Kentucky

Published on March 2017 | Categories: Documents | Downloads: 34 | Comments: 0 | Views: 468
of 28
Download PDF   Embed   Report

Comments

Content

Kentucky
1 Etymology

This article is about the U.S. state. For other uses, see
Kentucky (disambiguation).

In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian
Mountains became known as Kentucky County,[6] named
for the Kentucky River.
The precise etymology
of the name is uncertain,[7] but likely based on an
Iroquoian name meaning "(on) the meadow” or "(on) the
prairie”[8][9] (cf. Mohawk kenhtà:ke, Seneca gëdá’geh
(phonemic /kẽtaʔkeh/), “at the field”).[10]

Kentucky i /kɨnˈtʌki/, officially the Commonwealth
of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central
region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U.S.
states constituted as a commonwealth (the others being
Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts). Originally a
part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state
to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive
and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States.

2 Geography

Kentucky is known as the “Bluegrass State”, a nickname
based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due
to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky
is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky which houses
two of its major cities, Louisville and Lexington. It is a
land with diverse environments and abundant resources,
including the world’s longest cave system, Mammoth
Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, and
the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi
River.

Kentucky is also home to the highest per capita number
of deer and turkey in the United States, the largest freeranging elk herd east of the Mississippi River, and the nation’s most productive coalfield. Kentucky is also known
for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, automobile manufacturing, tobacco, bluegrass music, college basketball,
and Kentucky Fried Chicken.
A map of Kentucky
See also: List of Kentucky counties and Coal mining in
Kentucky
Kentucky is situated in the Upland South.[11][12] A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia.
Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the
Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the
southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west,
Illinois and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the
north and northeast. Only Missouri and Tennessee, both
of which border eight states, touch more states.
Kentucky’s northern border is formed by the Ohio River
and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as
they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. In
several places, the rivers have changed courses away from
the original borders. For instance, northbound travelers
on US 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River,

Narrow country roads bounded by stone and wood plank fences
are a fixture in the Kentucky Bluegrass region.

1

2

2

GEOGRAPHY

will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a
thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of
Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Indiana and Kentucky.[13]
Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known as Kentucky
Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists
as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and
Tennessee, and is included in the boundaries of Fulton
County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on
the Mississippi River (populated by only about 17 people) requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of
the powerful 1811–1812 New Madrid Earthquakes was
near this area, even causing the river to flow backwards
in some places. Though the series of quakes did change
the area geologically and affect the (small number of) in- The Eastern Kentucky Coalfield is known for its rugged terrain.
habitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was
formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid
Earthquake.[14]

2.1

Regions

Kentucky’s regions (click on image for color-coding information.)

Kentucky’s Inner Bluegrass region features hundreds of horse
farms.

Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions:
the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central
Bluegrass region, the south-central and western
Pennyroyal Plateau (also known as the Pennyrile or
Mississippi Plateau), the Western Coal Fields and the
far-west Jackson Purchase.
The Bluegrass region is commonly divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles (145
km) around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the
region that contains most of the northern portion of the
state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is
in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short, steep, and
very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to Metropolis Lake
several bald cypress/tupelo swamps.

2.2

Climate

Located within the southeastern interior portion of North
America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa).
Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime
summer highs of 87 °F (31 °C) to the winter low of 23

°F (−5 °C). The average precipitation is 46 inches (1,200
mm) a year.[15] Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter.[16] The highest recorded temperature was
114 °F (46 °C) at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while
the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F (−38 °C)
at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994. Due to its location,
Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with

2.4

Natural environment and conservation

abundant rainfall. It has four distinct seasons, but usually
never experience the extreme cold as far northern states,
nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures extremely seldom go below 0 degrees or above
100 degrees. Rain- and snowfall totals about 45 inches
per year. There are also big variations in climate within
the state. The northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees
cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset
in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain
per year than for instance Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwealth go from
the low 30s in January to the high 70s in mid-July. The
annual average temperature varies from 55-60 degrees:
55 in the far north as an average annual temperature and
60 degrees in the extreme southwest.[17][18]

3
other state in the union, other than Alaska.[20]
Kentucky is the only U.S. state to have a continuous
border of rivers running along three of its sides—the
Mississippi River to the west, the Ohio River to the north,
and the Big Sandy River and Tug Fork to the east.[21]
Its major internal rivers include the Kentucky River,
Tennessee River, Cumberland River, Green River and
Licking River.

Though it has only three major natural lakes,[22] Kentucky is home to many artificial lakes. Kentucky has both
the largest artificial lake east of the Mississippi in water
volume (Lake Cumberland) and surface area (Kentucky
Lake). Kentucky Lake’s 2,064 miles (3,322 km) of
shoreline, 160,300 acres (64,900 ha) of water surface,
and 4,008,000 acre feet (4,944 Gl) of flood storage are
In general, Kentuckians experience relatively humid the most of any lake in the TVA system.[23]
warm rainful summers, and moderately cold and snowful winters. Mean maximum temperatures in July vary Kentucky’s 90,000 miles (140,000 km) of streams profrom 83 to 90 degrees, while the mean minimum July vides one of the most expansive and complex stream sys[24]
temperatures vary from 61 to 69 degrees. In January tems in the nation.
the mean maximum temperature range from 36 to 44 degrees, and the mean minimum temperatures range from
36 to 44 degrees. Temperature means vary with north- 2.4 Natural environment and conservation
ern and also far-eastern mountain-regions averaging five
degrees cooler year round, compared to the relatively
warmer areas of the southern- and western region of the
state. Precipitation also varies north to south with the
north averaging 38 to 40 inches, and the south averaging
50 inches. Days per year below the freezing point vary
from about sixty days in the southwest to more than a
hundred days in the far-north and far-east.[19]
2.2.1

Natural disasters

2.3

Lakes and rivers

See also: List of lakes in Kentucky, List of rivers of Kentucky and List of dams and reservoirs in Kentucky
Once an industrial wasteland, Louisville’s reclaimed waterfront
Kentucky has more navigable miles of water than any now features thousands of trees and miles of walking trails.
Kentucky has an expansive park system which includes
one national park, two National Recreation areas, two
National Historic Parks, two national forests, two National Wildlife Refuges, 45 state parks, 37,696 acres (153
km2 ) of state forest, and 82 Wildlife Management Areas.
Kentucky has been part of two of the most successful
wildlife reintroduction projects in United States history.
In the winter of 1997, the Kentucky Department of Fish
and Wildlife Resources began to re-stock elk in the state’s
eastern counties, which had been extinct from the area
for over 150 years. As of 2009, the herd had reached the
project goal of 10,000 animals, making it the largest herd
east of the Mississippi River.[25]
Lake Cumberland is the largest artificial American lake east of
the Mississippi River by volume.

The state also stocked wild turkeys in the 1950s. Once
extinct here, more wild turkeys thrive in Kentucky today
than in any other eastern state. Hunters telechecked a

4

3

HISTORY

record 29,006 birds taken during the 23-day season in
Spring 2009.[26]

• Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area
near Whitley City.

A female gray wolf shot in 2013 in Hart County, Kentucky by a hunter was the first verified sighting of the
species in Kentucky in modern times.[27]

• Black Mountain, state’s highest point.[30] Runs along
the south ridge of Pine Mountain in Letcher County,
Kentucky. The highest point located in Harlan
County.

2.5

• Bad Branch Falls State Nature Preserve, 2,639-acre
(11 km2 ) state nature preserve on southern slope of
Pine Mountain in Letcher County. Includes one of
the largest concentrations of rare and endangered
species in the state,[31] as well as a 60-foot (18 m)
waterfall and a Kentucky Wild River.

Natural attractions

• Jefferson Memorial Forest, located in the southern
fringes of Louisville in the Knobs region, the largest
municipally run forest in the United States.[32]
• Lake Cumberland, 1,255 miles (2,020 km) of shoreline located in South Central Kentucky.
• Natural Bridge, located in Slade, Kentucky Powell
County.
Red River Gorge is one of Kentucky’s most visited places

• Breaks Interstate Park, located in southeastern Pike
County, Kentucky and Southwestern Virginia. The
Breaks is commonly known as the “Grand Canyon
of the South”.

3 History
Main article: History of Kentucky
See also: History of slavery in Kentucky, Kentucky in
the American Civil War, Kentucky Historical Society and
Hatfield-McCoy feud
In about the 10th century, the Kentucky’s natives’ va-

Forest at Otter Creek Outdoor Recreation Area, Meade County,
Kentucky

• Cumberland Gap, chief passageway through the
Appalachian Mountains in early American history.
• Cumberland Falls, the only place in the Western
Hemisphere where a "moon-bow" may be regularly
seen, due to the spray of the falls.[28]
Abraham Lincoln Birthplace near Hodgenville
• Mammoth Cave National Park, featuring the world’s
riety of corn became highly productive, supplanting the
longest known cave system.[29]
Eastern Agricultural Complex, and replaced it with a
• Red River Gorge Geological Area, part of the Daniel maize-based agriculture in the Mississippian era. French
explorers in the 17th century documented numerous
Boone National Forest.
tribes living in Kentucky until the Beaver Wars in the
• Land Between the Lakes, a National Recreation 1670s. However, by the time that European colonial exArea managed by the United States Forest Service. plorers and settlers began entering Kentucky in greater

3.2

20th century

5

number in the mid-18th century, there were no major
Native American settlements in the region. The Iroquois
had controlled much of the Ohio River valley for hunting from their bases in what is now New York. The
Shawnee from the northwest and Cherokee from the
south also sent parties into the area regularly for hunting.
As more settlers entered the area, warfare broke out because the Native Americans considered the settlers to be
encroaching on their traditional hunting grounds.[33] Today there are two state recognized tribes in Kentucky, the
Designed by the Washington Monument's architect Robert Mills
Southern Cherokee Nation of Kentucky and the Ridgetop in 1845, the U.S. Marine Hospital in Louisville is considered the
Shawnee.[34][35]
best extant antebellum hospital in the country.
A 1790 U.S. government report states that 1,500 Kentucky settlers had been killed by Native Americans since
an
the end of the Revolutionary War.[36] In 1786, George vention of the People of Kentucky” and passed
[40]
Ordinance
of
Secession
on
November
20,
1861.
They
Rogers Clark led a group of 1,200 men in actions
of Kentucky with
against Shawnee towns on the Wabash River to begin the established a Confederate government
[41]
[37]
its
capital
in
Bowling
Green.
Northwest Indian War.
by the central star on
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Though Kentucky was represented
[42]
[6]
the
Confederate
battle
flag,
it
remained
officially “neuMountains became known as Kentucky County. Eventral”
throughout
the
war
due
to
the
Union
sympathies
of a
tually, the residents of Kentucky County (transformed in
significant
number
of
the
Commonwealth’s
citizens.
In
a
1780 to Fayette, Jefferson, and Lincoln counties), petirevival
of
the
“Lost
Cause”
that
has
exceeded
the
support
tioned for a separation from Virginia. Ten constitutional
conventions were held in the Constitution Square Court- it gained in the 19th century, some 21st-century Kentuckhouse in Danville between 1784 and 1792. In 1790, Ken- ians observe Confederate Memorial Day on Confederate
and partucky’s delegates accepted Virginia’s terms of separation, President Jefferson Davis’ birthday, June 3,
[43][44]
ticipate
in
Confederate
battle
re-enactments.
Both
and a state constitution was drafted at the final convention
Confederate
President
Jefferson
Davis
and
U.S.
President
in April 1792.
Abraham Lincoln were born in Kentucky.
On June 1, 1792, Kentucky became the fifteenth state of
the United States. Isaac Shelby, a military veteran from
Virginia, was elected the first Governor of the Common- 3.2 20th century
wealth of Kentucky.[38]
Although Vermont was admitted to the Union almost 15
months before Kentucky, the act of Congress admitting
Kentucky was passed two weeks before the act admitting Vermont. Both laws were passed in February 1791.
Politicians in Kentucky had asked Congress for the long
delay so that they could negotiate compromises on details of the state’s constitution. Thus the very first act of
Congress admitting a new state to the Union concerned
Kentucky.

The Black Patch Tobacco Wars, a vigilante action, occurred in the area in the early 20th century. As result of
the tobacco industry monopoly, tobacco farmers in the
area were forced to sell their tobacco at low prices. Many
local farmers and activists united to refuse to sell tobacco
to the tobacco industry.

Kentucky was one of the border states during the
American Civil War.[39] Although frequently described
as never having seceded, representatives from several
counties met at Russellville calling themselves the “Con-

ham, Goebel’s running mate, and Taylor fought over who
was the legal governor, until the Supreme Court of the
United States ruled in May in favor of Beckham. After
fleeing to Indiana, Taylor was indicted as a co-conspirator

A vigilante wing, the “Night Riders”, terrorized farmers
who sold their tobacco at the low prices demanded by the
tobacco corporations. They burned several tobacco warehouses, notably in Hopkinsville and Princeton. In the
later period of their operation, they were known to phys3.1 19th century
ically assault farmers who broke the boycott. The Governor declared martial law and deployed the Kentucky MiliCentral Kentucky, the bluegrass region, was the area of tia to end the Black Patch Tobacco Wars.
the state with the most slave owners, as planters culti- On January 30, 1900, Governor William Goebel, flanked
vated tobacco and hemp and were noted for their quality by two bodyguards, was mortally wounded by an assassin
livestock. During the 19th century, Kentucky slavehold- while walking to the State Capitol in downtown Frankers began to sell unneeded slaves to the Deep South, with fort. Goebel was contesting the Kentucky gubernatorial
Louisville becoming a major slave market and departure election of 1899, which William S. Taylor was initially
port for slaves being transported downriver.
believed to have won. For several months, J. C. W. Beck-

6

4

LAW AND GOVERNMENT

cials in odd-numbered years (the others being Louisiana,
Mississippi, New Jersey, and Virginia). Kentucky holds
elections for these offices every 4 years in the years preceding Presidential election years. Thus, Kentucky held
gubernatorial elections in 2007 and 2011, and will hold
one in 2015.

4.1 Executive branch

The governor’s mansion in Frankfort

The executive branch is headed by the governor who
serves as both head of state and head of government. The
lieutenant governor may or may not have executive authority depending on whether the person is a member of
the Governor’s cabinet. Under the current Kentucky Constitution, the lieutenant governor assumes the duties of
the governor only if the governor is incapacitated. (Prior
to 1992, the lieutenant governor assumed power any time
the governor was out of the state.) The governor and lieuStatue of William Goebel in Frankfort
tenant governor usually run on a single ticket (also per a
1992 constitutional amendment), and are elected to fouryear terms. Currently, the governor and lieutenant goverin Goebel’s assassination. Goebel is the only governor of nor are Democrats Steve Beshear and Crit Luallen.
a U.S. state to have been assassinated while in office.[45]
Other elected constitutional offices include the Secretary
of State, Attorney General, Auditor of Public Accounts,
State Treasurer and Commissioner of Agriculture. Cur4 Law and government
rently, Democrat Alison Lundergan Grimes serves as the
Secretary of State. The commonwealth’s chief prosecuSee also: List of Governors of Kentucky, Kentucky tor, law enforcement officer, and law officer is the AtSenate and Kentucky House of Representatives
torney General, currently Democrat Jack Conway. The
Auditor of Public Accounts is Democrat Adam Edelen.
Kentucky is one of four U.S. states to officially use the Democrat Todd Hollenbach is the current Treasurer. Reterm commonwealth. The term was used for Kentucky as publican James Comer is the current Commissioner of
it had also been used by Virginia, from which Kentucky Agriculture.
was created. The term has no particular significance in
its meaning and was chosen to emphasize the distinction
from the status of royal colonies as a place governed for 4.2 Legislative branch
the general welfare of the populace.[46]
The commonwealth term was used in citizen petitions Kentucky’s legislative branch consists of a bicameral
submitted between 1786 and 1792 for the creation of the body known as the Kentucky General Assembly.
state. It was also used in the title of a history of the
state that was published in 1834 and was used in various places within that book in references to Virginia and
Kentucky.[47] The other two states officially called “commonwealths” are Massachusetts and Pennsylvania.

The Senate is considered the upper house. It has 38 members, and is led by the President of the Senate, currently
Robert Stivers (R).

The House of Representatives has 100 members, and is
led by the Speaker of the House, currently Greg Stumbo
Kentucky is one of only five states that elects its state offi- (D).

4.5

Law

7
peals are heard in the Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, based in Cincinnati, Ohio.

4.5 Law

The Kentucky State Capitol building in Frankfort

4.3

Judicial branch

The judicial branch of Kentucky is called the Kentucky
Court of Justice and comprises courts of limited jurisdiction called District Courts; courts of general jurisdiction called Circuit Courts; specialty courts such as Drug
Court, Family Court; an intermediate appellate court, the
Kentucky Court of Appeals; and a court of last resort, the
Kentucky Supreme Court.

State sign, Interstate 65

Kentucky’s body of laws, known as the Kentucky Revised
Statutes (KRS), were enacted in 1942 to better organize
and clarify the whole of Kentucky law.[48] The statutes
are enforced by local police, sheriffs and deputy sherThe Kentucky Court of Justice is headed by the Chief iffs, and constables and deputy constables. Unless they
Justice of the Commonwealth.
have completed a police academy elsewhere, these offiUnlike federal judges, who are usually appointed, justices cers are required to complete training at the Kentucky
serving on Kentucky state courts are chosen by the state’s Department of Criminal Justice Training Center on the
campus of Eastern Kentucky University.[49] Additionally,
populace in non-partisan elections.
in 1948, the Kentucky General Assembly established the
Kentucky State Police, making it the 38th state to create
4.4 Federal representation
a force whose jurisdiction extends throughout the given
state.[50]

A map showing Kentucky’s six congressional districts.

Kentucky’s two U.S. Senators are Senate Majority Leader
Mitch McConnell and Rand Paul, both Republicans. The
state is divided into six Congressional Districts, represented by Republicans Ed Whitfield (1st), Brett Guthrie
(2nd), Thomas Massie (4th), Hal Rogers (5th) and Andy
Barr (6th) and Democrat John Yarmuth (3rd).

Kentucky is one of the 32 states in the United States
that sanctions the death penalty for certain murders defined as heinous. Those convicted of capital crimes after
March 31, 1998 are always executed by lethal injection;
those convicted on or before this date may opt for the
electric chair.[51] Only three people have been executed
in Kentucky since the U.S. Supreme Court re-instituted
the practice in 1976. The most notable execution in Kentucky was that of Rainey Bethea on August 14, 1936.
Bethea was publicly hanged in Owensboro for the rape
and murder of Lischia Edwards.[52] Irregularities with the
execution led to this becoming the last public execution
in the United States.[53]

Kentucky has been on the front lines of the debate over
displaying the Ten Commandments on public property.
In the 2005 case of McCreary County v. ACLU of Kentucky, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the decision of
the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals that a display of
the Ten Commandments in the Whitley City courthouse
In the federal judiciary, Kentucky is served by two United of McCreary County was unconstitutional.[54] Later that
States district courts: the Eastern District of Kentucky, year, Judge Richard Fred Suhrheinrich, writing for the
with its primary seat in Lexington, and the Western Dis- Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals in the case of ACLU of
trict of Kentucky, with its primary seat in Louisville. Ap- Kentucky v. Mercer County, wrote that a display includ-

8

5 DEMOGRAPHICS

ing the Mayflower Compact, the Declaration of Independence, the Ten Commandments, the Magna Carta, The
Star-Spangled Banner, and the national motto could be
erected in the Mercer County courthouse.[55] Still, a 2008
study found that Kentucky’s Supreme Court to be the least
influential high court in the nation with its decisions rarely
being followed by other states.[56]
Kentucky has also been known to have unusually high
political candidacy age laws, especially compared to surrounding states. The origin of this is unknown, but it has
been suggested it has to do with the commonwealth traKentucky Population Density Map
dition.

4.6

Politics

Further information: Political party strength in Kentucky
Where politics are concerned, Kentucky historically has
been very hard-fought and leaned slightly toward the
Democratic Party since 1860, when the Whig Party dissolved. The state was not included among the "Solid
South" as the eastern section tended to support Republican candidates. As of July 2015, 52.91% of the state’s
voters were officially registered as Democrats, 39.11%
were registered Republican, and 7.98% were registered
with some other political party or as independents.[58] Despite this, the state often supports Republican candidates
for federal offices.

the year 2010. This includes a natural increase since the
last census of 77,156 people (that is 287,222 births minus 210,066 deaths) and an increase due to net migration
of 59,604 people into the state. Immigration from outside
the United States resulted in a net increase of 27,435 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 32,169 people. As of 2004, Kentucky’s population included about 95,000 foreign-born persons (2.3%).
The population density of the state is 101.7 people per
square mile.[61]

Kentucky’s total population has grown during every
decade since records began. However, during most
decades of the 20th century there was also net outmigration from Kentucky. Since 1900, rural Kentucky
counties have experienced a net loss of over 1 million
people from migration, while urban areas have experiFrom 1964 through 2004, Kentucky voted for the even- enced a slight net gain.[62]
tual winner of the election for President of the United The center of population of Kentucky is located in
States. In the 2008 election, however, the state lost its Washington County, in the city of Willisburg.[63]
bellwether status when John McCain, who won Kentucky, lost the national popular and electoral vote to
Barack Obama (McCain carried Kentucky 57 to 41%). 5.1 Race and ancestry
The Commonwealth supported the previous three Democratic candidates elected to the White House, all elected
from Southern states: Lyndon B. Johnson (Texas) in
1964, Jimmy Carter (Georgia) in 1976, and Bill Clinton (Arkansas) in 1992 and 1996. In recent presidential
elections, the state has become a Republican stronghold,
supporting that party’s presidential candidates by doubledigit margins in 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012. At the same
time, it has continued to elect Democratic candidates to
state and local office in many jurisdictions.

5

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Kentucky
The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Kentucky was 4,413,457 on July 1, 2014, a
1.71% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[2]
As of July 1, 2014, Kentucky had an estimated population of 4,413,457, which is an increase of 18,162, from
the prior year and an increase of 74,090, or 1.71%, since

According to US Census Bureau official statistics
the largest ancestry in 2013 was American totalling
20.2%.[67] In 1980, before the status of ethnic American
was an available option on the official census, the largest
ancestries in the commonwealth were: English (28.7%),
German (11.1%), Irish (8.8%).[68][69][70][71][72][73][74] In
the state’s most urban counties of Jefferson, Oldham,
Fayette, Boone, Kenton, and Campbell, German is the
largest reported ancestry. Americans of Scots-Irish and
English stock are present throughout the entire state.
Many claim Irish ancestry because of known “ScotsIrish” among their ancestors, who were descendants of
immigrants from Scotland, via some years in Ireland.
Southeastern Kentucky was populated by a large group of
multi-racial settlers, sometimes called Melungeons, in the
early 19th century. As of the 1980s the only counties in
the United States where over half of the population cited
"English" as their only ancestry group were all in the hills
of eastern Kentucky (and made up virtually every county
in this region).[75] In the 1980 census 1,267,079 Kentuckians out of a total population of 2,554,359 cited that they

5.3

Religion

9

were of English ancestry making them 49 percent of the
state at that time.[76]
Groups such as the Ridgetop Shawnee in the early 21st
century organised as a non-profit to increase awareness of
Native Americans in Kentucky. In the 2000 census, there
were 20,000 people in the state who identified as Native American (0.49%). In June 2011, Jerry “2 Feather”
Thornton, a Cherokee, led a team in the Voyage of Native
American Awareness 2011 canoe journey, to begin on the
Green River in Rochester, Kentucky and travel through to
the Ohio River at Henderson.[77]
African Americans, who made up 25% of Kentucky’s
population prior to the Civil War, primarily in the Bluegrass region, declined in number during the 20th century. Many migrated to the industrial North and Midwest in the Great Migration for jobs. Today, less than
8% of the state’s total population is African American,
and it is highly urbanized, concentrated near Louisville.
52% of the state’s African-American population is in the Lexington Theological Seminary (then College of the Bible),
Louisville Metro Area; 44.2% is in Jefferson County. 1904.
The county had a population that is 20% African American. Other areas with high concentrations, beside Chris• 33% Evangelical Protestant, 1,448,947 adhertian and Fulton counties and the Bluegrass region, are the
ents (23% within the Southern Baptist Concities of Paducah and Lexington. Some mining commuvention, 1,004,407 adherents)
nities in far Southeastern Kentucky have populations that
• 7.1% Mainline Protestant, 305,955 adherare between five and 10 percent African American.
ents (4.4% in the United Methodist Church,
189,596 adherents)

5.2

Language

• 1.5% Black Protestant, 64,958 adherents

In 2000, 96.1% of all residents five years old and older
spoke only English at home, a decrease from 97.5% in
1990.[78]

• 8.3% Catholic Church, 359,783 adherents

Speech patterns in the state generally reflect the first
settlers’ Virginia and Kentucky backgrounds. South
Midland features are best preserved in the mountains, but some common to Midland and Southern are
widespread.[78] After a vowel, the /r/ may be weak or
missing. For instance, Coop has the vowel of put, but
the root rhymes with boot. In southern Kentucky, earthworms are called redworms, a burlap bag is known as a
tow sack or the Southern grass sack, and green beans are
called snap beans. In Kentucky English, a young man
may carry, not escort, his girlfriend to a party.[78]

• 0.60% other religions, 26,080 adherents (0.26%
Muslim, 0.16% Judaism, 0.06% Buddhism, 0.01%
Hindu, other Christian, etc.)

5.3

Religion

• 0.74% Latter-day Saints, 31,991 adherents

Kentucky is home to several seminaries. Southern Baptist
Theological Seminary in Louisville is the principal seminary for the Southern Baptist Convention. Louisville is
also the home of the Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary, an institution of the Presbyterian Church
(U.S.A.). Lexington has two seminaries, Lexington
Theological Seminary (affiliated with the Disciples of
Christ), and the Baptist Seminary of Kentucky. Asbury
Theological Seminary, a multi-denominational seminary
in the Methodist tradition, is located in nearby Wilmore.

See also: Religion in Louisville, Kentucky
In addition to seminaries, there are several colleges affilAs of 2010, the Association of Religion Data Archives iated with denominations:
(ARDA)[79] reported the following groupings of Kentucky’s 4,339,367 residents:
• In Louisville, Bellarmine University and Spalding
University are affiliated with the Roman Catholic
• 48% not affiliated with any religious group,
Church.
2,101,653 persons
• In Lexington, Transylvania University is affiliated
• 42% Protestant Christian, 1,819,860 adherents
with the Disciples of Christ.

10

6 ECONOMY

• In Owensboro, Kentucky Wesleyan College is associated with the United Methodist Church and
Brescia University is associated with the Roman
Catholic Church.
• In Pikeville, the University of Pikeville is affiliated
with the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.).
• In Wilmore, Asbury University (a separate institution from the seminary), is associated with the
Christian College Consortium.
• The Baptist Denomination is associated with:
• University of
Williamsburg

the

Cumberlands,

The best selling truck in the United States, the Ford F-Series, is

in manufactured in Louisville, Kentucky.

• Campbellsville University, in Campbellsville
• Georgetown College, in Georgetown
Louisville is home to the headquarters of the Presbyterian
Church (U.S.A.) and their printing press. Louisville also
has Muslim,[80] Jewish, and Hindu communities.
The Christian creationist apologetics group Answers in
Genesis, along with its Creation Museum, is headquartered in Petersburg, Kentucky.

Today Kentucky’s economy has expanded to importance
in non agricultural terms as well, especially in auto manufacturing, energy fuel production, and medical facilities. As of 2010, 24% of electricity produced in the USA
depended on either enriched uranium rods coming from
the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (the only domestic site of low grade uranium enrichment), or from the
107,336 tons of coal extracted from the state’s two coal
fields (which combined produce 4% percent of the electricity in the United States).[83]

Kentucky ranks 4th among U.S. states in the number
of automobiles and trucks assembled.[84] The Chevrolet
Corvette, Cadillac XLR (2004–2009), Ford Escape, Ford
6 Economy
Super Duty trucks, Ford Expedition, Lincoln Navigator,
Toyota Camry, Toyota Avalon, Toyota Solara, and Toyota
See also: Economy of Louisville, Kentucky, Economy
Venza are assembled in Kentucky.
of Lexington, Kentucky and Kentucky locations by per
Kentucky exports reached a record $22.1 billion in 2012,
capita income
[85]
Early in its history Kentucky gained recognition for with products and services going to 199 countries.
According to the Kentucky Cabinet for Economic Development, the primary state agency in Kentucky responsible for creating new jobs and new investment in the state,
new business investment in Kentucky in 2012 totaled
nearly $2.7 billion, with the creation of more than 14,000
new jobs. One such investment was L'Oreal in Northern
Kentucky, which added 200 jobs on top of the 280 already in existing facilities in Florence and Walton.[86]
In May 2010, the Army Human Resource Center of Excellence, the largest office building in the state at nearly
900,000-square-feet, opened at Fort Knox. The new
complex employs nearly 4,300 soldiers and civilians.[87]
The best selling car in the United States, the Toyota Camry, is
manufactured in Georgetown, Kentucky.

The total gross state product for 2010 was $163.3 billion,
28th in the nation.[88] Its per-capita personal income was
US$28,513, 43rd in the nation.[89] An organization called
the Institute for Truth in Accounting estimated that the
state government’s debts exceeded its available assets by
US$26,300 per taxpayer as of 2011, ranking the state as
having the 5th highest such debt burden in the nation.[90]

its excellent farming conditions. It was the site of the
first commercial winery in the United States (started in
present-day Jessamine County in 1799) and due to the
high calcium content of the soil in the Bluegrass region
quickly became a major horse breeding (and later racing)
area. Today Kentucky ranks 5th nationally in goat farm- As of June 2015, the state’s unemployment rate is
ing, 8th in beef cattle production,[81] and 14th in corn 5.1%.[91] In 2014 Kentucky was found to be the most afproduction.[82]
fordable US state in which to live.[92]

11

6.1

Taxation

There are 6 income tax brackets, ranging from 2% to 6%
of personal income.[93] The sales tax rate in Kentucky is
6%.[94] Kentucky has a broadly based classified property
tax system. All classes of property, unless exempted by
the Constitution, are taxed by the state, although at widely
varying rates.[95]

Spirit” symbol on them.

7 Transportation

Many of these classes are exempted from taxation by local government. Of the classes that are subject to local
taxation, three have special rates set by the General Assembly, one by the Kentucky Supreme Court and the remaining classes are subject to the full local rate, which
includes the tax rate set by the local taxing bodies plus all
voted levies. Real property is assessed on 100% of the
fair market value and property taxes are due by December
31. Once the primary source of state and local government revenue, property taxes now account for only about
6% of the Kentucky’s annual General Fund revenues.[96]
Until January 1, 2006, Kentucky imposed a tax on intangible personal property held by a taxpayer on January 1
of each year. The Kentucky intangible tax was repealed
under House Bill 272.[97] Intangible property consisted
of any property or investment which represents evidence
of value or the right to value. Some types of intangible
property included: bonds, notes, retail repurchase agreements, accounts receivable, trusts, enforceable contracts
sale of real estate (land contracts), money in hand, money
in safe deposit boxes, annuities, interests in estates, loans
to stockholders, and commercial paper.

6.2

Government-promoted slogans

In December 2002, the Kentucky governor Paul Patton
unveiled the state slogan “It’s that friendly”,[98] in hope of
drawing more people into the state based on the idea of
southern hospitality. This campaign was neither a failure
nor a success. Though it was meant to embrace southern
values, many Kentuckians rejected the slogan as cheesy
and ineffective.[98] It was quickly seen that the slogan did
not encourage tourism as much as initially hoped for. So
government decided to create a different slogan to embrace Kentucky as a whole while also encouraging more
people to visit the Bluegrass.[99]
To boost Kentucky’s image, give it a consistent reach,
and help it “stand out from the crowd”, former Governor
Ernie Fletcher launched a comprehensive branding campaign at some later point in time with the hope of making
the state’s $12–14 million advertising budget more effective. The resulting “Unbridled Spirit” brand was the result of a $500,000 contract with New West, a Kentuckybased public relations advertising and marketing firm to
develop a viable brand and tag line.[100] The Fletcher administration aggressively marketed the brand in both the
public and private sectors. Since that time, the “Welcome
to Kentucky” signs at border areas have an “Unbridled

At 464 miles (747 km) long, Kentucky Route 80 is the longest
route in Kentucky, pictured here west of Somerset.

Main article: Transportation in Kentucky

7.1 Roads
See also: List of Kentucky State Highways
Kentucky is served by six major interstate highways (I24, I-64, I-65, I-69, I-71, and I-75), nine parkways, and
four bypasses and spurs (I-264, I-265, I-275, and I-471).
The parkways were originally toll roads, but on November
22, 2006, Governor Ernie Fletcher ended the toll charges
on the William H. Natcher Parkway and the Audubon
Parkway, the last two parkways in Kentucky to charge
tolls for access.[101] The related toll booths have been
demolished.[102]
Ending the tolls some seven months ahead of schedule
was generally agreed to have been a positive economic development for transportation in Kentucky. In June 2007,
a law went into effect raising the speed limit on rural portions of Kentucky Interstates from 65 to 70 miles per hour
(105 to 113 km/h).[103]
Road tunnels include the interstate Cumberland Gap Tunnel and the rural Nada Tunnel.
Greyhound provides bus service to most major cities in
the state.

7.2 Rails
See also: List of Kentucky railroads
Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Ashland, South Portsmouth, Maysville and Fulton.

12

7 TRANSPORTATION
nati/Northern Kentucky International Airport is home to
the smallest Delta Hub, and one of DHL's super hubs.
There are also a number of regional airports scattered
across the state.

High Bridge over the Kentucky River was the tallest rail bridge in
the world when it was completed in 1877.

On August 27, 2006, Kentucky’s Blue Grass Airport in
Lexington was the site of a crash that killed 47 passengers and 2 crew members aboard a Bombardier Canadair
Regional Jet designated Comair Flight 191, or Delta Air
Lines Flight 5191, sometimes mistakenly identified by
the press as Comair Flight 5191.[110] The lone survivor
was the flight’s first officer, James Polehinke, who doctors determined to be brain damaged and unable to recall
the crash at all.[111]

The Cardinal (trains 50 and 51) is the line that offers
Amtrak service to Ashland, South Shore, Maysville and
South Portsmouth. The City of New Orleans (trains 58
and 59) serve Fulton. The Northern Kentucky area is
served by the Cardinal at the Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Terminal. The Museum Center is just across
the Ohio River in Cincinnati.
As of 2004, there were approximately 2,640 miles (4,250
km) of railways in Kentucky, with about 65% of those
being operated by CSX Transportation. Coal was by far
the most common cargo, accounting for 76% of cargo
loaded and 61% of cargo delivered.[104]
Bardstown features a tourist attraction known as My Old
Kentucky Dinner Train. Run along a 20-mile (30 km) A barge hauling coal in the Louisville and Portland Canal, the
stretch of rail purchased from CSX in 1987, guests are only manmade section of the Ohio River.
served a four-course meal as they make a two-and-ahalf hour round-trip between Bardstown and Limestone
Springs.[105] The Kentucky Railway Museum is located 7.4 Water
in nearby New Haven.[106]
Other areas in Kentucky are reclaiming old railways As the state is bounded by two of the largest rivers
in rail trail projects. One such project is Louisville’s in North America, water transportation has historically
Big Four Bridge. When the bridge’s Indiana approach played a major role in Kentucky’s economy. Louisville
ramps opened in 2014, completing the pedestrian con- was a major port for steamships in the nineteenth cennection across the Ohio River, the Big Four Bridge rail tury. Today, most barge traffic on Kentucky waterways
trail became the second-longest pedestrian-only bridge consists of coal that is shipped from both the Eastern and
in the world.[107] The longest pedestrian-only bridge is Western Coalfields, about half of which is used locally to
also found in Kentucky—the Newport Southbank Bridge, power many power plants located directly off the Ohio
popularly known as the “Purple People Bridge”, connect- River, with the rest being exported to other countries,
most notably Japan.
ing Newport to Cincinnati, Ohio.[108]
Many of the largest ports in the United States are located
in or adjacent to Kentucky, including:

7.3

Air

See also: List of airports in Kentucky

• Huntington-Tristate (includes Ashland, KY), largest
inland port and 7th largest overall

• Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky, 5th largest inland
Kentucky’s primary airports include Louisville Internaport and 43rd overall
tional Airport (Standiford Field (SDF)) of Louisville,
• Louisville-Southern Indiana, 7th largest inland port
Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport
and 55th overall
(CVG) of Covington and Northern Kentucky, and
Blue Grass Airport (LEX) in Lexington. Louisville
International Airport is home to UPS's Worldport, As a state, Kentucky ranks 10th overall in port
its international air-sorting hub.[109] Also, Cincin- tonnage.[112][113]

8.3

Major cities

13

The only natural obstacle along the entire length of the Kentucky, which is nearly one-fourth of the state’s popOhio River is the Falls of the Ohio, located just west of ulation. Since 2000, over one-third of the state’s popuDowntown Louisville.
lation growth has occurred in the Louisville CSA. In addition, the top 28 wealthiest places in Kentucky are in
Jefferson County and seven of the 15 wealthiest counties
in the state are located in the Louisville CSA.[116]
8 Subdivisions and settlements
The second largest city is Lexington with a 2010 census
population of 295,803 and its CSA, which includes the
8.1 Counties
Frankfort and Richmond statistical areas, having a population
of 687,173. The Northern Kentucky area (the
See also: List of counties in Kentucky and Fiscal Court
seven Kentucky counties in the Cincinnati MSA) had a
population of 425,483 in 2010. The metropolitan areas
Kentucky is subdivided into 120 counties, the largest of Louisville, Lexington, and Northern Kentucky have a
being Pike County at 787.6 square miles (2,040 km2 ), combined population of 2,173,687 as of 2010, which is
and the most populous being Jefferson County (which 50.1% of the state’s total population.
coincides with the Louisville Metro governmental area)
The two other fast growing urban areas in Kentucky are
with 741,096 residents as of 2010.[114]
the Bowling Green area and the “Tri Cities Region” of
County government, under the Kentucky Constitution of southeastern Kentucky, comprising Somerset, London
1891, is vested in the County Judge/Executive, (formerly and Corbin.
called the County Judge) who serves as the executive head
of the county, and a legislature called a Fiscal Court. De- Although only one town in the “Tri Cities”, namely Somspite the unusual name, the Fiscal Court no longer has erset, currently has more than 12,000 people, the area has
been experiencing heightened population and job growth
judicial functions.
since the 1990s. Growth has been especially rapid in Laurel County, which outgrew areas such as Scott and Jes8.2 Consolidated city-county governments samine counties around Lexington or Shelby and Nelson
Counties around Louisville. London significantly grew in
Kentucky’s two most populous counties, Jefferson and population in the 2000s, from 5,692 in 2000 to 7,993 in
Fayette, have their governments consolidated with the 2010. London also landed a Wal-Mart distribution center
governments of their largest cities. Louisville-Jefferson in 1997, bringing thousands of jobs to the community.
County Government (Louisville Metro) and Lexington- In northeast Kentucky, the greater Ashland area is an imFayette Urban County Government (Lexington Metro) portant transportation, manufacturing, and medical cenare unique in that their city councils and county Fiscal ter. Iron and petroleum production, as well as the transCourt structures have been merged into a single entity port of coal by rail and barge, have been historical pilwith a single chief executive, the Metro Mayor and Ur- lars of the region’s economy. Due to a decline in the
ban County Mayor, respectively. Although the counties area’s industrial base, Ashland has seen a sizable reducstill exist as subdivisions of the state, in reference the tion in its population since 1990. The population of the
names Louisville and Lexington are used to refer to the area has since stabilized, however, with the medical serentire area coextensive with the former cities and coun- vice industry taking a greater role in the local economy.
ties. Somewhat incongruously, when entering Lexington- The Ashland area, including the counties of Boyd and
Fayette the highway signs read “Fayette County” while Greenup, are part of the Huntington-Ashland, WV-KYmost signs leading into Louisville-Jefferson simply read OH, Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). As of the 2000
“Welcome to Louisville Metro”.
census, the MSA had a population of 288,649. More than

8.3

Major cities

See also: List of cities in Kentucky

21,000 of those people (as of 2010) reside within the city
limits of Ashland.
The largest county in Kentucky by area is Pike, which
contains Pikeville and suburb Coal Run Village . The
county and surrounding area is the most populated region
in the state that is not part of a Micropolitan Statistical
Area or a Metropolitan Statistical Area containing nearly
200,000 people in five counties: Floyd County, Martin
County, Letcher County, and neighboring Mingo County,
West Virginia. Pike County contains slightly over 68,000
people.

The Metro Louisville government area has a 2010 population of 741,096. Under United States Census Bureau methodology, the population of Louisville was
566,503. The latter figure is the population of the socalled “balance”—the parts of Jefferson County that were
either unincorporated or within the City of Louisville before the formation of the merged government in 2003. Only three U.S. states have capitals with smaller populaIn 2010, the Louisville Combined Statistical Area (CSA) tions than Kentucky’s Frankfort (pop. 25,527), those behas a population of 1,451,564; including 1,061,031 in ing Augusta, Maine (pop. 18,560), Pierre, South Dakota

14

10

(pop. 13,876), and Montpelier, Vermont (pop. 8,035).

9

Education

CULTURE

ranked Journalism Department or Morehead State University offering one of the nation’s only Space Science
degrees. UK is the flagship and land grant of the system
and has agriculture extension services in every county.
The two research schools split duties related to the medical field, UK handles all medical outreach programs in
the eastern half of the state while UofL does all medical
outreach in the state’s western half.
The state’s sixteen public two-year colleges have been
governed by the Kentucky Community and Technical
College System since the passage of the Postsecondary
Education Improvement Act of 1997, commonly referred
to as House Bill 1.[117] Prior to the passage of House Bill
1, most of these colleges were under the control of the
University of Kentucky.
Transylvania University, located in Lexington, is the oldest university west of the Allegheny Mountains, founded
in 1780. Transylvania is a liberal arts university, consistently ranked in the top tier in the country.

The University of Kentucky is Kentucky’s flagship university.

Berea College, located at the extreme southern edge of
the Bluegrass below the Cumberland Plateau, was the first
coeducational college in the South to admit both black
and white students, doing so from its very establishment
in 1855.[118] This policy was successfully challenged in
the United States Supreme Court in the case of Berea
College v. Kentucky in 1908.[119] This decision effectively
segregated Berea until the landmark Brown v. Board of
Education in 1954.
There are 173 school districts and 1,233 public schools
in Kentucky.[120] For the 2010 to 2011 school year, there
were approximately 647,827 students enrolled in public
school.[121]

Kentucky has been the site of much educational reform over the past two decades. In 1989, the Kentucky
The University of Louisville is Kentucky’s urban research univer- Supreme Court ruled that the state’s education system was
sity.
unconstitutional.[122] The response of the General Assembly was passage of the Kentucky Education Reform
Main article: Education in Kentucky
Act (KERA) the following year. Years later, Kentucky
See also: List of colleges and universities in Kentucky, has shown progress, but most agree that further reform is
List of high schools in Kentucky and List of school needed.[123]
districts in Kentucky
Kentucky maintains eight public four-year universities.
There are two general tiers: major research institutions (the University of Kentucky and the University of
Louisville) and regional universities, which encompasses
the remaining 6 schools. The regional schools have specific target counties that many of their programs are targeted towards (such as Forestry at Eastern Kentucky University or Cave Management at Western Kentucky University), however most of their curriculum varies little
from any other public university.
UK and UofL have the highest academic rankings and
admissions standards although the regional schools aren't
without their national recognized departments – examples being Western Kentucky University’s nationally

10 Culture
Main article: Culture of Kentucky
See also: Theater in Kentucky, Performing arts in
Louisville, Kentucky and List of attractions and events
in the Louisville metropolitan area
Although Kentucky’s culture is generally considered to
be Southern, it is unique in that it is also influenced by
the Midwest and Southern Appalachia in certain areas of
the state. The state is known for bourbon and whiskey
distilling, tobacco, horse racing, and college basketball.
Kentucky is more similar to the Upland South in terms

15
gation in most public spheres after the Civil War, but the
state never disenfranchised African American citizens to
the level of the Deep South states, and it peacefully integrated its schools after the 1954 Brown v. Board of
Education verdict, later adopting the first state civil rights
act in the South in 1966.[130]

Old Louisville is the largest Victorian Historic neighborhood in
the United States.

The Buffalo Trace Distillery

of ancestry which is predominantly American.[124]
Nevertheless, during the 19th century, Kentucky did receive a substantial number of German immigrants, who
settled mostly in the Midwest, along the Ohio River primarily in Louisville, Covington and Newport.[125] Only
Maryland, Delaware and West Virginia have higher German ancestry percentages than Kentucky among Censusdefined Southern states, although Kentucky’s percentage
is closer to Arkansas and Virginia’s than the previously
named state’s percentages. Scottish Americans, English
Americans and Scotch-Irish Americans have heavily influenced Kentucky culture, and are present in every part
of the state.[126] As of the 1980s the only counties in the
United States where over half of the population cited “English” as their only ancestry group were all in the hills of
eastern Kentucky (and made up virtually every county in
this region).[75]

The biggest day in American horse racing, the Kentucky
Derby, is preceded by the two-week Derby Festival[131]
in Louisville. Louisville also plays host to the Kentucky
State Fair,[132] the Kentucky Shakespeare Festival,[133]
and Southern gospel's annual highlight, the National
Quartet Convention.[134] Bowling Green, the state’s thirdlargest city and home to the only assembly plant in
the world that manufactures the Chevrolet Corvette,[135]
opened the National Corvette Museum in 1994.[136] The
fourth-largest city, Owensboro, gives credence to its nickname of “Barbecue Capital of the World” by hosting the
annual International Bar-B-Q Festival.[137]
Old Louisville, the largest historic preservation district
in the United States featuring Victorian architecture and
the third largest overall,[138] hosts the St. James Court
Art Show, the largest outdoor art show in the United
States.[139] The neighborhood was also home to the
Southern Exposition (1883–1887), which featured the
first public display of Thomas Edison's light bulb,[140] and
was the setting of Alice Hegan Rice's novel, Mrs. Wiggs
of the Cabbage Patch and Fontaine Fox's comic strip, the
"Toonerville Trolley.[141]
Hodgenville, the birthplace of Abraham Lincoln, hosts
the annual Lincoln Days Celebration, and also hosted
the kick-off for the National Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Celebration in February 2008. Bardstown celebrates its heritage as a major bourbon-producing region
with the Kentucky Bourbon Festival.[142] Glasgow mimics Glasgow, Scotland by hosting the Glasgow Highland
Games, its own version of the Highland Games,[143] and
Sturgis hosts “Little Sturgis”, a mini version of Sturgis,
South Dakota's annual Sturgis Motorcycle Rally.[144]

Kentucky was a slave state, and blacks once comprised
over one-quarter of its population. However, it lacked the
cotton plantation system and never had the same high percentage of African Americans as most other slave states.
With less than 8% of its current population being black,
Kentucky is rarely included in modern-day definitions
of the Black Belt, despite a relatively significant rural
African American population in the Central and Western
areas of the state.[127][128][129]
The residents of tiny Benton pay tribute to their favorite
Kentucky adopted the Jim Crow system of racial segre- tuber, the sweet potato, by hosting Tater Day.[145] Resi-

16

10

dents of Clarkson in Grayson County celebrate their city’s
ties to the honey industry by celebrating the Clarkson
Honeyfest.[146] The Clarkson Honeyfest is held the last
Thursday, Friday and Saturday in September, and is the
“Official State Honey Festival of Kentucky”.

10.1

Music

Main article: Music of Kentucky
See also: Category:Musicians from Kentucky

CULTURE

Kevin Richardson of the Backstreet Boys, and Billy Ray
Cyrus (Flatwoods).
However, its depth lies in its signature sound—Bluegrass
music. Bill Monroe, “The Father of Bluegrass”, was born
in the small Ohio County town of Rosine, while Ricky Skaggs, Keith Whitley, David “Stringbean” Akeman, Louis
Marshall “Grandpa” Jones, Sonny and Bobby Osborne,
and Sam Bush (who has been compared to Monroe) all
hail from Kentucky. The International Bluegrass Music
Museum is located in Owensboro,[147] while the annual
Festival of the Bluegrass is held in Lexington.[148]

Kentucky is also home to famed jazz musician and piThe breadth of music in Kentucky is indeed wide, stretch- oneer, Lionel Hampton (although this has been dising from the Purchase to the eastern mountains.
puted in recent years).[149] Blues legend W.C. Handy
Renfro Valley, Kentucky is home to Renfro Valley Enter- and R&B singer Wilson Pickett also spent considerable
tainment Center and the Kentucky Music Hall of Fame time in Kentucky. The R&B group Midnight Star and
and is known as “Kentucky’s Country Music Capital”, a Hip-Hop group Nappy Roots were both formed in Kendesignation given it by the Kentucky State Legislature in tucky, as were country acts The Kentucky Headhunters,
the late 1980s. The Renfro Valley Barn Dance was where Montgomery Gentry and Halfway to Hazard, The Judds,
Renfro Valley’s musical heritage began, in 1939, and in- as well as Dove Award-winning Christian groups Audio
fluential country music luminaries like Red Foley, Homer Adrenaline (rock) and Bride (metal). Heavy Rock band
& Jethro, Lily May Ledford & the Original Coon Creek Black Stone Cherry hails from rural Edmonton, Indie
Girls, Martha Carson, and many others have performed rock band My Morning Jacket with lead singer and guias regular members of the shows there over the years. The tarist Jim James also originated out of Louisville, on the
Renfro Valley Gatherin' is today America’s second oldest local independent music Scene. Rock bands Cage the
continually broadcast radio program of any kind. It is Elephant, Sleeper Agent, and Morning Teleportation are
broadcast on local radio station WRVK and a syndicated also from Bowling Green. The bluegrass groups Driftnetwork of nearly 200 other stations across the United wood and Kentucky Rain, along with Nick Lachey of
the pop band 98 Degrees are also from Kentucky. King
States and Canada every week.
Crimson guitarist Adrian Belew is from Covington.
In eastern Kentucky, old-time music carries on the tradition of ancient ballads and reels developed in historical
Appalachia.

The U.S. 23 Country Music Highway Museum in Paintsville provides background on the country music artists from Eastern Kentucky

Contemporary Christian music star Steven Curtis Chapman is a Paducah native, and Rock and Roll Hall of
Famers The Everly Brothers are closely connected with
Muhlenberg County, where older brother Don was born.
Merle Travis, Country & Western artist known for both
his signature "Travis picking" guitar playing style, as
well as his hit song "Sixteen Tons", was also born in
Muhlenberg County. Kentucky was also home to Mildred
and Patty Hill, the Louisville sisters credited with composing the tune to the ditty Happy Birthday to You in
1893; Loretta Lynn (Johnson County), Brian Littrell and

The Hot Brown

10.2 Cuisine
Main article: Cuisine of Kentucky
Kentucky’s cuisine is generally similar to traditional
southern cooking, although in some areas of the

10.4

State symbols

17

state it can blend elements of both the South and
Midwest.[150][151] One original Kentucky dish is called
the Hot Brown, a dish normally layered in this order:
toasted bread, turkey, bacon, tomatoes and topped with
mornay sauce. It was developed at the Brown Hotel in
Louisville.[152] The Pendennis Club in Louisville is the
birthplace of the Old Fashioned cocktail. Also, western
Kentucky is known for its own regional style of barbecue.

As in many states, especially those without major league
professional sport teams, college athletics are prominent.
This is especially true of the state’s three Division I
Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) programs, including the
Kentucky Wildcats, the Western Kentucky Hilltoppers,
and the Louisville Cardinals. The Wildcats, Hilltoppers,
and Cardinals are among the most tradition-rich college
men’s basketball teams in the United States, combining for 11 National championships and 24 NCAA Final
Louisville is well known for its many boutique, locally
owned restaurants including Jack Fry’s, Ramsi’s Cafe on Fours; all three are high on the lists of total all-time wins,
wins per season, and average wins per season.
the World (both on Bardstown Road), The English Grill,
Mayan Cafe, Bistro Le Relais and Proof on Main Street. The Kentucky Wildcats are particularly notable, leading
Harland Sanders originated Kentucky Fried Chicken at all Division I programs in all-time wins, win percentage,
his service station in North Corbin, though the first fran- NCAA tournament appearances, and being second only
to UCLA in NCAA championships. Louisville has also
chised KFC was located in South Salt Lake, Utah.[153]
stepped onto the football scene in recent years, including
winning the 2007 Orange Bowl as well as the 2013 Sugar
Bowl. Western Kentucky, the 2002 national champion
10.3 Sports
in Division I-AA football (now Football Championship
Subdivision (FCS)), completed its transition to Division I
Main article: Sports in Kentucky
FBS football in 2009.
Kentucky is the home of several sports teams such as
The Kentucky Derby is a horse race held annually in
Louisville on the first Saturday in May. The Valhalla Golf
Club has hosted several editions of the PGA Championship, Senior PGA Championship and Ryder Cup since
the 1990s.
The NASCAR Sprint Cup Series has a race at the
Kentucky Speedway in Sparta, Kentucky, which is within
an hour driving distance from Cincinnati, Louisville and
Lexington. The race is called the Quaker State 400. The
NASCAR Nationwide Series and the Camping World
Truck Series also race there, and previously the IndyCar
Series.
Ohio Valley Wrestling in Louisville was the primary
location for training and rehab for WWE professional
wrestlers from 2000 until 2008, when WWE moved
Kentucky’s Churchill Downs hosts the Kentucky Derby
its contracted talent to Florida Championship Wrestling.
In November 2011, OVW became the primary develMinor League Baseball's Triple-A Louisville Bats and
opmental territory for Total Nonstop Action Wrestling
Class A Lexington Legends and the Class A Bowling
(TNA).
Green Hot Rods. They are also home to the Frontier
Leagues Florence Freedom and several teams in the
MCFL. The Lexington Horsemen and Louisville Fire of
the now-defunct af2 had been interested in making a
move up to the “major league” Arena Football League, 10.4 State symbols
but nothing has come of those plans.
The northern part of the state lies across the Ohio River
from Cincinnati, which is home to a National Football
League team, the Bengals, and a Major League Baseball team, the Reds. It is not uncommon for fans to
park in the city of Newport and use the Newport Southbank Pedestrian Bridge, locally known as the “Purple
People Bridge”, to walk to these games in Cincinnati.
Also, Georgetown College in Georgetown was the location for the Bengals’ summer training camp, until it was
announced in 2012 that the Bengals would no longer use
the facilities.[154]

Main article: List of Kentucky state insignia
See also: Flag of Kentucky and Seal of Kentucky

10.5 Official state places and events
Unless otherwise specified, all state symbol information
is taken from Kentucky State Symbols.

18

11

13

Gallery

• The world famous Louisville Slugger baseball bat
is made in Kentucky. It holds the Guinness World
Record for the largest bat.
• Kentucky’s 2001 commemorative quarter.

REFERENCES

[10] McCafferty, Michael (2008). Native American Place
Names of Indiana. University of Illinois Press. p. 250.
[11] ed. in chief Frederick C. Mish (2003). Merriam-Webster’s
Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.). Merriam–Webster. p.
1562. ISBN 978-0-87779-809-5. Retrieved January 17,
2013.

• Thunder Over Louisville is the largest annual fireworks show in the world.

[12] The North American Midwest: A Regional Geography.
New York, New York: Wiley Publishers. 1955.

• Kentucky’s horse farms are world renowned.

[13] “Map of [1494–1557] Waterworks Rd Evansville, IN”.
Retrieved January 1, 2009.

• The Daniel Boone National Forest.
• The Ohio River forms the northern border of Kentucky.
• Many Kentucky cities have historic areas near
downtown, such as this example in Bowling Green.

12

See also

• Index of Kentucky-related articles

[14] “Life on the Mississippi”. Kentucky Educational Television. January 28, 2002. Retrieved November 29, 2006.
[15] “The Geography of Kentucky — Climate”.
NetState.com. June 15, 2006. Retrieved November 29, 2006.
[16] “Geographical Configuration”. Encyclopedia of Kentucky. New York, New York: Somerset Publishers. 1987.
ISBN 0-403-09981-1.
[17] Klotter, James C. and Freda C. (2015). Faces of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky. Page 53. ISBN
9780813160528.

• Outline of Kentucky – organized list of topics about
[18] Weigl Publishing, Inc. (2008). Discover America: KenKentucky
tucky: The Bluegrass State. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.
Page 8. ISBN 9781593397630.

13

References

[1] “Kentucky State Symbols”. Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives. Archived from the original on July
31, 2007. Retrieved November 29, 2006.
[2] “Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population
for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico:
April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014” (CSV). U.S. Census Bureau. January 4, 2015. Retrieved January 4, 2015.
[3] “Elevations and Distances in the United States”. United
States Geological Survey. 2001. Retrieved October 21,
2011.
[4] Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of
1988.
[5] “About the Lt. Governor About the Lieutenant Governor”. Ltgovernor.ky.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-25.
[6] “About Kentucky”. Ezilon Search. Retrieved November
29, 2006.
[7] Harper, Douglas. “Kentucky”. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved February 25, 2007. “Kentucky”. Oxford
English Dictionary. Retrieved February 25, 2007.
[8] Mithun, Marianne. 1999. Languages of Native North
America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pg.
312
[9] “Kentucky”. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia
2006. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009.
Retrieved February 25, 2007.

[19] Jones, Ronald (2005). Plant Life of Kentucky: An Illustrated Guide to the Vascular Flora. University Press of
Kentucky. Page 11. ISBN 9780813123318.
[20] “Corbin, Kentucky: A Fisherman’s Paradise”. Corbin,
Kentucky Economic Development. Retrieved November
29, 2006.
[21] Kleber, John E., ed. (1992). “Rivers”. The Kentucky Encyclopedia. Associate editors: Thomas D. Clark, Lowell
H. Harrison, and James C. Klotter. Lexington, Kentucky:
The University Press of Kentucky. p. 774. ISBN 0-81311772-0. Retrieved February 18, 2015.
[22] Kleber, John E., ed. (1992). “Lakes”. The Kentucky Encyclopedia. Associate editors: Thomas D. Clark, Lowell
H. Harrison, and James C. Klotter. Lexington, Kentucky:
The University Press of Kentucky. p. 531. ISBN 0-81311772-0. Retrieved February 18, 2015.
[23] Tennessee Valley Authority, The Kentucky Project: A
Comprehensive Report on the Planning, Design, Construction, and Initial Operations of the Kentucky Project, Technical Report No. 13 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1951), pp. 1-12, 68, 115-116, 509.
[24] Thompson, George E. (2009). You Live Where?: Interesting and Unusual Facts about where We Live. iUniverse.
p. 39.
[25] “Elk Restoration Update and Hunting Information”.
Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources.
Archived from the original on September 26, 2006. Retrieved December 9, 2006.

19

[26] “Hunters Take Record Number of Spring Turkey”. Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved
January 17, 2013.
[27] Russ McSpadden (August 19, 2013). “Wild Wolf in Kentucky, First in 150 Years, Killed by Hunter”. Earth First!
News. Retrieved September 4, 2013.

[45] “The Old State Capitol”. Kentucky Historical Society.
Retrieved September 9, 2007.
[46] The Commonwealth of Kentucky, Kentucky Atlas &
Gazeteer, University of Kentucky website.
[47] Butler, Mann, A History of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Wilcox, Dickerman & Co., 1834.

[28] “Cumberland Falls State Resort Park”. Kentucky Department of Parks. October 19, 2005. Archived from the
original on October 5, 2006. Retrieved November 29,
2006.

[48] “Reviser of Statutes Office — History and Functions”.
Kentucky Legislative Research Commission. Retrieved
December 27, 2006.

[29] “Mammoth Cave National Park”. National Park Service.
October 12, 2006. Retrieved November 29, 2006.

[49] “History of the DOCJT”. Kentucky Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved December 27, 2006.

[30] “Science In Your Backyard: Kentucky”. United States
Geological Survey. Retrieved November 29, 2006.

[50] “History of the Kentucky State Police”. Kentucky State
Police. Retrieved December 27, 2006.

[31] “Bad Branch State Nature Preserve”. Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission. Archived from the original
on October 24, 2006. Retrieved November 29, 2006.

[51] “Authorized Methods of Execution by State”. Death
Penalty Information Center. Retrieved December 28,
2006.

[32] “Jefferson Memorial Forest”. Retrieved November 29,
2006.

[52] Long, Paul A. (June 11, 2001). "'The Last Public Execution in America'". The Kentucky Post (E. W. Scripps Company). Archived from the original on January 17, 2006.
Retrieved December 27, 2006.

[33] “The Presence”. History of Native Americans in Central
Kentucky. Mercer County Online. Retrieved November
29, 2006.
[34] Metts, Tara.The-Caring-Difference-Newsletter“National
Indian Child Welfare Association (NICWA) and its implications in Kentucky”, Summer 2010, Vol. 9, No. 2, p.
4, www.scibd.com. Retrieved Sep 2013

[53] Montagne, Renee (May 1, 2001). “The Last Public Execution in America”. NPR. Retrieved December 27, 2006.
[54] "McCreary County v. ACLU of Kentucky". Cornell University Law School. Archived from the original on June
16, 2009. Retrieved December 27, 2006.

[35] Cooper, Sara. Indian Welfare Act Compliance Desk Aid
May 2010, www.scribd.com. Retrieved Sep 2013

[55] “Text of decision in ACLU of Kentucky v. Mercer County"
(PDF). Retrieved December 27, 2006.

[36] James, James Alton (1928). The Life of George Rogers
Clark. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0404-03549-3.

[56] Liptak, Adam (March 11, 2008). “Around the U.S., High
Courts Follow California’s Lead”. The New York Times.

[37] Harrison, Lowell H (2001) [1976]. George Rogers Clark
and the War in the West. Lexington: University Press of
Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-9014-2.
[38] “Constitution Square State Historic Site”. Danville-Boyle
County Convention and Visitors Bureau. Archived from
the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved November
29, 2006.
[39] “Border States in the Civil War”. CivilWarHome.com.
February 15, 2002. Retrieved November 29, 2006.
[40] “Ordinances of Secession”. Historical Text Archive. Retrieved November 29, 2006.
[41] “Civil War Sites — Bowling Green, KY”. WMTH Corporation. Retrieved November 29, 2006.
[42] Irby, Jr., Richard E. “A Concise History of the Flags of the
Confederate States of America and the Sovereign State of
Georgia”. About North Georgia. Golden Ink. Retrieved
November 29, 2006.

[57] Leip, David. “Presidential General Election Results Comparison — Kentucky”. US Election Atlas. Retrieved December 31, 2009.
[58] “Election Statistics Registration Statistics”. elect.ky.gov.
Retrieved 2015-07-17.
[59] “Kentucky population”. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
[60] Resident Population Data. “Resident Population Data –
2010 Census”. 2010.census.gov. Retrieved December 7,
2011.
[61] John W. Wright, ed. (2007). The New York Times 2008
Almanac. p. 178.
[62] Price, Michael. “Migration in Kentucky: Will the Circle Be Unbroken?". Exploring the Frontier of the Future:
How Kentucky Will Live, Learn and Work. University
of Louisville. pp. 5–10. Archived from the original on
March 27, 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2007.

[43] “KRS 2.110 Public Holidays” (PDF). Kentucky General
Assembly. Retrieved November 29, 2006.

[63] “Population and Population Centers by State: 2000”
(TXT). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 27,
2006.

[44] Tony Hiss, Confederates in the Attic

[64]

20

13

[65]
[66] “2010 Census Data”. Census.gov. Retrieved February 24,
2015.
[67] Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS).
“American FactFinder - Results”. census.gov.

REFERENCES

[85] Snchez, Francisco J. (March 15, 2013). “Ky. one of
fastest-growing states in exporting products | Op-Ed”.
Kentucky.com. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
[86] “Maker of hair care products to expand in Kentucky”.
Businessweek. Retrieved July 10, 2013.

[68] “Ancestry of the Population by State: 1980 - Table 3”
(PDF). Census.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-25.

[87] Business First (May 27, 2010). “Human resource center opens at Fort Knox”. Louisville.bizjournals.com. Retrieved November 28, 2012.

[69] Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America By Dominic J. Pulera.

[88] “GDP by State”. Retrieved September 7, 2011.

[70] Reynolds Farley, 'The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?', Demography, Vol. 28, No.
3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421.
[71] Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi, 'The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns’,
Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44-6.
[72] Lieberson, Stanley & Waters, Mary C. (1986). “Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of
American Whites”. Annals of the American Academy
of Political and Social Science 487 (79): 82–86.
doi:10.1177/0002716286487001004.
[73] “American FactFinder”. US Census. Retrieved August 7,
2014.
[74] “American FactFinder”. US Census. Retrieved August 7,
2014.
[75] James Paul Allen and Eugene James Turner, We the People: An Atlas of America’s Ethnic Diversity (Macmillan,
1988), 41.
[76] “Persons Who Reported at Least One specific Ancestry
Group for Regions, Divisions, and States : 1980” (PDF).
Census.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-25.

[89] “Kentucky Cabinet for Economic Development – Kentucky Economy”. Webcitation.org. Retrieved November
28, 2012.
[90] “State Data Lab “Snapshot By The Numbers: Kentucky”.
January 2013. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
[91] “Kentucky’s jobless rate at 5.1 percent in June 2015”. Education and Workforce Development Cabinet. Retrieved
July 20, 2015.
[92] EZ Landlord Forms. “Cost To Rent A Home”. ezlandlordforms.com. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
[93] “Kentucky Income Tax Rates”. salary. com. Retrieved
May 1, 2007.
[94] “Sales & Use Tax”. Kentucky Department of Revenue.
Retrieved May 1, 2007.
[95] “Property Tax”. Kentucky Department of Revenue.
Archived from the original on April 3, 2007. Retrieved
May 1, 2007.
[96] “State Taxes – Kentucky – Overview”. bankrate.com. Retrieved May 1, 2007.
[97] “Text of the House Bill 272”. State of Kentucky. Retrieved August 10, 2007.

[77] Vincent Schilling, “A Canoe Voyage to Increase Cultural
Understanding”, Indian Country Today, May 19, 2011,
accessed January 16, 2012

[98] “Kentucky frowns on smiley license plates - US news Weird news”. NBC News. July 16, 2005. Retrieved July
10, 2013.

[78] “Kentucky - Languages”.
February 24, 2015.

[99] “Unbridled Spirit→Information”. State of Kentucky. Retrieved May 1, 2007.

city-data.com.

Retrieved

[79] “The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Mem- [100] "'Unbridled Spirit' Wins Kentucky Slogan Vote”. The
New York Times. December 2, 2004.
bership Report”. www.thearda.com. Retrieved November 15, 2013.
[101] Stinnett, Chuck. "Fletcher:Tolls to end November 22”.
Archived from the original on October 8, 2006. Retrieved
[80] “Muslims in Louisville”. Irfi.org. Retrieved December 7,
May 1, 2007.
2011.
[81] “2007 Rankings of States and Counties”. bamabeef.org. [102] Stinnett, Chuck (November 22, 2006). “Onlookers Cheer
Booth Destruction at Ceremony”. Courier Press. ReArchived from the original on May 4, 2006. Retrieved
trieved August 10, 2007.
May 1, 2007.
[82] “Corn Production Detective” (PDF). National Council on [103] Steitzer, Stephanie (June 26, 2007). “Many new laws go
on books today”. Courier-Journal.
Economic Education. Archived from the original (PDF)
on June 5, 2007. Retrieved May 3, 2007.
[104] “Railroad Service in Kentucky” (PDF). Association of
American Railroads. Retrieved May 1, 2007. Also, Nor[83] “Utah Geological Survey – U.S. Coal Production by State,
folk Southern’s main north-south line runs through central
1994–2009” (PDF). Retrieved December 7, 2011.
and southern Kentucky, starting in Cincinnati. Formerly
[84] “Kentucky | Trade and Industry Development”. Tradethe CNO&TP subsidiary of Southern Railway, it is NS’s
andindustrydev.com. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
most profitable line.

21

[105] Knight, Andy. “On the Right Track – Kentucky Dinner [125] “Kentucky’s German Americans in the Civil War”.
Train serves up railroad nostalgia”. Cincinnati.com. ReKygermanscw.yolasite.com. Retrieved July 2, 2010.
trieved May 1, 2007.
[126] “2000 Census: Percent Reporting Any German Ances[106] “Kentucky Railway Museum”. Retrieved May 1, 2007.
try”. Retrieved July 20, 2007.
[107] Shafer, Sheldon (March 5, 2007). “Bridges money may [127] Beale, Calvin (July 21, 2004). “High Poverty in the
be shifted”. Courier-Journal.
Rural U.S. and South: Progress and Persistence in the
1990s”. Archived from the original (PowerPoint) on June
[108] Crowley, Patrick (April 23, 2003). “Meet the Purple Peo26, 2007. Retrieved June 28, 2007.
ple Bridge”. Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved May 1, 2007.
[128] Womack, Veronica L. (July 23, 2004). “The American
[109] “Fast Facts”. Louisville International Airport. Retrieved
Black Belt Region: A Forgotten Place”. Archived from
September 11, 2007.
the original (PowerPoint) on June 26, 2007. Retrieved
June 28, 2007.
[110] “Crash Kills 49”. Web.archive.org. November 5, 2006.
Archived from the original on November 5, 2006. Re[129] Unknown. “Identifying the “Black Belt” of Cash-Crop
trieved December 7, 2011.
Production” (JPEG Image). Bowdoin College. Retrieved
June 28, 2007.
[111] “Comair Crash Survivor Leaves Hospital”. CBS. October
3, 2006. Retrieved May 1, 2007.
[130] Civil Rights and Women’s Rights. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. Retrieved July 20, 2007.
[112] “Top 20 Inland U.S. Ports for 2003” (PDF). Archived
from the original (PDF) on August 25, 2009. Retrieved
[131] “Derby Festival Home Page”. Retrieved May 13, 2011.
December 7, 2011.
[113] “CY 2001 Tonnage for Selected U.S. Ports by Port Tons”. [132] “Kentucky State Fair”. Retrieved December 25, 2006.
Web.archive.org. May 2, 2010. Archived from the origi[133] “Kentucky Shakespeare Festival Home Page”. Retrieved
nal on May 2, 2010. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
December 25, 2006.
[114] Kentucky Counties, University of Kentucky
[134] “National Quartet Convention Home Page”. Retrieved
December 25, 2006.
[115] “Kentucky (USA): State, Major Cities, Towns & Places”.
City Population. February 19, 2011. Retrieved July 13,
[135] “National Corvette Museum press release”. Archived
2015.
from the original on December 27, 2007. Retrieved December 25, 2006.
[116] “Kentucky State Data Center”. Ksdc.louisville.edu. Retrieved August 4, 2009.
[136] “National Corvette Museum Home Page”. Retrieved December 25, 2006.
[117] “Postsecondary Education Improvement Act of 1997”.
State of Kentucky. Retrieved May 1, 2007.
[137] “Home Page of the International Barbecue Festival”. Re[118] “Berea College:Learning, Labor, and Service”. Diversity
trieved December 25, 2006.
Web. Retrieved May 1, 2007. Berea College: Learning,
[138] “Stately Mansions Grace Old Louisville”. Atlanta Journal
Labor, and Service
Constitution. Retrieved December 25, 2006.
[119] “Berea College v. Kentucky”. Brownat50.org. Retrieved
[139] “St. James Court Art Show Home Page”. Retrieved DeDecember 7, 2011.
cember 25, 2006.
[120] “Kentucky’s Schools and Districts”. Kentucky Depart[140] “The Heart Line” (PDF). Kentucky Commission on Comment of Education. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
munity Volunteerism and Service. Retrieved December
[121] “Kentucky Education Facts”. Kentucky Department of
25, 2006.
Education. Retrieved June 15, 2012.
[141] “Old Louisville and Literature”. Retrieved December 25,
[122] “A Guide to the Kentucky Education Reform Act
2006.
of 1990”. Education Resources Information Center.
Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Re- [142] “Kentucky Bourbon Festival Home Page”. Retrieved Detrieved May 1, 2007.[Abstract of A Guide to the Kentucky
cember 25, 2006.
Education Reform Act of 1990 – provided by Education
[143] “Glasgow, Kentucky Highland Games Home Page”. ReResources Information Center (ERIC)]
trieved December 25, 2006.
[123] Roeder, Phillip. “Education Reform and Equitable Excellence: The Kentucky Experiment”. Archived from the [144] “Little Sturgis Rally Home Page”. Retrieved December
25, 2006.
original on September 7, 2008. Retrieved May 1, 2007.
[124] Brittingham, Angela & de la Cruz, G. Patricia (June [145] “Tater Day Festival A Local Legacy”. Archived from the
2004). “Ancestry 2000: Census 2000 Brief” (PDF).
original on December 27, 2006. Retrieved December 25,
United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 28, 2007.
2006.

22

14 BIBLIOGRAPHY

[146] “Clarkson Honeyfest home page”. Archived from the
original on May 13, 2008. Retrieved May 12, 2007.

• Channing, Steven. Kentucky: A Bicentennial History
(1977).

[147] “International Bluegrass Music Museum”.
November 30, 2006.

Retrieved

• Clark, Thomas Dionysius. A History of Kentucky
(many editions, 1937–1992).

[148] “Festival of the Bluegrass Home Page”.
November 30, 2006.

Retrieved

• Collins, Lewis. History of Kentucky (1880).

[149] Voce, Steve (September 2, 2002). “Obituary: Lionel
Hampton”. The Independent. Retrieved June 3, 2007.

• Harrison, Lowell H. and James C. Klotter. A New
History of Kentucky (1997).

[150] “Southern Recipes – Southern Food and Recipes”. Southernfood.about.com. June 17, 2009. Retrieved August 4,
2009.

• Kleber, John E. et al. The Kentucky Encyclopedia
(1992), standard reference history. ISBN 0-81311772-0

[151] “International Institute of Culinary Arts”. Archived from
the original on January 6, 2008.

• Klotter, James C. Our Kentucky: A Study of the Bluegrass State (2000), high school text

[152] “Hot Brown Recipe”. Brown Hotel. Archived from the
original on August 23, 2007. Retrieved December 18,
2006.
[153] Jenifer K. Nii (2004).
“Colonel’s landmark
KFC is mashed”.
Deseret Morning News.
http://www.deseretnews.com/article/595057690/
Colonels-landmark-KFC-is-mashed.html. Retrieved on
October 28, 2007.
[154] “About the camp”. BengalsCamp.com. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
[155] “Kentucky’s State Symbols”. Kentucky Department of
Libraries and Archives. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
[156] “Unbridled Spirit Information”. Kentucky.gov. November 20, 2006. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
[157] “HB71: An act designating bluegrass music as the official
state music of Kentucky” (DOC). Legislative Research
Commission. Retrieved June 26, 2007.
[158] “KRS 2.099 – State Honey Festival” (PDF). Kentucky
General Assembly. Retrieved December 18, 2006.

14
14.1

Bibliography
Politics

• Lucas, Marion Brunson and Wright, George C. A
History of Blacks in Kentucky 2 vols. (1992).
• Notable
Kentucky
African
Americans
http://web.archive.org/web/20080306060234/http:
//www.uky.edu/Subject/aakyall.html
• Share, Allen J. Cities in the Commonwealth: Two
Centuries of Urban Life in Kentucky (1982).
• Wallis, Frederick A. and Hambleton Tapp. A
Sesqui-Centennial History of Kentucky 4 vols.
(1945).
• Ward, William S., A Literary History of Kentucky
(1988) (ISBN 0-87049-578-X).
• WPA, Kentucky: A Guide to the Bluegrass State
(1939), classic guide.
• Yater, George H. (1987). Two Hundred Years at the
Fall of the Ohio: A History of Louisville and Jefferson County (2nd ed.). Filson Club, Incorporated.
ISBN 0-9601072-3-1.
14.2.2 Specialized scholarly studies
• Bakeless, John. Daniel Boone, Master of the Wilderness (1989)

• Miller, Penny M. Kentucky Politics & Government:
Do We Stand United? (1994)

• Blakey, George T. Hard Times and New Deal in Kentucky, 1929–1939 (1986)

• Jewell, Malcolm E. and Everett W. Cunningham,
Kentucky Politics (1968)

• Coulter, E. Merton. The Civil War and Readjustment
in Kentucky (1926)

14.2

History

14.2.1

Surveys and reference

• Bodley, Temple and Samuel M. Wilson. History of
Kentucky 4 vols. (1928).
• Caudill, Harry M., Night Comes to the Cumberlands
(1963). ISBN 0-316-13212-8

• Davis, Alice. “Heroes: Kentucky’s Artists from
Statehood to the New Millennium” (2004)
• Ellis, William E. The Kentucky River (2000).
• Faragher, John Mack. Daniel Boone (1993)
• Fenton, John H. Politics in the Border States: A Study
of the Patterns of Political Organization, and Political
Change, Common to the Border States: Maryland,
West Virginia, Kentucky, and Missouri (1957)

23
• Harlow, Luke E. Religion, Race, and the Making
of Confederate Kentucky, 1830-1880. New York:
Cambridge University Press, 2014.
• Ireland, Robert M. The County in Kentucky History
(1976)

• Kentucky State Databases – Annotated list of
searchable databases produced by Kentucky state
agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association.

• Geographic data related to Kentucky
• Klotter, James C.; Harrison, Lowell; Ramage,
OpenStreetMap
James; Roland, Charles; Taylor, Richard; Bush,
Bryan S; Fugate, Tom; Hibbs, Dixie; Matthews,
Lisa; Moody, Robert C.; Myers, Marshall; Sanders, Coordinates: 37°30′N 85°00′W / 37.5°N 85°W
Stuart; McBride, Stephen (2005). Rose, Jerlene,
ed. Kentucky’s Civil War 1861–1865. Clay City,
Kentucky: Back Home In Kentucky, Inc. ISBN 09769231-1-4.
• Klotter, James C. Kentucky: Portrait in Paradox,
1900–1950 (1992)
• Pearce, John Ed. Divide and Dissent: Kentucky Politics, 1930–1963 (1987)
• Remini, Robert V. Henry Clay: Statesman for the
Union (1991).
• Sonne, Niels Henry. Liberal Kentucky, 1780–1828
(1939)
• Tapp, Hambleton and James C. Klotter. Kentucky
Decades of Discord, 1865–1900 (1977)
• Townsend, William H. Lincoln and the Bluegrass:
Slavery and Civil War in Kentucky (1955)
• Waldrep, Christopher Night Riders: Defending
Community in the Black Patch, 1890–1915 (1993)
tobacco wars

15

External links

• Kentucky.gov: My New Kentucky Home
• Kentucky State Guide, from the Library of Congress
• Kentucky at DMOZ
• Kentucky Department of Tourism
• GPS Specific Map of Kentucky Destinations (map)
• USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Kentucky
• Energy & Environmental Data for Kentucky
• Kentucky State Facts from USDA
• Kentucky: Unbridled Spirit
• Kentucky Virtual Library
• U.S. Census Bureau Kentucky QuickFacts
• Kentucky at Ballotpedia

at

24

16

16
16.1

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses
Text

• Kentucky Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kentucky?oldid=673009489 Contributors: Kpjas, The Epopt, Mav, Bryan Derksen, Malcolm Farmer, BenBaker, Danny, Sfmontyo, William Avery, Zoe, Jaknouse, Ewen, Edward, Patrick, JohnOwens, Fred Bauder, Kd4nuh,
Wapcaplet, Ixfd64, CesarB, Ellywa, Ahoerstemeier, Haakon, Stan Shebs, TUF-KAT, Vzbs34, Squigglybee, Big iron, Jiang, Evercat, John K,
Mxn, Dwo, Jengod, Mulad, Smith03, RickK, Dysprosia, Andrewman327, WhisperToMe, Zoicon5, SatyrTN, Tpbradbury, Sierra~enwiki,
Ed g2s, Tom Allen, Lord Emsworth, Dcsohl, Pollinator, Francs2000, Robbot, Dale Arnett, KeithH, Rdikeman, Romanm, Modulatum, Postdlf, Meelar, Bkell, Wikibot, Victor, Anthony, Zaui, PBP, Xyzzyva, Alexwcovington, DocWatson42, MPF, DavidHarden, Mintleaf~enwiki,
Everyking, Bkonrad, Michael Devore, Rick Block, Brian Schlosser42, Solipsist, Chris24, Bobblewik, Ragib, Joseph Dwayne, Wmahan, Stevietheman, Utcursch, Keith Edkins, Alexf, Quadell, Antandrus, Beland, OverlordQ, Vina, Huntington, JimWae, Rlquall, Kevin
B12, PFHLai, Saopaulo1, Sayeth, Neutrality, Joyous!, Rakista, Canterbury Tail, Mike Rosoft, D6, ChrisRuvolo, Heegoop, Poccil, Imroy, Moverton, JS Nelson, Discospinster, Patricknoddy, Rich Farmbrough, Guanabot, Brutannica, Drano, Vsmith, Dbachmann, LeoDV,
Bender235, ESkog, MattTM, Darkness Productions, Evice, CanisRufus, McCorrection, Lankiveil, Kwamikagami, Mwanner, Shanes, EurekaLott, Bobo192, Dralwik, Circeus, Royar, Flxmghvgvk, Viriditas, AllyUnion, Kevin Myers, JW1805, Netparrot, Giraffedata, Juzeris,
Emhoo~enwiki, La goutte de pluie, DCEdwards1966, RussBlau, MPerel, Sam Korn, Pearle, A2Kafir, BSveen, Ommnomnomgulp, Jumbuck, Danski14, Alansohn, Jduckeck~enwiki, Buaidh, Rd232, Queson, SonPraises, TommyBoy, Jaw959, Jaardon, Snowolf, Wtmitchell,
Velella, Fourthords, Knowledge Seeker, Cburnett, Yuckfoo, RainbowOfLight, Mikeo, Versageek, Bobbyllama, Red dwarf, Adrian.benko,
Tom.k, Ron Ritzman, Zntrip, Gmaxwell, Nuno Tavares, Jeffrey O. Gustafson, OwenX, Woohookitty, RHaworth, Borderer, FPAtl, Daniel
Case, Scjessey, Dblevins2, Sonpraises, WadeSimMiser, JeremyA, Matijap, MONGO, Scootey, Wikiklrsc, Amikeco, Zzyzx11, Kralizec!,
Regoarrarr, MikeWilson, Gimboid13, Agriculture, Alan Canon, Karam.Anthony.K, A3r0, Youngamerican, Mandarax, Graham87, Jack
Cox, Deltabeignet, Revas, Cuchullain, BD2412, Chun-hian, FreplySpang, Levelistchampion, Edison, Josh Parris, Sjakkalle, Rjwilmsi, Coemgenus, Koavf, Rogerd, Gymnast~enwiki, BlueMoonlet, Crobertson, Tawker, Mike s, SMC, Funnyhat, Nneonneo, ElKevbo, Brighterorange, Ucucha, GregAsche, Jbamb, Raprat0, Yamamoto Ichiro, Qqqqqq, SchuminWeb, David.Gaya~enwiki, Nihiltres, Malathos, Nivix, Itinerant1, Hottentot, Mu Cow, RexNL, Wars, ChongDae, RobyWayne, Fledgist, Cmadler, King of Hearts, It’s-is-not-a-genitive, CJLL Wright,
Chobot, Moocha, Sharkface217, DVdm, Spasemunki, Bomb319, Drumex, Gwernol, Raymiey, Kralahome, Bje2089, YurikBot, Kinneyboy90, Al Silonov, Sceptre, Todd Vierling, Jimp, StuffOfInterest, RussBot, Mhbourne, Cliffb, Ivirivi00, Pigman, Epolk, DE, Lord Voldemort, Gaius Cornelius, CambridgeBayWeather, James Nicol, Ugur Basak, NawlinWiki, Swollib, UCaetano, Grafen, Rjensen, Stallions2010,
Retired username, Bobbo, Brbigam, Brandon, CrazyC83, Ravedave, Xdenizen, Ruhrfisch, Moe Epsilon, RL0919, Tony1, Romarin, Lockesdonkey, Gadget850, Rwalker, Wangi, Moreau36, Doncram, Derek.cashman, Cinik, Engineer Bob, JdwNYC, Wknight94, Alarob, American2, Deville, CQ, Zzuuzz, Lt-wiki-bot, Ninly, Encephalon, KGasso, Chanheigeorge, Petri Krohn, Billyjoekoepsel, Whobot, Wikipedianinthehouse, Benhealy, Stuhacking, Katieh5584, Junglecat, SkerHawx, DVD R W, TheFox, West Virginian, Pankkake, SmackBot, Dweller,
Haymaker, Pfly, Prodego, KnowledgeOfSelf, FloNight, Pgk, Proficient, C.Fred, Bomac, KocjoBot~enwiki, TomStike, Patrickneil, EncycloPetey, Delldot, Eskimbot, Jab843, Fishing, Kintetsubuffalo, Aivazovsky, GraemeMcRae, HalfShadow, BMetts, Wildcat156, Xaosflux, Gilliam, Ohnoitsjamie, Hmains, Skizzik, ERcheck, Andy M. Wang, Pccromeo, J.Steinbock, Chris the speller, Keegan, Gold heart,
QuixoticLife, Persian Poet Gal, Stevotower, Campaigner444, Kyace, BabuBhatt, EncMstr, MalafayaBot, Timneu22, SchfiftyThree, Hibernian, Analogue Kid, CSWarren, Sparsefarce, DHN-bot~enwiki, John Reaves, George Ho, Ahassan05~enwiki, Yaf, Reesh, JimIrwin, AussieLegend, Jsum, OrphanBot, OOODDD, MJCdetroit, Jajhill, TKD, Andy120290, Addshore, Jcravens42, Bolivian Unicyclist,
Edivorce, SundarBot, ClairSamoht, Nakon, Wghornsby, Brando03, Derek R Bullamore, Weregerbil, Fogherty V. Tatin, BryanG, Maelnuneb, Kahuroa, Ugur Basak Bot~enwiki, Will Beback, N Vale, Jcembree, Disavian, Shlomke, Floridahistory, Redsully, Jaywubba1887,
NongBot~enwiki, IronGargoyle, Cwiki, Syra987, Ckatz, [email protected], CylonCAG, JHunterJ, Astuishin, NJA, Kronos o, RichardF, Jose77,
TacoMonkey1, Caiaffa, Eastfrisian, Hu12, Pejman47, Levineps, BranStark, Iridescent, Polymerbringer, Peets, Walton One, JHP, Saturday,
Dp462090, Beno1000, Blehfu, R-HIT, Marysunshine, Civil Engineer III, Courcelles, Michael Simpson, Tawkerbot2, IronChris, Letcher
Mountaineer, Alexa411, BeenAroundAWhile, Eric, KyraVixen, Erik Kennedy, Joncnunn, NaBUru38, NickW557, Day44581, WeggeBot, Casper2k3, Neelix, John M Baker, Ken Gallager, Richard Keatinge, Old Abe, MrFish, Omnicog, Phase Theory, Funnyfarmofdoom,
Leo1410, Slazenger, Cydebot, Ntsimp, Bkessler23, Reywas92, Gogo Dodo, Travelbird, Red Director, Khatru2, BlueAg09, Caliga10, B,
Christian75, Chrislk02, JCO312, Kozuch, LaOtto, After Midnight, Daven200520, WxGopher, Landroo, Gimmetrow, JohnInDC, DJBullfish, Seicer, Thijs!bot, Epbr123, Tomas417, Figgie123, The Punk, Qwyrxian, Mandall 32, Nick Comber, Teh tennisman, Andyjsmith,
Eco84, Kentucky1333, Marek69, John254, Randomfrenchie, Cool Blue, OPMaster, Sinn, CharlotteWebb, Nick Number, X96lee15,
Floridasand, Dawnseeker2000, Nivek1385, Folic Acid, Escarbot, Dalliance, Gtbob12, AntiVandalBot, Tewy, Luna Santin, Seaphoto,
Lamontacranston, Dr. Blofeld, Tom mayfair, North Shoreman, Sreejithk2000, Vendettax, 55david, Sirrom nodnarb yerffej, Ghmyrtle,
Gökhan, Xazbq, Mikevegas40, Jt 200075, JAnDbot, MauriceHall, Deflective, Leuko, Husond, Barek, MER-C, The Transhumanist, NE2,
Instinct, Scythian1, Fetchcomms, SteelTownMoFo, Gator87, Roleplayer, Bullshark44, IFCAR, Bmv 1978, Mad Lothairian, Rod Foster,
Kirrages, Bongwarrior, VoABot II, Transcendence, Scanlan, Yandman, JamesBWatson, Kenaldinho10, Kinston eagle, Massjit, Ling.Nut,
Tedickey, Eldude611, Confiteordeo, Pvmoutside, Nyttend, MrBleu, Jatkins, Sosasos2001, Crunchy Numbers, Animum, Ahecht, Allstarecho, Gerry D, TenTech, Patronik, CCS81, GregU, Pan Dan, Acdixon, Lucidwave, Oroso, Gwern, Tracer9999, HiB2Bornot2B, Dave,
MartinBot, GM11, Cfrydj, N734LQ, KurtFaulkner, GeorgHH, Anaxial, R'n'B, CommonsDelinker, AlexiusHoratius, Cyndi63, Lilac Soul,
EdBever, AlphaEta, J.delanoy, KramerNL, Mamyles, Incornsyucopia, Charles Wilton, Mhudson2, M C Y 1008, Katalaveno, DarkFalls,
McSly, S91by, Gurchzilla, Railer 103, AntiSpamBot, Plasticup, WHeimbigner, NewEnglandYankee, Thunderpooch, Lizmichael, Flatterworld, Mufka, Miskwito, 2help, Addison0426, Juliancolton, Cometstyles, Ledenierhomme, WJBscribe, Ken g6, Treisijs, Smokytop, Nirvana23m, RoxyTheWolf, Ja 62, Andy Marchbanks, Useight, Wikipeterproject, TheNewPhobia, Izno, Samian, CardinalDan, Idioma-bot,
Funandtrvl, Mastrchf91, Wikieditor06, Vranak, Kvasicek, VolkovBot, Uyvsdi, Niceley, Louisvillian, Censusdata, Ryan032, WOSlinker,
Maxtremus, Sct112569, OmeiKida, Philip Trueman, Director, Bms4880, TXiKiBoT, Dcornwall, Levi93, Les Invisibles, Technopat, Spydrlink, Bloo Aardvark, Anna Lincoln, Kevindl85, Melsaran, Martin451, JhsBot, Jackfork, LeaveSleaves, Seb az86556, Don de la Muncha,
Ratsrule, Tidying Up, Greswik, Dick Kimball, OverMyHead, Clearlyme, Synthebot, Rhopkins8, Root Beers, Tamer of hope, Dubyavee,
Theredhouse7, Sgr2000, AlleborgoBot, Bluedenim, Rarefly45, Quantpole, Logan, Stevewonder2, EmxBot, Deconstructhis, TheHoosierState89, WalkenIkayne, Thejackyl, Codydrew, Num1scot, SieBot, Meltonkt, Ejc891, FlatFork, YonaBot, Hertz1888, Jack Merridew,
JoshEdgar, Lemonflash, Gerakibot, Dawn Bard, Jmeisenhelder, Lucasbfrbot, We are getting pist now, Yintan, Kansai2kansas, Beard
rrp, Vbofficial, GlassCobra, Kct124, Purbo T, Keilana, James Byrne69, BlueAzure, Happysailor, Flyer22, Oda Mari, Hxhbot, Lucky
Mitch, Conankudo51, Bit72101, Bananastalktome, Oxymoron83, Faradayplank, Lightmouse, Marketinggal, Techman224, Hobartimus,
Nskillen, BenoniBot~enwiki, RedCoat1510, Kumioko (renamed), Belligero, Vanished user ewfisn2348tui2f8n2fio2utjfeoi210r39jf, Jacob.jose, Teapot37, Realm of Shadows, OutrunA1C, Dabomb87, Kleinklein~enwiki, Amazonien, Velvetron, Explicit, Furado, Smashville,

16.2

Images

25

Marmote, ClueBot, Rumping, TransporterMan, The Thing That Should Not Be, Robomanx, Totaldismair, Psthi, JMRG~enwiki, Nnemo,
Icedman42, Hellosandimas, Arakunem, L.cash.m, Drmies, Razimantv, Kylepotter, Ericnease, Ramrod1001, Cougar11, LizardJr8, Parkwells, PMDrive1061, DragonBot, Stepshep, No such user, Excirial, Jusdafax, Bsmeathers, Mindcry, Rhatsa26X, Rhododendrites, Jotterbot, Bmpeers, Razorflame, Mdmorgan, SchreiberBike, Eastcote, Kittysrfun, BOTarate, Thehelpfulone, Jfioeawfjdls453, Thingg, Aitias,
Footballfan190, Thedesolatewest, PCHS-NJROTC, MelonBot, DumZiBoT, Jm0371, Jax 0677, XLinkBot, Emmette Hernandez Coleman, Drclay88, BoycottKY, Wikicrasher, ErgoSum88, Ost316, Rreagan007, Anturiaethwr, WikHead, NellieBly, Kahuna207, Phox6469,
PL290, Rividian, Whocares81, JinJian, Duckwing, ZooFari, Good Olfactory, Airplaneman, NCDane, HexaChord, Jhendin, Coine in the
pocket, Bazj, Addbot, Benjh40, Willking1979, AVand, Some jerk on the Internet, Twaz, DOI bot, Jojhutton, Friginator, Morriswa, Ironholds, Startstop123, BrainMarble, Pennst110, NjardarBot, Skyezx, Download, LaaknorBot, DECOR8Rgirl, Kyshooter, Bassbonerocks,
Simeon24601, Sarmatian07, Glass Sword, Debresser, Favonian, Sk8er01, Doniago, LinkFA-Bot, Jasper Deng, Dcolemire, Itfc+canes=me,
Numbo3-bot, Alanscottwalker, Ondewelle, LonghornsU10, Choichy5, PlanetBoyer, Tide rolls, Lightbot, OlEnglish, Rentman, Zorrobot,
Ozi, Cchow2, Tdadkins1, R.T.Gellar, Ben Ben, Penthrift, Luckas-bot, Yobot, NEICenergy, Evans1982, Sessenem Kram, Ajh16, Perrytwinkle, 1oddbins1, Aztom2, AnomieBOT, DemocraticLuntz, Metalhead94, Rubinbot, 1exec1, Ajenchel, Lebanonman19, Dtox11, IRP, Piano
non troppo, Bryanwillett, 90, Rtshawnee, Law, Cyanidethistles, Storkynoob, Ulric1313, JNRVM, Materialscientist, Heuertag, Citation bot,
Invisbob, Elm-39, Hippymac19, Mister Alcohol, Rmatsu888, Gsmgm, Xqbot, Alpha 40475, JimVC3, Capricorn42, 4twenty42o, Nasnema,
Kem0106, Maddie!, Petropoxy (Lithoderm Proxy), Mitchhelper, Shirik, Dietcokementos, Myfatchildisscary, RibotBOT, Carrite, Ejrubio,
Locobot, Doulos Christos, TwinCityIL, Sophus Bie, GhalyBot, Moxy, Shadowjams, WebCiteBOT, SchnitzelMannGreek, A.amitkumar,
Daddavout, Turtle ball 2, Algebra101, Assed206, FrescoBot, Tobby72, Pepper, WPANI, Just Say No, Recognizance, Douschonmandick,
HJ Mitchell, Rymmen, Finalius, Itascapark, Fizzleshizzle, Fradd, HamburgerRadio, Atlantia, OgreBot, Citation bot 1, J654567, Pshent,
Underwoodm, WQUlrich, Pinethicket, I dream of horses, Warbuff 4, Monkeyfox, Hafrolocks, Abductive, Gatita09, Supreme Deliciousness,
Hamtechperson, Jschnur, RedBot, Meaghan, Monocletophat123, Footwarrior, Da Packman, Amazingaro, Jauhienij, YourNight, Lreid0975,
Madisonhenry46, Apusc, Sol!66, Fartman298, January, ChocolateSaltyBalls, Jultemplet, G.Freeman123, Reaper Eternal, Jeffrd10, Diannaa, Sorabezhad, Nascar1996, Tbhotch, TheMesquito, Murraytest, Rossdegenstein, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Noraft, Christian145678, Mean
as custard, RjwilmsiBot, TjBot, Nomatterwhereigo, Kguiver, CalicoCatLover, Skamecrazy123, Enauspeaker, Steve03Mills, J36miles,
EmausBot, Orphan Wiki, WikitanvirBot, Immunize, Gfoley4, Boom 2010, Southernky, Bradlydollar, Katherine, ScottyBerg, Racerx11, Happyfatman021, GoingBatty, Minimac’s Clone, Anarchy2190, Sam Dempsey, Robert LeBlanc, S.ross5, Passionless, Jspivak86, Tommy2010, Steve Lux, Jr., Wikipelli, K6ka, Kaos456, Brimo19, Romannumeral, Meepmeepmany, Savh, Josve05a, Wickkey,
88AdolfLover88, H3llBot, Steven Gazeas, Agrant131211, Uklf, Kentuckyliberation, Juniebjone, SporkBot, XisTheBest, Wayne Slam,
Neddy1234, Jsayre64, Δ, Coasterlover1994, L Kensington, Schnoatbrax, Donner60, Tomatosoup97, Ultra X987, Walrusfighter, Thesouthernhistorian45, Smartie2thaMaxXx, Hendo1270, Roger2518, Smylezsh, Hazard-Bot, ChuispastonBot, Knochen, TheYoungThinker,
Hallel, Evrim98, CharlieEchoTango, Jill Orly, SamuelFreli, Rocketrod1960, Ebehn, Camarcri000, Rayne GS, Petrb, Helpsome, ClueBot NG, Iiii I I I, Seeland'78, Macarenses, This lousy T-shirt, Gent258, BarrelProof, Steelers130796, Asa Miller, Omygawsh, Movsesbot, Roger231, Kooldude28, Jbfwildcat, Thunderectum, Stubbornbull, Snotbot, Frietjes, Welshbear61, ScottSteiner, Ursus Maior, Rezabot, Widr, Blaise170, Anonymous555498, Doom2000, Musicgeeksquad, Pluma, North Atlanticist Usonian, Weatherman78, Helpful
Pixie Bot, Novusuna, Hoke001, HMSSolent, Cornishgame, Jaysing103, Krenair, Myweenieiseenormus, Gurt Posh, Southronite, Hellomynameisjoswai, Pantallica megadeth, Kaltenmeyer, Sahara4u, Tolea93, ARMYxTyler, Wiki13, MusikAnimal, AvocatoBot, Dkdantastic, Stelio1234567890, Mark Arsten, Midnight Green, Compfreak7, Cwalsh7997, Cadiomals, Falkirks, Joydeep, Had22, Ianwhite21,
Pmac21, Great50, Jasonestevan, Miamimusicpro, Glacialfox, Rustyjj70, TBrandley, News Historian, Charlescaylor, Barryjjoyce, Thebuck093, EditorMan ha ha ha, Teammm, Jakedabeast, Buzzards-Watch Me Work, Mrt3366, Cyberbot II, Grayson50000, Matankg, ChrisGualtieri, Mrwiki355, OklahomaSwag, Jamison1234, Khazar2, Ekren, Tmansv, MadGuy7023, Tow, Bailey3475, BuzyBody, Dexbot,
Webclient101, Dlh89, Mr305worldwide, Mini LJ 69, Phung Wilson, Gmhetrick, Poepla, Baronlewis, Lugia2453, Bulba2036, Graphium,
Little green rosetta, Rattlesnakeryder, Sherf77, Perthsider, Wywin, Cbboomer, ThievingBeagles, Nahoyman78, Damaster9106, Kentucky1234567890, D9526328443789, PETEYTHEREF, StickerMug, Epicgenius, Darksupertailsisborn, Hellogj, Vanamonde93, Tjparsons, Jopjopjop123, Whyarentthereanyusernames, CJR127, Boblarazzi, Boblarazzi2, Dr Nyan, Howicus, Sosthenes12, Twitmarinemonk,
Tannergantt12345, Yloop, The Anonybot, AnalGiraffe, Editmewiki, Jaypur, Santeboo12, Skankadoodles, DDear99, Ahurt22, Glaisher, Ramendoctor, Ben Tuckett, 636Buster, Patbdwll, Volleyballgirl9786, Hazzat123, Thommasjones, Nguyen1310, 1990’sguy, Evanshizzlekak,
Budder420, Monkbot, Waldteufel78, ShifuC, 00DerpyHooves00, Jackbelcher, Vieque, Turnip122, GinAndChronically, Happy Attack
Dog, Billyb58, BethNaught, Scarlettail, Mkbngr, Abcdeflkjihg, 123billyboy123, Firegragon20, Hejhejhejwwwwwww, Oli12345678910, Hahafunnybunny, Parker ts, Bcbennett1, EllaJameson, Thepope3321, Annahjhalise, Ikamjh, Bubbleobviously, Plqaokwsijeduhrftg,
Appleguy321, Joejoe3.14.pie, Abkiz, 5secondsofcray, DarkCoke, Pyrotle, Stinger20, Eatatail, Sportaholic40, ReliableResource69, Jessicca.Summerz, Sulaiman12349, Scribbledibble123, KasparBot, Nicklovespandas313, Anentai, Batmarlins and Anonymous: 1549

16.2

Images

• File:2012_Toyota_Camry_SE_--_02-29-2012.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/89/2012_Toyota_
Camry_SE_--_02-29-2012.JPG License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: IFCAR
• File:Barge_hauling_coal,_Louisville_and_Portland_Canal.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/34/
Barge_hauling_coal%2C_Louisville_and_Portland_Canal.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia;
transferred to Commons by User:Bkell using CommonsHelper. Original artist: Original uploader was Censusdata at en.wikipedia
• File:Buffalo_trace_distillery.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/59/Buffalo_trace_distillery.jpg License:
Public domain Contributors: Wikipedia English User:Kaplansa Original artist: Kaplansa
• File:CollegeoftheBible-LexKY.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3f/CollegeoftheBible-LexKY.JPG
License: Public domain Contributors: <a data-x-rel='nofollow' class='external text' href='http://www.mun.ca/rels/restmov/texts/jtbrown/
coc/COC1203.HTM'>John T.Brown, Churches of Christ, Louisville, KY: John P. Morton and Company</a> Original artist: Unknown
• File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
• File:Compass_rose_pale.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b6/Compass_rose_pale.svg License: CC-BYSA-3.0 Contributors: svg version of Image:Compass-rose-pale.png, made to look similar to Image:Reinel compass rose.svg. Original artist:
Fibonacci

26

16

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

• File:Country_road_in_Kentucky.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4f/Country_road_in_Kentucky.jpg
License: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia; transferred to Commons by User:Bkell using CommonsHelper. Original artist: Original uploader was Censusdata at en.wikipedia. Later version(s) were uploaded by Pd THOR at en.wikipedia.
• File:East.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5d/Boxed_East_arrow.svg License: Public domain Contributors: DarkEvil. Original artist: DarkEvil
• File:Flag_of_Arkansas.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9d/Flag_of_Arkansas.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:Flag_of_Illinois.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/01/Flag_of_Illinois.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:Flag_of_Indiana.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ac/Flag_of_Indiana.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:Flag_of_Kentucky.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8d/Flag_of_Kentucky.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Flag of Kentucky, from the xrmap flag collection 2.7 (ftp://ftp.ac-grenoble.fr/ge/geosciences/xrmap/data/) Original
artist: Commonwealth of Kentucky
• File:Flag_of_Missouri.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5a/Flag_of_Missouri.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:Flag_of_North_Carolina.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bb/Flag_of_North_Carolina.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:Flag_of_Ohio.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Flag_of_Ohio.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Construction sheet, also at [1] (see patent filing) Original artist: Designed by John Eisenmann, SVG code by <a href='//commons.
wikimedia.org/wiki/User:SiBr4' title='User:SiBr4'>SiBr4 </a>
• File:Flag_of_Tennessee.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9e/Flag_of_Tennessee.svg License: Public domain Contributors: according to [1], [2] Original artist: (of code) cs:User:-xfi• File:Flag_of_Virginia.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/47/Flag_of_Virginia.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: It is from the xrmap flag collection, specifically “usa_virginia.svg” in flags-2.6-src.tar.bz2. The README file in that collection
says of the SVG flags “We release them in the public domain”. The blue color has been redone based on vexilla-mundi. Original artist:
Commonwealth of Virginia
• File:Flag_of_West_Virginia.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/22/Flag_of_West_Virginia.svg License:
Public domain Contributors: Militaryace & Denelson83, some elements used are from the xrmap flag collection 2.7. Original artist:
Militaryace, Denelson83
• File:Ford_F-150_XL_SuperCrew_--_03-10-2010.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ea/Ford_F-150_
XL_SuperCrew_--_03-10-2010.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: IFCAR
• File:Half_Moon,_Kentucky.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/Half_Moon%2C_Kentucky.JPG License: CC BY 3.0 Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons. Original artist: Mrherbalwarrior at English Wikipedia
• File:High_Bridge_in_Kentucky.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/High_Bridge_in_Kentucky.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:Censusdata
• File:Hot_Brown_Kurtz.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/db/Hot_Brown_Kurtz.jpg License: CC BY-SA
3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Shadle
• File:KY-districts-108.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/83/KY-districts-108.JPG License: Public domain Contributors: National Atlas of the United States. Original artist: United States Department of the Interior
• File:KY_Governors_Mansion.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b8/KY_Governors_Mansion.png License: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons by Quadell using CommonsHelper. Original artist: Acdixon
at English Wikipedia
• File:KY_State_Capitol.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a6/KY_State_Capitol.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Uploaded to the English Wikipedia by the author, RXUYDC Original artist: RXUYDC
• File:KYphysiography.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/62/KYphysiography.jpg License: Public domain
Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia; transfer was stated to be made by User:byankno1. Original artist: Original uploader was
Lamontacranston at en.wikipedia
• File:Kentucky_Route_80_in_Pulaski_County.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/58/Kentucky_Route_
80_in_Pulaski_County.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia; transferred to Commons by User:Bkell
using CommonsHelper. Original artist: Original uploader was Censusdata at en.wikipedia. Later version(s) were uploaded by Pd THOR at
en.wikipedia.
• File:Kentucky_horse_farm.JPEG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/62/Kentucky_horse_farm.JPEG License: CC BY-SA 2.5 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Peter Fitzgerald

• File:Kentucky_in_United_States.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e2/Kentucky_in_United_States.svg
License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: This vector graphics image was created with Adobe Illustrator.
Original artist:
TUBS<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:TUBS' title='User talk:TUBS'><img alt='Email Silk.svg' src='https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5f/Email_Silk.svg/15px-Email_
• File:Kentucky_population_map.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/06/Kentucky_population_map.png
License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia Original artist: Original uploader was JimIrwin at en.wikipedia
• File:Kentucky_schild.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4b/Kentucky_schild.jpg License: CC BY-SA 4.0
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Andreas Faessler
• File:Ky-butler.ogg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/42/Ky-butler.ogg License: Public domain Contributors:
Own work Original artist: Murphynw

16.2

Images

27

• File:LexingtonDowntown.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/LexingtonDowntown.JPG License:
Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Madgeek1450 at English Wikipedia
• File:LincolnBirthplaceJBM82908.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1c/LincolnBirthplaceJBM82908.
jpg License: CC BY 3.0 Contributors: Own work (Censusdata)
Original artist: Censusdata at en.wikipedia. Later version was cropped by Fourthords at en.wikipedia.
• File:Louisville_Skyline.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/16/Louisville_Skyline.jpg License: CC BY 2.0
Contributors: originally posted to Flickr as 5297 Original artist: Chris Watson
• File:Map_of_Kentucky_NA.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/Map_of_Kentucky_NA.png License:
Public domain Contributors: National Atlas of the United States Original artist: National Atlas of the United States
• File:Metropolis_Lake.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/56/Metropolis_Lake.jpg License: CC BY-SA
3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Southernky
• File:North.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/North.svg License: Public domain Contributors: DarkEvil.
Original artist: DarkEvil
• File:Otter_Creek_Park_2.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/Otter_Creek_Park_2.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Self-photographed Original artist: Christian von Montfort (Symbiosus)
• File:Owensboro2ndStAnn.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/Owensboro2ndStAnn.JPG License:
Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Smallbones
• File:Question_book-new.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/99/Question_book-new.svg License: Cc-by-sa-3.0
Contributors:
Created from scratch in Adobe Illustrator. Based on Image:Question book.png created by User:Equazcion Original artist:
Tkgd2007
• File:Seal_of_Kentucky.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/35/Seal_of_Kentucky.svg License: Public domain Contributors: File:Flag of Kentucky.svg Original artist: Commonwealth of Kentucky
• File:Shops_along_Fountain_Square_in_Bowling_Green,_Kentucky_2008.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
commons/5/52/Shops_along_Fountain_Square_in_Bowling_Green%2C_Kentucky_2008.JPG License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own
work (Original caption: “self-made”) Original artist: OPMaster at en.wikipedia
• File:South.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cd/South.svg License: Public domain Contributors: DarkEvil.
Original artist: DarkEvil
• File:Speakerlink-new.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3b/Speakerlink-new.svg License: CC0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Kelvinsong
• File:Speed_Engineering_School,_Louisville,_Kentucky_(1067).jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/ff/
Speed_Engineering_School%2C_Louisville%2C_Kentucky_%281067%29.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://en.wikipedia.
org/wiki/Image:Picture_1067.jpg Original artist: Taken and uploaded by Jeffrey B. Morris on 6-6-06
• File:U.S._23_Country_Music_Highway_Museum.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/da/U.S._23_
Country_Music_Highway_Museum.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: J654567
• File:U.S._Marine_Hospital,_Louisville,_Kentucky.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/U.S.
_Marine_Hospital%2C_Louisville%2C_Kentucky.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Taken by uploader, all rights released
Original artist: Censusdata at en.wikipedia
• File:University_of_Louisville_marching_band,_Churchill_Downs_Twin_Spires.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/
wikipedia/commons/f/f4/University_of_Louisville_marching_band%2C_Churchill_Downs_Twin_Spires.jpg License: CC BY 2.0
Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:View_from_Pine_Mountain_(Kentucky).jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/View_from_Pine_
Mountain_%28Kentucky%29.jpg License: GFDL Contributors: Own work Original artist: J654567
• File:WaterfrontPkDwnt.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/de/WaterfrontPkDwnt.jpg License: CC BY
3.0 Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia Original artist: Angry Aspie (talk)
• File:Werne’{}s_Row_4th_and_Hill,_Old_Louisville.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f0/Werne%
27s_Row_4th_and_Hill%2C_Old_Louisville.jpg License: CC BY 2.5 Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons. Original
artist: The original uploader was Retired username at English Wikipedia
• File:West.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f0/West.svg License: Public domain Contributors: DarkEvil.
Original artist: DarkEvil
• File:Wikibooks-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Wikibooks-logo.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0
Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:Bastique, User:Ramac et al.
• File:Wikinews-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/Wikinews-logo.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0
Contributors: This is a cropped version of Image:Wikinews-logo-en.png. Original artist: Vectorized by Simon 01:05, 2 August 2006 (UTC)
Updated by Time3000 17 April 2007 to use official Wikinews colours and appear correctly on dark backgrounds. Originally uploaded by
Simon.
• File:Wikiquote-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fa/Wikiquote-logo.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
• File:Wikisource-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0
Contributors: Rei-artur Original artist: Nicholas Moreau
• File:Wikiversity-logo-Snorky.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/Wikiversity-logo-en.svg License:
CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Snorky

28

16

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

• File:Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: AleXXw
• File:Wiktionary-logo-en.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Wiktionary-logo-en.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: Vector version of Image:Wiktionary-logo-en.png. Original artist: Vectorized by Fvasconcellos (talk · contribs),
based on original logo tossed together by Brion Vibber
• File:William_Goebel_statue.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c9/William_Goebel_statue.png License:
Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Acdixon
• File:William_T._Young_Library.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b0/William_T._Young_Library.jpg
License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: J654567
• File:Wolf_Creek_Dam_and_Lake_Cumberland,_KY.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8e/Wolf_
Creek_Dam_and_Lake_Cumberland%2C_KY.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia Original artist:
Original uploader was Censusdata at en.wikipedia

16.3

Content license

• Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0

Sponsor Documents

Or use your account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Forgot your password?

Or register your new account on DocShare.tips

Hide

Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link to create a new password.

Back to log-in

Close