hands.
Ìf we think of tales as reading instead of as narration ,there is a wide range of
tales for English -speaking children of these ages,in addition to a series of simplified
versions directed at children who are learninig Engllish as a Second Language.
Normally ,we consider that the former are better than the latter ,especially
because of the ilustrations done by drawers ,which gives a greater degree of
satisfaccion in the reading .A careful selection of the texts for the E-class in relation
to vocabulary ,structures and themes of interest could permit that the tales which are
read in class are the same that Englissh children read at this age .
As for the most suitable works ,there is a great varieety ,from the traditional
tales (Little Red Riding ood! "uss in Boots or other tales from "errault# to the most
modern tales,in which their protagonistscan be animals -which are good for snowing
the daily llife of children (The tale of "eter Ra$$it%$& Beatri' "otter % and (hose
contexts are as British as the language itself )-or the heroes can be personages of
daily life ("ostman "at# or familliar elements of our modern civilization (Thomas % the
Tan) Engine#.Excepting the series by Beatrix Potter ,which needs be adapted ,either
Thomas ,the tank Engine, or Postman Pat in original version,with a suitable
guide woould be easily accesible to children from eight years old.
We should not forget famous authors ,whose novels and short stories
althought not intended for children ,can be adapted .
-Gulliver´s Travels by Jonathan Swift
-Huckleberry Finnby Mark Twain
- A Christmas Carrol by Dickens
-Alice´s adventures in Wonderland and Alice through the looking -glass by
Lewis Carrol.
And even authors who are not British ,such as
-Julies Verne :Journey to they centre of the Earth
-Fairy tales in which the conventions of the same are parodied .Ex.
The Rose and the Ring $& Thomas Thac)era& .
*+chool stories ,such a Tom Brown´s Schooldays by Thomas Hughes.
-Family sagas ,such as Little ,omen $& -lcott.
-Of animals : Blac) Beaut& $& +e(ell.
-Of adventures ,such as Treasure Island and King +alomon.s Mines$&
aggard or the /ungle Boo)s $& Ki0ling .
The concept of children´s Literature as fun wasn´t a cultivated genre until the
end of the XÌX century Children´s Literature before was Literature with didactic
end.Books for adults, ex. Ae sop´s fables,were a resource to try to amuse children
through Literature .Ìn the XVÌÌÌ century with Locke and Rousseau Books for the
entertainment of children appear ,which begin to abandone the didactic intention .
Ìt is in 1883 when the first adventure book without dictatic intention
appears :Treasure Island.
Ìn the first book of a series of ilustrated tales appears :Little Blac) +am$o $&
elen Banner,who next to Beatrix Potter was a milestone in reference to the
importance of ilustrations in tales for children.
Ìn the beginning of our century there appear various authors and tittles which
today are considered classics of modern children´s Literature and have been
adapted for television, such as:
The ,ind in the ,illo(s by Grahame ,The +ecret Garden by Burnett,Martin
"i00in in the -00le Orchard by Farjeon ,Winnie-The "ooh by Milne and finally in
1937 the fantastic genre emerges with the aparition of The o$$it by Tolkien.
From the decade of the 50 ´s, the importance given to Children´s Literature
foments the appaerance of a great industry and the clear definition of concepts such
as Literature for Children and the distintion between Literature for boys and for girls.
Children´s pleasures of today have changed ,however ,the tales of fantastic
or ecologic themes like especially.
Among the authors of oour days ,who have had special aceptation among
the child´s public because of the themes which they treat is ROALD DAHL,,an
authentic master of the short story :
-1harlie and the 1hocolate 2actor&
-The Magic finger
-Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator
-The wonderful story of Henry Sugar and Sisx more.
All these are stories of modernthemes .The narration is quick and attractive
.The cultural variety that they show is atractive .
Ìn our hands is to do the adecquated adaptations for that their application is
N.R.have some characteristics of the tales :
-Use of exclamations and linguistic elements of dayly use ,which is a very rich
resource in the class .
-They have musicality , too.
-Strong rhythm.
-They introduce -the same as the tales-cultural elements ,such as
foods,timetables ,animals ,..
-Repetitive use of words and structures .But N.R.have adifferent
charactheristic:brevity ,which increases the proportion of repetition.
Classic Examples:Twinkle, Twinkle,Little Star.
The use of this genre in a language class gives the opportunity to learners to
move in class ,because it can include activities such as jumping or dancing .When
there´re problems of space,those ones which involve playing with hands can be
used:¨Two little monkeys fighting in bed (use two fingers),one fell out and hurt his
head (the hand on the head),the other called the doctor (telephoning),and said the
doctor (open and close the hand),that´s what you get for fightingin bed¨(move a
Rhymes that accompany games can also be selected aand they can be used
in the school:
"Teddy Bear,touch the ground,
tum around,
walk upstairs,
turn out the light,
say goodnight¨.
The reduced vocabulary that they use,the repetition,the rhythm and the
intonation permit learners to learn them quickly.
Ìt is a popular genre ,although it has been cultivated by prestigious writters:in
the early XVÌÌÌ century Divine songs for children by Watts,was published.Ìn this
time ,the first collections of N.R were also published, and in18O4 appeared original
Poems for Ìnfant Minds by Ann and Jane Taylor ,which includes Twinkle ,Twinkle
,little star.
Ìn 1942 The Pied Piper of Hamelin by Robert Browing was published .
Ìn1846 A book of Nonsense by Edward Lear appears and in 1885 Stevenson
publishes A Child´s Garden of Verses.
Ìn our century A.A Milne,Robert Graves...stand out
Ridles are an universal genre too .Their characteristic are -as in N.R.-
the following:
-Brevity and intonation and rhythm very marked .
Ex:¨Ì´m a very big animal
you see at the zoo.
Ì´ve a very nice trunk
Ìcan squirt water through¨
Limercks are funny five -line stanzas whose popular origin had place in
the festive meetings , in which every fellow dinner had to recite or sing a poem
,which are called "nonsense verse¨ following line :Will you come up
to Limerick?.
The first Limericks collected in a volume appear in the History of Sixteen
Wonderful Women in 1820.
Ìn the book Book of Nonsense by Edward Lear appear examples too.
Ìn the compositions by Lear and Rossety, the first and last line usually use to
finish with the same word ,hoewer ,in more modern examples a third word which
rhymes is added :
"There once was a man who said :¨ god
Must think it exceedingly odd
Ìf he finds that this tree
continues to be
when there is no-one about in the Quad¨.
Most Limericks are anonyms, given their popular origen .
This genre is very useful for the pronunciation of several sounds which
present difficulties such asthe different tiation between/i:/and /i/.
"There once was a man from Darjeeling who travelled from London t Ealing .
When it said on the the door:
"Please don´t spit on the fllor "
¨The carefully spat on the ceiling¨.
antes de - before analysing
alumnado- student body
analizar - previous to analyse
enfrentarse a una clase de inglés por primera vez -Ìn facing an english class
ansioso -anxious
preocuparse- worry
por esto -there fore
actitud demasiado larga -an overlong act,
conducir (llevar)-lead
aburrimiento -boredoom
comprensible -understanble
puesta en marcha -starting
transportar -transpose
imaginarias-imaginative fictional
acercar-bring close
por último -lastly
a continuación -finally,next
confianza -confidence
de acuerdo conlo expuesto anteriormente-accordingto what has been stated
continuar -carry on
ejercitar -exercise
caudal -source
confianza en si mismo -self confidence
madurar -mature
narrar -narrate
saturación -saturation
repecto a -respecting
dilema -dilema
el 1_...el 2_ -the former,the latter
fidelidad -fidelity
fragmentos -fragments
ralentización-slowing down
pensar en -think of
de mil maneras -in a thoousand different ways
dirigir a -direct at
en cuanto a -as for
obras (novelas)-works
cotidiana -daily
sagas familiares-family sagas
literatura Ìnfantil-Children´s Literature
divertimento -fun
abandonar -abandone
junto con-next to
fábulas de Esopo-Aesop´s fables
al principio-in the beginning
aparición -appearance
gustos -pleasures
público infantil -Child´s Public
maestro - master(no de escuela ,maestro en su género)
narración corta -short story
musicalidad -musicality
destacar-stand out
quintillas -five line stanzas
origen -origin
reuniones festivas-festive meetings
comensal -fellow diner
recitar -to recite
estribillo- refrain
surgir -come up
a principios de siglo-in the early century ?
Cercano a -near
acercarnos -bring us close ,close us
tanto..como...-neither...or -neither ...or
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!his unit will deal with the most popular works in different periods and
differents authors and genres of children literature, and with different types of
story books or children. We will finish with a conclusion and the bibliography
+efore the 09th c. &hildren could read books like AesopQs Fables, romances,
travel books, chapbooks, boardside balladsR, for e,ample, +unyanQs RpilgrimQs
<rogress >0689 ? , $efoeQs "obinson &rusoe >080:? and .wiftQs BullivesrQs
!ravels. !hey were books written for adults. It was not until the middle or the
century !hat books were specially written for chiuldren . > Although in
France it was a little better, children had books such as <erraultQs Fairy tales, so
popular > or !he Arabian ights ? translated to Anglish in early 09th c. ?
!here was a demand for childrenQs books and @ohn ewbery, a book seller of
works illustrated by woodwoodcuts and engravings ?, reali7ed it and he published
works such as A little <retty <ocket)+ook and the /istory of Cittle Boody two
> !here were some of whose books imitations ? but, it was in the letter half of
the 09th c. When works in juvenile literature appeaared. Iwown works like !he
/istory os sandford and *erton by !homas $ay, Fabolous /istories by .arah
!rimment, Avenings at /ome by @ohn Aikin and *rs +arbauld, !he <arentsQs
Assistant, by *aria Adgeworth > !he novelist ? And in the 0:thc. , &harles and
*ary Camb wrote !ales from .hakespeare.
!he history of verse written for children is =uite brief. !he first identifiable
childrenQs poet was probably Watts, whose memorable jingles, $ivine .ongs for
&hildren, were popular from the early 09th c >0805 ? . Also, at about this time,
collections or nursery rhymes began to appear, highghiting Ann and @ane !aylor,
whose first book, #riginal <oems for infant *inds > !winklem twinkle little star
included ? was very successful .
0. <A"I#$., A%!/#". A$ BA"A.
A? <A"I#$. A$ A%!/#".
Including Citerature in the FC teaching contributes to the studentsQ general
knowledge and their intellectual, social and moral development as well as of its
appeal to the emotions. A,tensive reading provides the possibility of
internali7ing the language and reinforcing points previously learned vocabulary
and structures are registred and learned without conscious attention as well as
concepts are reinforced by their discovery in a different conte,t, and
motivation probably the most important, coming from the students enjoyment
when reading > it gave pleasure by engaging the emotions?
And Citerature is suitable for our pupils because they are familiari7ed with fairy
tales, songs, rhymes, riddles...>mainly in their first language?
!he students have certain characteristics that help them to ac=uire a C. +y the
e,posure to it, like in the case of reading . !hese are the fact that short age
pupils need demand immediate results to see their progress, so activities must
be short and attractive changing often to another one. !hey e,press their
feelings or ideas less inhibitidly than adults, they donQt mind mistakes, of what
teachers must take advantages- and they always have e,pectations about the
Anglish class, they like showing what they have learned.
Foreign learners, to internali7e the grammar and work out the meaning of words
from their conte,t, must have sufficient authentic and understandable material
to work from > Irasen ) comprehensible input ?. "eading most suitable te,ts for
our pupils. For this, we must bear in mind aspects such as the studentsQ needs
and abilities, that is to say their interest, age, level, rhythm of learning and
their previous e,pectations about the FC class- the linguistic and stylistic level
of the te,t, that is vocabulary, about what we must try the language to be clear,
graded and with repetitions and the te,t must allow the pupils to make
predictions > about what comes ne,t ? using their background and e,pectations
&ertain our attention on the most popular works and authors we will
destinguish some periods. As well have said, in the 08th century literature was
written for adults >although read by children as well ? being so known works like
"obison &rusoe, by $aniel $efoe and BulliverQs !ravels, by @ohnattan .wift. In
the 09th century began to appear some works written for choldren, such as !he
/istory of .andford and *arter by !homas $ay, or series or short and
attractive books called Bigantic /istories by !homas +oreman, apart from
rhymes and fairy tales. +ut it was the 0:
century when &hildren Qs Citerature
appeared as a genre. %ntil then , it didntQs seen necessary to create a literature
specially for children, and it wasnQt economically advisable. +ut, with mass
education appearance a large market was created , permitting the possibility of
distributing books for children.

In this period, we can highlight famous authors like +rothers Brimm, who
wrote Berman <opular .tories or /.&andersen, who wrote "airy !ales and
.tories. About adventures books for boys the first one, .teverson. !he most
famous writers or childrenQs stories were Cewis &arroll, who wrote AliceQs
Adventures in wonderland and It was the +est +utter and +eatri, <otter, who
wrote !he !ales of <etter "abbit and !ailor of Bloucester. Also , we must
mention #scar Wilde who, althoug h Irish wrote in Anglish his best works are
some like the /appy <rince and the &anterville Bhost. And within non Anglish
literature there are famous writers such as Couisa * Al cott and her Cittle
Women , Adventures of !om .awyer and Adventures or /uckleberry Finn by
*ark !wain, /eidi , by @ohanna .pry or Anne of Breen Bables by
C.*.*ontgomery. Finally, in the 2Sth century we find different sorts of works.
We can mention fairy tales that have become classic such as <eter <an by @.T*
+arries, !he @ungle +ook by "udyard Iipling , !he Cord of the "ings, by @."
!olkien. In this period many others authors have become popular. !hatQs the
case of the previously named &... Cewis , who apart from his sciencies)fiction
novels wrote the arnia series- "aymond +reggs who wrote @im and +eantalk ,
"ather &hristmas , and !he .nowman- "oald $ahl, who dealt with many
interesting topics, specially for children in books like @ames and the Biant <each,
&harlie and the chocolate Factory and many others.
.ince the middle of 2;th c. Citerature, specially &hildrenQs literature has
become a publishing industry And it has paid attention to aspects like racism
apart from differentiating age groups or attending the se,.
And different pri7e awards have been created, such as the ewbery *edal.
!raditional books are still popular among children,however childrenUs likes have
changed. !oday they prefer fantastic books, science fiction and ecological ones.
Also, in this century comics have a great relevance. &omics appeared at the end
of the 0:
century., like for e,ample 'Ally .loperUs /alf /oliday(.
+? BA"A.
!here e,ist many types > genres ? of literature for children. We will describe
some of them.
<robably, one of the most relevant is tales. !hey provide the possibility of
repeating words and structures, helping children reinforce aspects of the
language and concepts. !hey give clues helping them to predict about the content
of the te,t. !ales use argumentative techni=ues and language suitable for
children. !hey normally transmit moral values and approach the pupils to the
culture of the language speaking community.
We can find different types:
1 Fairy tales . suitable for children in the age of : or 0; like "apun7el
1 AnimalUs stories and fables : in which the characters are animals
1 Fantanstic literature of !ravelUs and adventures : normally from legends
A genre with some characteristic similar to tales, is nursery rhymes. !he main
difference is that they are short, what avoid the pupils get bored because they
donUt have to pay attention for a long time.
"hymes introduce e,clamations, many repetitions of words and structures,
helping children to establish vocabulary, intonation, stress, pronunciation, new
structures and also cultural elements and concepts.
!his genre of literature permit different ways of e,plotation. ItUs possible to
introduce activities in which pupils move or play games. !hey are short and
simple., so the pupils learn =uickly.
As another genre, riddle is an ancient and universal form of literature, with a
certain and common structure and intonation known by children. ItUs a kind of
pu77le =uestion, an enigma. !he earliest known Anglish riddles were recorded in
the A,eter book in the 09
century. .hort or with many lines of verse, we find
collections of riddles in many differents languages. !ogether to nursery rhymes,
riddles are short and they have stressed intonation, what make them be useful
to be used in the foreign language class.
Another genre is constituted by limericks, a light verse and with a popular fi,ed
verse form in Anglish. !hey are usually conformed by five lines. !he name comes
from the old Anglish. !he majority of them are anonymous because they have a
popular origin. !his form of verse is useful to practise pronunciation.
As a last genre , we will comment on songs. It is an important resource to use in
the foreign language class, because the pupils learn with enjoyment. .ongs help
in the learning of vocabulary, pronunciation, structure and sentence patterns,
specially because of repetitions. Also they give clues about the target language
community. .o, the didactic application of songs is very useful, but we must avoid
overusing them. And we must select songs clear, well recorded and easy to sing.
When selecting a work of literature we must bear in mind that we want our pupils
to engage interactively with the te,t, the classmates, and with us, the teachers.
!o reach this we must follow these guidelines:
0. !he te,t itself, and not the information about it , is of central importance.
2. #ur pupils must genuinely interact with the te,t, their classmates and the
teacher and not be mere recipients
1. #ur activities must be design so as to enable our pupils to share their
personal e,periences, perceptions and opinions.
4. #ur activities must be varied and interesting. $uff and *aley give a list of
general procedures that we can use in our classrooms:
1 reconstruction
1 reduction
1 e,pansion
1 replacement
1 matching
1 media transfer
1 selection
1 ranking
1 comparison
1 analy7ing
5. !he selection of works of literature must be based on their potencial interest
for our pupils and not in the literary =ualities of the works.
2.!AK! !G<#C#BIA.

We can find authentic books or non)authentic ones.
Among non)authentic storybooks, we can distinguish between artificial,
illustrating particular language points presentation and simulated authentic.
#ur pupils arenUt able to handle authentic te,ts, so they must begin manipulating
and practising with simulated authentic ones, developing the necessary skills to
read authentic te,ts later.
According to Allis and +rewster, storybooks can be classified under three
)arrative features
arrative features will allow us to distinguish between storybooks of the
following types
0. rhyming words
2. repeating structures
1. cumulative content and language
4. interactive
5. humorous
According to content they ca be divided into :
0. everyday life
2. animal stories
1. traditionalFfolkFfairy tales
4. fantasy
From layout point of view we can distinguish between:
0. flab
2. cut)away pages
1. minimal te,t
4. no te,t
5. speech bubles
When selecting foreign language te,ts, we must pay attention to vocabulary,
structures and interesting topics. Apart from that, with this kind of books, the
pupils get in tough with the cultural background of the country in which the
target language is spoken. Allis and +"Awster anali7e the criteria for selecting
eeds and abilities:
0. &ontentFsubject matter:
• interesting
• amusing
• memorable
• relevant
2. Hisual:
• use of illustrations
• si7e
• target language
• attractiveFcolourful
1. Ancourage participation
• repetition
• develop memory
• prediction
• build confidence
4. *otivating
• relate to their e,periences and
5. Arouse curiosity
• interest in to know more about Anglish
language and culture
6. &reate positive attitudes
• target language
• language training
• target culture

!o introduce books in the foreign language classroom, a small library may be
created. !he books would be classified according to difficulty level or other
aspects. !he teacher or the pupils themselves would choose the same or
different books according to the level, interests...
Aven a listening corner could be created, to listen to stories by cassettes or told
by the teacher.
Also it is interesting teachers adapt tales for different purpose, giving way to
many possibilities of e,plotation.
+ut when adapting a story we canUt simplified too much because our pupils could
lose the flavour of real stories, so Allis and +rewster give a guidelines to follow:
Aspects to consider
D Hocabulary and general meaning
0. &heck unfamiliar content or words
5. &heck idioms
6. &heck clarity
D Brammar
0. &heck tenses
2. &heck use of structures
1. &heck word order
D #rgani7ation of ideas
0. &heck sentences length and comple,ity
2. &heck time references
1. &heck the way ideas are linked
4. &heck the way the ideas are e,plained
D .tory length
0. &heck the number of ideas in the story.
+y following the previous criteria of selection and use of storybooks we will
intend to make the most of literature on the classroom
5. &#&C%.I#
As we have seen, books and stories have e,isted for centuries. !he most
characteristic aspect of them is their special way of enjoyment- also we can
learn different sorts of concepts and knowledge though reading books. .o
literature is a useful resource to learn a foreign language, to ac=uire it without
paying conscious attention to the learning other the language.
We can use different genres of literature in the foreign language class, since a
nursery rhyme or a riddle to a song or books narrating longer stories. +ut, what
is really important is to bear in mind aspects such as the vocabulary used,
sentence pattern, the topic..., to select a book or story. !hey must be suitable
for our pupils.
6. +I+CI#B"A</G
/ICC: %sing literature in language teaching. *ac*illan .Condon. 0:96
Allis,B. And +rewster,@. : !he storytelling handbook for primary
teachers.<enguin.Condon, 0::0
$uff,A. And *aley,A. : literature.#%<.#,ford, 0::;

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Children's literature has certain particular features which, apart from the
author's inspiration, are what make it more attractive and interesting for children,
namely: it is a free and happy activity, contains imaginative elements, reflects inner
grievances suffered by the child, uses argumentative techniques and language suited
to children, has a most intuitive presentation, appeals to feelings, affectivity, transmits
moral values, conveys serenity and balance on the part of the author, has expository
clarity and is interesting.
Ìn children's literature, children's folklore can also be included, which is a form
of literature that has been passed on by word of mouth. Carmen BravoVillasante
states that an aesthetic education using folklore enhances sensitivity. Children who
are not taught by means of songs, stories or poetry are children with poorness of
spirit. Children's literature is an inexhaustible fountain of resources for programming
all sorts of language activities.
The language used in literature differs from the language we ordinarily speak. By
and large, literature and speech use the same language with identical sounds and
grammatical procedures, and however, there is a clear separation between them, a
difference in level. Ìn writing there is always an urge to improve which makes the
writer avoid words, sentences or turns of phrases that are used unscrupulously in
informal speech.
The difference begins from the moment that literature acquires enough
development and prestige to impose a select taste for its language. Ìn certain areas,
the literary inflow raises the tone of average speech; in others, while literary language
barely changes, common speech quickly changes, as it occurred with vulgar Latin.
Literary language broadens and enriches vocabulary and refines subtleties of
meaning with its incessant creative process. Ìt chooses between certain forms of
expression and others, thus contributing to the lastingness of a language; and it
serves to halt tendencies that hasten the development of a language.
* 1larit& is achieved by presenting an idea in such a way that it cannot be
interpreted erroneously; it denotes exactly what the author means to say. The
opposite of clarity is ambiguity or amphibology, a sentence, expression, etc., capable
of double meaning. When amphibology is used intentionally, it is called an
- The 3ualit& of 0ro0riet& occurs when the words that are used are those that are
suitable for what is being expressed. Words are not interchangeable, for there are no
true synonyms.
- Language has expressive vigour when it expresses with representative force
what the writer or speaker means. Ìf the expressive power is so great that what is
stated appears in our imagination, with features of sensitive reality, it is said that
language contains plasticity.
- 4ecorum eliminates all that is deemed uncouth, impolite or indecent.
- 1oncreteness requires complying with the language rules in force. The violation
of syntactic rules is called a solecism.
- armon& is achieved by, when choosing words, attending to their sound quality
and arranging sentences in such a way that the musical elements of the language are
enhanced. The opposite of euphony or pleasant sound is cacophony.
- -$undance lies in the richness and variety of the vocabulary.
- Language is 0ure when words and constructions are used in accordance with
the particular nature of that language, without the use of unnecessary foreign
- Bar$arisms or superfluous foreignisms must be repudiated.
The reaction against foreign influences may lead to the extremes of purism and correction#
which insist upon absolute purity in language# based on the ser"ile imitation of the classics and on
strict correctness# which often sacrifices naturalness and li"eliness.
Children's literature is a branch of the science of books which has been so useful
and charming as any other type of literature.
Children's literature includes many books that adults enjoy reading even when
they do not read them to or with children. The most famous children's book is "Alice's
Adventures in Wonderland¨, and it is read more by adults than children. The same
occurs with "Peter Rabbit¨, one of the books best-known for its humanity.
Ìn the past years, the study of children's literature has regained popularity.
Ìt is one of the most important divisions of children's literature. Ìt contains a similar
proportion of wishes and fears, which creates a balance that keeps the attention of
readers and listeners. Ìt can tell lots of meaningful stories in many different ways.
E,,$*t says that fairy tales are best as bedtime stories for young children, but they
are also valuable for older children.
>*tt,/$5 specifies that they are good for children between the ages of nine and
ten, which is when children are maturing in processes that they are afraid of.
They are the strongest bond between fairy tales and modern children's literature.
Animals are creatures that speak and act like human beings. They are present in
most old and modern children's stories and are the most important source of power in
the best children's literature, a source which other types of literature had abandoned
before the 19th century.
Animals in fairy tales are enchanted and live in a world of human beings, and
human beings play a minor role. Any animal can be used as the enchanted beast in a
fairy tale: a bird in "The Juniper Tree¨, a fox in "The Golden Bird¨, a prince frog, a cat,
a snake in "Countess d'Aulnoy¨. These animals do not wish to be animals and while
they are under a spell, they are the kindest, most patient and civilized of beings.
Modern children's literature contains animal fables and fairy tales. "The Three
Little Pigs¨ and "The Little Red Hen¨ are examples of stories that young children read.
English children's literature shows signs of persistence in writing and reading. Ìn
England, childhood was considered the only stage in life in which it was good to
believe in a world of magic and imagination and talking animals. Children were seen
as beings that were capable of enjoying instinctive sympathy for animals and of
establishing an alliance with them against adult human beings.
There are many famous English writers of children's stories, but the two most
famous ones were Lewis Carroll and Beatrix Potter.
[email protected]$) C#!!*,,, an English writer, was born in 1832 and died in 1898. He is the
best-known author of story books, which are read by children and adults.
3is main works are 0!lice’s ooks2 (the most famous one)# 0There’s Nlory for you2 and 0't was
the best butter2.
>#t!$- P*tt! wrote stories as popular as "Peter Rabbit¨, which everybody has
heard of and which became a film. Others are "Taylor of Gloucester¨ and "The little
mice star: down to spin¨. Ìn the latter, the mice were not humanized, although they did
weave men's coats. Another popular story is "Jemina Puddle¨.
O)(#! W$,& was an Ìrish author who wrote all his works in English and became
one of the best renowned writers in English literature. He is famous for his plays and
his popular theory of beauty. His best collection of stories are "The Shellfish Giant¨
and "The Canterville Ghost¨, which is one of the short stories included in his book
"Lord Arthur Savile's Crime¨.
Knnt/ G!#/#5 understood children's tastes very well and invited them to the
enchanted circus he created. His books "The Golden Age¨ and "Dream Days¨ were
immensely popular among children. The ideal world of this writer seems more
percectible and desirable than the world of Peter Pan.
R.&B#!& K$",$n' is known as the writer from Ìndia, although he never was an
ardent apologist of the presence of the English there. His main works are "The Jungle
Book¨ (1894-95) and "Stories¨ (1902). "The Jungle Book¨ and "Kim¨ are blithe books
about the world of ideas. His most important book is "The Jungle Book¨: it is the most
accomplished expression of Kipling's quality of work.
9. F2an0 9a+# a Nerman1=orth !merican no"elist# was born in Vienna in -?.5 and
died in -.5D. 3e wanted !merican children’s literature to be free of unpleasant incidents. 3e
wrote many children’s books9 0! =ew $onderland2# 0The ook of the 3ambergs2# 03is
ook2# etc.
The fantastic aspect lies within transcendence and imminence, in other word,
between the truth of facts, the correspondence between discourse and reality, and
internal evidence, which makes a story appeals in its own right to the receptive
The term "fantastic¨ means more than reality; it means strangeness or admiration
and it has replaced the terms "formidable¨ and "sensational¨ in common speech. The
"fantastic¨ aspect is not inferred by understanding, but perceived with sensibility in the
same way as what is funny or tragic and is more similar to the cerebral notion of the
supernatural, with affective notions of brightness and sacredness, and also
appreciates what is rejected by science, moral, religion or good taste.
Ìn fantastic literature, any adventure story aims to plunge the reader into
uncertainty; the most dramatic episode is generally saved for the end, thus giving the
enigma its own charm.
Fantastic works are usually stories: a ballad, novel, tale or short story. The short
story is the literary form that is best adapted to fantastic literature, chiefly due to its
origins; it deals with extremely interesting "extraordinary stories¨ and their episodes
predispose the reader to sense that fatality that is inherent in every fantastic
adventure. These adventures do not occur at random and come to nothing, for the
entire intrigue is conceived on the basis of the denouement; the victim-hero of a
fantastic adventure generally finds himself alone under some kind of spell of which he
is very well aware.
The classic fantastic story derives not from stories but from popular legends. The
difference between a story and a legend is owed to the Grimm brothers; in their
opinion, a story is more poetic and a legend is more historical. A story tells
adventures that take place in an indefinite past, in an unspecified place; a legend
relates notable events that took place on a given date, in a given place, to a given
person. A difference in function determines these differences in structure: a story
aims to amuse, a legend aims to express and transmit beliefs. The title of a story is
often the hero's name; the presence of this character alone guarantees the unity of
an account consisting of several episodes: the hero sets off on an adventure with an
open mind and a light heart, facing all sorts of dangers without fear.
L*.$) V#- states that "a fantastic story¨ generally deals with men who are faced
with the inexplicable.
The story always begins with a stable situation and certain features remain intact throughout the
de"elopment of the action. &"ery story# therefore# contains two types of episodes9
1 Those that describe a stage of balance or imbalance.
1 Those that describe the passage from one to another.
The former are contrary to the latter. Sometimes the reader identifies with the
character; then, in turn, he withdraws from reality.
A misadventure of some kind is the main type of plot. These misadventures can
be of different sorts; by and large, towards the end, evil is transformed into good. The
hero continually feels the contradiction between both worlds: the world of reality and
the world of fantasy; and he is overwhelmed by the extraordinary things that surround
As a general rule, a new person is introduced and the action enters a new phase.
Vladimir Propp sees it as an operation of relative rationalization of a myth and the
struggle against it, and its deep unity and great appeal lie beyond its generalized use
as children's stories.
Ìmportant writers, in the English language, of fantastic literature of travels and
Ìn the Tudor era:
S$! P/$,$" SB&nB. He was born in 1554 and died in 1586. He wrote "The Arcadia¨, a
long fantastic story about aristocrats castaways on an island; it contains the grandest
principles, the most chivalrous manners and the most beautiful ladies.
N#)/, with his "The Unfortunate Traveller¨, tells a horrifying story full of dialogues,
amazing descriptions and the strangest adventures.
'n the &li(abethan era9
D#n$, D+*. He is one of the most important authors of this era in English literature.
His most famous book ("Robinson Crusoe¨) is known all around the world and has
been translated into many languages. Many studies have been done on it: man's
isolation, self-sufficiency, utopia,...
T*3$#) S5*,,t was born in 1721 and died in 1771. His main adventure and fantastic
stories are "Roderick Random¨ and "Humphrey Clinker¨.
L#.!n( St$n is a contemporary of the aforementioned author. He was born in
1713 and died in 1768; his most important adventure story is "Sentimental Journey¨.
All the works of this era are not about fantastic stories but about adventures, save
for the work of 9*n#t/#n [email protected]$+t (with "Gulliver's Travels¨). This book hides satire in
such a deft manner that children still read it as a fairy tale. The book starts off
laughing about mankind; when Gulliver finds himself in Lilliput, he is a giant compared
to inhabitants there. Ìn the second part of the book, he goes to a land inhabited by
giants and the author criticizes all men thinkers. He then goes to Laputa, which is a
flying island, and Swift examines and criticizes human institutions. At the end there
are horses with rational minds. This book still today is a masterpiece, a children's
fairy tale and a serious book for adults, and it has never lost its attractive nor allusive
The work of Walter de la Mare is one of the best works of short fantastic stories.
"Out of the Deep¨ is perhaps his most original and exciting short story. Here is a
passage from it:
"All that Ì have to say, he muttered, is just this: Ì have Mrs. Thripps. Ì haven't
absolutely out of the wire. Ì wish to be alone. But Ì'm not asking, do you see? Ìn time Ì
may able to know what Ì want. But what is important now is that no more than that
accused Pig were your primrose "real¨, my dear. You see, things must be real¨.
The title of the novel means a number of things: the depths of the house in
which the servants live, the depths of memory, from which remembrances ascend,
and the depths of the misfortunes of the wretch who is seeking help.
The literary language of the above text is bright and eloquent, neither dull nor
The protagonist is Jimmie, who is characterized by his desire to surprise and
his liking for black humour. This passage contains his regards for a girl. He is a
timorous boy who shows Soame's cautious sadism and plays bad jokes on the
When he is talking to the girl, he realizes that he was forbidden to talk to the
lackeys (" might pull real bells: to pull dubiously genuine pigtails seemed now a
feele jest¨). The word "pigtail¨ here may infer "pig¨, which corresponds to the beast
that appears on the stairs. The gesture of pulling a rope is similar to that of pulling
from a pig.
The word "primrose¨ (spring) naturally suggests the line from a famous verse
by Wordsworth: "A primrose by a river's brimm¨. The thought of spring may have
suggested Lord Beaconsfield, whom Jimmie refers to: "All of which is only to say,
dear madam, as Beaconsfield remarked to Old Vic, that Ì'm thanking you now¨.
Ìn the text he refers to what the girl says, but then he gives it less importance
and highlights what it is really important. The style is loose and clear, with lots of
imagination. The vocabulary is simple, although some words have several meanings,
like "primrose¨. The verb "to ask¨ means to call on someone; the author uses it to
mean "Do you understand?¨. The same occurs with "in time¨ which means sooner or
We will now look at some texts by the writer Beatrix Potter:
"Peter was dreadfully frightened; he rushed all over the garden, for he had forgotten
the way back to the gate. He lost one of his shoes among the cabbages, and the
other shoes amongst the potatoes¨.
This text is from the book "Peter Rabbit¨.
"As there was no money, Ginger and Pickles were obliged to eat their own goods.
Pickles ate biscuits and Ginger ate a dried haddock. They ate them by candlelight
after the shop was closed¨.
This other text is from "Ginger Pickles¨.
"Moppet and Pittens have found up into very good ratcatchers. They go out cat-
catching in the village, and they find plenty of employment. They charge so much a
dozen and earn their living very comfortably¨.
This last text belongs to "The Poly-Poly Pudding¨.
The style is clear and bright. Repetition is avoided, which es why in the first
text, in the last line, "amongst¨ is used instead of "among¨, which was used in the
previous line. The language is simple, easy to read, so the words need not be
explained. The author avoids allipsis, by writing "He had forgotten¨ instead of "He'd
forgotten¨, so that children can clearly understand the text. Another characteristic of
this writer, which is more clearly seen in the first two texts, is her use of many verbs in
the past tense. She does not use description very much.
/.1 @'@!%T'% !++4'%!T'7= T&%3='XT&* F7,
4'*T&='=N %7<+,&3&=*'7=# '=T,[email protected]%'=N [email protected]
&=%7T,!N'=N ,&[email protected]'=N 3!'T* [email protected]
!++,&%'!T'=N T3& +7&T'% FT=%T'7= 7F
All of us need stories for our minds in the same way that we all need food for
our bodies; we watch television, go to the theatre and the cinema, read books and
exchange stories with our friends.
Stories are especially important in the lives of our children; they help them to
understand the world and to share it with others. Their craving for stories is constant.
Every time children enter a classroom, they have a yearning for stories.
Stories that rely heavily on words are a constant and great source of experiences
for the students.
Stories are motivating, rich in language experiences.
Stories should be the main part of the work of Primary teachers, when teaching a
first and a second language.
Moti5ation. Children have a constant need for stories; that is why they are always
willing to listen or read at the right moment.
Meaning. Children want to find something in a story (meaning) and they listen for that
purpose. Ìf they find what they are looking for, it will be thanks to their ability to
understand the foreign language. Ìf they do not find that meaning, they are motivated
to improve their listening comprehension ability and then find meaning.
Listening and fluenc& (hen reading. Ìn a conversation with native speakers, the most
important ability is understanding a substantial flow of the foreign language which
contains new words for the receiver. This ability is only achieved by constant and
ample practice. The child must develop a positive attitude to comprehending
everything and accomplish the ability to search for meaning, predict and "guess¨ (they
are experts at this in their native language).
Kno(ledge of the language. Stories help children to become aware of the general
knowledge and sounds of the foreign language. Stories also introduce students to
several language models and sentence structures which they have not yet used in
oral or written production. This makes up their language stockpile. When the time
comes, those language models will flow within the productive language without any
problems, because the language is not new to them. An obvious example of this is
the use of the simple past.
-n incenti5e for s0ea)ing and (riting. Experiencing a story can give rise to the
production of written or spoken answers. Ìt is natural to express our likes and dislikes,
exchange ideas and associations about the stories we have just heard. Ìn this
manner, stories should be a part of a set related activities.
1ommunication. Reading, writing and aswering questions about stories through
writing, speaking, acting and making art develop certain feelings for listening, sharing
and collaborating. Learning a language is useless if we are not able to communicate,
in other words, to use language skills. A story serves to share the construction of a
crucial sense of attention for others.
General curriculum. Most stories can be used to develop attention, analysis and
expression, and to relate them to other subjects in the curriculum, such as geography,
history, social and cultural aspects, mathematics and science.
Helping children to predict the contents of a story by telling them beforehand in
their native language, by showing them pictures, or by introducing key vocabulary
from that story.
While they are being told a story, show them pictures, draw on the board, act and
mime, use words that are similar in meaning in both the first and second languages.
Tell the story more than once. Ìnterrupt the story often and repeat the idea in a
differente manner to make sure that the children do not get lost.
Study the story beforehand and simplify some of the vocabulary, if necessary:
words, expressions, verb tenses, word order and complex sentences.
First of all, the stories, in other words, the literary language at this level with
children, must essentially be a source of joy and must meet their interests. Ìf the
teacher uses stories or literary texts merely to teach, the children may reject this and
lose their good, natural disposition for stories, which is an enormous potential.
Reading habits can be developed and the poetic function of language can be
taught by telling and reading the children stories that are suitable for them. This
implies a set of advantages:
Advantages of reading stories to the children:
1. Ìf the teacher's language foreign language competence is low.
2. Showing the children pictures that go with the stories.
3. Letting the children read what the teachers have read to them previously.
4. Allowing the children to realize that books are a source of pleasure and
Advantages of telling stories to the children:
1. Ìt can help the children to understand by repeating the story, pointing out
important features, miming, acting, drawing pictures on the board.
2. By having the children in front of him, the teacher can make any special
adaptations at any time.
3. Allowing the children to discover through their experience the magic sense of
listening to a story being told by someone.
When choosing them, we must ask ourselves the following:
1. Ìs the first impression about a book valid for us and for our pupils?
2. Does the book meet the pupil's interests and hold their attention?
3. Do we accept the values expressed in the book?
4. Can the children understand the story enough to gain something
valuable outside of it?
5. Ìs the story easy to understand irrespective of their knowledge of its
6. The story should be the source of activities, such as drama, story
writing, letter writing from one protagonist to another, or activities
relating to a theme.
There are many types of story books. Each one has its advantages and
1. Readers.
Advantages: the language has been simplified to make the reading easier. Easily
Disadavantages: they are not authentic books, original works by their author. They do
not introduce the language used by present-day native English-speaking children.
2. Books published by native English-speaking children.
Advantages: the stories may be more interesting. The language is authentic.
Disadvantages: the children might find it difficult to understand most of the language
on their own.
3. Books in the pupil's native language.
Advantages: within everybody's reach.
Disadvantages: it is up to the teacher to translate them.
4. Traditional and personal stories in the native language.
Advantages: the children are probably familiar with them and enjoy recognizing them
when they are read to them in English.
Disadvantages: the teacher may feel that his English is not good enough to translate
5. Stories invented by the teacher and the pupils.
Advantages: the pupils identify with one of them.
Disadvantages: incorrect English.
1. Activities prior to the story.
Prepare the students to focus the theme of the book and the language that they will
need to understand it.
2. Activities during the story.
Above all, the children must enjoy the story. Ask them what they think is going to
happen and how they feel about what has happened. They can join the teacher in
repeating, miming or drama exercises, among others. They can be told to put
sentences or pictures in the correct order.
3. Activities after the story.
Traditional comprehension exercises; careful not to spoil the experience that the story
has caused in the child.
4. Other more creative activities.
Drawing a picture and writing a key sentence.
Making a mural or writing a book with other children with illustrations and key
Acting out the story.
Writing a letter from one protagonist to another.
Changing the end.
Changing the characters.
ELLÌS AND BREWSTER: The +tor& telling hand$oo) for "rimar& Teachers. Penguin.
GARVÌE: +tor& as a 5ehicle. Multilingual matters.
PERRY: Into $oo)s: 676 literature acti5ities for the classroom. Oxford University
Press. Madrid.
MORGAN and RÌNVOLUCRÌ: Once u0on a time. Cambridge University Press.
ROSEN: +ha0ers and "olishers. Teachers as +tor&tellers. Mary Glasgow.
WRÌGHT: ,h& stories. Oxford University Press. Madrid.
T!+a 1L. La 1$%!2a%2a $n#an%$1 !n 1!nga $ng1!'a. TP)n$)a' "! a-1$)a)$<n "$"\)%$)a -a2a
a))!"!2 a 1a )&+-2!n'$<n &2a1, $n$)$a2 8 -&%!n)$a2 1&' 7\5$%&' 1!)%&2!' 8 '!n'$5$1$;a2 !n 1a
#n)$<n -&P%$)a "!1 1!ngaE!.
1. In%2&")%$&n.
There is literary work that has been created with the aim of being used by children and there are
some works that# although they were not created with that aim# they ha"e been used for children for
such a long time and ha"e become part of 0children’s literature2.
&"en if it is children’s literature of not# we as teachers# should de"elop the interest in
reading of our students. &ncourage them to read stories of any kind[
To help students to conquer the written kingdom is one of the most important aims of all
the educati"e systems.
The reading practice needs two requisites to be fully de"eloped9
1 To recogni(e many di"erse forms within the text (paragraphs# letters[)
1 To understand the meaning these forms ha"e.
(. C7$1"2!nK' 1$%!2a%2! $n %7! U..
%hildren’s literature in &nglish has been the first literature of this kind studied and
classified. 't is a "ery important type of literature and it is included in the %ambridge 3istory
of &nglish 4iterature.
*ome famous authors of this kind of literature are9
1 @aniel @efoe (-55D;1-B8-)9 0,obinson %rusoe2
1 Fonathan *wift (-55B1-B6A)9 0Nuli"er’s Tra"el’s2
1 %harles @ickens (-?-/1-?BD)9 [email protected]"id %opperfield2
1 4ewis %arroll (-?8/1-?.?)9 0!lice’s !d"entures in $onderland2
1 ,udyard Kipling (-?5A1-.85)9 0The Fungle ook2
1 <ary =orton9 0The orrowers2
1 +amela Tra"ers9 0<ary +oppins2
*. C7$1"2!nK' 1$%!2a%2! $n %7! USA.
4iterature for children in !merica is the result of the culture# the life and the belie"es of
this country.
*ome famous authors of this kind of literature are9
1 +eter +arley9 0Tales of +eter +arley about !merica2
1 F. Fennimore %ooper9 0The last of the <ohicans2
1 3erman <el"ille9 0<oby dick2
1 4ouise <. !lcott9 04ittle women2
1 %lement <oore9 0=ight before %hristmas2
1 <ark Twain9 0The ad"entures of Tom *awyer2
4. C7$1"2!nK' 1$%!2a%2! $n &%7!2 Eng1$'7:'-!a0$ng )&n%2$!'.
oth in =ew \ealand and in !ustralia# literature for children has been recently created.
They usually used the ritish and !merican work.
*ome famous authors of this kind of literature are9
1 &thel Turner9 0*e"en 4ittle !ustralians2
1 =orman 4indsay9 0The <agic +udding2
1 =an %hauncy9 0Tangara2
1 '"an *outhhall9 0!sh ,oad2
I. R!a'&n' %& '! 1$%!2a%2! #&2 )7$1"2!n.
%hildren en:oy listening to stories in their mother tongue. For this reason books pro"ide an ideal
introduction to the foreign language presented in a context that is familiar to the child.
't is not the same to use a story for adults than a story for children. %hildren need books with a
suitable language for them.
The reasons to use literature in class may be summarised as follows9
a? <oti"ation9 *tories are moti"ating and fun and that de"elops positi"e attitudes towards
the foreign language.
b? 'magination9 *tories exercise the imagination. That in"ol"e children with the story#
they try to interpret the narrati"e[
c? The meaning9 They also wish to find a meaning. 'f they find it# they know they are
able to understand the foreign language.
d? 4inking tool9 stories are useful in linking fantasy and the imagination with the child’s
real world.
e? Vocabulary9 4istening to stories allows the teacher to introduce or re"ise new
"ocabulary and sentence structures.
f? 4inguistic accuracy9 @e"elop the ability of understanding new words from the
g? 4inguistic knowledge9 %ontributes to introduce new linguistic structures.
h? 7ne more time9 ,epetition allows certain language items to be acquired.
i? %ommunication9 4istening# reading and gi"ing an answer to the stories are good ways
to de"elop communication.
j? %ross1%urricular sub:ects9 ,eading stories help to teach them other aspects as social or
cultural aspects.
L. T!)[email protected]!' %& "!,!1&- 1$'%!n$ng )&+-2!7!n'$&n.
a? Tse mother tongue with beginner pupils from time to time.
b? +ro"ide a context for the story and introduce the main characters.
c? +rediction of the contents.
d? Tse the help of pictures# draws# cards# etc# while we are telling the story.
e? Follow1up acti"ities.
f? ,epetitions of the story9 we can tell the story more than once to a"oid that the
children get lost.
g? *implification of the story.
h? ,hymes and songs to reinforce the language introduced.
L.1. T!)[email protected]!' %& n"!2'%an" %7! -&!%$) #n)%$&n &# 1angag!.
First of all# we need to bear in mind that literature must be a source of amusement and
pleasure for the children.
$e can encourage the reading habit of our students at the same time they understand
the poetic function of language.
7ne of the best methods to achie"e these aims is to read and to tell stories in class.
G. A)%$,$%$!' %& "& 6$%7 a L$%!2a28 %!=%.
1. P2!:2!a"$ng a)%$,$%$!'.
These are the tasks to do before telling the story that helps students to predict what is
going to happen# to predict the "ocabulary# the characters# etc.
(. A)%$,$%$!' %& "& 67$1! %!11$ng %7! '%&28: 67$1! 2!a"$ng.
The most important ob:ecti"e is that children en:oy the story. *ome acti"ities we can
do are9
1 !sk them what they think is going to happen next or before.
1 Tse mime# performances# etc.
1 +ut some pictures we gi"e them in the correct order.
1 ,epeat words or sentences.
1 *ing a song# etc.
*. P&'%:2!a"$ng a)%$,$%$!': a#%!2 %!11$ng %7! '%&28.
These tasks are called 0follow1up acti"ities2. They allow children to use what they ha"e learned.
*ome acti"ities we could do are9
1 @raw part of the story.
1 <ake mask# puppets[
1 <ake a poster of the story.
1 'n"ent a similar story.
1 +erform the story# etc.
H. C&n)1'$&n.
There are many acti"ities that we can do with the children in our classes. They :ust should be
creati"e and they should encourage comprehension and communication in the foreign language. 'f
they fulfil all these requisites they would be moti"ating for our students and in a step1by1step
process they would lo"e literature.

T='T -B9 T3& *7=N !* ! +7&T'% V&3'%4& [email protected] !* ! 4'T&,!,> %,&!T'7=
'= T3& &=N4'*3 %4!**. T'++747N> 7F *7=N*. T&%3='XT&* 7F T*'=N
*7=N* '= T3& +37=&T'%# 4&U'%!4 [email protected] %T4TT,!4 4&!,='=N.
4n the pedagog& of second language ac(uisition, the introduction of
authentic documents, such as songs, was introduced as a !e& to
something alive, as the indication of a developing realit&.
The great advantage of songs is the possi$ilit& of G$eing remem$eredH.
<ut it is necessar& the use of carefull& selected songs or composed
especiall& for the class, in order to avoid those containing le6ical mista!es
that students would f6 irremedia$l& in their minds.
1 Apart from $eing a ver& rela6ing activit& for the vast ma3orit& of
students, singing a song contri$utes to encourage their interest to stud&
in depth that language.
1 The activit& of singing esta$lishes a warm atmosphere and a sense of
upertino among students. The feeling of ma!ing a fool of themselves
can $e overcome easil& if we succeed in enthusiasting them with the
activit& of singing songs in that language. 1n the whole, what
completel& 3ustifes the use of songs in the foreign language classroom
is the possi$ilit& of practices that language.
3.3 T&e s(ng #s # p(ei! %e&i!le #nd #s # lie"#") !"e#i(n in &e
Englis& !l#ss.
The song constitutes an element that $elongs to the dail& environment
of the students.
=nli!e the te6t$oo! or other resources means from which it is presumed
that the student had a ma3or !nowledge, the song, the video and the
television allow the creation, in the class, of a di'erent pedagogic relation,
egalitarian and constructive.
"ometimes the song is transformed into a vehicle to transmit !nowledge
from the teacher to the student.
[email protected] T&e s(!i#lis#i(n (, s(ngs.
"ongs should respect these rules:
1 Accurate grammatical contents, and without going $e&ond the
limitation of the !nowledge alread& ac(uired for the students.
1 Le6ical contents useful and easil& memorise, without e6cess of new
elements for the student.
1 Ch&thmic guidelines, which need to $e GnormalH so the musical rh&thm
matches the natural one of the l&rics: there should not $e tonic stress
on the s&lla$les that would not normall& have them.
There are songs alread& graded. "ocialisation is, without an& dou$t, the
main function of songs in the ,nglish class.

2rom a ps&chological point of view, the song is a resource that should $e
used in an& moment where we perceive a fall in the interest or attention of
our students.
<efore introducing a song in the classroom, the teacher should introduce
a $rief e6planation a$out the song in order to facilitate a $etter and
general comprehension of what it will $e heard.
4t is a mista!e to e6pect students to understand perfectl& the meaning of
all the words and e6pressions appearing in the song. What it reall& appeals
to them from a song is, not necessaril& the l&rics, $ut the melod&. A$ove
all, children en3o& immensel& singing songs, although in man& cases the&
do not have a clear idea of he meaning of some words used in them.
3.A T&e s(ng #s # s#"ing p(in.
An activit& considered highl& enriching from the human and linguistic
point of view is the e6ploitation of pla& $ac!, or the preparation of a show
in which the students perform the vision of ,nglish music. This is an
activit& where the students, on one hand, have the possi$ilit& to wor!
harmoniousl& the oral and non oral aspects 9gestures: of communication
and, therefore, the opportunit& to choose singers or characters the& want
to represent, as well as the wa& adopted $& this recreation.
3.A.3The material, a pro$lem
The most serious pro$lem in this feld are, on one hand, the lac! of
information sources which could allow the teacher to $e up to date in the
evolution of he music in the countr& whose language sKhe teaches* and on
the other hand the need of sonorous and audio-visual materials such as
cassettes, videos, etc.
4n an GauthenticH listening situation, the person leaves the music fow
through himKher. 8owever, usuall&, when a song appeals to us, we feel the
necessit& to understand the message. onse(uentl&, the access to the
meaning constitutes an o$3ective that the student will attempt to reach. To
this Glearning o$3ectiveH responds our pedagogical o$3ective to provide an
eas& approach.
@.3 T)pe (, s(ngs.
 2rom the point of view of the studentFs awareness, it is important to
a- "ongs that represent, either a rh&thm in harmon& with the one to
which he student feels attracted 9<o$ )arle& and his reggae music:.
$- A l&ric a$le to involve the student, to ma!e him react 9GLuc!aH, $&
"usan Aega:.
 2rom the point of view of the approach to meaning, it is interesting:
a- To ma!e good use of songs whose initial sound introduces elements
capa$le of put the student in situation 9G<ac! in he =C""H, $& The
$- Another t&pe of approacha$le songs is he one in which he narrative
structure is lineal 9GThe CiverH, $& <ruce "pringsteen:.
@[email protected] A!/uisii(n (, #n ("#l #nd *"ien !($peen!e.
We can arrange a range of di'erent activities conducted to develop the
oral and written comprehension competence. 4t is important to ta!e into
account a series of principles or $asic strategies:
 )a!e the students to $e aware of he importance of investing activel&
the linguistic elements stored so as to facilitate their memorisation.
 %ropose activities integrating the creativit& and the sensi$ilit& of he
 %repare, ta!ing the linguistic $aggage from he songs, a range of
linguistic patterns that allow the student to materialise what sKhe wants
to e6press through these activities.
A. <ase strateg&:
When the o$3ect is the ac(uisition of an oral comprehension
competence, it is essential to consider a series of elements that determine
if a listening situation is suita$le or not.
1n one hand, the student. 4t is necessar& that the song and the activities
proposed raise a degree of motivation a$le to $ecome the purpose of
1n the other hand, the transmission. )aterial elements and
ps&chological elements should $e ta!ing into account the action of the
Another element to $e considered is the assimilation. The treatment of
the information is the following stage to perception. We have to avoid the
re(uirement of an oral production immediatel& after the hearing.
4t is ver& important to diagnose the possi$le pro$lems that impede the
conclusion of the process in order to sta$ilise the suita$le therap&.
<. "pecifc strategies:
 %reparation of the listening. 4n case that he song presents elements that
can interfere the approach to meaning from the students, we must start
$& underta!ing those pro$lems. We must ma!e a previous inventor&
with the students a$out the su$3ect of the song that will allow them
recognise some elements at the time of listening.
 2irst listening, frst contacts. 4n order to guide he students in he frst
listening, the& will $e as!ed to fll a chart in where there are places,
characters and actions.
 Appro6imation to the te6t. "ome activities allow us to help our students
ma!e a selective structure, guiding them to the important part of the
1 +ropose a series of staments and ask them to answer if the assertions included are true or
1 When the plot in the narration is linear and chronological, it will $e used
as a connecting theme. We can suppl& them with an incomplete te6t,
as!ing them to discover the elements that are not included.
4n man& of the current songs the authorKsinger proposes pro$lems. The
techni(ue of $rainstorming ma& $e applied to the solution of these
Dramatising techni(ues such as the role-pla&ing ma& also develop
communicative situations elicited $& the song.
8. T&%3='XT&* '= T3& T*& 7F T3& *7=N F7,
+37=&T'%# 4&U'%!4 [email protected] %T4TT,!4 4&!,='=N.
A.3 Te!&ni/ues in &e use (, p&(nei! le#"ning.

The ma3orit& of teachers, when introduce a song in their ,nglish class, do
it with he idea that students would tr& to imitate as closel& as possi$le the
melod& and he l&rics the& heard. 8e attainment of this purpose is, without
an& dou$ts, something ver& important for he learning of pronunciation
9sound, stress and rh&thm:.
%ronunciation must $e he aspect in which we should insist on when we
teach a song. The frst contact of students with he song needs to $e
alwa&s oral, through he sense of hearing. 4n he frst audition of a song he
teacher indicates he rh&thm of each sentence so that he students realise,
from he $eginning, of which words or s&lla$les are $earing stress. 4t is onl&
after this previous training that he class will $e in condition to start singing
a song the& have listened to $efore.
7evertheless, it is clear that not all the songs are e(uall& useful to
practice pronunciation. The teacher should $e sure that the students would
not have man& diIculties to catch the sounds and the rh&thm of the song.
There are songs composed to $e accompanied with actions or movements
of the $od& while the& are sung. The& are called action songs.
These songs are particularl& useful for small children as the& allow
practising orall& di'erent formal aspects of the language and, at the same
time, the& teach the meaning of the words or the sentences of the te6t
used in the song through di'erent gestures. 98ead, and shoulders...:.
[email protected] Te!&ni/ues ,(" le>i!#l #nd !ulu"#l le#"ning.
a: 1ral answer to (uestions a$out the te6t of the song.
This is one of the easiest wa&s to chec! he comprehensive capacit& of
the student $efore an& te6t.
The teacher should prepare a num$er of (uestions a$out the te6t of the
song. <efore listening to the song, the teacher delivers a list with he
(uestions sKthe has prepared. After the students have anal&sed those
(uestions during a couple of minutes, the teacher pla&s the cassette twice
or three times. While the& listen to he song, the& should tr& to fnd out the
answer to the (uestions delivered $efore.
$: Arranging words.
<efore listening to certain song, we should deliver a sheet of paper with
a list of words situated in a di'erent order from where the& appear in the
The students have to arrange the words according to the order in the song.
c: omplete the te6t of a song.
The teacher hands a cop& of the song to each student* there are gaps in
some places that correspond to certain words or phrases. While the
listening ta!es place, each student attempts to write the words or
sentences that were omitted in he cop&. The& also practice the written
d: Ceconstruction of a song.
The teacher cuts o' all the lines from a song and places them in an
envelope. Then the groups open their envelopes with he corresponding
lines from he song the& are going to re$uild among the whole class. The
di'erent groups should place the sentences in the same order the& appear
in he song. 4t could $e repeated twice or three times.
e: 2inding stress in the sentence.
The teacher invites the students to listen carefull& to certain song and
pa& attention to the words pronounced with ma3or intensit&. After that, he
gives a cop& of the song that has alread& listened to.
While the& listen to the song for he second time, the& have to mar! over
the cop& of the song those words or s&lla$le which stand out $efore the
f: orrection of an inaccurate version of a song.
The teacher hands to each student a cop& of a song where some of the
original words or sentences have $een changed for others that are not the
ones appearing in the song $ut have some li!eness.
As the& listen to the song, the students will have to fnd out where are the
mista!es and correct them in he handed cop&.
g: 4dentif&ing phrases.
The teacher delivers to each student from the class one, two or three
lines that have $een cut from the song. ,ach student when hearing the
te6t corresponding to the lines sKhe has should rise hisKher hand.
h: lassifcations of words.
While listening to a song, the students should ma!e a list in which collect
a certain !ind of grammatical elements 9ver$s, prepositions, colours...:
introduced in the song.
i: Words with opposite meaning.
hildren have a list with some words* the& will have to provide one or
two anton&ms for each word. After a few minutes of discussion in the
groups, the teacher will pla& the cassette and encourage the students
to guess if in the te6t of the song there are an& of the anton&m words
the& have found previousl&.
3: "earching words that rh&me.
4n this case the attention of the students is focused mainl& on the
phonetic element.
<efore listening to the song, a cop&, with some $lan!s, is handed to the
students. The& have to fll them with words that rh&me with the
corresponding verse. After that, the teacher pla&s the cassette so the& can
chec! if he words the& have found are reall& in he song.
!: Translating a song.
1nce the song is learned $& heart, a song ma& $e e6ploited through
translation into the studentFs mother tongue. ,ven though this is diIcult
tas! for the students, the e'ort re(uires its compensation in a deep stud&
of the meaning of the song.
Un$% 1G. S&ng' a' L$%!2a28 an" P&!%$) )2!a%$&n'.
1. In%2&")%$&n.
A' 6a8 &# $n%2&")%$&n 6! )an 'a8 %7a% )7$1"2!n !nE&8 '$ng$ng ,!28 +)7. S&ng' an"
278+!' -2&,$"! an !nE&8a51! )7ang! &# %7! 2&%$n! $n %7! )1a''2&&+.
S&ng' an" R78+!' -2&,$"! 2!1a=a%$&n an" ,a2$!%8, 5% 6! 7a,! %& 5! )a2!#1 5!)a'! an
!=)!''$,! '! &# %7!+ )an +a0! )7$1"2!n %& g!% 5&2!".
Taking this fact into account# we can say that songs are a good resource to teach "ocabulary#
practise the language orally# impro"e pronunciation and intonation and also help children to know
the culture of the foreign language.
(. S&ng' a' L$%!2a28 an" P&!%$) )2!a%$&n'.
(.1. T7! $+-&2%an)! &# +'$) $n %7! 1angag! %!a)7$ng.
<any of us know how quick students are at learning songs. For a "ariety of reasons# songs
stick in our minds and become part of us.
-. 't is easier to sing a language than to speak it.
/. <usic is around us9 radio# tele"ision# theatre# etc.
8. *ongs work in our short and long1term memory.
6. *ongs use simple# con"ersational language and repetitions.
A. %hildren en:oy hearing themsel"es (+iaget9 egocentric language).
5. *ongs are relaxing# fun# etc.
B. 'n practical terms# for language teachers# songs are short# repetiti"e# and easily to
handle in a lesson.
(.(. C7a2a)%!2$'%$)' &# '&ng' an" 278+!'.
Their main characteristics are9
-. They pro"ide a link with home and school life.
/. 3elp children to de"elop positi"e attitude towards language learning.
8. They pro"ide an en:oyable alternati"e in presentation of the language.
6. They reinforce lexical items and structures.
A. They play an important role in pronunciation# intonation and rhythm.
5. They are used to reinforce listening that leads to speaking# reading and writing
B. They are used to reinforce other sub:ects.
?. They reflect customs and traditions associated with !nglo1*axon culture.
(.*. R!a'&n' %& '! '&ng' $n %7! )1a''2&&+.
The main reasons to use songs are9
-. <oti"ation9 songs easily moti"ate children to use the foreign language.
/. %hange in the routine.
8. %ultural importance9 they reflect the foreign culture.
6. ,einforcement9 they pro"ide a meaningful way to repeat different items in order to
reinforce the learning (pronunciation# grammar# "ocabulary# etc.).
*. T8-!' &# '&ng'.
't is essential to select carefully the songs we are going to work with in class.
$hat we must bear in mind are the features of the students we are working with at that
specific moment9 their age# interests# likes and dislikes# and of course# their knowledge of the
foreign language.
$e already know that the foreign language is introduced in the second cycle of
+rimary &ducation# that is# children from ? years to -/.
: (
C8)1! &# P2$+a28 BH %& 10C.
't is the first time the foreign language is introduced in class. 't is one of the best
didactic moments because children are "ery recepti"e and interested in e"erything.
: *
C8)1! &# P2$+a28 B10 %& 1(C.
!t this age their interests begin to change. *o that# teachers ha"e to take these changes
into account and ad:ust the teaching practice to the new needs and interests of the students.
The ma:ority of the students think that songs are childish) they feel shy singing and so
that# it is difficult to make them sing aloud in class.
3owe"er# they en:oy music "ery much but their interests are different. *o that# we ha"e
to find songs that they en:oy and are suitable for our purposes too.
$e as teachers must select the most suitable songs depending on the le"el of our
students# on their interests and their needs.
The following are some examples of types of songs we can use in class at these stages.
*.1. S&ng' #&2 &))a'$&n'.
*ongs that make reference to anything that happens to them in daily life9 >3a--8
5$2%7"a8? or >A1" Lang S8n!? (=ew >ear’s &"e).
*.(. T&-$) '&ng'.
*ongs that deal with a specific topic. $e must bear in mind that the topic the song
deals with must be interesting for the children. For example9 %olours1 >T7! )&1&2'? or
animals1 >O1" M) D&na1"?
*.*. S&ng' 6$%7 a)%$&n'.
*ongs that are related to the old technique of representing what we are saying9 8total
physical response9 (Fames !sher)9 >I# 8&K2! 7a--82 or >T7!'! $' %7! 6a8?.
*.4. R&n" '&ng'.
! round is a circular song. 7ne group begins singing# then the second group begins the
song when the first group gets to the end of the first line. The third group begins when the
second group gets to the end of the first line and so on. $hen the singers get to the end of the
last line they continue singing from the beginning again# so the song becomes circular. For
example9 >T72!! 51$n" +$)!? or >I 7!a2 %7n"!2?.
*.I. D$a1&g!' '&ng'.
This type of songs is "ery useful. They are "ery easy to sing and at the same time they
require more attention on the part of the children. For example9 >I '-8? or >I a+ a +'$)
*.L. T2a"$%$&na1 '&ng'.
These songs will not probably known by the students# but they must learn them
because they belong to the new culture they are studying. For example9 >O7, S'anna?,
>L&n"&n 92$"g!? or >Yan0!! D&&"1!?.
Furthermore# there are songs that we sing at a specific time of the year like C72$'%+a'
Ca2&1': >M!228 C72$'%+a'? or >J$ng1! 9!11'?.
*.G. O%7!2 '&ng'.
There are other songs for children which are more difficult but which are also good to
work with them in class. For example songs in all $alt @isney’s films. ! good idea to de"elop
them is to watch the film at the same time we sing the song. For example9 >3a0na Ma%a%a?
or 0F18, #18? (+eter +ann).
*.H. T2a"$%$&na1 278+!'.
,hymes can be used in the same way as songs. This could be easier for those students
that are a bit shy. *ome traditional rhymes to be mentioned are9 >On! P&%a%&? or >S-2$ng,
S++!2, A%+n, /$n%!2?.
4. T!)[email protected]!': T8-!' &# a)%$,$%$!'.
There are many different acti"ities that we can do working with songs# depending on
what we want the students to practise and to learn. These can be summari(ed as follows9
1 !cti"ities to communicate new information.
1 !cti"ities to understand the social meaning of a song.
1 !cti"ities to learn the way language works without paying attention to the
!s we ha"e mentioned before# the acti"ities with songs we can do in class are "ery
"aried. The following are some examples of these acti"ities# which may be done with different
songs# according to the interests and needs of our students9
a3 In,!n%$&n: the children in"ent a new song with some music they all know and with
some "ocabulary that we may gi"e to them.
=3 S%&2$!': the students tell the story of the song.
#3 D$')''$&n': use songs to introduced a topic that may be discussed afterwards.
*3 F$11 $n %7! Ga-': fill in the gaps they find in the lyrics of a song with the words
pre"iously gi"en.
e3 /2$%! $n O2"!2: write in the correct order the sentences of a song as they listen to it.
?3 S$ng$ng C&+-!%$%$&n': di"ide the class into groups. &ach group chooses a song or
rhyme from the songs worked in pre"ious lessons and perform it to the rest. !fter all
the performances# the class "otes their fa"ourite.
)3 /7a%K' %7! +$''$ng 6&2": di"ide the class into groups. &ach group chooses a song
and performs it for the rest of the class. 3owe"er they miss out the last word in each
line. The rest of the class has to call out the missing word.
,3 R&n"': (point 8.6)
"3 V$"!&': to watch musical "ideos. The images help the students to understand what
the song is about.
@3 S&ng "$)%a%$&n: to do what the song says. %olour# write# etc.
<3 T7! P$)%2! '&ng: the children try to make up a new song# taking some pictures as
the basis.
&3 F$11 an" "2a6: two different sheets of paper. 7ne has some draws explaining what is
happening in the song) the other has the lyrics. They must try to fill in.
I. C&n)1'$&n.
There are many acti"ities that we can do in class with songs. 3owe"er# it is going to
depend on our students’ interests# needs and# of course# linguistic le"el. 't is up to us to select
the work and ht songs we are going to work with.
The possibilities of the songs are directed to de"elop the four linguistic skills9 oral and
written comprehension and oral and written expression. ut# we may say that the most basic
ability to use songs in class is oral comprehension.
1.1. : In%2&"))$<n.
1.(. : E1 -1an%!a+$!n%& "!1 E!g&.
-./.-. 1 !cti"idad indi"idual.
-./.-.-. 1 %ada alumno con el profesor.
-./.-./. 1 %ada alumno con el resto del grupo.
-././. 1 !cti"idades por pare:as.
-./.8. 1 !cti"idad en grupos.
1.*. : E1 +a%!2$a1.
1.4. : E1 1!ngaE!.
-.6.-. 1 +ara empe(ar el :uego.
-.6./. 1 +ara mantener el :uego.
-.6.8. 1 +ara terminar el :uego.
(.1. : J!g&' "! ,&)a51a2$&.
/.-.-. 1 &l :uego de los nameros.
/.-./. 1 &l bingo.
/.-.8. 1 %adena de palabras.
/.-.6. 1 &l alfabeto "i"iente.
/.-.A. 1 usca la palabra.
/.-.5. 1 +olicJas y ladrones.
/.-.B. 1 &ncuentra la palabra que no corresponde.
/.-.?. 1 Falta una palabra# _cuGl;
/.-... 1 +alabras y dibu:os.
(.(. : J!g&' "! !'%2)%2a' g2a+a%$)a1!'.
/./.-. 1 Fuego de trotamundos.
/././. 1 !di"ina mi oficio.
/./.8. 1 Fuego del mimo.
/./.6. 1 Fuego de las asociaciones.
/./.A. 1 Fuego de las adi"inan(as.
/./.5. 1 4a ruta de !na.
(.*. : J!g&' "! )2!a%$,$"a".
/.8.-. 1 4a historia tonta.
/.8./. 1 Tn poco de memoria.
/.8.8. 1 _XuiKn debe sobre"i"ir;
*.1. : D$5Ea 1a #2a'!.
*.(. : Pa2!Ea' "! "$5E&'.
*.*. : 3$'%&2$a "!'&2"!na"a.
*.4. : Da2 "$2!))$&n!'.
1.1. : In%2&"))$<n.
4a preocupaciHn de todo profesor es poder dar una clase atracti"a# que consiga captar
la atenciHn y el interKs del alumno hacia su materia.
! los problemas que plantea la ense`an(a de cualquier asignatura "iene a sumarse el
desconocimiento de la lengua en la clase de idioma moderno# cuya finalidad es conseguir que
los alumnos alcancen un ni"el de comunicaciHn oral y escrita con personas de otros paJses.
+ero esta moti"aciHn es prGcticamente nula en nuestros centros debido a las escasas
posibilidades que existen de "isitar el paJs de origen para poner en prGctica lo aprendido en
clase. Tna manera de paliar esta ausencia de moti"aciHn real y de interesar a los alumnos en el
uso de lo aprendido es# sin duda# la prGctica de :uegos.
&l :uego rela:a# desinhibe y fa"orece la participaciHn creati"a del alumno# ya que le
presenta un contexto real y una ra(Hn inmediata para utili(ar el idioma# que se con"ierte en
"ehJculo de comunicaciHn con un propHsito ladico.
+ero para que este interKs se mantenga a tra"Ks del curso# tenemos que presentar los
:uegos como autKnticas acti"idades dentro de la programaciHn de una lengua segunda. *i el
alumno intuye que impro"isamos# que utili(amos el :uego para rellenar huecos de cinco
minutos o para mantenerlos dentro de la clase# en "Jsperas de "acaciones# la funciHn
pedagHgica de esta acti"idad quedarG rota.
+ara e"itar su utili(aciHn indiscriminada de deben tener en cuenta los siguientes aspectos9
 &l planteamiento del :uego.
 &l material.
 &l lengua:e.
 4as clases de :uegos# que describiremos en un epJgrafe aparte y que agruparemos de
acuerdo con la finalidad a la que sir"en9
a) Fuegos de "ocabulario.
b) Fuegos de estructuras gramaticales.
c) Fuegos de creati"idad.
d) Fuegos de comunicaciHn# que tambiKn "eremos# por su importancia# en otro epJgrafe
1.(. : E1 -1an%!a+$!n%& "!1 E!g&.
%ada profesor en su clase debe saber cHmo agrupar a los alumnos para que Kstos se
encuentren con posibilidades reales de comunicaciHn y con un material autKntico. !sJ# los
:uegos pueden ser planteados como9
-./.-. 1 !cti"idad indi"idual.
-./.-.-. 1 %ada alumno con el profesor. &sto sHlo es aconse:able en
grupos reducidos. &l profesor dirige y controla la acti"idad. Tiene sus "enta:as# ya que Kste
puede asegurarse de que cada alumno escucha lo que se dice# y recibe# en general# un buen
modelo de lengua) pero en grupos numerosos# en los que la participaciHn serJa mGs espaciada#
la mayorJa se quedarJa sin inter"enir por falta de tiempo y el aburrimiento harJa acto de
-./.-./. 1 %ada alumno con el resto del grupo. *e necesita un gran
espacio libre para que el grupo pueda mo"erse con facilidad. &l profesor actaa como monitor
y el peso de la acti"idad recaen en los alumnos. +ueden ser acti"idades de comprensiHn yEo
expresiHn oral. +or e:emplo# un alumno describe una situaciHn preparada de antemano en
lengua extran:era# y el resto tiene que expresar a tra"Ks de la pantomima lo que "a diciendo.
+ueden ser historias in"entadas por los propios alumnos o sacadas de cuentos# de libros de
a"enturas# etc.
-././. 1 !cti"idades por pare:as.
4os alumnos traba:an de dos en dos formando un tGndem frente al resto de las otras
pare:as# o haciKndose preguntas uno a otro sobre su "ida# traba:o# familia# acti"idad#
descripciHn de un documento "isual# etc. 4a finalidad de esta acti"idad es obtener la
informaciHn mGs completa en un tiempo fi:ado de antemano. &l profesor actaa de monitor y
super"isa la expresiHn# pronunciaciHn# etc.# de las pare:as.
-./.8. 1 !cti"idad en grupos.
*e di"ide la clase en grupos de traba:o de cuatro o cinco alumnos. *uelen ser los
:uegos mGs atracti"os# pues# al igual que en las pare:as# se incrementa el namero de alumnos
hablando al mismo tiempo y dinami(an mucho mGs la clase# desarrollando el sentido de
cooperaciHn entre ellos.
*e corre el riesgo de que hablen espa`ol# si el profesor no super"isa todos los grupos#
pero una forma de resol"erlo es nombrar un moderador en cada grupo que se encargue de
@entro de este apartado podemos incluir la di"isiHn de la clase en dos o mGs equipos
contrincantes. &sto darJa mGs emociHn al :uego o acti"idad# al introducir el sentido de
1.*. : E1 +a%!2$a1.
&ntramos en un campo interminable. Todo depende de la dedicaciHn# imaginaciHn o
conocimiento prGctico de cada profesor.
&xisten muchJsimos :uegos que no necesitan material especial para su puesta en
prGctica. =o obstante# se suele aconse:ar# por ser muy socorrido# fabricarse :uegos de cartas
plastificadas# con dibu:os alusi"os a "arios temas# tales como9 alimentos# bebidas# ropa#
animales# plantas# ob:etos# mobiliario# medios de comunicaciHn# dJas de la semana# meses del
a`o# estaciones# las grandes ciudades (=ue"a >ork# 4ondres# *ydney#...)# los oficios y sus
correspondientes herramientas# cartas con dibu:os y otras con los nombres que corresponden a
cada dibu:o# etc.
+ero no todos los profesores tienen la habilidad o el tiempo para hacerse sus propias
cartas. +ara esto podemos recurrir a los alumnos# o solicitar la ayuda del profesor de dibu:o.
4as cartas serGn hechas en cartulina del mismo color y tendrGn todas el mismo tama`o.
*i se cuenta con un retroproyector en clase# el profesor puede lle"ar dibu:os
esquemGticos# tar:etas postales# fotografJas# etc. &ntonces la mitad de los alumnos se sientan
mirando a la proyecciHn y la otra mitad de espaldas. *e :uega por pare:as9 un alumno describe
lo que "e# mientras el otro "a dibu:ando a partir de la informaciHn que recibe. %uanto mGs rico
sea el "ocabulario y las expresiones gramaticales del que describe# mGs completo serG el
dibu:o del compa`ero. &n este caso un solo dibu:o sir"e para toda la clase.
'nsistimos# sin embargo# en que es muy prGctico contar con un buen namero de cartas
plastificadas# pues sir"en para muchos :uegos. &n la formaciHn de familias puede haber
muchas "ariantes.
1.4. : E1 1!ngaE!.
!ntes de lan(arse a organi(ar :uegos# el profesor debe familiari(ar a los alumnos con
una serie de estructuras bGsicas que permiten agili(ar el comien(o y el final de los :uegos.
&stas estructuras pueden ser9
-.6.-. 1 +ara empe(ar el :uego.
4istenb These are the rules.
e quiet. *tay on your seat.
Form a circle E groups of four Epairs.
*it down. *tand up.
@o the same as myself.
Ni"e the cards# one each.
,eady; No aheadb
%lose your eyes.
%ount up to four ...
>ou win.
>ou start.
4ook at your partner.
-.6./. 1 +ara mantener el :uego.
'tPs myEyour turn.
$hoPs going on;
4ook at your card. 'tPs your card.
Take a card.
3ere are your cards. Take them.
*how your cards. Tell them what to do.
-.6.8. 1 +ara terminar el :uego.
*top. 'tPs time to finish.
3a"e you finished;
%ount your cards. 3ow many ha"e you got;
>ouPre the winner. 3ere is the winner.
$ho are the winners; $e are.
! point for your team.
'Pm sorry# >ouP"e lost a point. >ou canPt go on playing.
!lgunos de los :uegos que "amos a presentar son una recopilaciHn de "arios autores
citados en la bibliografJa. 7tros han sido recogidos de forma oral# entre los docentes# o son
simples adaptaciones de :uegos infantiles tradicionales. &stos :uegos se pueden di"idir en
cuatro categorJas9
1 Fuegos de "ocabulario.
1 Fuegos de estructuras gramaticales.
1 Fuegos de creati"idad.
1 Fuegos de comunicaciHn# que estudiaremos en un epJgrafe aparte.
(.1. : J!g&' "! ,&)a51a2$&.
+ara responder a estos :uegos casi siempre hay que buscar y encontrar la palabra que
falta o la palabra :usta de acuerdo con una consigna dada. &l ob:eti"o de estos :uegos es
desarrollar la escritura y la lectura# aunque muchos de ellos pueden ser orales.
/.-.-. 1 &l :uego de los nameros.
O5E!%$,&: +rGctica de los nameros.
D!'%2!;a': @esarrollar la comprensiHn y expresiHn orales.
N$,!1: &lemental e intermedio.
Ma%!2$a1: Tna pelota# o una simple bola de papel# un cronHmetro (opcional).
Ag2-a)$<n: @os grandes equipos.
[email protected] *e di"ide la clase en dos grandes grupos. &l profesor tira la bola a un
alumno del equipo - diciendo un namero9 Otwel"eO. &l alumno debe encontrar rGpidamente un
namero que empiece por la altima cifra del namero escuchado9 Otwenty1threeO. &ste alumno
pasa la bola al equipo contrario diciendo Otwenty1threeO. ! su "e( el que recibe la bola tendrG
que encontrar un namero que empiece por 8 y de"ol"er la bola de papel al equipo -# etc. *e
trata de pasar la pelota lo mGs rGpidamente posible al equipo contrario# pues el que tenga la
pelota en la mano cuando suene el timbre del cronHmetro pierde. *i un alumno elige un
namero que termina en Q# por e:emplo# OtwentyO# el que recibe dirG O(eroO# y luego a`adirG
otro cualquiera9 OfifteenO. %uando alguien se equi"oca# su equipo pierde un punto. +uede
:ugarse en tres partidas de dos minutos cada una.
/.-./. 1 &l bingo.
7b:eti"o9 +rGctica de los nameros.
@estre(a9 %omprensiHn oral.
=i"el9 &lemental# intermedio y a"an(ado.
<aterial9 %artones de bingo.
!grupaciHn9 'ndi"idual o en pare:as.
[email protected] *e hacen cartones con nameros que "ayan del - al -DD# del -DD al ADD#
del ADD al -DDD (dependiendo del ni"el de los alumnos). 4os nameros pueden estar escritos en
cifras o en letras. +uede :ugarse indi"idualmente o en pare:as. &l profesor dice nameros de
forma aleatoria) se premia la lJnea y el bingo.
/.-.8. 1 %adena de palabras.
O5E!%$,&: +rGctica del "ocabulario.
D!'%2!;a': %omprensiHn y expresiHn orales.
N$,!1: &lemental e intermedio.
Ma%!2$a1: ola de papel# cronHmetro (opcional).
Ag2-a)$<n: @os grandes equipos.
[email protected] *e procede de la misma forma que en el :uego de los nameros. *e di"ide la
clase en dos equipos# el profesor dice una palabra y tira la bola a un alumno# que tendrG que
decir otra que empiece por la altima letra o sonido de la palabra escuchada# y asJ
sucesi"amente. %ualquier alumno que repita palabra ya dicha o que no pueda seguir con la
cadena# pierde un punto. &l equipo que tenga la bola cuando suene el timbre pierde un punto.
Nana el que mGs puntos tenga.
[email protected] *e puede :ugar con la altima sJlaba de cada palabra. @e esta forma resulta mGs
difJcil. 7tra "ariante es :ugar con el "ocabulario especJfico de un tema y no sobre la altima
letra. +or e:emplo# el profesor dice ObreadO y cada alumno tendrG que decir nombres
relacionados con la comida. &l que repita# diga mal una palabra o no siga# pierde. &sta
"ariante es mGs adecuada para los primeros ni"eles.
/.-.6. 1 &l alfabeto "i"iente.
O5E!%$,&: +rGctica del alfabeto.
D!'%2!;a': @esarrollo de la comprensiHn oral.
N$,!1: &lemental e intermedio.
Ma%!2$a1: =inguno.
Ag2-a)$<n: 'ndi"idual o dos grandes equipos.
[email protected] 4os alumnos deben conocer pre"iamente el alfabeto del inglKs (hacer "arios
e:ercicios para comprobarlo# haciKndoles deletrear sus nombres# por e:emplo). &l profesor
asigna una letra a cada alumno. *i son peque`os# deberGn pintarla bien grande en una ho:a. &l
profesor dice una palabra. ,Gpidamente# los alumnos deberGn le"antarse por orden diciendo la
letra correspondiente hasta formar la palabra. *i una letra se repite# el representante de ella se
le"antarG y dirG dicha letra cada "e( que Ksta apare(ca en la palabra. +or e:emplo# OwindowO9
el representante de la OwO se le"antarG en primer y altimo lugar# pronunciando el nombre de la
letra. +uede :ugarse en dos equipos. *e reparte la primera mitad del alfabeto a un equipo y la
segunda mitad al otro. 4os equipos parten con -D puntos. 4os alumnos se le"antarGn a medida
que apare(ca su letra. *i alguno se equi"oca# resta un punto a su equipo# y asJ# el que menos
puntos tenga al final# pierde.
/.-.A. 1 usca la palabra.
[email protected] +rGctica escrita de "ocabulario.
[email protected] @esarrollo de la escritura de palabras.
<[email protected] &lemental e intermedio.
([email protected] Tn dibu:o.
0grupaciFn* 'ndi"idual# pare:as o grupos.
7rgani(aciHn9 &l profesor reparte un mismo dibu:o de una habitaciHn con algunas
personas y animales a toda la clase. 4os alumnos deben escribir nombres de ob:etos# de
animales o de personas que empiecen por la misma letra. !l cabo de dos minutos el :uego se
para y ganan los alumnos que hayan encontrado mGs nombres.
/.-.5. 1 +olicJas y ladrones.
[email protected] +rGctica del alfabeto y repaso de la ortografJa de las palabras.
[email protected] %omprensiHn y expresiHn orales.
<[email protected] &lemental e intermedio.
[email protected] Nrupos de cuatro o cinco alumnos.
7rgani(aciHn9 *e forman grupos de cuatro o cinco alumnos# que se sentarGn en
cJrculos# bien separados unos de otros. %ada grupo escribe una lista de die( palabras. *e echa
a suertes para "er quK grupo empie(a primero y se seguirG el orden de las agu:as del relo:.
Tn representante de un equipo# el OpolicJaO# "isita cualquier otro grupo y pide a un
alumno determinado que deletree una palabra. *i Kste no sabe o se equi"oca# pasa a ser su
/.-.B. 1 &ncuentra la palabra que no corresponde.
[email protected] ,e"isiHn de "ocabulario.
[email protected] %omprensiHn escrita# comprensiHn y expresiHn orales.
<[email protected] &lemental.
([email protected] Fotocopias de series de palabras.
[email protected] 'ndi"idual o en pare:as.
7rgani(aciHn9 4os alumnos# de forma indi"idual o en pare:as# leen la primera de las
series de palabras que aparecen en su ho:a. &l primero o la primera pare:a que encuentra la
palabra que no pertenece a la serie le"anta la mano# lee la palabra en "o( alta y explica por
quK ha elegido Ksa precisamente) si estG bien# gana) si no# se pasa el turno al otro.
/.-.?. 1 Falta una palabra# _cuGl;
[email protected] ,e"isiHn del "ocabulario.
[email protected] %omprensiHn y expresiHn escritas.
<[email protected] &lemental e intermedio (dependiendo de la cadena de oposiciones).
([email protected] &ncerado.
[email protected] 'ndi"idual o en pare:as.
7rgani(aciHn9 &l profesor escribe en la pi(arra una lista de cinco o siete palabras en la
que existe una cadena de oposiciones. &l alumno# indi"idualmente o en pare:as# debe adi"inar
la que falta y explicar por quK la ha elegido.
1 black# white) true# false) big......
1 father# mother) man# woman) brother......
1 on# off) upstairs# downstairs) in......
!lternati"a9 %ada pare:a puede hacer su propia lista y leerla en "o( alta# para que otra
pare:a encuentre la oposiciHn. *i la palabra es adi"inada# el acertante gana un punto. *i la
palabra no es adi"inada# o se da una respuesta incorrecta# el que ha hecho la lista# gana.
/.-... 1 +alabras y dibu:os.
[email protected] ,e"isiHn y fi:aciHn de "ocabulario.
+estre7as9 %omprensiHn y expresiHn escritas.
<[email protected] &lemental.
[email protected] 'ndi"idual o en pare:as.
7rgani(aciHn9 el profesor reparte una fotocopia a cada alumno o pare:a donde aparece
un dibu:o. &n un tiempo dado (tres minutos) los alumnos tienen que escribir los nombres de
los dibu:os que estGn numerados. +or e:emplo9
=umber -9 ! hen.
=umber /9 ! knife.
=umber 89 ! fork.
!sJ hasta que terminen. 4uego tendrGn que agruparlos por categorJas# de tres en tres. +or
The dog# the cat# the hen are animals.
+odemos ayudar a los alumnos dGndoles las siguientes frases9
1 ............................................................... are things to eat.
1 .............................................................. are used to tra"el.
1 .............................................................. are clothes.
4a pare:a que termine antes y cuyas respuestas sean correctas# gana.
(.(. : J!g&' "! !'%2)%2a' g2a+a%$)a1!'.
&stos :uegos pueden ser orales o escritos y ayudan a fi:ar unas estructuras gramaticales
especJficas# ya conocidas por el alumno. 3ay que tener la habilidad de presentGrselos como
una acti"idad recreati"a# sin hacer alusiHn a la estructura. *i el alumno se equi"oca# debemos
animarle a que encuentre la alternati"a correcta# sin corregirle formalmente# pues ya hemos
indicado que lo mGs importante del :uego es la comunicaciHn.
/./.-.1 Fuego de trotamundos.
[email protected] +rGctica del presente.
[email protected] %omprensiHn y expresiHn orales.
<[email protected] &lemental e intermedio.
([email protected] Tar:etas postales# recortes de re"istas# banderas y un cronHmetro.
[email protected] Nrupos de cuatro o cinco alumnos.
7rgani(aciHn9 *e di"ide la clase en grupos de cuatro o cinco alumnos. Tn
representante de cada grupo recibe un documento "isual (tar:eta# foto# recorte#...) de un paJs#
de una ciudad o de un lugar conocido por la mayorJa# donde se supone se estG reali(ando un
"ia:e. Ttili(ando el presente# tiene que explicar a sus compa`eros de equipo dHnde estG# pero
no puede emplear nombres propios. 4os compa`eros tienen que adi"inar el lugar en que se
1 ' am in a beautiful town.
1 't is the capital city of the country.
1 ' am "isiting a big palace where a famous queen li"es.
*e cronometra el tiempo# y el equipo que haya tardado menos en adi"inar# gana.
!lternati"a9 &ste mismo :uego se puede utili(ar para la prGctica del futuro si en la tar:eta o la
foto que se entrega aparecen las caracterJsticas del paJs de donde procede# y se pide a los
alumnos que imaginen que Kse es el lugar al que irGn de "acaciones ese "erano y lo que harGn
/././. 1 !di"ina mi oficio.
[email protected] +rGctica de las estructuras interrogati"as bGsicas.
[email protected] %omprensiHn y expresiHn orales.
<[email protected] &lemental e intermedio.
([email protected] %artas con dibu:os que representen una profesiHn# ocupaciHn u oficio# y el
nombre escrito deba:o. &n su defecto# tro(os de papel con el nombre de una profesiHn.
[email protected] Nrupos de cuatro o cinco alumnos.
7rgani(aciHn9 *e di"ide la clase en grupos (cuatro o cinco alumnos) que traba:arGn
independientemente. *e entrega una carta de una profesiHn a un alumno de cada grupo# que se
dirigirG a sus compa`eros diciendo9 ONuess my :obO. 4os miembros del equipo le harGn un
mGximo de die( preguntas hasta adi"inar quK hace. *i agotan las preguntas# el que presenta la
profesiHn gana# y el profesor entrega otra carta a otro miembro del grupo. &l alumno responde
siempre exclusi"amente O>esO o O=oO.
!lternati"as9 *e pide un "oluntario y se le ordena salir de la clase. 4os demGs se ponen
de acuerdo para elegir el nombre de un persona:e histHrico o actual# de un animal# de una
planta# de un ob:eto... &ntra el "oluntario y se le coloca en la espalda un papel con el nombre
elegido. TendrG que hacer a sus compa`eros un mGximo de die( preguntas con el fin de
adi"inar su identidad. %uando lo consigue o ha agotado el namero de preguntas# cede el
puesto a otro compa`ero. Nana el que lo haya adi"inado con menos preguntas.
/./.8. 1 Fuego del mimo.
[email protected] +rGctica del presente continuo.
[email protected] %omprensiHn y expresiHn orales.
<[email protected] &lemental e intermedio.
([email protected] =inguno.
[email protected] Tres grandes grupos.
7rgani(aciHn9 *e di"ide la clase en tres grupos9 !# y %. &l profesor propone al equipo ! que
prepare cHmo representar mediante mJmica una acciHn9 comer un hue"o# "ender leche# .... !
una se`al del profesor# todo el equipo ! representa con mJmica la acciHn# y los equipos y %
hacen preguntas a las que el equipo ! sHlo puede contestar O>esE=oO. *i al cabo de cinco
preguntas la acciHn no ha sido adi"inada# el equipo ! gana un punto. &n caso contrario# no
gana nada. %oge el turno el equipo que ha acertado# o en su defecto el # y asJ sucesi"amente.
Nana el equipo que tenga mGs puntos al final del :uego.
/./.6. 1 Fuego de las asociaciones.
[email protected] +rGctica de Osome# any# an# aO con nombres contables e incontables.
[email protected] %omprensiHn y expresiHn orales.
<[email protected] &lemental e intermedio.
([email protected] %artas o recortes de re"istas con dibu:os de alimentos# ob:etos personales# ropas#
etc. &n su defecto# tro(os de papel con el nombre de estas cosas.
!grupaciHn9 Nran grupo.
7rgani(aciHn9 Formar un cJrculo con todos los alumnos y colocar un pupitre en el
centro. *i el grupo es muy numeroso# puede :ugarse en dos turnos. @istribuir dos cartas (o dos
tro(os de papel con los nombres) a cada alumno. <ostrando una a los demGs# el primer
alumno dice9 O' ha"e got some flour# and you;O. &l alumno que tenga un nombre o dibu:o que
pueda ser asociado con OharinaO saldrG corriendo del cJrculo y dirG# por e:emplo9 O' ha"enPt got
any flour# but ' ha"e got some breadO. > coloca la carta al lado de OharinaO. 4uego a`ade
(de:ando la carta en el pupitre)9 O!nd ' ha"e got some cigarrettes tooO# parque otro alumno
"enga y diga9 O' ha"enPt got any cigarrettes# but ' ha"e got a lighter# and some milk# tooO. > asJ
sucesi"amente. 4os alumnos deberGn reaccionar muy deprisa# porque puede haber "arias
asociaciones. &l :ugador que se quede con las cartas en la mano# pierde.
/./.A. 1 Fuego de las adi"inan(as.
[email protected] +rGctica del presente simple# de la interrogaciHn y de los ad:eti"os.
[email protected] %omprensiHn y expresiHn orales.
<[email protected] 'ntermedio.
([email protected] %artas con dibu:os# o papel con el nombre de ob:etos fGciles de describir.
[email protected] @os grandes grupos.
7rgani(aciHn9 *e di"ide la clase en dos equipos# y el profesor designa el mismo
namero de cartas para cada uno. &l tiempo de participaciHn de cada equipo es de dos minutos.
Tn alumno del equipo ! sale a OescenaO. &l profesor le da una carta del montHn que le
corresponde y el alumno tiene que describir el ob:eto para que sus compa`eros lo adi"inen.
Tiene que haber una pausa entre frase y frase para que los compa`eros tengan tiempo de
pensarlo. *i un grupo se OatascaO en un ob:eto# puede de:arlo y pasar a otro. &ntonces el que
describe entrega la carta al profesor y otro compa`ero sale a intentar describir un ob:eto
nue"o. Nana el equipo que en los dos minutos haya conseguido adi"inar mGs ob:etos.
/./.5. 1 4a ruta de !na.
[email protected] +rGctica de las instrucciones y la descripciHn de lugares.
[email protected] %omprensiHn oral.
<[email protected] 'ntermedio y a"an(ado.
([email protected] Tn dibu:o o plano.
[email protected] 'ndi"idual o en pare:as.
7rgani(aciHn9 &l profesor entrega un dibu:o a cada alumno o pare:a# representando un
plano con una ruta que "a a coger !na. 4uego lee un texto y explica el "ocabulario
desconocido# hasta estar seguro de que los alumnos lo han entendido. 4os alumnos han de
marcar en el dibu:o el camino seguido por !na y hacer una cru( en los sitios donde se detiene.
!lternati"a (sin dibu:o)9 +ara complicar el :uego# en ni"eles a"an(ados# el profesor lee
un texto descripti"o de un lugar# y los alumnos tienen que imaginarlo y dibu:arlo. 4uego se
comparan los dibu:os y se discuten las diferencias hasta conseguir e que pare(ca mGs correcto
a todos.
(.*. : J!g&' "! )2!a%$,$"a".
*on mGs abiertos que los del apartado anterior. 4os llamamos asJ porque el alumno puede
crear un lengua:e mGs imaginati"o# mGs amplio. *on eminentemente comunicati"os# por lo
que el profesor deberG "igilar un uso OadecuadoO de la lengua sin insistir demasiado en la
perfecciHn de la forma.
/.8.-. 1 4a historia tonta.
[email protected] P2\)%$)a "!1 -a'a"&.
[email protected] %omprensiHn y expresiHn escritas.
<[email protected] E1!+!n%a1, $n%!2+!"$& 8 a,an;a"&.
([email protected] 3o:as de papel.
[email protected] Nrupos de ocho alumnos.
7rgani(aciHn9 &l profesor explica que la finalidad del :uego es encontrar las
consecuencias de una serie de acciones. *e di"ide la clase en grupos de ocho alumnos. %ada
grupo empie(a a escribir una historia respondiendo a las siguientes preguntas9
1 $ho; 9 el nombre de un hombre o de una mu:er cKlebres.
1 $here;9 se desarrolla la acciHn.
1 $hen; 9 fecha# Kpoca# estaciHn del a`o.
1 $hat are they wearing;
1 $hat did they do;
1 $hat did U say;
1 $hat did \ say;
1 $hat happened later;
&l primer alumno de cada grupo escribe el nombre de un hombre famoso o cKlebre y dobla la
ho:a para que sus compa`eros no lo lean) el segundo alumno escribe el nombre de una mu:er
cKlebre y dobla la ho:a) el tercero escribe dHnde se desarrolla la acciHn y dobla tambiKn la
ho:a. !sJ hasta que hayan terminado todas las preguntas. *iempre que la contestaciHn lo
permita# se harGn frases completas. 4uego un alumno de cada grupo lee en "o( alta la historia
completa. Nana la historia mGs di"ertida y que tenga menos fallos gramaticales.
/.8./. 1 Tn poco de memoria.
7b:eti"os9 %onstrucciHn de una frase muy larga y memori(aciHn.
@estre(as9 %omprensiHn y expresiHn orales.
=i"el9 'ntermedio y a"an(ado.
<aterial. =inguno.
!grupaciHn9 @os grandes grupos.
7rgani(aciHn9 &l profesor explica que se trata de hacer correctamente una frase muy
larga# escucharla dos "eces y repetirla. *e di"ide la clase en dos equipos. %ada uno se encarga
de hacer un par de frases largas# super"isadas por el profesor. Tn alumno de un equipo lee una
de las frases para que la repitan alumnos del otro equipo. 4a lectura debe ser correcta y
pausada. *i alguno duda o se equi"oca# hace perder un punto a su equipo. Nana el equipo que
tenga menos puntos negati"os.
/.8.8. 1 _XuiKn debe sobre"i"ir;
7b:eti"o9 +rGctica de las oraciones condicionales.
@estre(as9 %omprensiHn y expresiHn orales.
=i"el9 'ntermedio y a"an(ado.
<aterial9 =inguno.
!grupaciHn9 Nrupos de ocho alumnos.
7rgani(aciHn9 4os alumnos se di"iden en grupos de ocho. &l profesor explica la
dramGtica situaciHn9 O&ight people tra"el in a globe which is relie"ing air "ery quickly. The
pilot says that at least one of them must :ump out to make the globe lighter# or otherwise the
globe will crash and e"erybody will dieO. 4os ocho persona:es# que son los me:ores en sus
profesiones# tienen que :ustificar su derecho a la "ida. +ueden elegirse "arias profesiones9
mKdico# arquitecto# abogado# poeta# enfermero# policJa# polJtico# profesor#... 4os alumnos
tendrGn que utili(ar las condicionales9 'f ' die# Othere wonPt be buildings any longerO.
&l cuarto tipo de :uegos son aquellos conocidos como :uegos de comunicaciHn. &n ellos# el
Knfasis no se pone en la correcciHn absoluta del lengua:e utili(ado por el alumno# sino en el
mensa:e general que el alumno emite# en la eficacia comunicati"a del lengua:e. &llo no
significa que esta clase de :uegos no me:ore la correcciHn y la competencia lingIJstica# pues
un lengua:e que estK plagado de errores no podrG ser"ir de medio de comunicaciHn efecti"o y
ademGs la gama lingIJstica que se usa en este tipo de :uegos es limitada y los alumnos repiten
las mismas estructuras muchas "eces.
*.1. : D$5Ea 1a #2a'!.
7b:eti"o9 +rGctica de formas interrogati"as.
@estre(as9 &xpresiHn y comprensiHn orales.
=i"el9 &lemental# intermedio y a"an(ado.
<aterial9 &l encerado y papeles en los que "aya escrito el tJtulo de un libro# o de una
pelJcula# o de un programa de TV o expresiones en la lengua extran:era# refranes# etc.
!grupaciHn9 @os grandes grupos.
7rgani(aciHn9 *e di"ide la clase en dos grupos. &n sesiones anteriores se habrG
estudiado el "ocabulario no conocido# relati"o a los tJtulos o expresiones en inglKs. +ara
iniciar el :uego se bara:an los papeles y el profesor entrega uno# sin que lo "ean los demGs# a
un alumno del grupo !# que deberG salir al encerado. &ste alumno tiene que representar a
tra"Ks de los dibu:os en el encerado# o por medio de mJmica# la frase o tJtulo para que sus
compa`eros adi"inen de quK se trata. 4os compa`eros hacen preguntas a las que se
contesta O>esE=oO. &l tiempo para cada frase es de un minuto. *i lo adi"inan# ganan un punto.
! continuaciHn participa el equipo . &l :uego se repite "arias "eces# y gana el equipo que
tenga mGs puntos.
*.(. : Pa2!Ea' "! "$5E&'.
7b:eti"o9 +rGctica de la descripciHn.
@estre(as. %omprensiHn y expresiHn orales.
=i"el9 &lemental# intermedio y a"an(ado (dependiendo del dibu:o).
<aterial9 +are:as de dibu:os# fotos# etc.# con alguna diferencia.
!grupaciHn9 +are:as.
7rgani(aciHn9 *e :uega en pare:as. %ada una recibe un par de dibu:os similares# pero
con alguna diferencia. %ada alumno esconde su dibu:o para que no lo "ea su compa`ero.
4uego lo describen y se hacen preguntas para tratar de a"eriguar las diferencias.
*.*. : 3$'%&2$a "!'&2"!na"a.
7b:eti"o9 +rGctica de la narraciHn.
@estre(as9 %omprensiHn y expresiHn orales.
=i"el9 &lemental# intermedio y a"an(ado.
<aterial9 Fotocopia de una historia contada en "i`etas y otra igual recortada en tro(os.
!grupaciHn9 +are:as.
7rgani(aciHn9 4os alumnos se sientan en pare:as. &l alumno ! recibe la fotocopia
entera y el alumno la "ersiHn recortada en tro(os y en desorden. &l alumno tiene que
rehacer la historia# colocando los tro(os en orden# a partir de las explicaciones del alumno !.
*.4. : Da2 "$2!))$&n!'.
7b:eti"o9 +rGctica de las direcciones.
@estre(as9 %omprensiHn y expresiHn orales.
=i"el9 &lemental# intermedio y a"an(ado.
<aterial9 Tna fotocopia de un plano completo y otra con el esquema de las calles sin
ningan nombre o dato.
!grupaciHn9 +are:as.
7rgani(aciHn9 *e distribuye toda la clase por pare:as. &l alumno ! recibe la fotocopia
con toda la informaciHn. &l alumno recibe el plano sin nombres. &s nue"o en la ciudad#
acaba de llegar a la estaciHn y tiene que ir9 primero a# por e:emplo Othe post officeO# despuKs a
Othe town hallO# luego a Othe 3otel ,it(O# y finalmente a Othe 7pera theatreO. &l alumno !
tiene que dar las explicaciones suficientes para que el alumno localice en su plano los
lugares a los cuales debe dirigirse# el nombre de las calles# etc. &ste :uego permite que los dos
alumnos inter"engan acti"amente en la con"ersaciHn# pues deben preguntar# responder y
clarificar instrucciones.
T='T -.9 @,!<! T&%3='XT&* !* <&!=* F7, T3& 4&!,='=N 7F F7,&'N=
4!=NT!N&*. T3& @,!<!T'\!T'7= 7F @!'4> 4'F& *'TT!T'7=* [email protected] T3&
,&+,&*&=T!T'7= 7F T!4&*# F7K&*. &T%. $7,K N,7T+ F7, %,&!T'V&
!%T'V'T'&*. T3& ,74& 7F T3& T&!%3&,.
1. '=T,[email protected]%T'7=
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1angag! -2&")!" $n %7! Eng1$'7 )1a''.
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an" '-&n%an!&' '! $n 2!a1 1$#!.
A11 %7&'! a)%$,$%$!' "!,!1&-!" 58 %7! %!a)7!2 $n &2"!2 %& 2!-2&")! a'-!)%' %7a% )7a2a)%!2$'! %7! 2!a1 '!
&# %7! 1angag! '7&1" 5! a16a8' -&'$%$,!18 ,a1!". A' 2!ga2"' %7$', &n! &# %7! a)%$,$%$!' %7a% 7!1-' 5!'% %7!
'%"!n% $n %7! -2a)%$)! &# %7!'! )7a2a)%!2$'%$)' -!)1$a2 %& %7! )&++n$)a%$,! 1angag! $' "2a+a%$'a%$&n.
In %7! #&2!$gn 1angag! )1a'', "2a+a%$'a%$&n 7a' g&% %7! &5E!)%$,! &# g!%%$ng %7! '%"!n% %& "!,!1&- a
)2!a%$,! -2&")%$&n &# %7! 1angag!.
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'-&n%an!$%8 %7a% )7a2a)%!2$'! an8 n&2+a1 a)% &# )&++n$)a%$&n.
(. @,!<! T&%3='XT&* !* <&!=* F7, T3& 4&!,='=N 7F F7,&'N=
/.- Techniques of awakening and expression.
T7! "2a+a%$'a%$&n a' a %!)[email protected]! &# a6a0!n$ng an" !=-2!''$&n )an 5! )a228 &% %72&g7 an8 a)%$,$%8 $n
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a n+5!2 &# 2!a)%$&n' n&% &n18 &# 1$ng$'%$) na%2!, 5% a1'& !+&%$&na1, )1&'! %& %7! &n!' %8-$)a1 $n an a)% &#
)&++n$)a%$&n $n 2!a1 1$#!.
D2a+a%$'a%$&n $n %7! '!n'! "!a1% 7!2! $' n&% #a2 #2&+ %7! )!2%a$n ga+!' &# $+$%a%$&n '& )7a2a)%!2$'%$) $n
)7$1"7&&". In 5&%7 )a'!' 6! "!a1 6$%7 a)%$,$%$!' %7a% )&n'$'% &n a''+$ng &2 '$+1a%$ng )!2%a$n 2&1!' $n
$+ag$na28 '$%a%$&n'. On %7! &%7!2 7an", a1'& %7! -1a8!2', a' %7!8 -2'! %7! !nE&8+!n% an" %7! $n"$,$"a1
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a%%!n%$&n 58 +!an' &# a2%$#$)$a1 2!-2&")%$&n &2 !,!n%' $n 7+an 1$#! %7a% 7a,! "!,!1&-!" $n %7&'!.
/./ From the game to dramatisation.
/7a% $' %7! "$##!2!n)! 5!%6!!n ga+!' an" "2a+a%$'a%$&nQ
F$2'%18, %7! -2a)%$)! &# 1angag! ga+!' $' 'a118 )7a2a)%!2$'!" 58 %7! "!'$2! &# )&+-!%$%$&n an"
&,!2)&+$ng %7! &%7!2 -1a8!2' $n %7! a)7$!,!+!n% &# %7! &5E!)%$,!' -2&-&'!" #&2 !a)7 ga+!. T7$' "!'$2! %&
)&+-!%! n!,!2%7!1!'', $' n&% an !''!n%$a1 )7a2a)%!2$'%$) &# "2a+a%$'a%$&n, 67!2! 67a% $% 2!a118 +a%%!2' $' >%&
-a2%$)$-a%!?. S!)&n"18, %7! 1angag! '!" $n %7$' 0$n" &# ga+!' $' n&2+a118 ,!28 &2gan$'!" an" )&n%2&11!"
58 %7! %!a)7!2. In "2a+a%$'a%$&n, &n %7! )&n%2a28, %7! #2!!"&+ &# %7! '%"!n% %& )7&&'! %7! 1angag! %& 5!
'!" $n !a)7 +&+!n% $' n!a218 )&+-1!%!. F$na118, 6! '7&1" 'a8 %7a% %7! 2&1! -!2#&2+!" 58 %7! '%"!n%' $n
%7! ga+!' $' n&% a16a8' %7! 1$,$ng $+ag! &# %7! 5!7a,$&2 &# an8 $n"$,$"a1 $n %7! "$##!2!n% 2!a1 1$#!
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I% $' !a'8 %& %2n a ga+! &# 1angag! $n%& "2a+a%$'a%$&n. T7! &n18 %7$ng n!!"!" #&2 %7$' $' %& g$,! %7!
'%"!n% a g2a%!2 1$ng$'%$) $n"!-!n"!n)! "2$ng %7! "!,!1&-$ng &# %7! ga+! $%'!1#, $n,$%$ng 7$+T7!2 %&
!=)7ang! -&$n%' &# ,$!6 6$%7 7$'T7!2 )1a''+a%!' #2!!18, '& %7a% 7!T'7! )an ga%7!2 %7! '-!)$#$) $n#&2+a%$&n %&
a)7$!,! %7! &5E!)%$,!' &# %7! ga+!. T7$' +a0!' -&''$51! %& '%a5$1$'! an $n%!2a)%$&n 5!%6!!n %6& &2 +&2!
'%"!n%', $n 67$)7 !a)7 &n! a' 6!11 a' '$ng %7! 1angag! 7!T'7! %7$n0' +&'% a--2&-2$a%!" 7!T'7! a1'& %a0!'
'$+$1a2 2&1!' %& %7&'! $n 7+an an" '&)$a1 2!1a%$&n'7$-. In %7$' 6a8, %7! '%"!n%' -!2#&2+ 6$%7 %7! 1angag!
+an8 "$##!2!n% #n)%$&n' ')7 a' $"!n%$#8$ng, a'0$ng, [email protected]$2$ng, ag2!!$ng, "$'ag2!!$ng !%)., 58 +!an' &# %7a%
%7! ga+! 5!)&+!' an a%7!n%$) )&++n$)a%$&n a)%.
/.8 @rama techniques used in teaching a foreign language.
T7! )&++n$)a%$,! -2a)%$)! &# a 1angag! 6$11 &n18 5! )&+-1!%! $# 6! '))!!" $n "!a1$ng 6$%7 a11 %7!
a'-!)%', 1$ng$'%$) an" n&n:1$ng$'%$), %7a% "!#$n!' %7! 2!a1 '! &# %7! %a2g!% 1angag!. I% $' "2a+a $%'!1# %7a%
'!% - a' &n! &# %7! +&'% !##!)%$,! a)%$,$%$!' %& $n%2&")! %7! '%"!n% %& %7! )&++n$)a%$,! -2a)%$)! &# a
(.*.1 /a2+$ng - a)%$,$%$!'
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g&$ng %& %72&6: a %!nn$' 5a11, a 5a11&&n, a #&&%5a11...
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g!'' %7! 6&2".
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)a-a)$%8 &# 2!+!+5!2$ng.
*. T3& @,!<!T'\!T'7= 7F @!'4> 4'F& *'TT!T'7=* [email protected] T3&
,&+,&*&=T!T'7= 7F T!4&*# F7K&*. &T%.
8.- $atching exercises.
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)&++n$)a%$,! '! &# %7! 1angag!.
*.1.1 E=-1&2$ng %7! )1a''2&&+
T7! %!a)7!2 $n,$%!' %7! '%"!n%' %& -a8 a%%!n%$&n, "2$ng a )&-1! &# +$n%!', %& %7! %7$ng' $n %7!
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8./ &xercises of creation and interpretation.
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6.- !d"antages for the teacher.
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%7! %!a)7!2, 2!1a%! %& %7!$2 )1a''+a%!'.
6./ %riteria for the classification of acti"ities.
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$n'%2)%$&n' an" )&:&2"$na%$ng %7! $n%!2a)%$&n $' [email protected]!'%!" #2&+ %7! '%"!n%'.
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a2! a--a2!n%18 !a'$!2 %7an %7! &n!' %7a% [email protected]$2! %7! '! &# %7! 1angag! $n a )2!a%$,! 6a8.
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an" %7! %$1$%8 6$%7$n %7! 1angag! )1a''.
6.8 The role of the teacher.
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+!an' &# )2!a%$,! a)%$,$%$!'.
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%7! a)%$,$%$!' $n %7! #%2!.
T3&<& /D.
T3& F7,&'N= 4!=NT!N& !,&! '= T3& %T,,'%T4T<. %,'T&,'! T7 &
,&F4&%T&@ '= T3& &@T%!T'7=!4 +,7F&%T [email protected] T3& %T,,'%T4!, +,7F&%T.
-. '=T,[email protected]%T'7=9
The 7rganic !ct -E-..D of Neneral 7rganisation of the &ducational *ystem introduced some
important changes# aimed at impro"ing the quality of education in *pain. !mong these changes
we can mention9
- The extension of compulsory education to the age of -5 years old
- The establishment of new educational stages such as9 'nfant &ducation# +rimary &ducation#
and %ompulsory *econdary &ducation.
- These stages are organised in cycles# which is the period that should be considered for
teaching programs and promotion.
- The establishment of a curriculum which# in spite of ha"ing certain aspects which are
compulsory for all the country# is also open and flexible# as the different autonomous
educational ser"ices could adapt it to their real context. Then# each school should adapt the
official curriculum to their real en"ironment by means of the design and de"elopment of the
%urricular +ro:ect.
- esides# the %entres ha"e the right to define their educational options# their ob:ecti"es and
their organisational structure that will make possible the attainment of such ob:ecti"es.
These aspects must be included in a document called the &ducational +ro:ect.
Then# taking into account these basic aspects of the educational reform# we are going to deal
- The Foreign 4anguage area# as it is reflected in the official curriculum.
- The criteria to be reflected in the &ducational +ro:ect and the %urricular +ro:ect# in relation
to this area.
/. T3& F7,&'N= 4!=NT!N& !,&! '= T3& 7FF'%'!4 %T,,'%T4T<9

The teaching of a foreign language is included among the areas of +rimary education# as we can
see in the articles number -6 of the 7rganic !ct -E-..D# and also in the article number A of the
,oyal @ecree -866E.-# which established the national curriculum for +rimary &ducation.
!ccording to these legal documents# the teaching of that foreign language starts in the second
cycle. 3owe"er# in most autonomous regions of *pain# the teaching of a foreign language has
been brought forward to the first cycle.
'n &xtremadura# this introduction came into force from the beginning of the last academic year#
according to an 7rder of the 8D
of !ugust# /DDD.
The importance gi"en to the learning of a foreign language in current society has to do with
certain '&)$a1, !")a%$&na1 an" -'8)7&1&g$)a1 "!+an"'# which rewster# &llis and Nirard# in
their book 0The +rimary &nglish teacher’s guide’ summarised as follows9
- S&)$a1 "!+an"'9 deri"e from the need of communicating with people from other countries
in a world# which is becoming a Mglobal "illage’. The success in business and international
relations is closely linked to the learning of foreign languages# especially in the context of
the &uropean Tnion# where goods and people can mo"e freely through the member states.
esides# the ability of communicating in a foreign language (especially in &nglish) is quite
useful to tra"el abroad# and for the transmission of news and knowledge.
- T7! E")a%$&na1 "!+an"' ha"e to do with the de"elopment of cogniti"e and social
abilities by means of the learning of a new language and its culture. This knowledge help
children to o"ercome their natural egocentrism# as they realise that there are other ways of
li"ing and seeing reality different from their own. !t the same time# this contact will help
them to de"elop tolerance and respect as well as a better understanding and appreciation of
their own language and culture.
- Finally# the -'8)7&1&g$)a1 "!+an"' refer to the need of introducing them to the learning
of a foreign language# as young as possible# because they are less distanced from the age
in which they learn their first language than teenagers or adults# and they are still good at
understanding and imitating what they hear. esides# they realise that the same functions
and notions they ha"e :ust learn in their nati"e language# can be expressed# equally well#
using a different language.
7nce we ha"e seen the importance of teaching a foreign language in +rimary education# we are
going to see how the foreign language area is reflected in the official curriculum through the
analysis of its different elements.
$e are going to start with the analysis of the +!%7&"&1&g$)a1 -2$n)$-1!':
-. First of all# we should consider that the foreign language area curricular purpose is not to
teach a foreign language but rather to teach how to communicate using it. Therefore ,oyal
@ecree -DD5E-..- of the -6th Fune# which establishes the teaching requirements for +rimary
education# sees communicati"e competence as comprising fi"e sub1competencies9
- Nrammar competence9 the ability to implement rules and lexical items
from the language system.
- @iscourse competence9 which refers to the ability to produce different
types of discourse organising them according to the communicati"e situation and the
- *ociolinguistic competence9 refers to the ability to adapt statements to
different contexts obser"ing the usage of a gi"en linguistic community.
- *trategic competence9 implies being able to use "erbal and non1"erbal
strategies to compensate for breakdowns in communication.
- *ociocultural competence9 refers to the student’s knowledge of the
cultural aspects of the countries where the foreign language is spoken.
!ll these elements are part of the language# as language is not something abstract# but a tool
for effecti"e communication.
/. %ommunicati"e competence acquisition is seen as a creati"e construction process. 7ur
pupils using their general cogniti"e strategies and linguistic input they recei"e establish
hypothesis to form the new rules about the foreign language system.
8. This new system is gradually contrasted and impro"ed as new input is presented. Therefore
error is seen as an integral part of the learning process# as it is the manifestation of the effort
our pupils are making to acquire the new system.
6. This acquisition process may be fostered# especially at first# in ways that do not require a
linguistic response by using Total +hysical ,esponse techniques.
A. ,ecepti"e skills (listening and reading) are "ery important at this stage# specially listening#
since oral communication is the most direct form of communication among human beings.
5. $e will try to familiarise the children not only with the target language from a functional
point of "iew# but also as a means of cultural and social transmission.
B. $e should organise contents around topics connected to the students’ interest.
?. The four linguistic skills (listening# speaking# reading and writing) should be integrated
through meaningful communicati"e acti"ities.
T7!n, %7! G!n!2a1 &5E!)%$,!' &# %7! #&2!$gn 1angag! a2!a a2! "!'$gn!" a))&2"$ng %& %7!
-2$n)$-1!' 6! 7a,! E'% +!n%$&n!". A' 6! 6$11 '!!, %7!'! &5E!)%$,!' 2!#!2 %& %7! "!,!1&-+!n%
&# %7! #&2 1$ng$'%$) '0$11' B1$'%!n$ng, '-!a0$ng, 2!a"$ng an" 62$%$ngC, an" a1'& %& %7! '! &#
1$ng$'%$) an" !=%2a1$ng$'%$) '%2a%!g$!' an" %7! 0n&61!"g! &# '&)$&)1%2a1 a'-!)%', $n
&2"!2 %& g!% )&++n$)a%$,! )&+-!%!n)! $n %7! #&2!$gn 1angag!.
There are nine general ob:ecti"es# expressed in form of interrelated abilities9
<. ;o understand simple and oral written te+ts a!out known o!jects, situations and events,
using general and specific information taken from those te+ts for specific purposes.
=. ;o use the foreign language orally to communicate with the teacher and students in common
class activities and in communicative situations created for this purpose, o!serving the
!asic rules of interpersonal communication, and adopting a respectful attitude towards the
contri!ution of others.
>. ;o produce short simple te+ts a!out topics that the students are familiar with o!serving the
!asic writing rules.
?. ;o read and understand short simple te+ts related to class activities, to their knowledge of
the world and to their e+periences and interests, with the purpose of o!taining general and
specific information as desired.
E. ;o recognise and appreciate the communicative value of foreign languages and their a!ility
to learn them, showing understanding and respectful attitude towards other languages, their
speakers and their culture.
D. ;o understand and use the linguistic and non4linguistic conventions used !y the foreign
language speakers in common situations Kgreetings, farewells, introductions,
congratulations...$ in order to make communication easier.
B. ;o use in foreign language learning, previous knowledge and e+perience with other
languages, developing autonomous learning strategies.
C. ;o esta!lish relationships !etween meaning, pronunciation and graphic representation of
simple words and sentences in the foreign language, as well as recognising the
characteristic aspects of sound, rhythm and intonation in that foreign language.
A. ;o use non4linguistic e+pressive resources Kgestures, !ody language, sounds, pictures$ to
understand and !e understood when using a foreign language.
In &2"!2 %& "!,!1&- %7! a5$1$%$!' !=-2!''!" $n %7!'! &5E!)%$,!', 6! '7&1" 6&20 &n
CONTENTS %7a% $n our curriculum are classified into9
1 %oncepts
- +rocedures
- !ttitudes
%onceptual contents refer to facts# e"ents# rules and principles.
+rocedural contents refer to the strategies# abilities# techniques and skills necessary in the
learning process.
!ttitudinal contents are concerned with beha"iour and "alues.
These three kinds of contents are set in 51&)0':
- 7ral communication uses and forms.
- $ritten communication uses and forms.
- *ociocultural aspects.
The %7=T&=T* 7F T3& F7,&'N= 4!=NT!N& !,&! are also designed around
communicati"e needs and situations. $e ha"e summarised the three blocks of contents# which
appear in the ,@ -866E.- of the 5
of *eptember# as follows9
!. 7,!4 %7<<T='%!T'7= T*&* [email protected] F7,<*9
a.-) %oncepts9
− asic communicati"e needs and situations in the spoken form9 greeting# identifying oneself#
gi"ing and asking for information expressing needs and requests...
− %haracteristics of communicati"e situations9
•=umber and type of interlocutors.
•<oment and place.
•Formal or informal communication.
− Vocabulary and structures needed to express basic communicati"e needs in the spoken form.
− Topics related to the interests of the students and wide notions9
•%olours# numbers# time# daily life# food# animals# time# sports[
a./) +rocedures.9
− ,ecognising sounds# rhythm and intonation patterns of the foreign language.
− Neneral comprehension of spoken messages (face to face or recorded) about familiar topics.
− *pecific comprehension of spoken messages (face to face or recorded) in contextualised
− +roducing oral messages to satisfy common communicati"e needs.
− +articipating in linguistic exchanges for specific play purposes (simulations# role1play).
− ,ecognising and using basic common strategies (linguistic and non1linguistic) to o"ercome
communicati"e difficulties.
− ,ecognising grammatical forms to ask questions# state# deny# express possession# gender and
number# quantify# express facts in present# past# future[ and using them effecti"ely for
a.8) !ttitudes9
− !wareness of the importance of oral communication in a foreign languages
− $illingness to speak a foreign language by participating in group acti"ities (games# group
work# role# play[).
. $,'TT&= %7<<T='%!T'7= T*&* [email protected] F7,<*9
b.-) %oncepts9
− asic communicati"e needs and situations in the written form.
− %haracteristics of communicati"e situations.
− Topics of general use and wide notions[
− The names of the letters in the foreign language and their correspondence with their written
− ,elationship between meaning# of the "ocabulary studied its pronunciation and its graphic
b./) +rocedures9
− Neneral comprehension of written messages related to class acti"ities# and common
communicati"e needs.
− *pecific comprehension of simple authentic material.
− ,ecognising in written texts grammatical structures used to request# state# deny# express
possession# gender and number# state# deny[# using them effecti"ely for communication.
− +roducing short simple written texts in response to oral or written stimulus aimed at different
b.8) !ttitudes9
− !ppreciating the importance of knowing how to read and write in the foreign language.
%. *7%'7%T4TT,!4 !*+&%T*9
c.-) % oncepts9
− *ocial and cultural aspects of the countries where the foreign language is spoken which may
be interesting for our pupils such as9
•&xpression and gestures that go with speaking# such as9 polite gestures# tone of "oice#
•!spects of e"ery1day life9 schedules# habits of children of this age# food.
•Names# popular songs# fa"ourite meeting places and sports in the countries whose language
is studied[
• +resence in *pain of the foreign language studied by means of9 products#
labels# songs# films# TV programs...
c./) +rocedures9
− Tsing rules of beha"iour and habits of the foreign language speakers in context.
− %omparing the most rele"ant aspects of e"eryday life in those countries with the
corresponding aspects of the students’ nati"e country.
− Tsing authentic materials from different sources close to the learners’ in order to obtain
specific information.
c.8) !ttitudes9
− %uriosity and respect for the most rele"ant aspects of e"eryday life in theses countries.
− !ppreciation of the sociolinguistic beha"iour as a means to impro"e communication.
− 'nterest in getting to know people from other countries.
!fter the contents which should be taken into account to de"elop the abilities expressed in the
general ob:ecti"es# the ,oyal @ecree -866E-..-# presents nine ASSESSMENT CRITERIA,
which should be understood as a tool to check if students ha"e got the abilities expressed in the
Neneral 7b:ecti"es. These assessment criteria refer to abilities# but also make a little reference
to contents as well as a brief explanation.

!ccording to the ,[email protected] -866E.-# the attainment of the general ob:ecti"es of the foreign language
area# will be assessed in relation to the following )2$%!2$a:
-.1 To recognise and reproduce characteristic phonemes of the foreign language as well as
rhythm and intonation patterns in words and sentences used in real language situations.
;his criterion tries to check if students are familiar with the sounds, rhythm and intonation of the
foreign language in listening and speaking. ;he te+ts they should listen to or produce must make sense and
!e in conte+t.
/.1 .1To grasp the o"erall meaning of oral texts emitted in face to face communicati"e situations
supported by gestures# and miming and any necessary repetitions in which combinations of
pre"iously studied elements appears and which deal with topics that the learners are familiar
;his criterion considers the a!ility of students to understand the glo!al meaning of oral te+t in the
!est conditions, which imply* direct communication, conte+tual support and topics related to their
previous knowledge.
8.1 To extract specific information# which has been pre"iously studied# from oral texts with a
simple structure and "ocabulary# which deal with topics that# are interesting and familiar to
the students.
T7$' )2$%!2$&n )7!)0' %7! '%"!n%K' a5$1$%8 %& n"!2'%an", n&% &n18
%7! g1&5a1 +!''ag!, 5% a1'& '-!)$#$) "!%a$1' #2&+ '$+-1! &2a1 %!=%',
67$)7 "!a1 6$%7 %&-$)' %7a% a2! #a+$1$a2 %& %7!+.
6.1 To participate in short oral exchanges related to common classroom acti"ities# producing
comprehensible discourse adapted to the characteristics of the situation and to the
communicati"e aim.
;his criterion refers to the student^s a!ility to e+press !asic communicative needs in the conte+t of
the class such as* asking something, asking for something, asking for permission to do something,
asking for help, greeting... ;hese messages should !e e+pressed correctly enough to !e understood.
Kfor e+ample, they should use the correct e+pression to ask for permission such as* 8#an I go to the
toilet, please?, or #an I open the window1door?, #an I !orrow your pen, please?
A.1 To participate in simulated communicati"e situations# which ha"e been pre"iously studied in
class using common social formulas correctly in the foreign language.
;his criterion checks the student^s a!ility to communicate orally in the most !asic situations of daily
life using social relation formulas, especially those which are typical of children of this age, such as*
8How are you? )ine, thanks9.
8Happy !irthday!9
. 8&any happy returns9...
A.1 To grasp the general meaning and extract specific information from short written texts#
with a linear layout# and simple structures and "ocabulary# which deal with topics that are
interesting and familiar to the student
;his criterion refers to the student^s a!ility to understand short written te+ts from the teacher or
other students, such as* informal letters or instructions, pu!lic advertisements, charts and other
written te+ts with visual support such as simple comics for children.
5.1 To read# with the help of the teacher or a dictionary simple books for children with
redundant "isual support and written in foreign language# and showing the le"el of
comprehension attained by performing specific tasks.
"ith this criterion, we assess if the student is a!le to read simple !ooks written in the foreign
language, !ut with pictures that help them to understand. ;hen they have to show us what they have
understood !y means of ver!al on non ver!al task, which could !e done even in the student^s native
language, as we want to check comprehension, not e+pression.
B.1 To produce short comprehensible written texts that are adapted to the characteristics of the
situation and to the communicati"e aim and reflect to the sub:ect matter studied in class.
;his criterion means that students should !e a!le to write short simple messages, related to their
interests and needs, such as* the list of things they need for an e+cursion, a short letter giving !asic
personal information a!out themselves, or an invitation to a !irthday party.
?.1 To recognise some sociocultural features of the communities of foreign language speakers
that are contained in the language samples studied in class.
)inally, this criterion is designed to check if students are a!le to recognise some sociocultural elements
of the countries where the foreign language is spoken, especially those related to the daily life of children
such as* schedules, ha!its, su!jects at school, games, greetings, favourite meeting places, popular songs,
festivals, food...
8.1%,'T&,'! T7 & ,&F4&%T&@ '= T3& &@T%!T'7=!4 [email protected] '= T3& %T,,'%T4!,
7nce we ha"e analysed the elements of the official curriculum# which corresponds to the first
le"el of concretion# we must deal with the documents that each center should design in order to9
- @efine their educational options and structure through the &ducational +ro:ect.
- !dapt the different curricular elements to their context by means of the %urricular +ro:ect.
8.-.1 T7! E")a%$&na1 P2&E!)%:

First# we will deal with the &ducational +ro:ect# which is a document that must be designed and
appro"ed by the entire *chool %ommunity# through their representati"es in the *chool oard.
!ccording to the ,oyal @ecree ?/E-..5 of the /5
Fanuary# which establishes the organic
regulations of the 'nfant and +rimary *chools# the &ducational +ro:ect consist of9
-.1 The analysis of the sociocultural context of the center# which is the first step to establish the
following elements.(identity signs and educational ob:ecti"es)
/.1 The identity signs refer to those educational options that agree with the educational ideas
of the school community.
8.1 Taking into account these identity signs# the school community should establish the
educational ob:ecti"es as well as re"iewing the general ob:ecti"es of e"ery stage established in
the official curriculum to adapt them to their context# and to the identity signs of the centre.
6.1 To get these aims# the school community has to define the organisational structure they are
going to adopt including9
1 ! general guideline about the relations of collaboration among the different members of the
school community# and also the relations with other institutions.
1The organisational structure of the school# that should be reflected in a document about the
distribution of tasks among the different organs of the school community and also the internal
rules of the center.
8.-.-.: C2$%!2$a %& 5! 2!#1!)%!" $n %7! E")a%$&na1 P2&E!)% $n 2!1a%$&n %&
%7! #&2!$gn 1angag! a2!a:
=ow# we are going to see how the foreign language area could be reflected in the design of the
&ducational +ro:ect# by means of a practical example.
-.1 ,egarding the school $"!n%$%8 '$gn' the teaching of a foreign language could be considered
by the *chool community as a means to promote9
- ,espect for all the cultures
- @e"elopment of democratical habits.
1 !utonomous learning.
/.1 Taking into account the identity signs we ha"e expressed# we could include the following
!")a%$&na1 &5E!)%$,!':
- +romote the learning of a foreign language as a tool for social
- 4earning a foreign language as a tool for social de"elopment.
- 4earning a foreign language and its culture to increase tolerance and being
- &nlarging the psychological de"elopment of children learning a new
language and its culture.
8.1 !fter establishing the identity signs and the educational ob:ecti"es# we ha"e to take some
practical decisions about the &2gan$'a%$&na1 a'-!)%' that will make possible the attainment of
our ob:ecti"es. Following with our example we can adopt the following decisions9
- &stablishment of interchanges with an &nglish speaking country
- &stablishment of relations with different institutions# such as the ritish %ouncil
in order to obtain material.
- %ontact with parents or relati"es of students that ha"e "isited &nglish1speaking
- +articipation in official programs related to Foreign language learning# such as
the experimental teaching of &nglish in +rimary &ducation.
8./.: T7! C22$)1a2 P2&E!)%:
!ccording to the ,[email protected] ?/E-..5# the %urricular +ro:ect should include the following elements9
- The general ob:ecti"es of the stage adapted to the socio1cultural context of the school.
- The sequence of ob:ecti"es# contents and e"aluation criteria of the different areas per
- Neneral methodological decisions that affect the following aspects9 <ethodological
principles# groupings# space# time and materials.
- Neneral decisions about the attention to pupils with special needs.
8./.-. 1 C2$%!2$a %& 5! 2!#1!)%!" $n %7! C22$)1a2 P2&E!)% $n 2!1a%$&n %& %7! #&2!$gn 1angag!
=ow# we are going to analyse how the foreign language area
could be reflected in the %urricular +ro:ect of the *tage. $e are
going to resort to an example# as we did when talking about the
&ducational +ro:ect.
7nce the general ob:ecti"es of the stage ha"e been adapted to the socio1cultural context of the
school# the teaching staff should take decisions about the sequence of ob:ecti"es# contents# and
e"aluation criteria of each area along the different cycles. *ince the establishment of this
sequence is a difficult task# the <inistry of &ducation published a ,esolution of the A
<arch -../# that offered some criteria to establish such sequence.
'n relation to the foreign language area# this ,esolution says
-. $e must establish the sequence of ob:ecti"es# contents and
assessment criteria# according to the principles of the
communicati"e approach. This means# that we should
de"elop the four linguistic skills in an interrelated way as
they are in real communication.# and also connect the
different skills with our student’s interests and needs.
/.1 To establish the '[email protected]!n)! &# &5E!)%$,!' #&2 %7! '!)&n" an"
%7$2" )8)1!'# we should consider9
• The psychological stage of de"elopment of children
• Their pre"ious knowledge
• Their communicati"e needs
• The degree in which the abilities expressed in the
general ob:ecti"es are going to be de"eloped in each
cycle# For instance# starting from the ob:ecti"e number
one of the foreign language area9
`;o understand simple and oral written te+ts a!out known o!jects, situations and events, using
general and specific information taken from those te+ts for specific purposes.^
$e can sequence the abilities expressed in this ob:ecti"e# for
the second cycle of +rimary education# as follows9
`'t the end of the second cycle pupils will !e a!le to understand the general meaning of simple oral te+ts