WORK GROUPS, TEAMS, CONFLICT AND NEGOTIA NEGOTIATION: TION: THEORIES AND MODELS Persuasive Repor
Ta Table ble of Contents Introduction......................................................................................................................................2 Work Groups and Teams Identification...........................................................................................2 Conflict and negotiations Identification..........................................................................................4 Analyzing relationship beteen ork groups and teams! conflict and negotiations......................." #$aluating impact of ork groups and teams on organization culture............................................" #$aluating impact of conflict and negotiations on organization culture.........................................% Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................& 'eferences......................................................................................................................................() Appendi*........................................................................................................................................(+
Introduction This persuasi$e essay has been based on analyzing the nature of orking groups! teams! conflict and negotiation in an organization. Work groups and teams identification ill be pro$ided by the model of Wilfred gi$en on group e*periences ith respect to ,ruce Tuckman model. The de$elopment stages by -cott eck ill be e*plained as a model to understand group and team e*periences. /u /urt rthe herm rmore ore!! co conf nfli lict ct and ne nego goti tiat atio ions ns se sect ctio ion n i ill ll be e* e*pl plai ained ned by un under derst stan andi ding ng th thee relationsh relat ionship ip beteen them in order to analyze analyze their influence influence on groups and teams. Then focus ill be laid on understanding the influence of ork groups and teams on organization culture ith respect to influence on groups and teams in the management of employees 0#lden 2)((1. Critical analysis of each of these models using real e*amples ill be done in order to understand the true relationship of each of these attributes ith regard to organization culture and its structure in the globalized orld.
Work Groups and Teams Identification Defining Work groups: According to -chein! ork groups are employees of an organization
orking in aggregation to each other ith a focus on indi$idual goals. Defining teams: Teams on the other hand are defined as members of organization grouped
togeth tog ether er to focus focus on shared shared belief belief and goal. goal. Tea eams ms often often fai faill in organi organizat zation ionss and those those organizations implementing teams in their ork places reuire to ha$e a balanced perception on team benefits and its limitations 0Cotton 2))+1. Analyzing the term “Teams” “Teams”
According to 'obinson! (&&4 and Thamhain! (&%%! a team can be defined as an aggregate of people but e$ery group does not get ualified to be knon as a team 0'obinson et al (&&41. As per 3atzenbach and -mith! (&&4! hoe$er a team is a group of people consisting of $aried skills ha$ing an aim at a general purpose! goals of performance and general approach to hich each member is accountable in a mutual manner 03atzenbach and -mith! (&&41. Working in team! as per Thamhain! 2))4 is a process in$ol$ing symbiotic relationship that leads toards enhanced results that is e$en more than the
indi$idual performance integration.0Thamhain! 2))41 As per ,ailey et al 2)))! hoe$er! effecti$e teams are those hich produce results of high uality e$en in ad$erse conditions 0,ailey et al 2)))1.. Task oriented and characteristics such as oriented by people are only some of the features of an effecti$e team 0,ailey et al 2)))1. /rom this perspecti$e! it becomes important to analyze team ith the help of certain models such as ,ruce Tuckman Tuckman model of change 0Cordery 0Cordery et al 2)((1. 2)((1. This model as knon as the model of 4 stages designed to study the decision making process in ideal groups hich reuires to
occur in the form of 4 designed stages 0#lmuti 2)(1.
0/igure (5 Tuckman6s model of 4 stages5 Work Group1 0-ource5 0#lden 2)((11 Tuckman7s 0(&"+1 group impro$ement model attracts regard for uniue periods of gathering change and ad$ancement normally alluded to as the forming! storming! norming and performing stages. Tuckman 0(&"+1 accepts the group ad$ancement procedure can be sub8cognizant hoe$er in the e$ent that the gathering g athering is mindful of the stages then the group can be more poerful all the more uickly. This snappier additional e*ecution is uite compelling in task administration. ioneers ought to ha$e the capacity to distinguish the cycle of their group to kno hen it is prone to be the most astounding performing and additionally hen it ill ha$e a tendency to need inspiration. The forming stage includes distinguishing the undertaking and finishing it. The gathering accumulates data about the errands and other colleagues. There is e*change on the standard authoritati$e methodologies and indi$iduals are concerned ith schedules and
hierarchical issues. Tuckman 0(&"+1 does not accept that there is much errand achie$ement a chie$ement at this stage! so maybe not the best stage for a task administration group to ait in. As the group propels into the storming stage! the gathering parts contend among themsel$es! hether they concur or not on the uick errands to be performed. There is dissension! strain and poerplays. po erplays. uckman ere forming ming,, storming storming,, norming norming and Thesee stages according to Tuckman Thes ere inclu inclusi si$e $e of for performing as described in the abo$e figure 0#lloy et al 2)()1. The model e*plains that as development in a team takes place! it mo$es toards maturity! attains enhanced capabilities!
establishes relationships and se$eral leadership style changes take place 09ion 2))&1. This is the time in team6s de$elopment stage hen a successor leader may be produced by a team and the leaders pre$iously made can mo$e toards de$elopment of another ne team 0Cotton 2))+1. Stage 1 is forming here there is high dependence of the team on leaders and there is less
agreement on the goals of the team hen not suggested by the leader 0Costa 2)()1. There is also no clear idea about team roles and responsibilities. A lot of doubts in team members e*ist hich the leader needs to address ithout ignoring processes. The second stage is storming herein decision making begins but making decisions is difficult.
This is also the stage hen conflicts arise and the leader needs to clarify e$ery uestion imposed by the team members in order to pre$ent conflicts from groing. Compromising should be kept as a priority by coaching being gi$en by the leader 09e$ine 2)()1. Stage 3 is norming herein agreement begins to form and leader facilitation is enhanced.
Indi$idual team members acknoledge their roles and responsibilities due to hich conflict does not arise. erforming is the fourth stage here teams are aare strategically and ha$e knoledge of
hat they further need to do. There is a shared $ision of the team members and they do not reuire consistent super$ision of the leader. !d"ourning is the # th stage of the model herein team break8up takes place hen successful
completion of team task has been attained 0Idrissou et al 2)((a1. The leadership style in this stage is empathetic. Insecurity is a common feeling amongst team members in this stage leading toards an*iety and anger hich may often become conflict.
Analyzing work groups
According to -cott eck! on the contrary to Tuckman6s model! is the de$elopment model of groups. A group ith se$eral strangers aggregated together for creating a group has to be face differ dif ferent ent phases phases 0Idris 0Idrissou sou et al 2)((a1 2)((a1.. The first first phase phase is pseudo8 pseudo8com commun munity ity herei herein n the important dynamic lies in a$oidance of conflict. Group members are in harmony to each other and try to a$oid any conflict. Group members deliberately try to beha$e as good as possible to let e$erything function in a smooth manner. The stage can be characterized by generalization and platitudes 0,onito et al 2))21. Chaos is the second phase of this model here the indi$idual differ dif ference encess slight slightly ly start start to emerge emerge.. /urthe /urtherr in the stage stage the group group mo$es mo$es int into o confli conflict ct of deliberate nature in order to sho superiority of one group member o$er the other. :embers in this phase often blame the leader and try to get him or her replaced. #mptiness is the third phase and it is only by this phase that a group can finally mo$e to its final phase of forming a true group 0Craps et al 2))41.
$onflict and negotiation negotiationss Identificatio Identification n Accord Acc ording ing to Gray et al! 2));! 2));! $onflict is defined traditionally as the incompatible acti$ity perception beteen ork groups ith regard to aims! perceptions and beliefs hich can cause a barrier toards effecti$e goal g oal achie$ement 0Grey et al! 2));1. The basis of conflict 0as cited in ,onito et al 2))21 is on interaction. utnam ut nam!! (&%+! (&%+! led toard toardss delineat delineating ing conflic conflictt managem management ent to be ter termed med as negoti negotiati ation on characterized charact erized through e*changing e*changing propos proposals als or counterpropo counterproposals sals as a ay to reach a settlement settlement hich satisfies the ork groups and in$ol$ed teams 0,ailey 2));1. Conflict in$ol$es different perceptions according to <eitt et e t aall 2 2)() )() hich are inclusi$e of traditional perception! human relations and conflicting interactionist $ies 0Craps et al 2))41. According to /igure 2! $onflict %esolution stages by negotiation are not only essential for an organization but also for indi$idual members in a team or a group. The figure clearly illustrates that there are + stages by hich conflict can be resol$ed. =oe$er! there are fi$e stages of conflict itself 0,onito et al! 2))21. The first stage is the latent stage here people can be under conflict ithout knoing that they are.
0/igure 25 Conflict 'esolution -tages by >egotiation1 0-ource5 09a$is et al 2)((11 2 )((11
Ther Th eree comes comes a po poin int! t! ofte often n af afte terr a stal stalema emate te is re reac ached hed!! he here re th thee pa part rtie iess de deci cide de to tr try y negotiation to attempt to resol$e the conflict. The process of initiating negotiation can be difficult as it may be interpreted as a sign of eakness. This is one reason hy it is often useful for third parties to become in$ol$ed. The timing of this step is crucial. 'esolution can only be achie$ed if the parties are illing to negotiation. In order for the conditions to be ripe! there must be both a perception on all sides that the present course is unsustainable! and a perception that there is a suitable ?ay out? of the conflict. In some instances! participants realize their course of action cannot succeed and they initiate discussion. At other times! outside inter$eners may bring the parties to the negotiating table. The timing is critical hoe$er! because if negotiation is started too early! before both parties are ready! it is likely to fail. And repeated failed negotiation efforts reinforce the notion that the conflict is intractable and can make resolution more difficult by discouraging further efforts. >egotiation may lead to a settlement! but may also simply lead to a pause in the conflict. If the latter! there is a relati$ely good chance the conflict may cycle c ycle back to escalation at a later time.
>egotiations generally go through a series of stages5 each group decides on its position@ determ det ermine iness its altern alternati ati$es $es.. nce nce togeth together er ith ith the other other party party!! they share share their their positi positions ons!! consider options! e*change concessions! perhaps reach an accord! and implement it. A number number of theori theories es ha$e ha$e emerge emerged d to underst understand and negoti negotiati ating ng tactic tactics! s! their their str streng engths ths and eaknesses! as ell as ho to respond eaknesses! respond to them. Generally Generally speaking! negotiations negotiations are comple*! comple*! dran8out processes and a broad range of factors make each somehat uniue. Their shape depends upon the procedures that ha$e become institutionalized! the number of parties and number of representati$es present! the scope of issues under discussion! the degree to hich it is part of a broader frameork of negotiations! and the e*tent to hich they are taking tak ing place in the public eye. &'ample: An employee from customer care department rongly acknoledges the complaint of
a client. This is still not knon to the customer nor the manager and the conflict has not arisen still but it ill 09a$is et al 2)((1. The second stage is the percei$ed stage of conflict. /elt stage is the third stage after hich are the stages namely! manifestation and aftermath. As per figure 2! the first stage to resol$e conflict is to analyze first the condition and situation 0,odtker et al! (&&;1. The second stage lies in cognition and personalization. The third! fourth and fifth stages are connected to each other and ithout the completion of third! the fourth and fifth stages cannot follo because at the third stage the initial conflict barriers are remo$ed.
!nal()ing relationship *et+een +ork groups and teams, conflict and negotiations Acco Ac cord rdin ing g to u utn tnam am an and d 'olo 'oloff ff!! ne negot gotia iati tion on ta takes kes pl plac acee hen hen more more th than an one pa part rtie iess interdepende inter dependently ntly percei$e the goals of ork groups to be incompatible incompatible 0Aarts 0Aarts et al 2)(1. This leads lea ds toard toardss the reuir reuireme ement nt to negoti negotiate ate in the sit situat uation ion to reach reach a mutual mutual satisf satisfact action ion perception. /isher et al! (&&( 0as cited in ,aron et al 2))"1! describe negotiation to be characterized through interdependence hich e*ists at the time of conflict beteen to or more
than to parties as these parties essentially reuire to ork cooperati$ely e$en though they are fighting to meet different ends 0,ean et al 2))"1. =air et al! 2)()! hoe$er presented in their resear res earch ch that that there there e*ists e*ists a relati relations onship hip betee beteen n negoti negotiati ation on and commun communica icatio tion n to sol$e sol$e confli con flicts cts betee beteen n ork ork groups groups and teams teams 0,iBls 0,iBlsma ma et al 2)((1. 2)((1. With With proper proper planni planning ng and communication in a structured manner! it becomes possible to negotiate 0<eicki et al 2)((1. =oe$er! according to <ee et al! 2))+! ork group6s influences in effecti$e management of employees hich as pro$ed by using dominant patterns of beha$ior! ork group6s dynamics and elaborate conflicts leading toards ad$erse impact on the organization culture 0Andisani 2))%1. The impact of ork teams and groups orks is either ad$erse or positi$e! depending upon the manner in hich teams are managed effecti$ely ithin organization cultures. #mpirical e$idences ha$e helped in supporting the relationship e*isting beteen conflicts and producti$ity of team along ith team satisfaction but 0,anker et al (&&"1! these conflicts cannot be resulted into effecti$e management of employees unless negotiation process is made applicable 0Cohen 2))41. The relationship beteen ork group and conflict as described by the researchers resea rchers of Columbian Columbian ni$ersity ni$ersity states states that ork groups ha$e group dynamics dynamics in$ol$ed in$ol$ed in them but ithout effecti$e management of these ork groups and team orks! conflict is bound to e*ist 0Carron et al 2))1.
&valuating impact of +ork groups and teams on organi)ation culture :ost issues in ork places arise not because employees do not ha$e the capability of performing their ork appropriately but because employees in ork groups and teams often cannot get along ith other employees 0Caron et al 2)()1. This is the main impact of +ork groups and teams on effective management of emplo(ees ithin an organization culture. Teams and ork groups
are often di$ersified in nature and employees react differently to this di$ersification. #*periences of life and culture are to factors that in turn influence ork groups and teams and these to factors are actually responsible for the reaction of each member in the group and team 0Argyris 2));1. The problem of di$ersity is a significant one and this has also been e*plained ith the help of a conceptual problem.
!ccording to o)lo+ski and lein, -... ! an impact of conceptual problem is faced by groups
and teams orking together to achie$e a goal. This impact is negati$e in nature and it affects the performance and producti$ity of g group roup members and team members. Additionally! Additionally! 3ozloski et al! 2))) it has been clearly stated that coordination lacking beteen members of team mostly lead le adss toar toards ds team team fa fail ilur ures es an and d inef ineffi fici cient ent manag managem emen entt of te team am.. In addit additio ion! n! th ther eree is a significant impact of team ork and group ork on the ay in hich team members and group members are managed effecti$ely 0,ailey et al 2)))1. When orking in a team! members in a team can ha$e $arious perceptions! some team members may ork more hile others don6t ork at all and in some situations team ork may often take more time 0,ailey et al 2)))1. These are some barriers imposed by orking in teams and groups on effecti$e team member or group member management 0Aarts et al 2)(1.
0/igure +5 Team effecti$eness model1 0-ource5 Caron et al 2)()1 The /igure + represents team effecti$eness model herein it is clearly e$ident that ithin the competiti$e en$ironment of an organization! design and processes allocated to a team are the basics that lead toards finally effecti$eness in team management manag ement 0Andisani 2))%1. This model helps in analyzing the basic elements such as enhanced systems of communication and proper
style of leadership can be implemented as per the size and composition of a team by de$eloping and norming the team for effecti$e management 0Caron et al 2)()1. An e*ample here can be uoted here of Apple hich has been knon across the orld in all competiti$e realms to be a culture mediator as the organization has been founded on strong beliefs! set of patterns! responsibilities and $alues 0Carron et al 2)()1. In this globalized orld! the reuirement is to a$oid cultural clash because teams and ork groups are formulated of di$erse backgrounds and cultures 0Asah et al 2)(21. Apple on the contrary has managed to imbibe the cultural perspecti$e in the minds of its members that it is important to focus on a shared goal 0Andisani 2))%1. When teams and ork groups conflict ith each other at Apple! a negotiation process is implemented such as arbitration or mediation hich are both third party models of negotiation to manage conflict.
&valuating impact of conflict and negotiations on organi)ation culture impact act of $onflic $onflictt and negotia negotiation tion is e$id process ss of effective emplo(ee emplo(ee The imp e$iden entt on the proce 0Argyris is 2));1. This This influe influence nce is caused caused by the conflicting interests of team management 0Argyr mem*ers and group mem*ers that does not allo the group or team to produce something
positi$e to reach to the goal oriented 0Dan 0Dan aassen 2)((b1. The first impact of conflict on effecti$e management of employees is deteriorated performance of emplo(ees/ =oe$er! conflict and negotiation are both processes that do slo the general functions of an organization 0Dan aassen 2)((b1. The relationship beteen conflict and negotiation is e$ident from this perspecti$e but this relationship ad$ersely affects management of di$erse employees because members of the groups as ell as the teams ha$e a tendency to fall into conflict hen cultural di$ersity is present 0,iBlsma et al! 2)((1. In such a situation! it is the duty of a leader to negotiate the conflict and resol$e it. 0egotiation on the other hand! impacts management of emplo(ees *( distracting their focus
from organizational goals and their indi$idual goals. >egotiation from the perspecti$e of Thibaut and Walker! (&;+ paradigm! can be best done by adopting mediation and arbitration as third party processes of >egotiation 0Dan 0Dan aassen 2)((b1. An An e*ample here can be of #nron hen the company as only a company dealing ith pipelines and it mainly lost the contract of setting up itself in India because authorities in the local en$ironment of India felt that the organization is trying the fasten up the negotiation process 0=amilton et al 2)()1.
$onclusion Indi$idual members of organizations that are either orking ithout ork group collaboration of team ork! all in$ol$e different perspecti$es and beliefs but hen orking under the same organization! culture of an organization often influences the ay in hich people think! belie$e and respond 09rucker 2))%1. As e$ident from the perspecti$e of this persuasi$e report! there e*ists an e$ident relationship beteen culture of an organization ith attributes such as discussed i.e ork groups and teams! conflict and negotiation 0/rancois et al 2));1. Work groups and teams are different to each other e$en though they are often used interchangeably 0Andrisani 2))%1. In a orking group! each member orks on their shared $isions and goals rather than orking to achie$e indi$idual goals hereas in a team ork! the focus of indi$idual members is on their goals and obBecti$es. Conflict and negotiation on the other hand are both related to group ork and team ork 0Applebaum 2)(41 0,ean et al 2))"1. The influence of orking groups and team ork is e$idently e$idently seen as positi$e positi$e as ell as negati$e 0Antoni 2)()1. When members members in a team or a group are not managed effecti$ely then it leads toards de$elopment of conflict hich not only hampers the producti$ity of a team but also an organization on the hole. Groups ought to be percei$ed and coordinated inside their associations 0earce E 'a$lin (&%;1. Associations need to unmistakably characterize their desires and instruments of responsibility for all groups 09e :euse E /utrell /utrell (&&)1. =ierarchica =ierarchicall society society needs to change imparted imparted uali ualities ties into beha$ioral standards 0,rill (&;"1. /or instance! group achie$ement is encouraged by a society societ y that fuses imparted imparted encounters encounters of achie$ement. achie$ement. In times of financial financial realism! realism! there may be social clash and conflict beteen standards of keeping up clinical benchmarks and holding fast to the health aareness association7s mission 0/irth8Cozens (&&%1. Colleagues ith higher status likeise ha$e less respect for group standards and may intensify inard clash 03ane (&;+1. Collab Col labora oratio tion n is a comple* comple* sensat sensation ion.. -trong -trong author authorita itati$ ti$ee str struct ucture uress and ideal ideal indi$i indi$idual dual commitments set the scene for compelling collaboration. =ealth aareness groups reuire a reasonable reason that fuses particular symptomatic gatherings and parts of patient consideration. At the point hen groups ha$e an acceptable reason that is steady ith the association7s mission! they can be all the more ob$iously coordinated! backed and resourced. /urther! key arranging procedures can elucidate the arrangement of different groups inside human ser$ices associations.
Authority styles and e*amples need to be uneui$ocal and suitable to the group7s formati$e stage. In a perfect orld! the group pioneer ought to be properly gifted and all colleagues reuire unmistakably outlined and $ital parts. Groups are more effecti$e ith the base number of p parts arts to meet their moti$ation and participation ought to be consistently cleared up in light of patient needs. Colleagues should at the same time percei$e and esteem their commitment to the group. With sufficient sufficient self knoledge! people can trust and admiration ad miration the commitments of their partners. Consistent formal and casual contact helps parts to percei$e their on and an d others7 commitments to patient consideration. At the point hen people feel sure of the reuirement for all colleagues! they comprehend the profits of filling in as a group. $er the long haul! duty fortifies compelling cooperation. When groups ha$e created clear structures! they ha$e to keep up e*press techniues through concurred and formal frameorks of correspondence and co8appointment. redictable training and backing for group building and impro$ement ought to be a$ailable for all social insurance specialists. At At the point hen all colleagues are strong! make choices mutually and o$ersee clash! the the grou group p is more more po poe erf rful ul.. ,oth ,oth pe peop ople le an and d th thee gr grou oup p ne need ed st stan anda dard rd cr crit itic icis ism m an and d distinguis dist inguishment hment of their ad$ancement ad$ancement toards the group7s group7s obBecti$es. obBecti$es. At last! last! there is a need to manufacture and keep up poerful groups to amplify the master abilities of social insurance e*perts in gathering comple* patient needs. Group ad$ancement and e*ecution can be ad$anced through training if there is learning of the most essential attributes of cooperation in human ser$ic ser $ices es setti settings ngs.. atien atientt consid considera eratio tion n ill ill at last last be upgrade upgraded d through through the co8ord co8ordina inated ted endea$ors of compelling health aareness groups.
'obinson! 'obins on! G.! E 'obinso 'obinson! n! -.! (&&4! (&&4! >otes >otes and handout handoutss for proBec proBectt managem management ent course course sponsored by the -chool of #ngineering -cience and presented by the department of Continuing -tudies! -imon /raser ni$ersity! pp."8(4. Thamhain! =.F.! 2))4! <inkages of proBect en$ironment to team performance5 <essons for team leadership. International Fournal of roBect :anagement! 220;1! pp +8+44.
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+4. :ancero! :ancero! :.! Crdenas! G.! E -ucozha -ucozhaUay Uay!! 9.! 2)((b! /ragmentatio /ragmentation n and connection connection of frames in collaborati$e ater go$ernance5 A case study of ri$er catchment management in -outhern #cuador. International 'e$ie of Administrati$e Administrati$e -ciences! ;; 0(1! pp +)8;+. +) 8;+. ++. earce earce FA E 'a$lin 'a$lin #C (&%;! (&%;! OThe OThe 9esign 9esign and Acti$ati Acti$ation on of -elf8' -elf8'egu egulat lating ing Wor ork k Groups6! =uman 'elations! $ol 4)! no ((! pp ;+(8;%2. +". utnam utnam!! <. <. <.!! <e <ei icki cki!! '. '.!! Aar arts ts!! >. >.!! ,ou ,ouen en!! '. '.!! E Woer erkum kum!! $an! $an! C. C.!! 2)) 2))&! &! 9isent 9is entangl angling ing approac approaches hes to frami framing ng in confli conflict ct and negoti negotiati ation on resear research5 ch5 A meta8 meta8 paradigmatic perspecti$e. =uman 'elations! "2 021! pp (++8(&. +;. 'oberto! 'oberto! A. F.! (&&! 'elational 'elational de$elopment de$elopment as negotiated negotiated order in hostage hostage negotiation! negotiation! =uman Communication 'esearch! 2) 021! pp (;+8(&%. +%. Thamhain! Thamhain! =.F. 02))41. <inkages of proBect en$ironment en$ironment to performance performance55 <essons for team leadership. International Fournal of roBect :anagement! 220;1! +8+44. + 8+44. +&. Tuckman! ,. 0(&"+1. 9e$elopmental seuence in small groups. American sychological Association! sychological ,ulletin! "0"1! pp. %4M&&. "). Dan aassen! aassen! A.! 2)((b! /rom cohesion cohesion to conflict in participato participatory ry forest management5 The case of uVmV -upVrieur and >79ali 0->1 forests in ,enin. /orest olicy and #conomics! ( 0;1! +2+8+4. "(. Wills! Wills! T. A.! A.! 2))+! -tress! -ocial -upport and the ,uffering ,uffering =ypothesis! =ypothesis! sychological sychological ,ulletin! &%021! ()8+;.