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MSc Project Proposal Form
Academic Year: 2014/1015
Semester: 1

Student Number

1231402

Student Name

Venkata Naresh Kalisetti

Degree Course

MSc. Computer Networking

Supervisor Name

Sijing Zhang

Title of Project

Description of your artefact

Secure topology discovery methods for the sensor
networks
Problem Statement
The deployment of multiple sensor nodes is done in an
environment to sense the information about the event
and then to transmit this sensed data to the processing
unit. The sensor node that is equipped to perform this
functionality has some constraints like less power, less
energy, less memory and less computational capability.
The power unit of the sensor node acts as a very
important component which must be used in an
optimal manner in order to make the sensor node work
for a long period of time. In addition to this problem
the sensor networks are also subject to several security
issues like eves dropping, man in the middle attack,
message replaying etc. Therefore the reliability of the
sensor network is considered as a very important
concept when they are applied for any application. The
reliability of the sensor network can be defined as the
time for which the wireless sensor network can work
and the efficiency with which these sensor network
will work after recovering from the attack. In this
project the power consumption of the sensor node is
1

tried to be reduced by concentrating on the mobility
and the aspect of task management of the sensor
nodes. Also secure topology method is used for the
sensor networks in order to design the topology very
efficiently.
Aim
The project is aimed in securing the sensor network
and reducing the power consumption of the sensor
nodes with the help of secure topology discovery
method.
Objectives


Analysing the security issues of the wireless
sensor networks and the main reason for the
cause of these security issues in these sensor



networks.
Investigating on the existing methods for
providing security and for reducing the power



consumption in the sensor networks.
Designing the secure topology discovery



method for the wireless sensor network.
Simulating the design sensor network and the
secure topology discovery method.

methodology For the successfully completion of this project spiral
(structured process) will you methodology is the one that is opted in this project.
What

be following to realise your
artefact?

Software Specifications

Java or network animator

2

How does your project relate
to your degree course and
build

upon

units/knowledge

the
you

The advance security and the counter measures unit
and the wireless networking units show the relation
between the selected project and my master’s course.

have

studied/acquired
C++

Resources

Linux
Tool Command and Scripting Language
Have

you

completed

&

submitted your ethics form?

Yes

No

Secure topology discovery methods for the sensor networks

3

Contents
Introduction................................................................................................................................5
Problem Statement.....................................................................................................................6
Aim.............................................................................................................................................7
Objectives...................................................................................................................................7
Literature Review.......................................................................................................................7
Secure Topology Discovery.......................................................................................................8
Project Methodology..................................................................................................................9
Conclusion..................................................................................................................................9
References..................................................................................................................................9

Introduction
A wireless sensor network can be defined as a collection of several nodes that consist of very
less resources like the bandwidth, power of computing, storage space, power, energy etc. The
aspect of the resource utilisation must be rationalized which can be done effectively with the
4

help of the task scheduling methods. However the working of these task scheduling methods
need the information about the topology of the network. In a wireless sensor network, the
process of the topology discovery will require the nodes to co-operate with each other and at
the same time to work in an energy-efficient manner. The deployment of the wireless sensor
network will be done in the required location where the number of nodes in the network will
be very high. A large number of the sensor nodes will be deployed in a particular location in
order to sense the information about an event. This sensed information will be transmitted to
the base station for the sake of further processing. This base station will be present in a
different location and hence is known as the remote processing unit. The small sized sensor
nodes consist of several components like sensing component, communication component,
data storage and the data processing component (Fuliang Li, 2013). The main task of the
sensor networks will be completed by these sensor nodes only with the help of the
collaboration among the sensor nodes in the network. With the help of these large number of
the sensor nodes, the accurate information of the events occurred in the environment can be
gained especially in the locations where the wired network is not capable of collecting the
information. In general a wireless sensor network will have less power based sensor nodes
which are combined with the computing components by using the wireless communication
and also the heterogeneous sensing components (Gu Xiang, 2010). With the evolution of
these sensor networks, the physical worlds are now understood at a very high granularity
level.

Among the different components of the sensor node, the power unit is the most important one
which will be highly supported by battery or the solar cells in several applications. Hence the
applications that use the wireless sensor networks must appropriately utilize the power
resource of the sensor nodes. In addition to this the sensor network face several attacks as the
eves dropping of the wireless links can be done without effecting the communication
methods. In addition to this the communication protocols used in the sensor networks are also
vulnerable to several security issues. In these wireless networks the security issues like
message reply, man in the middle attack and masquerading can be easily launched when
compared to the wired networks (Xue Chen, 2010). This has made reliability as the main
aspect that must be considered while designing the wireless sensor network. The reliability of
the sensor network can be defined as the duration for which the wireless sensor network can
work and the recovery performed by the sensor network after being attacked. For any power
5

efficiency method to be implemented in the sensor network it is highly important to perform
topology discovery process. Even in this process of topology discovery the attacker can easily
launch various security issues on the wireless sensor network. Therefore it is required to
identify the topology of the network effectively and securely in a wireless sensor network.
In this project a secure topology discovery method is developed for the wireless sensor
network based on the routing optimizations. Through this secure topology discovery method
secure communication can take place in the considered wireless sensor network. In this
method the sensor network will be divided into clusters and a decentralized authority will be
implemented. The implementation of decentralization is performed through the distribution
of secret keys among the different nodes present in the network.

Problem Statement
The deployment of multiple sensor nodes is done in an environment to sense the information
about the event and then to transmit this sensed data to the processing unit. The sensor node
that is equipped to perform this functionality has some constraints like less power, less
energy, less memory and less computational capability. The power unit of the sensor node
acts as a very important component which must be used in an optimal manner in order to
make the sensor node work for a long period of time. In addition to this problem the sensor
networks are also subject to several security issues like eves dropping, man in the middle
attack, message replaying etc (Mingming Chen, 2011). Therefore the reliability of the sensor
network is considered as a very important concept when they are applied for any application.
The reliability of the sensor network can be defined as the time for which the wireless sensor
network can work and the efficiency with which these sensor network will work after
recovering from the attack.
In this project the power consumption of the sensor node is tried to be reduced by
concentrating on the mobility and the aspect of task management of the sensor nodes. Also
secure topology method is used for the sensor networks in order to design the topology very
efficiently.

Aim
The project is aimed in securing the sensor network and reducing the power consumption of
the sensor nodes with the help of secure topology discovery method.
6

Objectives


In order to satisfy the project aim the list of the below objectives must be satisfied.
Analysing the security issues of the wireless sensor networks and the main reason for



the cause of these security issues in these sensor networks.
Investigating on the existing methods for providing security and for reducing the




power consumption in the sensor networks.
Designing the secure topology discovery method for the wireless sensor network.
Simulating the design sensor network and the secure topology discovery method.

Literature Review
As the wireless sensor networks gained huge popularity, they have become the widely
reached area in the networking filed. For most of the applications of the wireless sensor
network the process of topology discovery is highly important. This made researchers to
concentrate on the process of topology discovery and the various limitations that are present
in the process of discovery topology and the wireless sensor network. Initially the issue of
topology discovery and the security issues are identified in the small wired networks and in
the internet. The other class of tomography based topology inference technique concentrate in
identifying the measurable quantities in the network. These techniques can be either active
methods or the passive methods based on the requirement of cooperation from the nodes
present in the network (Ke Xu and Wei Han, 2008). In comparison it can be said that
relatively less work is done with respect to the topology discovery issues in the sensor
networks.
The topology of the wireless sensor network was initially identified with the help of active
method in which nodes are polled with the information of the neighbours. In this method only
the privilege nodes will be allowed to perform this process. The top disc algorithm can be
said as an example of this active method. This technique has an advantage of having highly
validity of the topology that is identified. However the cost of energy required for this active
method is very high. Later a tomography method is also used to discover the topology of the
medium size sensor network. In this method maximization is the technique used and this
method has shown prefect results with the wide networks and is also highly accepted in
several applications. The other research works concentrate on the end to end losses that are
caused during the process of topology discovery in the wireless sensor network. However
these methods are very passive when working in the base station. In other research works the
7

loss of the packets is identified to design the security of the topology discovery method. A
probalistic transmission method is also been developed where expectation maximization will
be employed along with the neighbouring information at the base station in order to identify
the global topology of the sensor network (Chenxi Li, 2013).
The research area has also concentrated in the development of topology maintenance
protocols like PEAS, CCP which are treated every important for the working of the wireless
sensor networks. These topology maintenance protocols help in increasing the network life
time as only a particular collection of nodes will be inactive state and the other nodes will be
United States (Durate, E,P., 2011). Depending on the objective of the application these
topology maintenance protocols have been designed. In the PEAS method a collection of
nodes are selected to be active and this collection should be appropriate to get sensing
coverage of the location and also to establish the network connectivity in an appropriate
manner. Every sensor node in this method will either be in sleep mode, working mode or the
probe mode (He Peng, 2010). CCP is another topology maintenance protocol where subsets
of nodes are kept active to obtain good coverage area. The nodes in the network can decide
by themselves weather to be in active state or the inactive state. Network connectivity in this
method is established with the help of hello messages. This utilization of the hello messages
can increase the amount of energy that is utilized by the sensor node.

Secure Topology Discovery
In this project a wireless sensor network is deployed in the form of clusters and then topology
discovery will be done in highly secured manner. This will come under the type of preventing
the attacks in the network. During the process of route discovery the malicious nodes will not
be allowed to eve’s drops the communication. For this process every sensor node in the
network is provided with a secret key and the messages which consist of route information
will be transmitted in the encrypted format (Mingming Chen, 2011). The base station of the
sensor node is considered as the data collection point and also the point where authentication
will be provided. During the topology discovery process initially the adjacent nodes will be
discovered and then the non adjacent nodes will be discovered. With the help of route table
optimization the load present in the adjacent node will be calculated. In this process the node
having less load will be assigned to the route continued to the other non adjacent node (Dos
Santos, G, C., 2008). The optimal weights of the sensor nodes are also taken into account in
this secure topology discovery method.
8

Project Methodology
The successful completion of any project is completely based on the methodology that is
adopted in it. The project methodology which is applied for this project is spiral
methodology. Here the project research is finally done from which the selection of project
topic is performed. Later the further research helped in completing the literature review of the
project. Later the design and the implementation of the project will be done at the same time
so that the errors can be identified and can be rectified easily.

Conclusion
A wireless sensor network is certainly being used in highly crucial applications in which
discovering of network topology is highly crucial. In addition to this security must also be
provided in this topology discovery process. In this project secure topology discovery method
is used where security is offered with the help of secret keys during the process of
discovering the topology.

References


Fuliang Li, Chenxi Li, Changging An and Miao Li (2013) “IPV6 network topology
discovery method based on novel graph mapping algorithms”, IEEE Conference



Publications, Computers and Communications, pp. 000554 - 000560
Gu Xiang, Qiu Jian-lin and He Peng (2010) “Analysis ad research of network
topology discovery method”, Networking and digital society (ICNDS), 2nd



international conference on IEEE Conference Publications, Volume: 1, pp. 108 - 110
Xue Chen, Miao Lv and Wenchang Yu (2010) “ Topology automatic discovery
method and layout algorithm for EPON and WiMAX convergence network”,
Wireless and optimal communications conference, 19th annual IEEE Conference



Publications, pp. 1 - 4
Ke Xum Meng Xu and Mingming Chen (2011) “ A delay guiding soure selection



method in network topology discovery”, IEEE Conference Publications, pp. 1 – 6
Ke Xu, Gang Zhou and Xin Zou (2009) “ A logic distance based method for
deploying probing sources in the topology discovery”, global telecommunications



conference, IEEE Conference Publications, pp. 2 - 8
Ke Xu and Wei Han (2008) “ A method for placing trace route like topology discovery
instrumentation”, communication systems, 2008, ICCS, 11th IEEE Singapore
International conference, pp. 1160- 1164
9



Durate, E,P., Nanya, T., and Nassu, B, T., Topology discovery in dynamic and
decentralised networks with mobile agents and swarm Intelligence, 7 th International
conference on



Intelligent systems design and applications, IEEE Conference

Publications, pp. 685 – 690, 2011
Dos Santos, G, C., Salvador, M, R., and Farkas, J., Automatic discovery of physical in
Ethernet networks, 22nd International conference on advanced information networking
and applications, IEEE Conference Publications, pp. 848 – 854, 2008

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