Intellectual Property

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I nt e l l e c t u a l p r o p e r t y (film).. This article is about the legal concept. For the 2006 film, see Intellectual see  Intellectual Property (film)   Intellectual property law Primary rights •

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Traditional saety "al"es #utline o intellectual property

 

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Intellectual Intellectu al property (IP) is a legal term that refers to creations of the mind.

Examples of intellectual property include music, literature, and other artistic works; discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. Under intellectual property laws, owners of intellectual property are granted certain exclusive rights. ome common types of intellectual property rights (!"#) are copyright copyright,, patents patents,, and industrial design rights; rights; and the rights that protect trademarks trademarks,,trade dress, dress, and in some $urisdictions trade secrets. secrets. !ntellectual property rights are themselves a form of property, called intangible property. property.

%lthough many of the legal principles governing !" and !"# have evolved over centuries, it was not until the &'th century that the term intellectual  began to be used, and not until the late th century that it became  property  began commonplace in the ma$ority of the world.*&+ he -ritish tatute of %nne(&&) %nne(&&) and the tatute of /onopolies (&01) /onopolies (&01) are now seen as the origins of copyright copyright and  and patent law respectively, law respectively,*+ 2rmly establishing the concept of intellectual property.

Contents

  *hide hide++ •

& 3istory



 !ntellectual property rights



.& "atents



. 4opyright



.5 !ndustrial design rights



.1 rademarks



.6 rade dress



.0 rade secrets

 



5 7b$ectives of intellectual property law



5.& 8inancial incentive



5. Economic growth



5.5 /orality



1 !nfringement, misappropriation, and enforcement



1.& "atent infringement



1. 4opyright infringement



1.5 rademark infringement



1.1 rade secret misappropriation



6 4riticisms



6.& he term 9intellectual property9



6.&.& %lternative terms



6. 7b$ections to overbroad intellectual property laws



6.5 Expansion in nature and scope of intellectual property laws



0 ee also



 :otes



 #eferences



' External link

3istory*edit 3istory* edit++ Main articles: History of copyright law and law and History of patent law    he  tatute of %nne  %nne came into force in &&  he

/odern usage of the term intellectual property  goes  goes back at least as far as &0 with the founding of the :orth <erman 4onfederation whose 4onfederation  whose constitution constitution granted  granted legislative power over the protection of intellectual property (Schutz des geistigen Eigentums) to the confederation. *5+ =hen the administrative secretariats established by the "aris 4onvention (&5) 4onvention  (&5) and the -erne 4onvention(&0) 4onvention(&0) merged in &'5, they located in -erne, and also adopted the term intellectual property in their new combined title, the United !nternational -ureaux for the "rotectio "rotection n of !ntellectual "roperty. "roperty.  he organi>ation subse?uently subse?uently relocated to <eneva in &'0, &'0, and was succeeded in &'0 with the establishment of the =orld !ntellectual "roperty

 

7rgani>ation (=!"7)  (=!"7) by treaty treaty as  as an agency of theUnited theUnited :ations. :ations. %ccording to 7rgani>ation @emley, it was only at this point that the term really began to be used in the United tates (which had not been a party to the -erne -e rne 4onvention),*&+ and it did not enter popular usage until passage of the -ayhABole %ct in %ct in &'.*1+ 9he history of patents does not begin with inventions, but rather with royal grants by Cueen Eli>abeth !(&66D&05) !(&66D&05) for monopoly privileges... %pproximately %pproxim ately  years after the end of Eli>abeths reign, however, a patent represents a legal *right+ obtained by an inventor providing for exclusive control over the production and sale of his mechanical or scienti2c invention... *demonstrating+ the evolution of patents from royal prerogative to commonAlaw doctrine.9*6+  he term intellectual property  can  can be found used in an 7ctober &16 /assachusetts 4ircuit 4ourt ruling in the patent case Davoll et al. v. Brown. , in which Fustice 4harles @. =oodbury =oodbury wrote that 9only in this way can we protect intellectual property, the labors of the mind, productions and interests are as much a mans own...as the wheat he cultivates, or the Gocks he rears.9 *0+ he statement that 9discoveries are...prop are...property9 erty9 goes back earlier. earlier. ection & of the 8rench law of &'& stated, 9%ll new discoveries are the property p roperty of the author; to assure the inventor the property and temporary en$oyment of his discovery, there shall be delivered to him a patent for 2ve, ten or 2fteen years.9*+ !n Europe, 8rench 8rench author  author %. :ion mentioned  propriété intellectuelle in his Droits civils des auteurs artistes et inventeurs , published in &10. Until recently, the purpose of intellectual property law was to give as little protection possible in order to encourage innovation. 3istorically, therefore, they were granted only when they were necessary to encourage invention, limited in time and scope.*+  he concepts origins can potentially be traced traced back further. further. Fewish law includes law includes several considerations whose eHects are similar to those of modern intellectual property laws, though the notion of intellectual creations as property does not seem to exist D notably the principle of 3asagat <evul (unfair encroachment) was used to $ustify $us tify limitedAterm publisher (but not author) copyright in the &0th century.*'+ !n 6 -4E, the government of the <reek state of ybaris ybaris oHered  oHered one years patent 9to all who should discover any new re2nement in luxury9. *&+

I nt e l l e c t ua l p r o p e r t yr i g ht s [ e d i t ] !ntellectual property rights include patents patents,, copyright copyright,, industrial design rights,, trademarks rights trademarks,, trade dress, dress, and in some $urisdictions trade secrets. secrets. here are also more speciali>ed varieties of sui generis exclusive rights, such as circuit design rights (called mask work rights work rights in U.. law, protected under the !ntegrated 4ircuit opography %ct in %ct in 4anadian law, and in European Union law by law  by Birective I61IEE4 of &0 Becember &'0 on the legal protection of topographies of semiconductor products), plant breeders rights, rights, plant variety rights,, industrial design rights, rights rights,supplementary protection certi2cates for certi2cates for

 

pharmaceutical products and database rights (in rights (in European law). law). Patents[[edit Patents edit]] Main article: !atent 

% patent patent grants  grants an inventor the right to exclude others from making, using, selling, oHering to sell, and importing an invention invention for  for a limited period of time, in for the public problem, disclosurewhich of themay invention. %n invention is a solution to exchange a speci2c technological be a product or a process. *&&+JJ& *&&+ Copyright[[edit Copyright edit]] Main article: "opyright 

% copyright copyright gives  gives the creator of an original work exclusive rights to rights to it, usually for a limited time. 4opyright may apply to a wide range of creative, intellectual, or artistic forms, or 9works9.*&*&++ *&5+ 4opyright does not cover ideas and information themselves, only the form or manner in which they are expressed. *&1+

Industrial design rights[ rights[edit edit]] Main article: #ndustrial design right 

%n industrial design right protects right protects the visual design of ob$ects that are not purely utilitarian. %n industrial design consists of the creation of a shape, con2guration or composition of pattern or color, or combination of pattern and color in threeAdimensional form containing aesthetic value. %n industrial design can be a twoA two A or threeAdimensional pattern used to produce a product, industrial commodity or handicraft. Trademarks[[edit Trademarks edit]] Main article: $rademar% 

% trademark trademark is  is a recogni>able sign sign,, design design or  or expression expression which  which distinguishes products products or  or services services of  of a particular trader from the similar products or services of other traders.*&*&6+6+ *&0+ *&+ Trade dress[ dress[edit edit]] Main article: $rade dress

 rade dress is  rade dress is a legal term of art that generally refers to characteristics of the visual appearance of a product or its packaging (or even the design of a building) that signify the source of the product to consumers. *&+ Trade secrets[ secrets [edit edit]] Main article: $rade secret 

 

secret is a formula formula,, practice practice,, process process,, design design,, instrument instrument,, pattern pattern,, or % trade secret is compilation of information information which  which is not generally known or reasonably ascertainable, by which a business business can  can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers. !n the United tates, trade secret law is primarily handled at the state level under the Uniform rade ecrets %ct, %ct , which most states have adopted, and a federal law, theEconomic theEconomic Espionage %ct of &''0 ( &''0  (& & U..4.  U..4. KK &5&D &5&D&5' &5'), ), which makes the theft or misappropriation of a trade secret a federal crime. his law contains two provisions criminali>ing two sorts of to activity. 2rst, powers. & U..4.  U..4.he  K &5&(a), &5&(a) the theft of trade secrets bene2the foreign second,, criminali>es & U..4.  U..4. K &5, &5 , criminali>es their theft for commercial or economic purposes. (he statutory penalties are diHerent for the two oHenses.) rade secret law varies from country to country. *&&+J&6D&65 *&&+ J&6D&65

Ob j e c t i v e sofi nt e l l e c t u a l p r o p e r t yl a w[ e d i t ]  he stated ob$ective of most intellectual property property law (with the exception exception of trademarks) is to 9"romot 9"romote e progress.9*&'+ -y exchanging limited exclusive rights for disclosure of inventions and creative works, society and the patenteeIcopyright owner mutually bene2t, and an incentive is created for inventors and authors to create and disclose their work. ome commentators have noted that the ob$ective of intellectual propertyprotection9. legislators and those who support its implementation appears to be 9absolute 9!f some intellectual property is desirable because it encourages innovation, they reason, more is better. better. he thinking is that creators will not have suLcient su Lcient incentive to invent unless they are legally entitled to capture the full social value of their inventions9.*+ his absolute protection or full value view treats intellectual property as another type of 9real9 property, typically adopting its law and rhetoric. 7ther recent developments in intellectual property law, such as the %merica !nvents %ct, %ct, stress international harmoni>ation. Financial incentive[ incentive[edit edit]]

 hese exclusive rights allow owners of intellectual intellectual property to bene2t from from the property they have created, providing a 2nancial incentive for the creation of an investment in intellectual property, costs. and, in*&+case of commentators, patents, pay such associated research and development costs. development  ome as Bavid @evine and @evine and /ichele -oldrin, -oldrin, dispute this $usti2cation.*+ !n &5 the United tates "atent M rademark 7Lce approximated that the worth of intellectual property to the U.. economy is more than UN6 trillion and creates employment for an estimated & million %merican people. he value of intellectual property is considered similarly high in other developed nations, such as those in the European Union.*5+ !n the UO, !" has become a recognised asset class for use in pensionAled fundingand fundingand other types of business 2nance. 3owever, in &5, the UO !ntellectual "roperty 7Lce statedJ Phere are millions of intangible business assets whose value is either not being leveraged at all, or only being leveraged inadvertentlyQ.*1+ Economic growth[ growth[edit edit]]

 he =!"7 treaty and several related international agreements agreements are premised premised on the notion that the protection of intellectual property rights is essential to

 

maintaining economic growth. he &#!' #ntellectual !roperty Hand(oo%  gives  gives two reasons for intellectual property lawsJ 7ne is to give statutory expression to the moral and economic rights of creators in their creations and the rights of the public in access to those creations. he second is to promote, as a deliberate act of <overnment policy, creativity and the dissemination and application of its results and to encourage fair trading which would contribute to economic and social development.*6+  he %ntiA4ounterfeiting rade %greement (%4 %greement (%4%) %) states that 9eHective enforcement of intellectual property rights is critical to sustaining economic growth across all industries and globally9. *0+ Economists estimate that twoAthirds of the value of large businesses in the United tates can be traced to intangible assets.*+ 9!"Aintensive industries9 are estimated to generate  percent more value added (price added (price minus material cost) per employee than 9nonA!"Aintensive industries9.*+ *+**du(ious du(ious  ) discuss+ % $oint research pro$ect of the =!"7 =!"7 and  and the United :ations University measuring University  measuring the impact of !" systems on six %sian countries found 9a positive correlation between the strengthening of the !" system and subse?uent economic growth.9*'+ Economists have also shown that !" can be a disincentive to innovation when that innovation is drastic. !" makes excludable excludable nonArival nonArival intellectual  intellectual products that were previously nonAexcludable. his creates economic ineLciency as ineLciency as long as the monopoly is held. % disincentive to direct resources toward innovation can occur when monopoly pro2ts are less than the overall welfare welfare improvement  improvement to society. society. his situation can be seen as a market failure, and an issue iss ue of appropriability appropriability..*5+ Morality[[edit Morality edit]]

%ccording to %rticle  of the Universal Beclaration of 3uman #ights, #ights, 9everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scienti2c, literary or artistic production of which he is the author9.*5&+ %lthough the relationship between intellectual property andhuman and human rights is rights  is a complex one, *5+ there are moral arguments for intellectual property.  he arguments that $ustify $ustify intellectual property fall fall into three ma$or categories. "ersonality theorists believe intellectual property is an extension of an individual. Utilitarians believe that intellectual property stimulates social progress and pushes people to further innovation. @ockeans argue that intellectual property is $usti2ed based on deservedness and hard work.*citation needed+

Rarious moral $usti2cations for private property can be used to argue in favor of  the morality of intellectual property, such asJ ./ *atural +ights,-ustice rgument J

this argument is based on @ock @ockeSs eSs idea that a person has a natural right over the labour andIor products which is produced by hisIher body. body. %ppropriating these products is viewed as un$ust. %lthough @ocke @ock e had never explicitly stated that natural right applied to products of the

 

0/

1/

mind,*55+ it is possible to apply his argument to intellectual property rights, in which it would be un$ust for people to misuse anothers ideas. *51+ @ockes argument for intellectual property is based upon the idea that laborers have the right to control that which they create. hey argue that we own our bodies which are the laborers, this right of ownership extends to what we create. hus, intellectual property ensures this right when it comes to production. /tilitarian0!ragmatic rgument J according to this rationale, a society that protects private property is more eHective and prosperous than societies that do not. !nnovation and invention century %merica has been said to be attributed to the development of in the&'th patentsystem. patent system. *56+ -y providing innovators with 9durable and tangible return on their investment of time, labor, and other resources9, intellectual property rights seek to maximi>e social utility utility..*50+ he presumption is that they promote public welfare by encouraging the 9creation, production, and distribution of intellectual works9. *50+ Utilitarians argue that without intellectual property there would be a lack of incentive to produce new ideas. ystems of protection such as !ntellectual property optimi>e social utility. utility. 3egelJJ 9Every 1!ersonality1 rgument J this argument is based on a ?uote from 3egel man has the right to turn his will upon a thing or make the thing an ob$ect of his will, that is to say, to set s et aside the mere thing and recreate it as his own9. *5+ European intellectual property law is shaped by this notion that ideas are an 9extension of oneself and of oneSs personality9.*5+ "ersonality theorists argue that by their beingideas a creator of something is inherently at risk andproperty vulnerable for having and designs stolenone andIor altered. !ntellectual protects these moral claims that have to do with personality pers onality.. @ysander pooner (&66) pooner (&66) argues 9that a man has a natural and absolute rightT and if a natural and absolute, then necessarily a perpetual, rightTof property, in the ideas, of which he is the discoverer or creator; that his right of property, in ideas, is intrinsically the same as, and stands on identically the same grounds with, his right of property in material things; that no distinction, of principle, exists between the two cases9.*5'+ =riter %yn #and argued #and argued in her book "apitalism: $he /n%nown #deal that the protection of intellectual property is essentially a moral issue. he belief is that the human mind itself is the source of wealth and survival and that all property at its base is intellectual property. o violate intellectual property is therefore no diHerent morallyofthan violating other property rights an which compromises very processes survival and therefore constitutes immoral act.*1+ the

I nf r i ng e me nt , mi s a p p r o p r i a t i o n, a nde nf o r c e me nt [ e d i t ] Main article: #ntellectual property infringement 

Riolation of intellectual property rights, called 9infringement9 with respect to patents, copyright, and trademarks, and 9misappropriation9 with respect to trade secrets, may be a breach of civil law or criminal law, depending on the type of intellectual property involved, $urisdiction, and the nature of the action. %s of && trade in counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked works was a N0 billion industry worldwide and accounted for 6D of global trade. *1&+

 

edit]] Patent infringement[ infringement[edit Main article: !atent infringement 

"atent infringement typically is caused by using or selling a patented invention "atent without permission from the patent holder. holder. he scope of the patented invention or the extent of protection*1+ is de2ned in the claims claims of  of the granted patent.  here is safe harbor in harbor in many $urisdictions to use a patented invention for research. safe harbor does notorexist in the unless theinresearch done for purely his philosophical purposes, in order to U gather data order to is prepare an application for regulatory approval of a drug. *15+ !n general, patent infringement cases are handled under civil law (e.g., in the United tates) but several $urisdictions incorporate infringement in criminal law also (for example, %rgentina, 4hina, 8rance, Fapan, #ussia, outh Oorea). *11+ Copyright infringement[ infringement[edit edit]] Main article: "opyright infringement 

4opyright infringement is reproducing, distributing, displaying or performing a work work,, or to make derivative works, works, without permission from the copyright holder, which is typically a publisher or other business representing or assigned by the works creator. creator . !t isgenerally often called 9piracy9.*16+holder =hile can copyright is created instance a work is 2xed, the copyright only get money the damages if the owner registers the copyright. Enforcement of copyright is generally the responsibility of the copyright holder holder..*10+ he %4% trade agreement,, signed in /ay && by the United tates, Fapan, wit>erland, and agreement the EU, re?uires that its parties add criminal penalties, including incarceration and 2nes, for copyright and trademark infringement, and obligated the parties to active police for infringement.*1*1&+&+ *1+ here is a safe harbor to harbor to use copyrighted works under the fair use doctrine. use doctrine. Trademark infringement[ infringement[edit edit]] Main article: $rademar% infringement 

   rademark rademark occurs to when one party partyowned uses aby trademark that isin identical orinfringement confusingly similar to similar a trademark another party, relation to products or services which are identical or similar to the products or services of the other party. party. %s with w ith copyright, there are common law rights protecting a trademark, but registering a trademark provides legal advantages for enforcement. !nfringement can be addressed by civil litigation and, in several $urisdictions, under criminal crim inal law. law. !n the United tates, the the   rademark rademark 4ounterfeiting %ct of &'1 criminali>ed &'1 criminali>ed the intentional trade in counterfeit goods and services and %4% ampli2ed the penalties.*1*1&+&+*1+ *1+ Trade secret misappropriation[ misappropriation[edit edit]] Main article: $rade secret 2 Misappropriation

 rade secret misappropriation  rade misappropriation is diHerent from violations of other intellectual property laws, since by de2nition trade secrets are secret, while patents and

 

registered copyrights and trademarks are publicly available. !n the United tates, trade secrets are protected under state law, and states have nearly universally adopted the Uniform rade ecrets %ct. %ct. he United tates also has federal law in the form of the Economic Espionage %ct of &''0 ( &''0  (& & U..4.  KK &5&D U..4. &5&D&5' &5'), ), which makes the theft or misappropriation of a trade secret a federal crime. his law contains two provisions criminali>ing two sorts of activity. he 2rst, & U..4.  U..4. K &5&(a), &5&(a), criminali>es the theft of trade secrets to bene2t foreign powers. he second, & U..4.  U..4. K &5, &5, criminali>es their theft for commercial or economic purposes. (he statutory s tatutory penalties are diHerent for the two oHenses.) !n 4ommonwealth 4ommonwealth  common law $urisdictions, law $urisdictions, con2dentiality and trade secrets are regarded as an e?uitable e?uitable right  right rather than aproperty aproperty right  right but penalties for theft are roughly the same as the United tates.

Cr i t i c i s ms [ e d i t ] 3urther information: "riticism of patents and patents and nti0copyright  nti0copyright movement 

  in weden Bemonstration in  weden  in support of 2le sharing, 0.

 

94opying is not theftV9 badge with a character resembling /ickey /ouse  /ouse in reference to the in popular culture rationale behind the  the onny -ono 4opyright erm Extension %ct  %ct of &''

The term intellectual property[ property [edit edit]]

4riticism of the term intellectual property  ranges  ranges from discussing its vagueness and abstract overreach to direct contention to the semantic validity of using words like property  in  in fashions that contradict practice and law. /any detractors think this term specially serves the doctrinal agenda of parties opposing reform or otherwise abusing related legislations; for instance, by associating one view with certain attitude, or disallowing intelligent discussion about speci2c and often unrelated aspects of copyright, patents, trademarks, etc.*1+ 8ree oftware 8oundation founder 8oundation founder #ichard tallman argues tallman argues that, although the term intellectual property is is in wide use, it should be re$ected altogether, because it 9systematically distorts and confuses these issues, and its use was and is promoted by those who gain from this confusion9. 3e claims that the

 

term 9operates as a catchAall to lump together disparate laws *which+ originated separately, evolved diHerently, cover diHerent activities, have diHerent rules, and raise diHerent public policy issues9 and that it creates a 9bias9 by confusing these monopolies with ownership of limited physical things, likening them to 9property rights9.*1'+ tallman advocates referring to copyrights, patents and trademarks in the singular and warns against abstracting disparate laws into a collective term. imilarly, economists -oldrin -oldrin and  and @evine @evine prefer  prefer to use the term 9intellectual monopoly9 as a more appropriate and clear de2nition of the concept, which they argue, is very dissimilar from property rights.*6+ @aw professor, writer and political activist @awrence @essig, @essig, along with many other copyleft copyleft and  and free software activists, has critici>ed the implied analogy with physical property (like land or an automobile). hey argue such an analogy fails because physical property is generally rivalrous while intellectual works are nonArivalrous (that is, if one makes a copy of a work, the en$oyment of the copy does not prevent en$oyment of the original). *6*6&+&+*6+ *6+ 7ther arguments along these lines claim that unlike the situation with tangible property, there is no natural scarcity of scarcity of a particular idea or informationJ once it exists at all, it can be reAused and duplicated inde2nitely without such reAuse diminishing the original. tephan Oinsella has Oinsella has ob$ected to intellectual property  on  on the grounds that the word 9property9 implies scarcity, which may not be applicable to ideas. *65+

Entrepreneur and politician #ickard 8alkvinge and 8alkvinge and hacker %lexandre 7liva have 7liva have independently compared <eorge 7rwells 2ctional dialect:ewspeak dialect :ewspeak to  to the terminology used by intellectual property supporters as a linguistic weapon to shape public opinion regarding copyright debate and B#/ B#/..*6*61+1+ *66+ !lternative terms[ terms[edit edit]]

!n civil law $urisdictions, law $urisdictions, intellectual property has often been referred to as intellectual rights, rights, traditionally a somewhat broader concept that has included moral rights and rights and other personal protections that cannot be bought or sold. Use of the term intellectual rights has declined since the early &'s, as use of the term intellectual property  has  has increased. %lternative terms monopolies on information and intellectual monopoly  have  have emerged among those who argue against the 9property9 or 9intellect9 or 9rights9 assumptions, notably #ichard tallman. tallman. he backronyms backronyms  intellectual  protectionism and intellectual poverty ,*60+ whose initials are also #!, have found supporters as well, especially among those who have used the backronym digital restrictions management .*6*6++ *6+  he argument that that an intellectual property right should should (in the interests of better balancing of relevant private and public interests) be termed anintellectual monopoly privilege (!/") has been advanced by several academics including -irgitte %ndersen *6'+ and  and homas  homas %lured 8aunce 8aunce..*0+ "#$ections to over#road intellectual property laws[ laws [edit edit]] ome critics of intellectual property, such as those in the free culture movement,, point at intellectual monopolies as harming health (in the case movement

 

pharmaceutical patents), patents), preventing progress, and bene2ting concentrated of pharmaceutical interests to the detriment of the masses,*0*0&+&+ *0+ *0*05+5+*01+ and argue that the public interest is harmed by everAexpansive everAexpansive monopolies in the form of copyright extensions,, software patents, extensions patents, and business method patents. patents. /ore recently scientists and engineers are expressing concern that patent thickets are thickets are undermining technological development even in highAtech 2elds like nanotechnology nanotechnology..*0*06+6+*0*00+0+*0*0++ *0+ *0'+ "etra /oser has asserted that historical analysis suggests that intellectual property laws may harm innovationJ 97verall, the weight of the existing historical evidence suggests that patent policies, which grant strong s trong intellectual property rights to early generations of inventors, may discourage innovation. 7n the contrary, policies that encourage the diHusion of ideas and modify patent laws to facilitate entry and encourage competition may be an eHective mechanism to encourage innovation9 *+ "eter Brahos notes, Brahos notes, 9"roperty rights confer authority over resources. =hen authority is granted to the few over resources on which many depend, the few gain power over the goals of the many. many. his has conse?uences for both political *&+J&5 J&5 and economic freedoms with in a society.9 *&+  he =orld !ntellectual "roperty 7rgani>ation 7rgani>ation (=!"7)  (=!"7) recogni>es that conGicts may exist between the respect for and implementation of current intellectual property systems and other human rights. *+ !n & the U: 4ommittee on Economic, ocial and 4ultural #ights issued #ights issued a document called 93uman rights and intellectual property9 that argued that intellectual property tends to be governed by economic goals when it should be viewed primarily as a social product; in order to serve human wellAbeing, intellectual property systems must respect and conform to human rights laws. %ccording to the 4ommittee, when systems fail to do so they risk infringing upon the human right to food and health, and to cultural participation and scienti2c bene2ts.**5+5+*1+ *1+ !n 1 the <eneral %ssembly of =!"7 adopted $he 4eneva Declaration on the 3uture of the &orld #ntellectual !roperty 'rganization  which argues that =!"7 should

9focus morefor ondevelopmentTnot the needs of developing countries, and many tools as an end in itself9. *6+to view !" as one of 8urther along these lines, he ethical problems brought up by !" rights are most pertinent when it is socially valuable goods like lifeAsaving medicines are given !" protection. =hile the application of !" rights can allow companies to charge higher than the marginal cost of production in order to recoup the costs of research and development, the price may exclude from the market anyone who cannot aHord the cost of the product, in this case a lifeAsaving drug.*0+ 9%n !"# driven regime is therefore not a regime that is conductive to the investment of #MB of products that are socially valuable to predominately poor populations9. *0+J&&D' *0+ J&&D'

ome libertarian libertarian  critics of intellectual property have property have argued that allowing property rights in ideas and information creates arti2cial scarcity and scarcity and infringes on the right to own tangible property. tephan Oinsella uses Oinsella uses the following scenario to argue this pointJ

 

*!+magine the time when men lived in caves. 7ne bright guyTlets call him <altA/agnonTdecides to build a log cabin on an open 2eld, near his crops. o o be sure, this is a good idea, and others notice it. hey naturally imitate <altA/agnon, and they start building their own cabins. -ut the 2rst man to invent a house, according to !" advocates, would have a right to prevent others from building houses on their own land, with their own logs, or to charge them a fee if they do build houses. !t is plain that the innovator in these examples becomes a partial the tangible property (e.g.,property land and(for logs) others, due notowner to 2rstofoccupation and use of that it isofalready owned), but due to his coming up with an idea. 4learly, this rule Gies in the face of the 2rstAuser homesteading rule, arbitrarily and groundlessly overriding the very homesteading rule that is at the foundation of all property rights.*+  homas FeHerson once FeHerson once said in a letter to !saac /c"herson on %ugust &5, &&5J 9!f nature has made any one thing less susceptible than all others of exclusive property, it is the action of the thinking power called an idea, which an individual may exclusively possess as long as he keeps it to himself; but the moment it is divulged, it forces itself into the possession of every one, and theisreceiver cannot dispossess of it. !ts peculiar character, too, that no one possesses the himself less, because every other possesses the whole of it. 3e who receives an idea from me, receives instruction himself without lessening mine; as he who lights his taper at mine, receives light without darkening me.9*+ !n 6 the #% #% launched  launched the %delphi 4harter, 4harter, aimed at creating an international policy statement to frame how governments should make balanced intellectual property law. law.*'+ %nother limitation of current U.. !ntellectual "roperty legislation is its focus on individual and $oint works; thus, copyright protection can only be obtained in original works of authorship.*+ his de2nition excludes any works that are the result community creativity, for example :ative %merican songs and stories; currentoflegislation does not recogni>e the uni?ueness of indigenous cultural 9property9 and its everAchanging everAchanging nature. imply asking native cultures to write down their cultural artifacts on tangible mediums ignores their necessary orality and enforces a =estern bias of the written form as more authoritative. E%pansion in nature and scope of intellectual property laws[[edit laws edit]]   Expansion of U.. copyright law (%ssuming authors create their works by age 56 and live for seventy years)

7ther criticism of intellectual property law concerns the expansion of intellectual property, both in duration and in scope. !n addition, as scienti2c knowledge has expanded and allowed new industries

 

to arise in 2elds such as biotechnology and nanotechnology, nanotechnology, originators of technology have sought !" protection for the new technologies. "atents "atents have been granted for living organisms,*&+ (and in the United tates, certain living organisms have organisms  have been patentable for over a century)*+  he increase in terms of protection protection is particularly seen in relation relation to copyright, which has recently been the sub$ect of serial extensions in the United tates and tates  and in Europe. Europe.*6*6&+&+**5+5+ *1+ **6+6+*0+ *0+ =ith no need for registration or copyright notices, this is thought to have led to an increase in orphan works (copyrighted works (copyrighted works for which the copyright owner cannot be contacted), a problem that has been noticed and addressed by governmental bodies around the world. *+ %lso with respect to copyright, the %merican 2lm industry helped to change the social construct of intellectual property via its trade organi>ation, the /otion "icture %ssociation of %merica. %merica. !n amicus briefs in important cases, in lobbying l obbying before 4ongress, and in its statements to the public, the /"%% has advocated strong protection of intellectualAproperty rights. !n framing its presentations, the association has claimed that people are entitled to the property that is produced by their labor. %dditionally 4ongresss awareness of the position of the United tates as the worlds largest producer of 2lms has made it convenient to expand the conception of intellectual property. property.*+ hese doctrinal reforms have further strengthened the industry, lending the /"%% even more power and authority.*'+   #!%% repre representative sentative  3ilary #osentesti2es before the enate Fudiciary 4ommittee on the future of digital music (Fuly &&, )

 he growth of the !nternet !nternet,, and particularly distributed search s earch engines like Oa>aa Oa>aa and  and <nutella <nutella,, have represented a challenge for copyright policy policy..  he #ecor #ecording ding !ndustry %ssociation of %merica, %merica , in particular, has been on the front lines of the 2ght against copyright infringement, infringement, which the industry calls 9piracy9. he industry has had victories against some services, including a highly publici>ed case against the 2leAsharing company :apster :apster,, and some people have been prosecuted for sharing 2les in violation of copyright. he electronic age has seen an increase inc rease in the attempt to use softwareA s oftwareA based digital management management tools  tools restrict the copying and use%ct have of have digitally basedrights works. @aws such as theto Bigital /illennium 4opyright %ct been enacted, that use criminal law to prevent any circumvention of software used to enforce digital rights management systems. E?uivalent provisions, to prevent circumvention of copyright protection have existed in EU for some time, and are being expanded in, for example, %rticle 0 and  the 4opyright Birective.. 7ther examples are %rticle  of the oftware Birective of &''& Birective ('&I6IEE4), and the 4onditional %ccess Birective of &'' & '' ('I1IEE4). his can hinder legal uses, aHecting public domain works, domain works,limitations limitations and exceptions to copyright, copyright, or uses allowed by the copyright holder. ome copyleft copyleft licenses,  licenses, like <:U <"@ 5, 5, are designed to counter that.*'+ @aws may permit circumvention under speci2c conditions like when it is necessary to achieve interoperability with the circumventorSs program, or for accessibility accessibility reasons;  reasons; however, distribution of circumvention tools or instructions may be illegal. !n the context of trademarks, this expansion has been driven by international eHorts to harmonise the de2nition of 9trademark9, as exempli2ed by the %greement on radeA#elated %spects of !ntellectual "roperty #ights rati2ed #ights rati2ed

 

in &''1, which formali>ed regulations for !" rights that had been handled by common law, or not at all, in member states. "ursuant to #!"s, any sign sign which  which is 9capable of distinguishing9 the products or services of one business from the products or services of another business is capable of constituting a trademark. *'&+

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No t e s [ e d i t ] ./ X Fump  Fump up toJa b 9propert 9property y as a common descriptor of the 2eld probab probably ly traces to the foundation of the  the  =orld !ntellectual "roperty 7rgani>ation (=!"7) 7rgani>ation (=!"7) by the United :ations.9 in /ark %. @emley, @emley, !roperty !roperty #ntellectual !roperty !roperty and 3ree +iding, exas @aw #eview, 6, Rol. 5J&5&, page &55, footnote 1. 0/  &ump up' -rad, herman; @ionel -ently (&'''). $he ma%ing of modern intellectual property law: the British e5perience 6789) . !-: !-:  'AA6&A60505A6 'AA6&A60505A6.. 666. 4ambridge University "ress. p. . 

1/  &ump up' %rticle 1 :o. 0 of the 4onstitution of &0 (<erman) 3astings (<erman)  3astings @aw Fournal, Rol. 6, p. &66, & 4/  &ump up' /ark %. @emley,  @emley, 9"roperty, !ntellectual "roperty, and 8ree #iding9(%bstract); #iding9 (%bstract); see able &J 1D6. 5/  &ump up' /ossoH, %.  %. #ethinkin #ethinking g the Bevelopment of "atentsJ %n !ntellectual 3istory, &66D&, &66D&, 3astings  3astings @aw Fournal, Rol. 6, p. &66, &

6/  &ump up' 6 &ood(. ; M. <= = &est.>.-. 6<6 7 3."as. 67 *o. =88? ? +o((.!at."as. =9= Merw.!at.#nv. @6@ 7/  &ump up' % -rief 3istory of the "atent @aw of the United tates 8/  &ump up' 9"roperty, !ntellectual "roperty, and 8ree #iding9, /ark %. @emley, $e5as >aw +eview  9/  &ump up' Fewish  Fewish @aw and 4opyright 4opyright .:/

 &ump up' 4harles %nthon, % 4lassical BictionaryJ 4ontaining an %ccount of the "rincipal "roper :ames /entioned in

%ncient %uthors, and !ntended to Elucidate %ll the !mportant "oints 4onnected with the <eography, 3istory, -iography, /ythology, and 8ine %rts of the <reek and #omans. ogether with an %ccount of 4oins, =eights, and /easures, with abular Ralues of the ame &5 (3arper M -rothers &1&).

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X Fump up toJa b =!"7 !ntellectual "roperty 3andbookJ "olicy, @aw and Use. 4hapter J 8ields of !ntellectual "roperty "rotection  =!"7  "rotection  .0/  &ump up' "eter O, Yu ().  (). #ntellectual !roperty and #nformation &ealth: "opyright and related rights . <reenwood "ublishing <roup. p. 510. 510.!-: !-:  'AA6A'5A 'AA6A'5A..

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7rganisation. 9Understanding 4opyright and #elated #ights9 ("B8). #ights9 ("B8). =!"7. p. .  &ump up' =orld !ntellectual "roperty 7rganisation. 

#etrieved %ugust .

 

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!-:  'A&A1&&5A6A' 'A&A1&&5A6A'..  &ump up' imon, tokes (&). rt and copyright . 3art "ublishing. pp. 1D1'. !-:

.5/

 &ump up' 9% trademark is a word, phrase, symbol, andIor design that identi2es and distinguishes the source of the

goods of one party from those of others.9. others.9 . #etrieved &&A&A&5.

.6/

 &ump up' 9% trade mark is a sign which can distinguish your goods and services from those of your competitors (you

may refer to your trade mark as your 9brand9).9. 9brand9).9 . #etrieved &A&A.

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 &ump up' 9rade marks identify the goods and services of particular traders.9 .

 &ump up' /erges, #obert ".; /enell, "eter .; @emley, /ark %. (). #ntellectual !roperty in the *ew $echnological  ge (1th rev. ed.). :ew YorkJ =olters Oluwer. p. '.  '.  !-: !-:  'AA566A0''A 'AA566A0''A..

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 &ump up' U.. 4onst., art. &, sec. , cl. .

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httpJIIheinonline.orgI37@I"ageZha I37@I"ageZhandle[hein.$ournalsItlr ndle[hein.$ournalsItlr5Mdiv[5 5Mdiv[5Mg\sent[&Mc Mg\sent[&Mcollection[$our ollection[$ournals nals  &ump up' httpJIIheinonline.org

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#eform , University of /elbourne, Boris chroeder and "eter inger, /ay '  &ump up' "rudential #easons for !"# #eform,

00/

Bavid; /ichele -oldrin (A'A).  (A'A).  gainst gainst intellectual monopoly . 4ambridge University  &ump up' @evine, Bavid;

"ress.  !-: "ress. !-:  'AA6&A'A0 'AA6&A'A0..

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 &ump up' homas -ollyky (& %pril &5). 9=hy 4hemotherapy hat 4osts N, in the U.. 4osts N,6 in

!ndia9.. $he tlantic. he %tlantic /onthly <roup. #etrieved & %pril &5. !ndia9

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(&5). Ban%ing on #!A. :ewport, =alesJ he !ntellectual "roperty 7Lce.  &ump up' -rassell, Oing, /artin, Oelvin (&5). 

p. &6.  &6. !-: !-:  'A&A''A0A6 'A&A''A0A6..

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httpJIIwww.wipo.intIexp .wipo.intIexportIsitesIwwwIab ortIsitesIwwwIaboutAipIenIipr outAipIenIiprmIpdfIch&.pdf  mIpdfIch&.pdf p. p. 5.  &ump up' httpJIIwww

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 &ump up' httpJIIwww.international.gc.caItradeAagreementsAaccordsAcommerciauxIassetsIpdfsIactaAcrc\apr&6A

&&\eng.pdf 

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 &ump up' onecon.com

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"ropertyA!ntensive /anufacturing in the United tates, tates, #obert hapiro and  &ump up' Economic EHects of !ntellectual "ropertyA!ntensive

:am "ham, Fuly  (archived on archive.or archive.org). g).

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ystems,, =!"7, .  &ump up' /easuring the Economic !mpact of !" ystems

1:/

 &ump up' <reenhalgh, 4. M #ogers /., (&). he :ature and #ole of !ntellectual "roperty. #nnovation #ntellectual

!roperty and Economic 4rowth. :ew FerseyJ "rinceton University "ress. (p. 5D51). !roperty

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#ights9. #etrieved 7ctober 6, &&.  &ump up' United :ations. 9he Universal Beclaration of 3uman #ights9.

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"roperty 7rgani>ation.  7rgani>ation. 93uman #ights and !ntellectual "ropertyJ %n  &ump up' =!"7 D he =orld !ntellectual "roperty

7verview9.. #etrieved 7ctober 6, &&. 7verview9

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 &ump up' #onald R. -ettig. 94ritical "erspectives on the 3istory and "hilosophy of 4opyright9 in 4opyrighting 4ultureJ

 he "olitical "olitical Economy of !ntellectual !ntellectual "roperty, "roperty, by #onald #onald R. R. -ettig. (-oulder, 47J 47J =estview "ress, &''0), &''0), &'D

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"roperty #ights,9 in he 7xford 3andbook of -usiness Ethics, by  &ump up' #ichard . Be <eorge, 9&1. !ntellectual "roperty

<eorge <. -renkert and om @. -eauchamp, vol. &, &st ed. (7xford, EnglandJ 7xford University "ress, n.d.), 1&6D1&0.

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"roperty #ights,9 in he 7xford 3andbook of -usiness Ethics, by  &ump up' #ichard . Be <eorge, 9&1. !ntellectual "roperty

<eorge <. -renkert and om @. -eauchamp, vol. &, &st ed. (7xford, EnglandJ 7xford University "ress, n.d.), 1&0.

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X Fump up toJa b pinello, #ichard %. (Fanuary ). 9!ntellectual property rights9.>i(rary Hi $ech () (&)J &D . doi doiJJ&.&&I55&56& &.&&I55&56&.. 17/ "roperty #ights,9 in he 7xford 3andbook of -usiness Ethics, by  &ump up' #ichard . Be <eorge, 9&1. !ntellectual "roperty <eorge <. -renkert and om @. -eauchamp, vol. &, &st ed. (7xford, EnglandJ 7xford University "ress, n.d.), 1&.

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"roperty #ights,9 in he 7xford 3andbook of -usiness Ethics, by  &ump up' #ichard . Be <eorge, 9&1. !ntellectual "roperty

<eorge <. -renkert and om @. -eauchamp, vol. &, &st ed. (7xford, EnglandJ 7xford University "ress, n.d.), 1&.

 

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 &ump up' he @aw of !ntellectual "roperty, "art & 4hapter & ection ' D @ysander pooner

4:/

 &ump up' #and, %yn  %yn (&'0) *&'00+. "apitalism: $he /n%nown #deal  (paperback nd ed.). :ew YorkJ ignet.

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(&) #ethinking the %ntiA4ounterfeiting rade %greementSs 4riminal 4opyright X Fump up toJa b c /iriam -itton (&)  Enforcement /easures he /easures he Fournal 7f 4riminal @aw M 4riminology &(&)J0A&& &(&)J0A&& 40/ 0' E"4  &ump up' %rticle 0' 

41/

 &ump up' "radip O. ahu and hannon /rksich, "h.B. he "h.B. he 3atchA=axman 3atchA=axman %ctJ =hen !s #esearch #esearch Exempt Exempt from "atent "atent

!nfringementZ  %-%A!"@ :ewsletter (1) ummer 1 !nfringementZ

44/

@itigation urveyJ % urvey of the 4haracteristic 4haracteristicss of "atent  &ump up' /atthew @. 4utler () !nternational "atent @itigation

@itigation in & !nternational Furisdictions Furisdictions

45/

 &ump up' "anethiere, Barrell (FulyDeptember 6).  6).  9he "ersistence of "iracyJ he 4onse?uences for 4reativity, for

4ulture, and for ustainable Bevelopment9. Bevelopment9. U:E47 eA4opyright -ulletin. p. .

46/

('). #ntellectual property enforcement: international perspectives.  &ump up' 4orrea, 4arlos /aria; @i, ]uan ('). 

Edward Elgar "ublishing. p. &&.  &&. !-: !-:  'A&A111A005A 'A&A111A005A..

47/

&&  he  he "u>>le of 4riminal 4riminal anctions for !ntellectual !ntellectual "roperty "roperty X Fump up toJa b !rina B. /anta pring &&  !nfringement 3arvard Fournal of @aw M echnology 1()J10'A6& !nfringement  48/ /asnick (0 /arch ). 9!f !ntellectual "roperty !s :either !ntellectual, :or "roperty, =hat !s  &ump up' /ike /asnick  !tZ9.. techdirt.com. echdirt !tZ9  echdirt.. %rchived from the original on original on &5 %ugust &1. #etrieved & %ugust&1.

49/

tallman. 9Bid You ay 9!ntellectual "roperty9Z !ts a eductive /irage9 . 8ree oftware  &ump up' #ichard /. tallman. 

8oundation, !nc. #etrievedA5A.

5:/

monopoly . 4ambridgeJ 4ambridge University  &ump up' -oldrin, /ichele, and Bavid O. @evine. %gainst intellectual monopoly.

"ress, .

5./ 50/

X Fump up toJa b 9%gainst perpetual copyright9. copyright9. 4ory (AA&). 99!ntellectual property9 property9 is a silly euphemism9. euphemism9 . $he 4uardian.   &ump up' Boctorow, 4ory 

#etrieved AA5.

51/

"roperty Fournal  Fournal of @ibertarian @ibertarian tudies &6()J&D65 &6()J&D65  &ump up' tephan Oinsella (& %gainst !ntellectual "roperty 

54/

8alkvinge (&1 Fuly &5). 9@anguage /attersJ 8raming he 4opyright /onopoly o =e 4an Oeep 7ur  &ump up' #ick 8alkvinge (&1

@iberties9..torrentfrea%.com. %rchived from  @iberties9 from the original on original on 1 Fune &1. #etrieved & %ugust &1.

55/

7liva. 9&'1^5J <:U speech to defeat eAnewspeak9( eAnewspeak9("B8). #etrieved & %ugust &1.  &ump up' %lexandre 7liva.

56/

&&.!ntellectual !ntellectual "overty  &ump up' tephan Oinsella for @udwig von /ises !nstitute blog, Fanuary 0, &&.

57/

 &ump up' 7Lcial drm.info site  site run by the 8ree oftware 8oundation Europe (88E)

58/

 &ump up' Befective by Besign 7Lcial =ebsite

59/

"roperty #ight 7r !ntellectual /onopoly "rivilegeJ =hich 7ne hould  &ump up' -irgitte %ndersen. 9!ntellectual "roperty

"atent %nalysts 8ocus 7nZ9 47:8E#E:4!% !:E#:%4!7:%@ 7-#E !E/% BE !:7R%_`7 E E#%<!% BE BEE:R7@R!/E:7 "%#% 7 E#4E!#7 /!@:!7. :ov 5

6:/

%. -alancing intellectual monopoly privileges and the need for essential  &ump up' /artin <, orenson 4 and 8aunce %.

medicines <lobali>ation and 3ealth , 5J1  5J1 doi doiJJ&.&&0I&11A05A5A 1.httpJIIwww httpJIIwww.globali>ationand .globali>ationandhealth.comIcontentI health.comIcontentI5I&I1 5I&I1  9-alancing the need to protect the intellectual property property rights (!"#s) (9which the third author considers are more accurately described as intellectual monopoly privileges (!/"s)) of pharmaceutic pharmaceutical al companies, with the need to ensure access to essential medicines in developing countries is one of the most pressing challenges facing international policy makers today.9)  &ump up' -irgitte %ndersen. !ntellectual "roperty "roperty #ight 7r !ntellectual /onopoly "rivilegeJ =hich 7ne hould "atent %nalysts 8ocus 7nZ4onferncia 7nZ4onferncia !nternacional obre obre istemas Be !novao E Estratgias Be Besenvolvimento "ara 7

6./

 erceiro   erceiro /ilnio. /ilnio. :ov. :ov. 5

 

60/

 &ump up' /artin <, orenson 4 and 8aunce %. () EditorialJ -alancing the need to protect the intellectual

property rights (!"#s). (!"#s). <lobali>ation and 3ealth , 5J1

61/

 &ump up' 7n patents A Baniel -. #avicher (%ugust 0, ). 9"rotecting 8reedom !n he "atent ystemJ he "ublic

"atent 8oundations /ission and %ctivities9. %ctivities9.

64/

 Foseph tiglit> tiglit> (7ctober &5, 0). 9%uthors<oog 9%uthors<oogleJ leJ Foseph tiglit> D /aking <lobali>ation =ork.9 =ork.9..  &ump up' Foseph

65/

openAsource9.*ature *+,J 6&'. doi doiJJ&.&5I1'&6&'a &.&5I1'&6&'a..  &ump up' "earce, F. (&). 9/ake nanotechnology research openAsource9.

 &ump up' Foshua /. "earce, 7penAsource nanotechnologyJ nanotechnologyJ olutions to a modern intellectual property tragedy, *ano $oday , Rolume , !ssue 1, %ugust &5, "ages 55'D51&. B7! httpJIIdx.doi.or httpJIIdx.doi.orgI&.&&0 gI&.&&0I$.nantod.&5. I$.nantod.&5.1.& 1.&  open access

66/ 67/

%ppropriate :anotechnology Q 4hapter ' in editors  &ump up' Usman /ushta? and Foshua /. "earce P7pen ource %ppropriate

Bonald /aclurcan and :atalia #adywyl, #adywyl,  :anotechnology and <lobal ustainabilit ustainability y, 4#4 "ress, pp. &'&A&5, &.

68/

moratorium D %rs echnica  &ump up' tallmans got companyJ #esearcher wants nanotech patent moratorium 

69/

 &ump up' 8ree>e on nanotechnology patents proposed to help grow the sector A =ired UO &&A5A&

7:/

 &ump up' /oser, "etra. &5. 9"atents and !nnovationJ Evidence from Economic 3istory.9 Fournal of Economic

"erspectives, (&)J 5A11.

7./

 &ump up' "eter Brahos and Fohn -raithwaite. -raithwaite.  !nformation 8eudalismJ 8eudalismJ =ho 7wns the Onowledge EconomyZ, EconomyZ,

Earthscan 

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7rgani>ation. 93uman #ights and !ntellectual "ropertyJ "ropertyJ %n 7verview9. 7verview9 .   &ump up' =!"7 D =orld !ntellectual "roperty 7rgani>ation.

#etrieved 7ctober 6, &&.

71/

 &ump up' taH, U: 4ommittee on Economic ocial and 4ultural #ights. <eneva, :ovember &D5, &.  &. 3uman

rights and intellectual property

74/

 &ump up' 4hapman, %udrey #. (Becember ). 9he 3uman #ights !mplications of !ntellectual "roperty

"rotection9.. -ournal of #nternational Economic "rotection9 doiJJ&.&'5I$ielI6.1.0& &.&'5I$ielI6.1.0&.. #etrieved 8ebruary ', &5. Economic >aw ) (1)J 0&D. doi

75/

 &ump up' $he 4eneva Declaration on the 3uture of the &orld #ntellectual !roperty 'rganization

76/

Forn onderholm onderholm (&) Ethical !ssues urrou urrounding nding !ntellectual "roperty #ights, #ights , "hilosophy 4ompass X Fump up toJa b  Forn 6(&)J &&D&&&6. 77/ property  (), p. 11.  &ump up' :. tephan Oinsella, gainst #ntellectual property 

78/

 &ump up' homas  homas FeHerson, >etter to #saac Mc!herson (%ugust &5, &&5)

79/

6). "rotecting the public domain. domain. $he 4uardian.  &ump up' -oyle, Fames (&1 7ctober 6). 

8:/

"ropertyJ the :ecessity of !mplementing 4ollective !deals  &ump up' "hilip -ennet, :ative %mericans and !ntellectual "ropertyJ

into 4urrent United tates !ntellectual "rop "roperty erty @aws9, ' *&+

8./

 &ump up' 4ouncil for #espo #esponsible nsible <enetics, B:% "atents 4reate /onopolies on @iving 7rganisms.  7rganisms.  %ccessed

.&.&.

80/

 &ump up' "lant "atents U"7.gov

81/

 &ump up' E.g., the U..  U.. 4opyright erm Extension %ct, %ct, "ub.@. &6D'.

84/

4opyrightZ  $he *ew or% $imes, /ay ,  &ump up' /ark 3elprin, 7pAedJ % <reat !dea @ives 8orever. houldnt !ts 4opyrightZ 

.

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 &ump up' Eldred v. shcroft  Eldred v. %shcroft, 65 U. . &0 (5)

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 &ump up' /ike /asnick (/ay &, ). 9%rguing 8or !n2nite 4opyright... Using 4opied !deas %nd % :ear otal

/isunderstanding 7f "roperty9. "roperty9.techdirt techdirt..

87/

Bigiti>ation  8ederal  &ump up' @ibrary of 4ongress 4opyright 7Lce Bocket :o. &D& 7rphan =orks and /ass Bigiti>ation 8ederal

#egister, Rol. , :o. 1. /onday, 7ctober , &. :otices. "" 01666D0160&; see p 01666 2rst column for international

 

eHorts and 5rd column for description of the problem.

88/

 &ump up' Bennis =harton, 9/"%%s #ebel =ith 4ause 8ights for 4opyright 4oin,9 Rariety (%ugust 5, &''), Rol. 51,

:o. , p. &.

89/

!!!, he <rowth of !ntellectual !ntellectual "roperty "ropertyJ% J% 3istory of the 7wnership 7wnership of !deas in the United United  &ump up' =illiam =. 8isher !!!, he

tates  Eigentumskulturen im Rergleich (Randenhoeck M #uprecht, &''') tates

9:/

(D&).  9% Cuick <uide to <"@v59. <"@v59. 8ree oftware 8oundation. 8oundation. #etrieved &5AA&6.  &ump up' -rett mith (D&). 

9./

(') Expanding <lobal rademark #egulation =ake #egulation =ake 8orest  &ump up' Oatherine -eckman and 4hrista "letcher (') 

!ntellectual "roperty @aw Fournal &()J &6D5'

Re f e r e nc e s [ e d i t ] •

%rai, 3isamitsu. 9!ntellectual "roperty "olicies for the wentyA8irst 4enturyJ he Fapanese Experience in =ealth 4reation9, =!"7 "ublication :umber 51 (E). . wipo.int



-ettig, #. R. (&''0). 4ritical "erspectives on the 3istory and "hilosophy of 4opyright. !n #. R. -ettig, 4opyrighting 4ultureJ he "olitical Economy of !ntellectual "roperty. (pp. 'D5). -oulder, 47J =estview "ress.



-oldrin, /ichele and Bavid O. @evine. 9%gainst !ntellectual /onopoly9, .  . dkleving.com



3ahn, #obert =., #ntellectual !roperty +ights in 3rontier #ndustries: Software and Biotechnology , %E! "ress, /arch 6.



-ranstetter, @ee, #aymond 8ishman and 4. 8rit> 8oley. 9Bo tronger !ntellectual "roperty #ights !ncrease !nternational  echnology ransferZ  echnology ransferZ Empirical Evidence Evidence from U 8ir 8irmA@evel mA@evel Bata9. :-E# =orki =orking ng "aper &&6&0. &&6&0. Fuly 6. 6. weblog.ipcentral.info



4onnell, haun. 9!ntellectual 7wnership9. 7ctober . rebithoHfreedom.org



Be <eorge, #ichard . 9&1. !ntellectual "roperty #ights.9 !n $he '5ford Hand(oo% of Business Ethics E thics, by <eorge <. -renkert and  om   om @. -eauchamp, &J1A15'. &J1A15'. &st ed. 7xford, EnglandJ EnglandJ 7xford University University "ress, "ress, n.d.



8arah, "aolo and 4ima, Elena. 94hinaSs "articipation in the =orld rade 7rgani>ationJ rade in <oods, ervices, !ntellectual "roperty #ights and ransparency !ssues9 in %urelio @ope>Aarruella /artine> (ed.), El comercio con 4hina. 7portunidades empresariales,, incertidumbres $urdicas, irant lo -lanch, Ralencia (pain) &, pp. 6D&&. !-: 'A1A160A'&A. empresariales 'A1A160A'&A. %vailable at #:.com



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BisputesQ, Rolume &&, !ssue , /arch &1, !: &6A1& %vailable at  at  #:.com 8arah, "aolo Bavide, remolada #iccardo, !ntellectual "roperty #ights, 3uman #ights and !ntangible 4ultural 3eritage, Fournal of  !ntellectual "roperty @aw, !ssue , "art !, Fune &1, !:J 56A0&1], <iuHre, pp. &D1. %vailable at  #:.com



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/iller, %rthur #aphael, and /ichael 3. Bavis. #ntellectual !roperty: !atents $rademar%s and "opyright . 5rd ed. :ew YorkJ =estI=adsworth, . !-: A5&1A56&'A&. A5&1A56&'A&.



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#eisman, <eorge. <eorge. 4apitalismJ % 4omplete M !ntegrated Understanding Understanding of the :ature M Ralue of 3uman Economic @ife, 7ttawa, !llinoisJ &''0, pp. 5D5' chechter, #oger E., and Fohn #. homas. #ntellectual !roperty: $he >aw of "opyrights !atents and $rademar%s. :ew YorkJ =estI=adsworth, 5, !-: A5&1A06''A. A5&1A06''A.



chneider, "atricia 3. 9!nternational rade, Economic <rowth and !ntellectual "roperty #ightsJ % "anel Bata tudy of Beveloped and Beveloping 4ountries9. Fuly 1. mtholyoke.edu



hapiro, #obert and :am "ham. 9Economic EHects of !ntellectual "ropertyA!ntensive "ropertyA!ntensive /anufacturing in the United tates9. Fuly .  theAvalueAof.ip.org .



pooner, @ysander "erpetual ual "roperty @ysander.. 9he @aw of !ntellectual "roperty; or %n Essay on the #ight of %uthors and !nventors to a "erpet in their !deas9. -ostonJ -ela /arsh, &66.  &66. *+



iva. $he narchist in the >i(rary: How the "lash Between 3reedom and "ontrol #s Hac%ing the +eal &orld and Raidhyanathan, iva. "rashing the System. :ew YorkJ -asic -ooks, 1.



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