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A Proposal for the Introduction of an Integrative Approach In the Teaching of Traditional Library Techniques of Organisation & Retrieval of knowledge Sources And Computer-based Database Design and Development Techniques
Madan Mohan Kashyap
201, Kadambari Niwas, Kadambari Marg, Sector-9, Rohini, Delhi-110085 (Email: [email protected])

Abstract
Presents a case for the restructuring the traditional main stream courses of library and information science discipline and the computer application related courses taught in library and information schools in India. Suggest that these courses need to be blended to constitute integrative courses of study. Shows the likeness between some concepts and techniques developed by computer specialist and library scientists. Points outs that to design and develop computer-based library information systems and services, one needs to have knowledge about the library objectives, functions, policies, rules, procedures, and specialised library tools and techniques, such as library classification, cataloguing and indexing techniques, along with database design, and development tools and techniques of information technology domain. As such, while teaching the techniques of two different domains to the library science students it is necessary that we try to follow an integrative approach. To achieve this objective it is necessary that we develop required study material by intermixing the theories and techniques of the two domains of study to form a new whole. Suggests that we can achieved the objective by revising the existing library classification and cataloguing theories, tools and techniques of Ranganathan in particular, by way of incorporating the concepts and techniques developed by computer specialists. As an example, signify the potentiality of Classified catalogue Code (CCC) of Ranganathan to be converted into a code or guide for creating a comprehensive library database, covering all types of entities associated with a library system and potentiality of Ranganathan's general theory of knowledge classification in developing specialised databases.

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0 Introductions Today many libraries are using computers and allied information technologies to improve their work methods and services. Consequently, the libraries need such professional staff, or need to train the present one, who could face the challenges placed by the introduction of these technologies in the libraries. To meet the demand of such professional staff, the departments of Library and Information Science in India introduced new courses of studies to expose their students in the use and application of computers and other allied technologies. Some courses introduced are: Computer Application in Libraries; Systems Analysis and Design Technique; Design and Development of Computer-based Library Information Systems; Database Organisation and Design; Library Networking; Use and Application of Communication Technology, and so forth. We feel that the computer and information technologies biased courses need to be restructured, revised, and more harmoniously blended with the traditional main stream courses of library and information science discipline. We must alter the strategy of teaching library techniques, such as classification, cataloguing, and library procedures, and the techniques of designing computer-based library information systems and services. The use and application of these techniques get interwoven when we shift from a manually operated library system's environment to computer-based library system's environment. As such, it becomes necessary that we must follow an integrative approach, when we teach these techniques to the students of library and information science or train library staff in the use and application of these techniques to design, develop and implement computer-based library information systems and services. In the following sections of this paper, we shall outline the likeness or correspondence between certain concepts and techniques formed by computer specialist and the one developed by the librarians, in their respective domains. We make use of these techniques (i.e. the techniques of both the domains) in the design and implementation of computerbased library information systems and services. As such, it is essential that lessons of study concerning the exposition of these supplementary and complementary techniques must be integrated. 1 Likeness in the Approaches of Techniques Developed by Computer Specialists and Librarians

Before the arrival of computers, the librarians had formulated certain concepts, tools and techniques for • Organising the knowledge sources or bibliographic items collected by the libraries in a helpful classified order according to APPUPA pattern, the name given by Ranganathan to the desired order of arrangement of the bibliographic items relating to associated subject on the library shelves. This pattern enables the library members to easily locate the items of their interest in a specific subject and related subjects kept on the left and right side the specific subject in a library. • Creating and organising surrogates ( i.e. catalogue cards or records of bibliographic items) in as traditional or online library catalogues, to enable the library users to search and identify the bibliographic items of their interest through various access points

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With the arrival of computer and database technology, the database designers to specify a conceptual model of a database or to formulate a data structure design (i.e. a set of organised data about real word entities) use various database modelling techniques or approaches. The theoretical base of these techniques is very similar to faceted technique postulated and devolved by Ranganathan for designing a scheme for a classification and cataloguing rules and approaches. Both these techniques are based upon similar or congruent postulates that can help us: • To design a conceptual schema, • To formulate a data structure design to organise the data or data records about real world entities (such as books, people, animals, plants, etc.), • To create records of entities associated with a library system or any other organisation. • To develop and implement search mechanisms, which help us to retrieve the required information from the library catalogues or online databases. • To identify and retrieve bibliographic items stored on the library selves or digital documents stored in a computer system. If we compare these concepts, tools and techniques with the concepts and techniques of database design developed by computer specialists, we find similarity or correspondence between their purpose and approaches. 1.1 Techniques of Database Design or Structure The design of a database structure involves three different levels of activities: (i) conceptual level, (ii) algorithmic or programming level, and (iii) storage level. The activities at conceptual level relate to the initial phase of data processing. During this phase one begins by identifying the objects, things, events or entity types whose data is to be processed and stored by the computer system. Once the pertinent entity types are identified, their relevant attributes or data elements are listed and the format, in which they are to be organised and stored, namely the data structure or database structure, is selected. The selected structure, format or schema at this level represents only conceptual view or model of the data (or the database). The activities of the algorithmic level represent the initial steps of implementing the selected data structure. These steps involve the specification of the required functions of the selected data structure and the operations that are to be facilitated by the chosen data structure. Such specifications are coded in a program using a procedure-oriented language. The mechanism used in the program to implement various data structures includes linear list, inverted list, linked list, and so on. The activities of the storage level have to do with physical representation of the data structure in the computer storage. During this phase one is concerned with physically configuring the data, that is, with the internal linkage, in the computer storage subsystem. Array and files are tools used to configure or build such mechanisms. 1.2 Correspondence between the Approaches of Database Design and the Design of a Scheme for Library Classification

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The data in a database is organised in variety of ways, and the details for structuring the data or data records with in a database are called data models. A data model has a fixed set of language constructs that are used for describing data and also have counterpart graphic representations for each construct, which enable the system designer or analyst to build and represent the database structure diagrammatically. The database modelling (or design) is a process of determining the structure and contents of a database. It is a complex process and constitutes of three phases namely, (i) conceptual design phase, (ii) logical design phase and (iii) physical deign phase. The conceptual design phase starts from requirement analysis and description and results in the global or conceptual schema of the database. A conceptual schema is highlevel description of the structure of the database and is independent of any particular Database Management System (DBMS). A conceptual data model is the language that is used to describe conceptual schema. A conceptual model specifies the rules according to which database records are to be logically structured and helps us describe the logical database structure. The logical design phase starts from converting conceptual schema into a logical schema. A logical schema is the specification of the structure of database that can be implemented on and processed using DBMS software. The physical design phase is concerned with the description of the implementation of database in a storage device; it describes the storage structures and access methods used to effectively and efficiently access data from storage devices. A physical design is custom-made to a specific database management system. Low level or physical data models, also called implementation-oriented models provide concepts that describe the details of how data is stored in the computer storage device. The three most widely used implementation-oriented models are relational, network, and hierarchical model (Vossen, 1991). Systems analysts or database designers use logical database-modelling techniques, such as entity-relationship modelling technique and object modelling technique, to analyse and document the conceptual and logical design of a database, and data flow diagrams to illustrate how the data will be captured, stored, used and maintained in a database system environment. Logical data modelling approach first gained recognition in Dr. Peter Chen's article Entity-Relationship Model: Towards a Unified View of Data (1976). Since then, data modelling or database modelling has become the common practice in design and development or of database systems. Using a data modelling technique, we can establish, organise or structure database of an information system and document its details. The Entity-Relationship data analysis and modelling approach is basically an analytical technique that can be used to identify and describe the entities associated with an enterprise/ organisation/ problem area or about which an enterprise, organisation or person wishes to store information and designing a conceptual schema or model of a database. This database design technique is based on the following fundamental concepts is aided by graphical display known as Entity-Relationship Diagrams (E-R diagrams): • Entity: An entity is something that can be seen, touched, conceptualised, or otherwise sensed, and about which collect and store data , or describe it • Entity Type (or Entity Set), which represent a set of distinguishable real-world objects or things (mini world) with common properties and about which an

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organisation or a person wants to collect and keep facts, data or information. BIBLIOGRAPHIC ITEM, LIBRARY, EMPLOYEE, CITY, and MOUNTAIN are examples of entities. • Attributes, which represent the elementary properties of entities or the attributes acquired entities due to relationships with other entities. For attributes, attributes of entity PERSON are: Name, Height, Weight, Address, Date-of-Birth, Place-ofBirth and so on. Place-of-Birth is the attribute that is acquired by the entity PERSON due its connection or relationship with the entity PLACE; the relationship being Is-Born-In between the entities EMPLOYEE and PLACE (CITY, TOWN, VILLAGE). The date_of_birth is the attribute of the relationship Is-Born-In between the entities EMPLOYEE and PLACE (CITY, TOWN, VILLAGE). • Relationships, which represent the associations or connections among entities. Examples of typical relationship are: Employee-of that relates EMPLOYEE and his place of work LIBRARY. The entities acquire certain descriptive elements or properties due to their association, connections or relationships with other entities. Relationships between entities are either one-to-one, one-to-many, or many-tomany. Beside the entity-relationship analysis and modelling approach, another data modelling approach, named the object-oriented analysis and modelling approach, is also popular these days. There is some similarity between the concepts or terms used in both of these data modelling approaches. Object modelling is a technique for identifying objects within the systems environment and the relationships between them. According to the object modelling technique the real world consists of objects like, men, women, trees, books, tables, and so forth. All objects belong to some class and have certain set of defined attributes and behaviours. An object, then, is an instance of a class. Consider the object (class) LIBRARY BOOK or MONOGRAPH. It has certain attributes: a title, extent, subject and price. It has also certain behaviours or functionalities. For Example, it can be borrowed by a library member for certain time and returned to the library in given time. Finally it has an identity: a call number that distinguishes it from other library books or monographs. These concepts are briefly described below: • Object: An object is something that can be seen, touched, or otherwise sensed, and about which users store data • Object Class: An object class is something that constitutes of a set of objects with similar attributes (properties), common behaviour, and common relationships (association) with other objects. • Attributes: Attributes are the characteristics of interest (data) about an object. • Behaviour: Behaviour of an object either changes or returns the state of on object. It refers to those things that the object can do and the correspondence functions that can act on the object’s data (or attributes). “In object-oriented circles, an object's behaviour is commonly referred to as a method, operation or service." [Whitten, et al, 2001. Pp. 646-672]. The basic concepts of entity-relationship analysis and modelling approach are the foundation of the logical database modelling technique with the help of which we can outline a conceptual model (also called conceptual or logical view) of a database, which is an application-independent and storage independent general abstract or logical description

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of the database. The conceptual level design or model of a database relates to the representation of that part of the real world that the database is about. For example, when we design a bibliographic database we are concerned with various kinds of ‘Information or Knowledge Resources' (i.e., documents or bibliographic items), a subset of real world entities. The conceptual level database involves identifying and specifying: - The entity types, which are the sets of entities with which we are concerned. In the case bibliographic database design case the entity types or classes involved are: (i) Monographs - Simple and Composite, (ii) Serials, and (iii) Independent Works or Contributions (Analytic) forming part of Simple or Composite Monographs, or Serials. - The attributes of the entities. An attribute is a property or a fact about an entity or entity types. It is a piece of information or elementary data about an entity or about a relationship. Title, for example, is the attribute of the entity document (a monograph, a serial or an analytic), and so is a date of publication, size, and extent. A string of symbols used to represent an attribute of a particular entity is called a value of the attribute. Thus "1994" and "xx+200p" may be the values of the attributes - date of publication and extent of a particular monograph, a serial, or an individual volume of a serial or a multi-volume monograph. - The relationships or associations among the entities. For example, the relationship between the entity BOOK (i.e. work) and the entity AUTHOR is that a book is written by or edited by an author. The terms written by or edited by indicate the relationship that exists between the entity types MONOGRAPH and AUTHOR. Ranganathan's faceted approach (also called theory of knowledge classification) is based upon the concepts of five fundamental categories or facets, namely Personality, Matter, Energy, Space and Time (cf., Ranganathan, 1967); 1964; Kashyap, 1983; Spiteri, 1996; Broughton, Vanda. 2001). If we critically examine the purpose and the definition of the concepts Personality, Matter, Energy, as provided by Ranganathan, we find them similar to the three fundamental concepts of Entity-Relationship Data Analysis and Modelling Technique, namely, Entity Types, Attributes and Relationships (cf., Kashyap, 2003). In addition, as Neelameghan points out (cf., Neelameghan, 1992; 1992), the General Theory of Knowledge Classification developed by Ranganathan can also be applied in designing specialized databases. Further, designing faceted classifications and putting on the Web, especially on commercial web sites are increasingly become common. (cf., Adkisson, 2003) According to Ranganathan, "library classification is the classification of subjects or knowledge classification" (Ranganathan. 1967, p.94) and a subject is an organised or systematised body of ideas, facts, data, information or knowledge concerning some thing/things or an exposition of theoretical construct(s) embodied in a bibliographic item. The content of a bibliographic item is the product of intellectual, transintellectual, creative activity or the imagination of man recorded in an intelligible, coherent and communicable form. The focus of study and description in a work or bibliographic document can be about a conceptual (abstract) or concrete (physical) entity/entities and their properties. The Ranganathan’s postulate, principle and cannons for classification

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are concerned with developing a framework for a scheme for subject classification and subject indexing system for organisation of documents, information about documents and their contents (i.e., the description of abstract or physical entity/entities or their attributes in the bibliographic documents). Ranganathan faceted approach is based on the postulates that the subjects of studies can be broadly divided into BASIC (or Simple) SUBJECTS and their subsequent hierarchical subdivisions called COMPOUND SUBJECTS, and COMPLEX SUBJECTS. A Basic (or Simple) Subject is field of study or discipline (branch of learning) or an aggregate of such fields; mutually exclusive and totally exhaustive first order array of subjects of a scheme for classification (e.g. Mathematics, Arithmetic, Geometry, Physics, Light, Heat, Biology, Cytology, and so on). According to Ranganathan a Compound Subject is formed by combination of a Basic Subject and one or more isolate concepts, belonging to the five fundamental categories or facets, namely Personality [P], Mater [M], Energy [E.], Space [S], and Time [T]. The Fundamental Category Personality [P] and its various levels constitute of hierarchically organised concepts representing the sets of entities or entity types and their subsets, forming the subject studies within the scope of a given field of study or a BASIC SUBJECT. By entity or entity type he means: 'any existence, concrete or conceptual, that is, a thing or idea'. The Fundamental Category Mater [M] and its various levels constitute of hierarchically organised concepts of the Matter Material (MM) and Matter Property (MP) type attributes of the focal entity types, included in Personality [P] category of a BASIC SUBJECT. According to Ranganathan, Fundamental Category Mater [M] represents what something is made of, or any property, or quality or quantity like measure of an entity. The isolate ideas or concepts representing the intrinsic matter, material, properties, or attributes of entity or entity class; that is, qualities, quantities, functions, activities, processes, growth, change of state, behaviour or characteristics of entities or objects belong to the focal facet. Examples are Colour, Inflammation, Reliability, Weight, State, Harmony, Authority, Constitution, Structure, Hardness, Softness, and Iron (as content of Blood or as a material of Iron-Table) The Fundamental Category Energy (or Action) [E] covers the isolate ideas or concepts that represent the energetic actions, operations (mental or physical), how something is processed or evolves, or impacts on the focal or core entity (i.e., the object or thing affected by action on it, by or through another entity and bring change in the core or focal entity belonging to first round Personality Facet [1P]) are deemed to belong to the category “Energy." In other words, this category includes isolate ideas or concepts relating to the energetic actions or interactions that exist among and by all kinds of entities -- inanimate, animate, conceptual, intellectual and initiative." (Ranganathan, 1967. pp. 400). The entity types that are source of energetic actions, operations (mental or physical), or any other relationship are deemed to belong to round two Personality Facet [2P]. The attributes of entity types belonging to second round Personality Facet [2P] constitute component of second round Matter Facet [2M], and second round Energy Facet [2E] constitute of concepts representing the associations, interrelationships, interactions (including action on or by other entities) that may exist between the entities belonging to second round Personality Facet [2P] with other entity types, which are deemed to belong to third round Personality Facet [3P] and so on.

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Ranganathan postulated that we always study an entity or entity set, (i.e. any existence, which may be either conceptual (or abstract) - god, democracy, truth, and so forth, or concrete (or physical) - plant, heat, light, cell, and so forth). Further, when study an entity or entity set we study its / their attributes (properties), and interrelationships, interactions with (including action on or by) other entities, in space and time context. These postulates are found useful to develop a scheme for a library classification. With the help of such a scheme we can organise the bibliographic items and their surrogates (i.e. bibliographic records) in helpful order and enable a library reader to retrieve the bibliographic items of his interest from the entire library collection with ease, based upon subject approach. 1.3 Correspondence between Methods of Organising Computer Files and Classified Catalogue Files

An indexed or inverted file organisation is a process or method of organising computer files so that a record or set of records in a computer file (main or master file) can be searched through an index or index file. An index or index file is used to access or pick a specific set of computer records from the master file. There are two types of indexes: primary indexes and secondary indexes. A primary index is one, which is built up using unique identifiers (i.e. primary key values) and pointers to the corresponding records in the main file. Further to build a primary index it is necessarily that the individual records in the master file are stored according to primary key sequence. Whereas, a secondary index is one that is built up using non-unique identifiers (i.e. secondary key values) and pointers to the corresponding records. The librarians already knew the use of indices, for accessing or searching bibliographic records or items from a main file of a library-classified catalogue. For this, we refer to the technique developed by Ranganathan, known as Chain Procedure (cf. Ranganathan, 1988). This procedure helps us to prepare class index entries (i.e. an index file) for a Classified Catalogue. These entries or file enable us to locate bibliographic entries of bibliographic items, belonging to a particular class (or a subject category) or its subdivisions, in the classified part (i.e. from main or master file) of the catalogue. If a library user wants to locate a set of bibliographic items on a topic, he would not begin to search all the bibliographic records in the classified part (i.e. the indexed file) of the catalogue from the beginning to end until comes across the topic of his interest. Rather he is directed to the specific location in the classified part (i.e. the indexed file) of the catalogue to actually find the bibliographic records of bibliographic items of his interest (along with complete data about them), through the alphabetical part (i.e. the index file) of a catalogue. The alphabetical part of the catalogue is in turn is arranged sequentially to an alphabetical order. It may be observed that a classified catalogue of a library and correspondingly a database of a computerised information system, which is organised using indexed or inverted file organisation method, are split into two parts, each part serving different function. In case of a classified catalogue, one part, called the classified part, holds all the records of bibliographic items in classified order. The other part, called the alphabetical part, contains sequentially arranged subject approaches or descriptors, to trace the relevant records of bibliographic items on a particular subject from the first part. Similarly, one part of a database called the main file or indexed file. This part holds of all the records of entity types, physically organised in some suitable manner. The other part of a database consists of

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sequentially arranged, one or more indexes (index/inverted files), which help us to trace and retrieve a specific entity record or a set of entity records from the main or master file. Both types of organisation help us in retrieving records and consequently data or information about a particular bibliographic item/entity or a set of bibliographic items/entities from the catalogue or database. However, the librarians, to designate the two parts of a library catalogue and computer specialists to designate the two parts of a database use different terms. The correlation between some approaches of library science and database designing techniques, as shown in the previous section, is due to fact that both areas of knowledge are concerned with information storage, processing and retrieval activities. After having shown the correspondence between library science and database design and development techniques, in the subsequent part of the paper, we shall examine the potentialities and means of following the integrative approach in handling the traditional library science courses and the database organisation and designing techniques of information technology. The traditional library science courses, such as, Library Administration (i.e. Course relating to library procedures or routines), Library Cataloguing (Theory and Practice) and the related information technology techniques need to be coalesced into one stream forming an integrated course of study and teaching in library and information science. 2. Computer-Based Information Systems: Design and Development Approach

We can use computers to carry out near all library functions, activities or work practices. One can computerise library processes such as acquisition, cataloguing, circulation and control of bibliographic items; membership registration; financial controls; upkeep of service records of employees, and so on. To do these library functions with the help of computers, we actually develop and install computer-based library information systems. In any organisation, a computer-based information system is generally designed to supports the operational and managerial decision making functions of the organisation and provides information: a. necessary for day-to-day library operations, planning and decision making b. to aid tactical or short run planning, and c. for the support strategic or long term planning. In contrast, a computer-based information system (also called library management system) of a library serves as an information system for management, and also bibliographic information system for library members. It provides: • Bibliographic information about the holdings of a library and their status, to the library members, • The information required by library staff and management to perform day to day library activities or functions, and • Information which supports managerial and decision making functions of different levels of library managers. Information, which is useful to them for tactical (or short run) planning and for a strategic (or a long term) planning. 2.1 Methodology of Designing a Computerised Information System

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A computer-based information system of an organisation is designed, developed and made operative using a database management system (DBMS). The databases of an information system are created and stored on computer hosts and linked to more than one access point via telecommunication lines. These databases are also developed and searched using the DBMSs. To design and develop a computerised information system and to set up its database with the aid of DBMS, what we required is: 1. Comprehensive or total view of the organisation including its objectives, functions, processes or activities (to be computerised) and the various entities associated with the organisation, whose database need to be created. 2. Expertise in the design and development of a conceptual schema and sub-schema of the database. 3. Knowledge about the capabilities and limitations of the database management software is being used to create the database of the organisation. 4. Proficiency in the use and application of its data-definition and data-manipulation languages of the DBMS, including its indexing and search techniques and converting the conceptual scheme into logical structure or a data schema / model within the framework of the given DBMS. In addition, one must be able to: a. Identify and describe the entity types (objects about which information is to be collected for use) and their attributes and relationships (i.e. data elements). b. Recognise, designate and define the essential and optional data fields and their subfields (data elements) that may comprise database record structure of an entity type. c. Provide unique identifiers and names to the data fields and sub-fields (i.e. data elements), that is; assign unique codes to each data field and sub-fields. These unique codes, also called content designators, consist of field tags, indicators, and sub-fields' codes and serve as means of identifying data elements or values of fields in a machine readable record, and d. Specify: 1. Set of guideline or rule for identifying and using the authentic sources for collecting data or pieces of information about an entity. That is, the appropriate sources from where the values of the attributes (data elements) of an entity need to be collected for description. 2. Set of rules for the domain of attributes, which define the valid values of an attribute and guide, decision in case there are exceptions. 3. Input data format or formats in which records of entities or objects will be input to the system (i.e. the form in which the given pieces of information about an entity will be logically recorded). 4. Set of rules necessary for the uniform or consistent description or rendering of the values of the attributes (data elements), or contents of fields and sub-fields comprising the database records. 5. Set of formats in which entity records or information will be displayed ( i.e. the formats of required outputs or reports), and 6. Identify and specify the types of access points or elements for searching the records of bibliographic items from a database, and the method or techniques,

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which may be used to construct the elements of search or to formulate queries to search the database. Thus, to design or develop computerised library systems and services, including an online catalogue, the requisites are: 1. Comprehensive or total view of a library system including its objectives, functions, processes or activities (task systems) and the various entities associated with the system. 2. Expertise in the design and development of a conceptual schema and sub-schema of a library database. 3. Knowledge about the capabilities and limitations of the database management software being used to create a given library database system. 4. Proficiency in the use and application of its data-definition and data-manipulation languages of the DBMS, including its indexing and search techniques and converting the conceptual scheme into logical structure or a data schema / model within the framework of the given DBMS. In addition one should be able to explicitly: • • • • State the objectives, functions, processes or activities (work practices*) of a library system. Describe the various entity-types (e.g. the various types of bibliographic items, library members, staff, etc.) about which information is to be collected for use and their attributes and relationships. Designate and define the essential and optional data fields and their sub-fields (i.e. attributes or data elements of entity-types) that may comprise database record structure Assign unique codes to the identified mandatory and optional fields and sub-fields. The unique codes or identifiers are also called content designators. These are composed of field tags, indicators, and sub-fields codes and serve as means of identifying data elements or values of fields in a machine readable record. Specify a set of rules for uniform or consistent description of the values of the attributes - i.e., the data elements or contents of fields and sub-fields comprising the database records Stipulate the guideline or rules for identifying and using the authentic sources for collecting data or pieces of information about an entity, that is, the appropriate sources from where the values of the attributes (data elements) of an entity need to be collected for description. Delineate the domain of attributes, which define the valid values of an attribute and guide decision in case there are exceptions. Specify a set of rules necessary for the uniform or consistent description or rendering of the values of the attributes (data elements), or contents of fields and sub-fields comprising the database records. Outline: (i) an input data format or formats in which records of entities or objects will be input to the system (i.e. the form in which the given pieces of information about an entity will be logically recorded), and (ii) a set of formats in which entity

• •

• • •

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• •

records or information will be displayed (i.e. the formats of required outputs or reports). Identify and specify the types of access points or elements for searching the records of bibliographic items from a database, and Describe the methodology to construct the elements of search and query formation techniques, appropriate for computer environment. *Note: The work practices are the methods used by people to do work, with or without the aid of computers and other equipment. Methods define the sequence of events that produce outputs from their requisite inputs. Specifically, a method is a way or procedure of doing something - step-bystep instructions (or an algorithm) for doing a task, or a set of detailed directions to carry out work. Library staff requires well-defined objectives, policies, methods, procedures, and controls to ensure that the system function properly. We need to understand the existing system, manual or computerised, if we want to do our work efficiently with or without the aid of computers and other equipment.

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Specialisation Required for Designing, Developing and Operating a Computer-Based Library Information Systems

Based on what has been discussed in the previous part of this paper we can surmise that to design, develop and manage computerised library systems and services, we need to have • knowledge about the library objectives, functions, policies, rules, procedures, • command on library tools and techniques (i.e. library classification, cataloguing and indexing techniques), and • expertise in the application database design and development techniques. In other words, collectively or blended together these techniques form special skills in the area of library applications. Thus, the use of computer technology in libraries forces us to examine and describe afresh almost all traditional library policies, rules (including cataloguing rules), procedures, and techniques as a whole and incorporating certain additional elements from the database design and development technology. In this context, if we examine the traditional cataloguing codes, like AACR-II (cf., 2) and Classified Cataloguing Code of Ranganathan (cf. Ranganathan, 1988) we find presently these codes serve as a tool only to develop bibliographic databases. To develop a database(s) of library system as a whole or of all entities associated with the library system we need augment these codes and make efforts to revise them so that they cover the rules and guideline to create databases of other entity types associated with the libraries. These codes need to incorporate guidelines to define conceptual schema, logical data design or structure of a library database. One must also assimilate the components of Common Communication Format (CCF) (cf., Simmons, and Hopkinson) in these codes. A revised code developed incorporating all the aspects discussed may be called Code for Library Database Design and Development.

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Examining the Classified catalogue Code (CCC) of Ranganathan (Cf., Ranganathan, 1988), we find that this code has inherent potentiality to be used, with some modification, as a code or guide for creating a comprehensive library database covering all types of entities associated with a library system (cf., Kashyap, 2001; 2002A; 2002B). Careful study of the Classified Catalogue Code (CCC) reveal that the CCC is one code that before the development of database technology identifies and specifies different bibliographic entity types, namely: Serial, Monograph and their sub sets. We find that the list and definitions of various kinds of conventional and non-conventional bibliographic items provided by him are still valid (refer CCC, Chap FE & FF). This code also lists and defines all the possible attributes of the entity set - document. That is, it specifies all the discrete attributes or data elements of various types of bibliographic items, and has framed the rules for the description or rendering of their values and grouping and fixing their relative order or sequence within a printed bibliographic record or a catalogue card. These guidelines can be effectively used for entry and display in a computer. At present the rules framed in Chapter H and J of CCC are being effectively used, for the rendering of names of • PERSONS (Authors, Collaborators, Library Members, Library staff, and so forth); • CORPORATE BODIES (Governments, Institutions, may be an Author, a Collaborator, a Publisher, a Library Vendor, a Sponsor, and so forth) • GEOGRAPHIC ENTITIES (Continents, Countries, Constituent states, of a large country, Cities, Town, Sees, and so on) • SUBJECT OF STUDIES, consequently name of any entity (abstract or concrete) - Animals, Plants, Minerals etc. and other abstract entities - God, Ghost etc. The other entities associated with the library system (not listed in the CCC) and their relevant attribute can be identified and the required details can be incorporated in the code (cf., Kashyap, 2001; 2002). The rules for rendering the values of the relevant attributes of these entity types can also be specified. Most of the other entity types associated with the library system (e.g. Invoice etc.) and their attributes can be identified and picked up form any book on library administration. The absence of well-defined objectives, policies, methods, procedures, and controls in many library systems or information organisations makes the task of staff, particularly newly appointed staff very arduous. We need to have clear idea about the working of library systems and its procedures to develop logical process designs concerning various library functional systems, to develop library application programs and to operate a computer-based information system. For this purpose, that is, to make the library work practices or functional activities transparent, we need to analyse them or decompose them into smaller subsystems and their elements. Books like 'LIBRARY ADMINISTRATION' written by Ranganathan, which describe all library routines or wok methods and serve as textbooks for the traditional LIBRARY ADMINISTRATION course are partially suitable as textbooks for teaching or as a guide book for developing computerised library procedures or processes. Such books need to be revised, describing the library procedures and processes using several types of modules, which may be developed using certain structure techniques and diagramming methods. For example, we can use • Organisation charts to depict managerial responsibilities and line of command

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Structured English to describe procedure logically Decision tables giving tabular views of the decision logic in procedures or programs • Flowcharts depicting and clarifying the relationship between various activities, and • Data flow diagrams showing the over all data flow through a system and draw the basic procedural components and the data that passes among them. Selection of the appropriate model depends upon, what is being described by the author. (cf., Kashyap, 1999) We have developed subject indexing techniques, classification techniques, and query formation techniques to create a subject search terms, formation of effective queries or to develop efficient search strategy for extracting bibliographic records. These techniques can be used and further developed to retrieve data for the management and control of library system by management and staff handling daily library routines. For developing computerised functional systems professional library staff not only need expertise in the use of the bibliographic techniques such as, subject classification, indexing and techniques used for developing vocabulary tools (such as, thesauri), but also high level proficiency in the use and application computers and related information technologies. It may be pointed out that the various tools and techniques develop by library profession for organising bibliographic items and their surrogates, and to generate access elements useful to search and retrieve relevant information from a library catalogue can be effectively used to generate access elements of computerised database system of a library containing data both of bibliographic and non-bibliographic in nature. Thus fresh approach is required in the teaching of these techniques to the students so that they can use them in developing an effective search mechanism to retrieve information from a library database, required by library user and the library staff to carry out day to day library work. References and Related Documents 1. 2. Adkisson, Heidi P. (2003). Use of faceted classification. http://www.miskatonic.org/library/ (2 November 2003). Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, ed. by Michael Gorman and Paul W Winkler. (1988). Second Edition. Revised. American Library Association, Chicago. Broughton, Vanda. (2001). Faceted Classification as a Basis for Knowledge Organization in a Digital Environment; the Bliss Bibliographic Classification as a Model for Vocabulary Management and the Creation of Multi-Dimensional Knowledge Structures. The New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia. 7 (2001): 67-102. Chen, Peter Pin-Sen. (1976). The entity relationship model - towards a united view of data. ACM Transactions on Database Systems. 1, 1; 9-36. Chen, Peter Pin-Sen, ed. (1983). Entity-relationship approach to information modeling and analysis. North-Holland, Amsterdam. Codd, E. F. (1970). A relational model of data for a large shared databanks. Communication of the Association of Computing Machinery. 13, 6; 377-87.

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Codd, E. F. (1979). Extending the database relational model to capture more meaning. ACM Transactions on Database Systems. 4, 4; 397-434. Codd, E. F. (1982). Relational database. A practical foundation for productivity. Comm. ACM. 25, 2; 109-17. Denton, William. (2003). How to Make a Faceted Classification and Put It On the Web. Nov. http://www.miskatonic.org/library/facet-web-howto.html. Godert, Winfried. (1991). Facet classification in online retrieval. International Classification. 18; 98-109. Hopkinson, Alan and Simmons, Peter, ed. (1992). CCF/F: The Common Communication Format for factual information. UNESCO, Paris. Kashyap, Madan Mohan. (2005). Computer-based library systems designing techniques, ed. by A. Neelameghan and K.N. Prasad. Ranganathan Endowment for Library Science, Bangalore. Second Revised Edition. Kashyap. Madan Mohan. (2003). Likeness between Ranganathan’s Postulations Based Approach to Knowledge Classification and Entity Relationship Data modelling Approach. Knowledge Classification. 30, 1: 2003; 1-19. Kashyap, Madan Mohan. (2002A). A Sketch of A Code for Developing Computer-Based Library Information Systems - Based on Classified Code of Ranganathan (Part I). Desidoc Bulletin of Information Technology. 22, 1; 2002; 320. Kashyap, Madan Mohan. (2002B). A Sketch of A Code for Developing Computer-Based Library Information Systems - Based on Classified Code of Ranganathan (Part II). Desidoc Bulletin of Information Technology 22, 2; 2002; 27-61. Kashyap, Madan Mohan. (2001). Classified Code of Ranganathan: A Proposal To Make It Compatible for Developing Computer-Based Library Information Systems. Desidoc Bulletin of Information Technology. 21, 1; Jan, 2001; 1-16. Kashyap, M. M. (1996). Common communication format for on-line ordering, a proposal for book trade and libraries: Paper presented at the Society for Information 15th, Annual Convention and Conference, 18-20 January 1996, Bangalore. In Malwad, N. M., et al, eds. Digital libraries: Dynamic storehouse of digitized information. New Age International, New Delhi. P 75-89. Kashyap, Madan Mohan. (1995). On-line library catalogues and standards for common application in a network environment: Paper presented at XVI IASLIC Seminar, Bombay, 1994. In IASLIC SEMINAR (BOMBAY) (1995) (16). Net working of libraries: Problem and prospects. P 1-25. Kashyap, M. M. (1993). Database system: Design and development. Sterling Publishers, New Delhi. Kashyap, M. M. (1993). Integrated database design for a library system: Employing library techniques developed by Ranganathan and CDS/ISIS DBMS. Journal of Library and Information Science (India). 18; 82-141. Kashyap, M. M. (1983). Algorithm for analysis and representation of subject contents of documents in a documentary language. Library Herald. 22, 1; 1-29. Maier, D. (1983). The theory of relational database. Computer Science Press. Rockville, Mary lands.

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Neelameghan, A. (1992). Application of Ranganathan's of General Theory of Knowledge Classification in designing specialized databases. Libri. 42, 3; 202-26. Neelameghan, A. (1991). Concept categorization and knowledge organization in specialized databases: a case study. International Classification. 18; 92-97. Ranganathan, S. R. (1988). Classified catalogue code: with additional rules for dictionary catalogue code. Ed 5. Ranganathan, S. R. (1967). Prolegomena to library classification. (Reprint 1990). Ed 3. Asia Publishing House. Bombay. Ranganathan, S. R. (1964). Subject heading and facet analysis. Journal of documentation. 20, 1; 109-119. Simmons, Peter and Hopkinson, Alan, eds. (1988). CCF: The common communication format. Ed 2. (PGI-88/WS/2). UNESCO, Paris. Spiteri, Louise. (1998). A Simplified Model for Facet Analysis. Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science. 23(April-July) : 1-30 Teorey, T. J, et al. (1986). Logical design methodology for relational database. Computing Survey. 18, 2. Vossen, G. (1991). Data Models, Database Language and Database Management Systems. Addison-Wisley, Wokingham.

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