Latin Maxim

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A
Latin Translation Notes
a bene placito
"from one who has
been pleased well"
Or "at will", "at one's pleasure". This phrase, and its
Italian (beneplacito) and Spanish (beneplácito)
derivatives, are synonymous with the more common
ad libitum ("at pleasure").
abusus non tollit
usum
"abuse does not
preclude proper use"
a caelo usque ad
centrum
"from the sy to the
center"
Or "from heaven all the way to the center of the
earth". In law, can refer to the obsolete cuius est solum
eius est usque ad coelum et ad inferos ma!im of
property ownership.
a capite ad calcem "from head to heel"
"rom top to bottom# all the way throu$h. %&ually a
pedibus usque ad caput.
a contrario "from the opposite"
%&uivalent to "on the contrary" or "au contraire". 'n
argumentum a contrario is an "ar$ument from the
contrary", an ar$ument or proof by contrast or direct
opposite.
a Deucalione "since (eucalion" ' lon$ time a$o. "rom )aius *ucilius (Satires, +, ,-.)
a fortiori "from the stron$er"
*oosely, "even more so" or "with even stron$er
reason". Often used to lead from a less certain
proposition to a more evident corollary.
a mari usque ad
mare
"from sea to sea"
"rom /salm 0,1-, "Et dominabitur a mari usque ad
mare, et a flumine usque ad terminos terrae" (2341
"5e shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and
from the river unto the ends of the earth"). 6ational
motto of 7anada.
a pedibus usque ad
caput
"from feet to head"
7ompletely. Similar to the %n$lish e!pressions "from
tip to toe" or "from top to toe". %&ually a capite ad
calcem. See also ab ovo usque ad mala.
a posse ad esse
"from bein$ able to
bein$"
""rom possibility to actuality" or "from bein$ possible
to bein$ actual"
a posteriori "from the latter"
8ased on observation (i.e., empirical nowled$e), the
reverse of a priori. 9sed in mathematics and lo$ic to
denote somethin$ that is nown after a proof has been
carried out. In philosophy, used to denote somethin$
that can be nown from empirical e!perience.
a priori "from the former"
/resupposed, the reverse of a posteriori. 9sed in
mathematics and lo$ic to denote somethin$ that is
nown or postulated before a proof has been carried
out. In philosophy, used to denote somethin$ that can
be nown without empirical e!perience. In everyday
speech, it denotes somethin$ occurrin$ or bein$
nown before the event.
ab absurdo "from the absurd"
Said of an ar$ument that sees to prove a statement's
validity by pointin$ out the absurdity of an opponent's
position (cf. appeal to ridicule) or that an assertion is
false because of its absurdity. 6ot to be confused with
a reductio ad absurdum, which is usually a valid
lo$ical ar$ument.
ab abusu ad usum
non valet
consequentia
"a conse&uence
from an abuse to a
use is not valid"
Inferences re$ardin$ somethin$'s use from its misuse
are invalid. :i$hts abused are still ri$hts (cf. abusus
non tollit usum).
ab aeterno "from the eternal"
*iterally, "from the everlastin$" or "from eternity".
Thus, "from time immemorial", "since the be$innin$
of time" or "from an infinitely remote time in the
past". In theolo$y, often indicates somethin$, such as
the universe, that was created outside of time.
ab antiquo "from the ancient" "rom ancient times.
ab epistulis "from the letter" Or, havin$ to do with correspondence.
ab extra "from beyond"
' le$al term meanin$ "from without". "rom e!ternal
sources, rather than from the self or the mind (ab
intra).
ab hinc "from here on"
Often rendered abhinc (which in *atin means simply
"since" or "a$o").
ab imo pectore
"from the bottom of
my heart"
;ore literally, "from the deepest chest". 'ttributed to
3ulius 7aesar. 7an mean "with deepest affection" or
"sincerely".
ab inconvenienti
"from an
inconvenient thin$"
6ew *atin for "based on unsuitability", "from
inconvenience" or "from hardship". 'n argumentum
ab inconvenienti is one based on the difficulties
involved in pursuin$ a line of reasonin$, and is thus a
form of appeal to conse&uences# it refers to a rule in
law that an ar$ument from inconvenience has $reat
wei$ht.
ab incunabulis "from the cradle"
Thus, "from the be$innin$" or "from infancy".
Incunabula is commonly used in %n$lish to refer to
the earliest sta$e or ori$in of somethin$, and
especially to copies of boos that predate the spread of
the printin$ press around '( <=>>.
ab initio "from the
be$innin$"
"'t the outset", referrin$ to an in&uiry or
investi$ation. In literature, refers to a story told from
the be$innin$ rather than in medias res (from the
middle). In law, refers to somethin$ bein$ the case
from the start or from the instant of the act, rather than
from when the court declared it so. ' ?udicial
declaration of the invalidity of a marria$e ab initio is a
nullity. In science, refers to the first principles. In
other conte!ts, often refers to be$inner or trainin$
courses. Ab initio mundi means "from the be$innin$ of
the world".
ab intestato "from an intestate"
"rom someone who dies with no le$al will (cf. ex
testamento).
ab intra "from within" "rom the inside. The opposite of ab extra.
ab irato
"from an an$ry
man"
8y a person who is an$ry. 9sed in law to describe a
decision or action that is detrimental to those it affects
and was made based on hatred or an$er, rather than on
reason. The form irato is masculine# however, this
does not mean it applies only to men, rather 'person' is
meant, as the phrase probably elides "homo," not
"vir."
ab origine "from the source"
"rom the ori$in, be$innin$, source, or commencement
@i.e., "ori$inally". The source of the word aboriginal.
ab ovo usque ad
mala
"from the e$$ to the
apples"
"rom 5orace, Satire <.A. ;eans "from be$innin$ to
end", based on the :oman main meal typically
be$innin$ with an e$$ dish and endin$ with fruit (cf.
the %n$lish phrase soup to nuts). Thus, ab ovo means
"from the be$innin$", and can also connote
thorou$hness.
ab uno disce omnes "from one, learn all"
"rom 4ir$il's Aeneid. :efers to situations where a
sin$le e!ample or observation indicates a $eneral or
universal truth.
ab urbe condita
(a.u.c.)
"from the foundin$
of the city"
:efers to the foundin$ of :ome, which occurred in
0=A 87 accordin$ to *ivy's count. 9sed as a reference
point in ancient :ome for establishin$ dates, before
bein$ supplanted by other systems. 'lso anno urbis
conditae (a.u.c.) ("in the year that the city was
founded").
ab utili "from utility" 9sed of an ar$ument.
absens haeres non
erit
"an absent person
will not be an heir"
In law, refers to the principle that someone who is not
present is unliely to inherit.
absente reo (abs. re.)
"with the defendant
bein$ absent"
In the absence of the accused.
absit iniuria verbis
"let in?ury by words
be absent"
%!presses the wish that no insult or wron$ be
conveyed by the speaer's words, i.e., "no offense".
'lso rendered absit injuria verbis# see also absit
invidia.
absit invidia
"let ill will be
absent"
'lthou$h similar to the %n$lish e!pression "no
offense", absit invidia is not a mere social $esture to
avoid causin$ offense, but also a way to ward off the
harm that some people superstitiously believe
animosity can cause others. 'lso e!tended to absit
invidia verbo, meanin$ "may ill will be absent from
the word" (cf. absit iniuria verbis).
absit omen
"let an omen be
absent"
In other words, "let there not be an omen here".
%!presses the wish that somethin$ seemin$ly illB
bodin$ does not turn out to be an omen for future
events, and calls on divine protection a$ainst evil.
absolutum
dominium
"absolute dominion" Total power or soverei$nty.
absolvo "I ac&uit"
' le$al term said by a ?ud$e ac&uittin$ a defendant
followin$ a trial. Te absolvo or absolvo te, translated,
"I for$ive you," said by :oman 7atholic priests durin$
the Sacrament of 7onfession prior to 4atican II.
abundans cautela
non nocet
"abundant caution
does no harm"
Thus, one can never be too careful# even e!cessive
precautions don't hurt anyone.
abusus non tollit
usum
"misuse does not
remove use"
'n a!iom statin$ that ?ust because somethin$ can be,
or has been, abused, does not mean that it must be, or
always is. 'buse does not, in itself, ?ustify denial of
use
accusare nemo se
debet nisi coram
Deo
"no one ou$ht to
accuse himself
e!cept in the
/resence of )od"
' le$al ma!im denotin$ that any accused person is
entitled to mae a plea of not $uilty, and also that a
witness is not obli$ed to $ive a response or submit a
document that will incriminate himself. ' very similar
phrase is nemo tenetur seipsum accusare.
Accipe Hoc "Tae that" ;otto of -.- 6aval 'ir S&uadron, :oyal 6avy.
acta est fabula
plaudite
"The play has been
performed#
applaudC"
' common endin$ to ancient :oman comedies, also
claimed by Suetonius in Lives of the Telve !aesars
to have been 7aesar 'u$ustus' last words. 'pplied by
Sibelius to the third movement of his Strin$ Duartet
no. , so that his audience would realiEe it was the last
one, as a fourth would normally be e!pected.
acta non verba "actions, not words"
;otto of the 9nited States ;erchant ;arine
'cademy.
Acta anctorum
"(eeds of the
Saints"
'lso used in the sin$ular, Acta Sancti ("(eeds of the
Saint"), precedin$ a specific Saint's name. ' common
title of wors in ha$io$raphy.
actus non facit
reum nisi mens sit
rea
"The act is not
$uilty unless the
mind is also $uilty."
' le$al term outlinin$ the presumption of mens rea in
a crime.
actus reus "$uilty act"
The actual crime that is committed, rather than the
intent or thou$ht process leadin$ up to the crime.
Thus, the e!ternal elements of a crime, as contrasted
with mens rea, the internal elements.
ad absurdum "to the absurd"
In lo$ic, to the point of bein$ silly or nonsensical. See
also reductio ad absurdum. 6ot to be confused with
ab absurdo ("from the absurd").
adaequatio
intellect!s nostri
"conformity of our
minds to the fact"
' phrase used in epistemolo$y re$ardin$ the nature of
understandin$.
cum re
ad abundantiam "to abundance"
In le$al lan$ua$e, used when providin$ additional
evidence to an already sufficient collection. 'lso used
commonly, as an e&uivalent of "as if this wasn't
enou$h".
ad astra "to the stars"
6ame or motto (in full or part) of many
or$aniEationsFpublicationsFetc.
ad astra per aspera
"to the stars throu$h
difficulty"
;otto of 2ansas, and other or$anisations.
ad astra per alia
porci
"to the stars on the
win$s of a pi$"
' favorite sayin$ of 3ohn Steinbec. ' professor told
him that he would be an author when pi$s flew. %very
boo he wrote is printed with this insi$nia.
ad captandum
vulgus
"in order to court
the crowd"
To do somethin$ to appeal to the masses. Often used
of politicians who mae false or insincere promises to
appeal to popular interest. 'n argumentum ad
captandum is an ar$ument desi$ned to please the
crowd.
ad eundem "to the same"
'n ad eundem de$ree, from the *atin ad eundem
gradum ("to the same step" or "to the same de$ree"),
is a courtesy de$ree awarded by one university or
colle$e to an alumnus of another. It is not an honorary
de$ree, but a reco$nition of the formal learnin$ that
earned the de$ree at another colle$e.
ad fontes "to the sources"
' motto of :enaissance humanism. 'lso used in the
/rotestant :eformation.
ad fundum "to the bottom"
Said durin$ a $eneric toast, e&uivalent to "bottoms
upC" In other conte!ts, $enerally means "bac to the
basics".
ad hoc "to this"
)enerally means "for this", in the sense of improvised
on the spot or desi$ned for only a specific, immediate
purpose.
Rather than relying on ad hoc decisions, we
should form a consistent plan for dealing
with emergency situations.
ad hominem "to the man"
7onnotations of "a$ainst the man". Typically used in
argumentum ad hominem, a lo$ical fallacy consistin$
of criticiEin$ a person when the sub?ect of debate is
the person's ideas or ar$ument, on the mistaen
assumption that the validity of an ar$ument is to some
de$ree dependent on the &ualities of the proponent.
ad honorem "to the honor"
)enerally means "for the honor", not seein$ any
material reward.
ad infinitum "to infinity"
)oin$ on forever. 9sed to desi$nate a property which
repeats in all cases in mathematical proof.
ad interim (ad int) "for the meantime" 's in the term "charg" d#affaires ad interim" for a
diplomatic officer who acts in place of an ambassador.
ad "alendas
#raecas
"to the )ree
2alends"
'ttributed by Suetonius in Lives of the Telve
!aesars to 7aesar 'u$ustus. The phrase means
"never" and is similar to phrases lie "when pi$s fly".
The 2alends (also written !alends) were specific days
of the :oman calendar, not of the )ree, and so the
")ree 2alends" would never occur.
ad libitum (ad lib) "toward pleasure"
*oosely, "accordin$ to what pleases" or "as you wish"#
libitum comes from the past participle of libere, "to
please". It typically indicates in music and theatrical
scripts that the performer has the liberty to chan$e or
omit somethin$. Ad lib is specifically often used when
someone improvises or i$nores limitations.
ad litem "to the lawsuit"
' le$al term referrin$ to a party appointed by a court
to act in a lawsuit on behalf of another party who is
deemed incapable of representin$ himself. 'n
individual who acts in this capacity is called a
guardian ad litem.
ad lucem "to the li$ht"
;otto of O!ford 5i$h School (O!ford), the 9niversity
of *isbon, Githin$ton )irls' School and St.
8artholomew's School, 6ewbury, 92
ad maiorem Dei
gloriam (A$D#)
"To the $reater $lory
of )od"
;otto of the Society of 3esus (3esuits). 3ohann
Sebastian 8ach dedicated all of his wor with the
abbreviation "';()", and %dward %l$ar's The
(ream of )erontius is similarly dedicated. Often
rendered ad majorem $ei gloriam.
ad multos annos "To many yearsC"
%!presses a wish for a lon$ life. Similar to the %n$lish
e!pression ";any happy returnsC"
ad nauseam
"to the point of
dis$ust"
*iterally, "to the point of nausea". Sometimes used as
a humorous alternative to ad infinitum. 'n
argumentum ad nauseam is a lo$ical fallacy involvin$
basin$ one's ar$ument on prolon$ed repetition, i.e.,
repeatin$ somethin$ so much that people are "sic of
it".
ad oculos
"Gith your own
eyes."
;eanin$ "obvious on si$ht" or "obvious to anyone
that sees it".
ad pedem litterae
"to the foot of the
letter"
Thus, "e!actly as it is written". Similar to the %n$lish
idiom "to the letter", meanin$ "to the last detail".
ad perpetuam
memoriam
"to the perpetual
memory"
)enerally precedes "of" and a person's name, and is
used to wish for someone to be remembered lon$ after
death.
ad pondus omnium
(ad pond om)
"to the wei$ht of all
thin$s"
;ore loosely, "considerin$ everythin$'s wei$ht". The
abbreviation was historically used by physicians and
others to si$nify that the last prescribed in$redient is
to wei$h as much as all of the previously mentioned
ones.
ad quod damnum "to what dama$e"
;eanin$ "accordin$ to the harm" or "in proportion to
the harm". The phrase is used in tort law as a measure
of dama$es inflicted, implyin$ that a remedy, if one
e!ists, ou$ht to correspond specifically and only to the
dama$e suffered (cf. damnum absque injuria).
ad referendum
(ad ref)Hspan idI"ad
referendum
" J
"to that which must
be brou$ht bac"
*oosely "sub?ect to reference", meanin$ that
somethin$ has been approved provisionally, but must
still receive official approval. 6ot necessarily related
to a referendum.
ad rem "to the matter"
Thus, "to the point". Githout di$ression.
Thank you for your concise, ad rem
response.
ad undas "to the waves" %&uivalent to "to hell".
ad usum Delphini
"for the use of the
$auphin"
Said of a wor that has been e!pur$ated of offensive
or improper parts. The phrase ori$inates from editions
of )ree and :oman classics which *ouis KI4 had
censored for his heir apparent, the $auphin. 'lso
rarely in usum $elphini ("into the use of the
$auphin").
ad usum proprium
(ad us. propr.)
"for one's own use"
ad utrumque
paratus
"prepared for either
alternative".
'lso the motto of *und 9niversity, with the implied
alternatives bein$ the boo (study) and the sword
(defendin$ the country in war).
ad valorem "to the value"
'ccordin$ to an ob?ect's value. 9sed in commerce to
refer to ad valorem ta!es, ta!es based on the assessed
value of real estate or personal property.
ad victoriam "to victory"
;ore commonly translated into "for victory" this is a
battlecry of the :omans.
ad vitam aeternam "to eternal life" 'lso "to life everlastin$". ' common 8iblical phrase.
ad vitam aut
culpam
"for life or until
fault"
9sually used of a term of office.
addendum "thin$ to be added"
'n item to be added, especially a supplement to a
boo. The plural is addenda.
adequatio
intellectus et rei
"correspondence of
the mind and
reality"
One of the definitions of the truth. Ghen the mind has
the same form as reality, we thin% truth. 'lso found as
adequatio rei et intellectus.
adsum "I am here"
%&uivalent to "/resentC" or "5ereC" The opposite of
absum ("I am absent").
adversus solem ne
loquitor
"(on't spea a$ainst
the sun"
I.e., don't ar$ue the obvious
aegri somnia
"a sic man's
dreams"
"rom 5orace, Ars &oetica, 0. *oosely, "troubled
dreams".
aequitas "3ustice" or
"e&uality."
aetatis suae "of his own a$e"
Thus, "at the a$e of". 'ppeared on portraits,
$ravestones, etc. Sometimes e!tended to anno aetatis
suae (''S), "in the year of his a$e". Sometimes
shortened to ?ust aetatis (aet.).
The tomb reads Anno 1629 Aetatis Suae 46
because she died in 1629 at age 46.
affidavit "he asserted"
' le$al term from ;edieval *atin referrin$ to a sworn
statement. "rom fides, "faith".
age quod agis
"(o what you are
doin$."
agenda "thin$s to be done"
Ori$inally comparable to a toBdo list, an ordered list of
thin$s to be done. 6ow $eneraliEed to include any
planned course of action. The sin$ular, agendum
("thin$ that must be done"), is rarely used.
Agnus Dei "*amb of )od"
*atin translation from 3ohn <1A+, where 3ohn the
8aptist e!claims "%cce '$nus (eiC" ("8ehold the
*amb of )odC") upon seein$ 3esus, referrin$ both to a
lamb's connotations of innocence and to a sacrificial
lamb.
alea iacta est "the die is cast"
Said by 3ulius 7aesar upon crossin$ the :ubicon in .L
87, accordin$ to Suetonius. The ori$inal meanin$ was
rou$hly e&uivalent to the %n$lish phrase "the $ame is
afoot", but its modern meanin$, lie that of the phrase
"crossin$ the :ubicon", denotes passin$ the point of
no return on a momentous decision and enterin$ into a
risy endeavor where the outcome is left to chance.
alenda lux ubi orta
libertas
"*et learnin$ be
cherished where
liberty has arisen."
The motto of (avidson 7olle$e.
alias "otherwise"
'n assumed name or pseudonym. Similar to alter ego,
but more specifically referrin$ to a name, not to a
"second self".
alibi "elsewhere"
' le$al defense where a defendant attempts to show
that he was elsewhere at the time a crime was
committed.
is alibi is sound! he ga"e e"idence that
he was in another city on the night of the
murder.
alis aquilae "on ea$les win$s"
taen from the 8oo of Isaiah, 7hapter .>. "8ut those
who wait for the *ord shall find their stren$th
renewed, they shall mount up on win$s lie ea$les,
they shall run and not $row weary, they shall wal and
not $row faint."
alis grave nil "nothin$ is heavy to
those who have
motto of the /ontifical 7atholic 9niversity of :io de
3aneiro (/ontifMcia 9niversidade 7atNlica do :io de
win$s" 3aneiroB /97B:IO).
alis volat propris
"she flies with her
own win$s"
State motto of Ore$on. 7an also be rendered alis volat
propriis.
Aliquantus ":ather bi$"
Aliquantulus "6ot that bi$"
aliquid stat pro
aliquo
"somethin$ that
stands for
somethin$ else"
' foundational definition for semiotics
alma mater "nourishin$ mother"
Term used for the university one attends or has
attended. 'nother university term, matriculation, is
also derived from mater. The term su$$ests that the
students are "fed" nowled$e and taen care of by the
university. The term is also used for a university's
traditional school anthem.
alter ego "other I"
'nother self, a second persona or alias. 7an be used to
describe different facets or identities of a sin$le
character, or different characters who seem
representations of the same personality. Often used of
a fictional character's secret identity.
alterius non sit qui
suus esse potest
"*et no man belon$
to another that can
belon$ to himself"
"inal sentence from 'esop ascribed fable (see also
'esop's "ables) "The "ro$s Gho (esired a 2in$" as
appears in the collection commonly nown as the
"'nonymus 6eveleti" (fable "KKIb. (e ranis a Iove
&uerentibus re$em"). ;otto of /aracelsus. 9sually
attributed to 7icero.
alterum non laedere
"to not wound
another"
One of 3ustinian I's three basic le$al precepts.
alumna or
alumnus
"pupil"
Sometimes rendered with the $enderBneutral alumn or
alum in %n$lish. ' $raduate or former student of a
school, colle$e or university. Alumna (pl. alumnae) is
a female pupil, and alumnus (pl. alumni) is a male
[email protected] is $enerally used for a $roup of both
males and females. The word derives from alere, "to
nourish", a $raduate bein$ someone who was raised
and taen care of at the school (cf. alma mater).
amicus curiae "friend of the court"
'n adviser, or a person who can obtain or $rant access
to the favour of powerful $roup, lie a :oman 7uria.
In current 9.S. le$al usa$e, an amicus curiae is a third
party allowed to submit a le$al opinion (in the form of
an amicus brief) to the court.
amiterre legem
terrae
"to lose the law of
the land"
'n obsolete le$al term si$nifyin$ the forfeiture of the
ri$ht of swearin$ in any court or cause, or to become
infamous.
amor est vitae
essentia
"love is the essence
of life"
's said by :obert 8. ;acay, 'ustralian 'nalyst.
amor et melle et
felle est
fecundissmismus
"love is rich with
both honey and
venom"
Amor fati "love of fate"
6ietEscheian alternative world view to memento mori
Oremember you must dieP. 6ietEsche believed amor
fati to be more life affirmin$.
amor omnibus idem
"love is the same for
all"
from 4ir$il's )eor$ics III.
amor patriae
"love of one's
country"
/atriotism.
amor vincit omnia "love con&uers all"
Gritten on bracelet worn by the /rioress in 7haucer's
The !anterbur' Tales. See also veritas omnia vincit
and labor omnia vincit.
animus omnia vincit
"coura$e con&uers
all"
;otto of 6orth ;es&uite 5i$h School, ;es&uite,
Te!as.
anno (an.) "in the year"
'lso used in such phrases as anno urbis conditae (see
ab urbe condita), Anno $omini, and anno regni.
Anno Domini (A.D.)
"in the Qear of the
*ord"
Short for Anno $omini (ostri Iesus !hristi ("in the
Qear of Our *ord, 3esus 7hrist"), the predominantly
used system for datin$ years across the world, used
with the )re$orian calendar, and based on the
perceived year of the birth of 3esus 7hrist. The years
before 3esus' birth were once mared with a) !)n
(Ante !hristum (atum, "8efore 7hrist was 8orn"), but
now use the %n$lish abbreviation 87 ("8efore
7hrist").
#ugustus was born in the year 6$ %&, and
died #' 14.
anno regni
"In the year of the
rei$n"
/recedes "of" and the current ruler.
Annuit %&ptis
"5e 5as 'pproved
the 9ndertain$s"
;otto on the reverse of the )reat Seal of the 9nited
States and on the bac of the 9.S. one dollar bill. "5e"
refers to )od, and so the official translation $iven by
the 9.S. State (epartment is "5e O)odP has favored
our undertain$s".
annus horribilis "horrible year"
' recent pun on annus mirabilis, first used by Dueen
%liEabeth II to describe what a bad year <LL, had been
for her, and subse&uently occasionally used to refer to
many other years perceived as "horrible". In 7lassical
*atin, this phrase would actually mean "terrifyin$
year". See also annus terribilis.
annus mirabilis "wonderful year" 9sed particularly to refer to the years <++=R<+++,
durin$ which Isaac 6ewton made revolutionary
inventions and discoveries in calculus, motion, optics
and $ravitation. Annus *irabilis is also the title of a
poem by 3ohn (ryden written in the same year. It has
since been used to refer to other years, especially to
<L>=, when 'lbert %instein made e&ually
revolutionary discoveries concernin$ the photoelectric
effect, 8rownian motion and the special theory of
relativity. +See Annus *irabilis &apers,
annus terribilis "dreadful year"
9sed to describe <A.-, the year the 8lac (eath be$an
to afflict %urope.
ante bellum "before the war"
's in "status quo ante bellum", "as it was before the
war". 7ommonly used in the Southern 9nited States
as antebellum to refer to the period precedin$ the
'merican 7ivil Gar.
ante cibum (a.c.) "before food" ;edical shorthand for "before meals".
ante litteram "before the letter"
Said of an e!pression or term that describes somethin$
which e!isted before the phrase itself was introduced
or became common.
#lan Turing was a computer scientist ante
litteram, since the field of (computer
science( was not yet recogni)ed in Turing*s
day.
ante meridiem (a.m.) "before midday" The period from midni$ht to noon (cf. post meridiem).
ante mortem "before death" See post mortem ("after death").
ante prandium (a.p.) "before lunch"
9sed on pharmaceutical prescriptions to denote
"before a meal". *ess common is post prandium,
"after lunch".
apparatus criticus "critical apparatus"
Te!tual notes. ' list of other readin$s relatin$ to a
document, especially in a scholarly edition of a te!t.
aqua (aq.) "water"
aqua fortis "stron$ water" :efers to nitric acid.
aqua pura "pure water" Or "clear water", "clean water".
aqua regia "royal water" refers to a mi!ture of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid.
aqua vitae "water of life"
"Spirit of Gine" in many %n$lish te!ts. 9sed to refer
to various native distilled bevera$es, such as whisy
in Scotland and Ireland, $in in 5olland, brandy (eau
de vie) in "rance, and avavit in Scandinavia.
aquila non capit
muscas
"an ea$le doesn't
catch flies"
' noble or important person doesn't deal with
insi$nificant issues.
arare litus
"to plou$h the
seashore"
"rom )erhard )erhards' (<.++B<=A+) Obetter nown as
%rasmusP collection of annotated 'da$ia (<=>-).
Gasted labour.
arbiter
elegantiarum
"?ud$e of tastes"
One who prescribes, rules on, or is a reco$niEed
authority on matters of social behavior and taste. Said
of /etronius. 'lso rendered arbiter elegentiae ("?ud$e
of a taste").
arcus senilis "senile bow"
'n opa&ue circle around the cornea of the eye, often
seen in elderly people.
Argentum album "white money"
'lso "silver coin". ;entioned in (omesday, si$nifies
bullion, or silver uncoined.
arguendo "for ar$uin$"
"or the sae of ar$ument. Said when somethin$ is
done purely in order to discuss a matter or illustrate a
point.
+et us assume, arguendo, that your claim is
correct.
argumentum "ar$ument"
Or "reasonin$", "inference", "appeal", "proof". The
plural is argumenta. 7ommonly used in the names of
lo$ical ar$uments and fallacies, precedin$ phrases
such as a silentio ("by silence"), ad antiquitatem ("to
anti&uity"), ad baculum ("to the stic"), ad captandum
("to capturin$"), ad consequentiam ("to the
conse&uence"), ad crumenam ("to the purse"), ad
feminam ("to the woman"), ad hominem ("to the
person"), ad ignorantiam ("to i$norance"), ad
judicium ("to ?ud$ment"), ad la-arum ("to poverty"),
ad logicam ("to lo$ic"), ad metum ("to fear"), ad
misericordiam ("to pity"), ad nauseam ("to nausea"),
ad novitatem ("to novelty"), ad personam ("to the
character"), ad numerum ("to the number"), ad odium
("to spite"), ad populum ("to the people"), ad
temperantiam ("to moderation"), ad verecundiam ("to
reverence"), ex silentio ("from silence"), and in
terrorem ("into terror").
ars celare artem
"art OisP to conceal
art"
'n aesthetic ideal that $ood art should appear natural
rather than contrived.
ars gratia artis "art for art's sae"
Translated into *atin from 8audelaire's "L#art pour
l#art". ;otto of ;etroB)oldwynB;ayer. This phrasin$
is a direct transliteration of 'art for the sae of art.'
Ghile very symmetrical for the ;); lo$o, the better
*atin word order is ''rs artis $ratia.'
ars longa vita brevis
"art is lon$, life is
short"
The *atin translation by 5orace of a phrase from
5ippocrates, often used out of conte!t. The "art"
referred to in the ori$inal aphorism was the craft of
medicine, which too a lifetime to ac&uire.
asinus ad l'ram "an ass to the lyre"
"rom )erhard )erhards' (<.++B<=A+) Obetter nown as
%rasmusP collection of annotated 'da$ia (<=>-). 'n
awward or incompetent individual.
asinus asinum fricat
"the ?acass rubs the
?acass"
9sed to describe two people lavishin$ e!cessive
praise on one another.
assecuratus non
quaerit lucrum sed
agit ne in damno sit
"the assured does
not see profit but
?ust indemnity for
the loss"
:efers to the insurance principle that the indemnity
cannot be lar$er than the loss.
Auctoritas "authority" :eferred to the $eneral level of presti$e a person had
in 'ncient :oman society.
audax at fidelis "bold but faithful" ;otto of Dueensland.
audeamus "let us dare"
;otto of Ota$o 9niversity Students' 'ssociation, a
direct response to the university's motto of sapere
aude ("dare to be wise").
audemus (ura
nostra defendere
"we dare to defend
our ri$hts"
State motto of 'labama, adopted in <L,A. Translated
into *atin from a paraphrase of the stanEa ";en who
their duties now F 8ut now their ri$hts, and
nowin$, dare maintain" from the poem "Ghat
7onstitutes a StateS" by <-thBcentury author Gilliam
3ones.
audentes fortuna
iuvat
"fortune favors the
bold"
"rom 4ir$il, Aeneid K, ,-. (where the first word is in
the archaic form audentis). 'lle$edly the last words of
/liny the %lder before he left the docs at /ompeii to
rescue people from the eruption of 4esuvius in 0L.
Often &uoted as audaces fortuna iuvat.
audere est facere "to dare is to do"
The motto of Tottenham 5otspur "ootball 7lub, the
famous professional 'ssociation "ootball (soccer)
team based in *ondon, %n$land.
audi alteram
partem
"hear the other side"
' le$al principle of fairness. 'lso worded as audiatur
et altera pars ("let the other side be heard too").
audio hostem "I hear the enemy" ;otto of -.= 6'7S :oyal 6avy
aurea mediocritas "$olden mean"
"rom 5orace's .des II, <>. :efers to the ethical $oal
of reachin$ a virtuous middle $round between two
sinful e!tremes. The $olden mean concept is common
to many philosophers, chiefly 'ristotle.
auri sacra fames
"accursed hun$er
for $old"
"rom 4ir$il, 'eneid A,=0. *ater &uoted by Seneca as
"quod non mortalia pectora coges, auri sacra fames"1
"Ghat aren't you able to brin$ men to do, miserable
hun$er for $oldC"
auribus teneo
lupum
"I hold a wolf by the
ears"
' common ancient proverb, this version from Terence.
Indicates that one is in a dan$erous situation where
both holdin$ on and lettin$ $o could be deadly. '
modern version is "To have a ti$er by the tail."
aurora australis "southern dawn"
The Southern *i$hts, an aurora that appears in the
Southern 5emisphere. It is less wellBnown than the
6orthern *i$hts, or aurorea borealis. The Aurora
Australis is also the name of an 'ntarctic icebreaer
ship.
aurora borealis "northern dawn"
The 6orthern *i$hts, an aurora that appears in the
6orthern 5emisphere.
aut %aesar aut nihil
"either 7aesar or
nothin$"
Indicates that the only valid possibility is to be
emperor, or a similarly prominent position. ;ore
$enerally, "all or nothin$". 'dopted by 7esare 8or$ia
as a personal motto.
aut concilio aut ense
"either by meetin$
or by the sword"
Thus, either throu$h reasoned discussion or throu$h
war. ' former motto of 7hile, post tenebras lux
ultimately replaced by &or la /a-on o la 0uer-a
(Spanish) ' by reason or by force '.
aut pax aut bellum
"either peace or
war"
The motto of the )unn 7lan.
Aut viam inveniam
aut faciam
"I will find a way, or
I will mae one"
5annibal.
aut vincere aut mori
"either to con&uer or
to die"
' $eneral pled$e of "victory or death" (cf. victoria aut
mors).
ave atque vale "5ail and farewellC"
"rom 7atullus, carmen <><, addressed to his deceased
brother.
Ave %aesar
morituri te salutant
"5ail, 7aesarC The
ones who are about
to die salute youC"
"rom Suetonius' Lives of the Telve !aesars,
!laudius ,<. The traditional $reetin$ of $ladiators
prior to battle. morituri is also translated as "we who
are about to die" based on the conte!t in which it was
spoen, and this translation is sometimes aided by
chan$in$ the *atin to nos morituri te salutamus. 'lso
rendered with imperator instead of !aesar. ' poor
translation here could be, "7aesar's birds died from
poor health."
ave )uropa nostra
vera *atria
"5ail, %urope, our
true "atherlandC"
'nthem of /anB%uropeanists.
Ave $aria "5ail, ;ary"
(erived from "5ail, (;ary) full of $race, the *ord is
with thee..." ((6T) *ue <1,-,.,). ' popular 7atholic
7hurch prayer.
+
Latin Translation Notes
barba tenus
sapientes
"wise as far as the
beard"
"rom )erhard )erhards' (<.++B<=A+) Obetter nown as
%rasmusP collection of annotated 'da$ia (<=>-). In
appearance wise, but not necessarily so.
+eata ,irgo
$aria (+,$)
"8lessed 4ir$in
;ary"
' common name in the :oman 7atholic 7hurch for ;ary,
the mother of 3esus. The $enitive, 1eatae *ariae 2irginis,
occurs often as well, appearin$ with such words as horae
("hours"), litaniae ("litany") and officium ("office").
beatae memoriae
"of blessed
memory"
See in memoriam.
beati pauperes
spiritu
"8lessed in spirit
OareP the poor."
4ul$ate, Template1bibleref. The full &uote is "beati
pauperes spiritu quoniam ipsorum est regnum caelorum"
("8lessed in spirit OareP the poor, for theirs is the in$dom
of the heavens" B one of the 8eatitudes).
beati possidentes "blessed OareP Translated from %uripides.
those who
possess"
beatus homo qui
invenit sapentiam
"blessed is the
man who finds
wisdom"
;otto of )ymnasium 'peldoorn
bella gerant alii
"let others wa$e
war"
Ori$inally from the 5absbur$ marria$es of <.00 and
<.L+, written as bella gerant alii tu felix Austria nube ("let
others wa$e war# you, fortunate 'ustria, marry"). Said by
2in$ ;atthias
bellum omnium
contra omnes
"war of all a$ainst
all"
' phrase used by Thomas 5obbes to describe the state of
nature.
bis dat qui cito
dat
"he $ives twice,
who $ives
promptly"
Thus haste is itself a $ift.
bis in die (bid) "twice in a day" ;edical shorthand for "twice a day".
bona fide "in $ood faith"
In other words, "wellBintentioned", "fairly". In modern
conte!ts, often has connotations of "$enuinely" or
"sincerely". 1ona fides is not the plural (which would be
bonis fidebus), but the nominative, and means simply
"$ood faith". Opposite of mala fide.
bona notabilia @
In law, if a person dyin$ has $oods, or $ood debts, in
another diocese or ?urisdiction within that province,
besides his $oods in the diocese where he dies, amountin$
to a certain minimum value, he is said to have bona
notabilia# in which case, the probat of his will belon$s to
the archbishop of that province.
bona officia "$ood services"
' nation's offer to mediate in disputes between two other
nations.
bona patria @ ' ?ury or assiEe of countrymen, or $ood nei$hbors.
bona vacantia "vacant $oods"
9nited 2in$dom le$al term for ownerless property that
passes to The 7rown.
boni pastoris est
tondere pecus non
deglubere
"It is of a $ood
shepherd to shear
his floc, not to
flay them."
Tiberius reportedly said this to his re$ional commanders,
as a warnin$ a$ainst ta!in$ the populace e!cessively.
bonum commune
communitatis
"common $ood of
the community"
Or "$eneral welfare". :efers to what benefits a society, as
opposed to bonum commune hominis, which refers to what
is $ood for an individual.
bonum commune
hominis
"common $ood of
a man"
:efers to an individual's happiness, which is not
"common" in that it serves everyone, but in that
individuals tend to be able to find happiness in similar
thin$s.
busillis @ /seudoB*atin meanin$ "bafflin$ puEEle" or "difficult
point". 3ohn of 7ornwall (ca. <<0>) was once ased by a
scribe what the word meant. It turns out that the ori$inal
te!t said in diebus illis magnis plen3 ("in those days there
were plenty of $reat thin$s"), which the scribe misread as
indie busillis magnis plen3 ("in India there were plenty of
lar$e busillis").
%
Latin Translation Notes
cacoethes scribendi "bad habit of writin$"
"rom Satires of 3uvenal. 'n insatiable ur$e to
write. 5yper$raphia
cadavera vero
innumera
"truly countless bodies"
9sed by the :omans to describe the aftermath of
the 8attle of the 7atalaunian "ields.
cadent arma togae
"*et arms yield to the
to$a"
:efers to allowin$ statemenship and diplomacy to
supersede declaration of war. 'rms, (i.e. weapons)
are to yield to the to$a, a formal $arment
symboliEin$ :ome.
caetera desunt "the rest is wantin$"
calix meus
inebrians
"my cup maes me
drun"
camera obscura "dar chamber"
'n optical device used in drawin$, and an
ancestor of modern photo$raphy. The source of
the word camera.
%anes *ugnaces
Gar (o$s or "i$htin$
(o$s
%anis %anem )dit "(o$ %ats (o$"
:efers to a situation where nobody is safe from
anybody, each man for himself.
capax infiniti "capable of the infinite"
a pe?orative term referin$ (at least) to some
7hristian doctrines of the incarnation of the Son of
)od when it asserts that humanity is capable of
housin$ full divinity within its finite frame.
:elated to the (ocetic heresy and sometimes a
counterpoint to the :eformed 'e!tracalvinisticum.'
caput inter nubila
(condit)
"head in the clouds"
So a$$randiEed as to be beyond practical (earthly)
reach or understandin$ (from 4ir$il's 'eneid and
the shorter form appears in 3ohn *oce's To
Treatises of 4overnment)
%aritas %hristi "The love of 7hrist"
It implies a command to love as 7hrist loved.
;otto of St. "ranicis Kavier 5i$h School located
in Gest ;eadowlar /ar (%dmonton).
carpe diem "seiEe the day" 'n e!hortation to live for today. "rom 5orace,
.des I, <<.-. 8y far the most common translation
is "seiEe the day," thou$h carpere normally means
somethin$ more lie "pluc," and the allusion here
is to picin$ flowers. The phrase collige virgo
rosas has a similar sense.
carpe noctem "seiEe the ni$ht"
'n e!hortation to mae $ood use of the ni$ht,
often used when carpe diem, &.v., would seem
absurd, e.$., when observin$ a deep sy ob?ect or
conductin$ a ;essier marathon.
%arthago delenda
est
"7artha$e must be
destroyed"
"rom :oman senator 7ato the %lder, who ended
every speech of his between the second and third
/unic Gars with ceterum censeo !arthaginem
esse delendam, literally ""or the rest, I am of the
opinion that 7artha$e is to be destroyed." Other
translations include "In conclusion, I declare that
7artha$e must be destroyed." and ""urthermore, I
move for 7artha$e to be destroyed."
casus belli "event of war"
:efers to an incident that is the ?ustification or
case for war.
causa mortis "cause of death"
cave "bewareC"
especially used by doctors of medicine, when they
want to warn each other (e.$.1 "cave
nephrolithiases" in order to warn about side effects
of an uricosuric). Spoen aloud in some 8ritish
public schools by pupils to warn each other of
impendin$ authority.
cave canem "beware of the do$"
/ompeii mosaic
"ound written on floor mosaics depictin$ a do$, at
the entrance of :oman houses e!cavated at
/ompeii.
cave laborem "beware of wor"
caveat emptor "let the buyer beware"
The purchaser is responsible for checin$ whether
the $oods suit his need.
caveat lector "let the reader beware"
9sed when the writer does not vouch for the
accuracy of a te!t. /robably a recent alteration of
caveat emptor.
caveat subscriptor "let the si$ner beware"
The person si$nin$ a document is responsible for
readin$ the information about the what the
document entails before enterin$ into an
a$reement.
caveat venditor "let the seller beware"
The person sellin$ $oods is responsible for
providin$ information about the $oods to the
purchaser.
caveat utilitor "let the user beware" The user is responsible for checin$ whether the
$oods suit his need.
%edant arma togae
"let arms yield to the
$own"
"*et military power yield to civilian power,"
7icero, $e .fficiis. See To$a, it17edant arma
to$ae
celerius quam
asparagi cocuntur
"more swiftly than
aspara$us is cooed"
Or simply "faster than cooin$ aspara$us". '
variant of the :oman phrase velocius quam
asparagi coquantur, usin$ a different adverb and
an alternate mood and spellin$ of coquere.
cepi corpus "I $ot the body"
In law, it is a return made by the sheriff, upon a
capias, or other process to the lie purpose#
si$nifyin$, that he has taen the body of the party.
certum est quod
certum reddi potest
"It is certain if it is
capable of bein$
rendered certain"
Often used in law when somethin$ is not nown,
but can be ascertained (e.$. the purchase price on a
sale which is to be determined by a thirdBparty
valuer)
cessante ratione
legis cessat ipsa lex
"Ghen the reason for
the law ceases, the law
itself ceases."
' rule of law becomes ineffective when the reason
for its application has ceased to e!ist or does not
correspond to the reality anymore.
cetera desunt "the rest are missin$" 'lso spelled "caetera desunt".
ceteris paribus
"with other thin$s
e&ual"
Idiomatically translated as "all other thin$s bein$
e&ual". ' phrase which rules out outside chan$es
interferin$ with a situation.
charta
pardonationis se
defendendo
"a paper of pardon to
him who defended
himself"
The form of a pardon for illin$ another man in
selfBdefence. (see manslau$hter)
charta
pardonationis
utlagariae
"a paper of pardon to the
outlaw"
The form of a pardon of a man who is outlawed.
'lso called perdonatio utlagariae.
%hristianos ad
leones
"OThrow theP 7hristians
to the lionsC"
%hristo et
Doctrinae
""or 7hrist and
*earnin$"
The motto of "urman 9niversity.
%hristus -ex "7hrist the 2in$" ' 7hristian title for 3esus.
circa (c.) or (ca.) "around"
In the sense of "appro!imately" or "about".
9sually used of a date.
circulus vitiosus "vicious circle"
In lo$ic, be$$in$ the &uestion, a fallacy involvin$
the presupposition of a proposition in one of the
premises (see petitio principii). In science, a
positive feedbac loop. In economics, a
counterpart to the virtuous circle.
citius altius fortius "faster, hi$her, stron$er" ;otto of the modern Olympics.
%lamea admittenda
in itinere per
atturnatum
' writ whereby the in$ of %n$land could
command the ?ustice in eyre to admit one's claim
by an attorney, who bein$ employed in the in$'s
service, cannot come in person.
clausum fregit
'n action of tresspass# thus called, by reason the
writ demands the person summoned to answer to
herefore he bro%e the close +quare clausum
fregit,, i.e. why he committed such a trespass.
claves ancti *etri "the eys of Saint /eter" ' symbol of the /apacy.
clavis aurea ")olden ey"
The means of discoverin$ hidden or mysterious
meanin$s in te!ts, particularly applied in theolo$y
and alchemy.
clerico admittendo
"about to be made a
cler"
In law, a writ directed to the bishop, for the
admittin$ a cler to a benefice upon a ne admittas,
tried, and found for the party who procures the
writ.
clerico capto per
statutum
mercatorum
In law, a writ for the delivery of a cler out of
prison, who is imprisoned upon the breach of
statute merchant.
clerico convicto
commisso gaolae in
defectu ordinarii
deliberando
In law, a writ for the delivery of a cler to his
ordinary, that was formerly convicted of felony#
by reason that his ordinary did not challen$e him
accordin$ to the privile$e of clers.
clerico intra sacros
ordines constituto
non eligendo in
officium
In law, a writ directed to the bailiffs, etc, that have
thrust a bailiwic or beadleship upon one in holy
orders# char$in$ them to release him.
%odex .uris
%anonici
"8oo of 7anon *aw"
The official code of canon law in the :oman
7atholic 7hurch (cf. !orpus Iuris !anonici).
%oelum non
animum mutant qui
trans mare currunt
"Those who hurry cross
the sea chan$e the sy
Oupon themP, not their
souls or state of mind"
5e!ameter by 5orace (%pistulae I, << v.,0).
Seneca shortens it to Animum debes mutare/
non caelum ("Qou must chan$e OyourP
disposition, not OyourP sy") in his *etter to
*ucilium KK4III, <
cogito ergo sum "I thin, therefore I am."
' rationalistic ar$ument used by "rench
philosopher :enT (escartes to attempt to prove
his own e!istence.
coitus interruptus "interrupted con$ress"
'bortin$ se!ual intercourse prior to [email protected]
the only permitted form of birth control in some
reli$ions.
coitus more
ferarum
"con$ress in the way of
beasts"
'n medical euphemism for the do$$yBstyle se!ual
position.
collige virgo rosas "pic, $irl, the roses"
")ather ye rosebuds while ye may", <L>L, by 3ohn
Gilliam Gaterhouse.
%!hortation to en?oy fully the youth, similar to
!arpe diem, from $e rosis nascentibus (also titled
Id'llium de rosis) attributed to 'usonius or 4ir$il.
communibus annis "in common years"
One year with another# on an avera$e. "7ommon"
here does not mean "ordinary," but "common to
every situation"
communibus locis "in common places"
' term fre&uently used amon$ philosophical and
other writers, implyin$ some medium, or mean
relation between several places# one place with
another# on a medium. "7ommon" here does not
mean "ordinary," but "common to every situation"
communis opinio
"$enerally accepted
view"
compos mentis "in control of the mind"
(escribes someone of sound mind. Sometimes
used ironically. 'lso a le$al principle, non compos
mentis ("not in control of one's faculties"), used to
describe an insane person.
concordia cum
veritate
"in harmony with truth" ;otto of the 9niversity of Gaterloo.
concordia salus
"salvation throu$h
harmony"
;otto of ;ontreal. It is also the 8an of ;ontreal
coat of arms and motto.
O<P
condemnant quod
non intellegunt
"They condemn what
they do not understand"
or "They condemn
because they do not
understand" (the quod is
ambi$uous)
condicio sine qua
non
"condition without
which not"
' re&uired, indispensable condition. 7ommonly
mistaenly rendered with conditio ("seasonin$" or
"preservin$") in place of condicio("arran$ement"
or "condition").
confer (cf.) "brin$ to$ether"
Thus, "compare". 9sed as an abbreviation in te!t
to recommend a comparison with another thin$
(cf. citation si$nal).
%onfoederatio
Helvetica (%.H.)
"5elvetian
7onfederation"
The official name of SwitEerland, hence the use of
"75" for its ISO country code, ".ch" for its
Internet domain, and "75"" for the ISO threeB
letter abbreviation of its currency, the Swiss franc.
coniunctis viribus
"with connected
stren$th"
Or "with united powers". Sometimes rendered
conjunctis viribus.
%onsuetudo pro
lege servatur
"7ustom is ept before
the law"
'n inconsistently applied ma!im. See also
consuetudo est altera lex (custom is another law)
and consuetudo vincit communem legem (custom
overrules the common law)
consummatum est "It is completed."
The last words of 3esus on the cross in the *atin
translation of 3ohn <L1A>.
contemptus saeculi "scorn for the times"
(espisin$ the secular world. The mon or
philosopher's re?ection of a mundane life and
worldly values.
contra spem spero "hope a$ainst hope"
contradictio in
terminis
"contradiction in terms" ' word that maes itself impossible
contraria contrariis
curantur
"the opposite is cured
with the opposite"
"irst formulated by 5ippocrates to su$$est that the
diseases are cured with contrary remedies.
'ntonym of imilia similibus curantur (the
diseases are recovered with similar remedies. )
contra bonos mores "a$ainst $ood morals"
Offensive to the conscience and to a sense of
?ustice.
contra legem "a$ainst the law"
cor ad cor loquitur "heart speas to heart"
"rom 'u$ustine's !onfessions, referrin$ to a
prescribed method of prayer1 havin$ a "heart to
heart" with )od. 7ommonly used in reference to a
later &uote by 3ohn 5enry 7ardinal 6ewman. '
motto of 6ewman 7lubs.
cor meum tibi
offero domine
prompte et sincere
"my heart I offer to you
*ord promptly and
sincerely"
motto of 7alvin 7olle$e
cor unum "one heart"
' popular school motto. Often used as names for
reli$ious and other or$anisations such as the
/ontifical 7ouncil 7or 9num.
coram Deo "in the /resence of )od"
' phrase from 7hristian theolo$y which
summariEes the idea of 7hristians livin$ in the
/resence of, under the authority of, and to the
honor and $lory of )od.
coram populo
"in the presence of the
people"
Thus, openly.
coram nobis, coram
vobis
"in our presence", "in
your presence"
Two inds of writs of error.
%orpus %hristi "8ody of 7hrist"
The name of a feast in the :oman 7atholic 7hurch
commemoratin$ the %ucharist. It is also the name
of a city in Te!as, 7orpus 7hristi, Te!as, and a
controversial play.
corpus delicti "body of the offence"
The fact that a crime has been committed, a
necessary factor in convictin$ someone of havin$
committed that crime# if there was no crime, there
can not have been a criminal.
%orpus .uris "8ody of 7anon *aw" The official compilation of canon law in the
%anonici
:oman 7atholic 7hurch (cf. !odex Iuris
!anonici).
%orpus .uris %ivilis "8ody of 7ivil *aw" The body of :oman or civil law.
corpus vile "worthless body"
' person or thin$ fit only to be the ob?ect of an
e!periment.
corrigenda "thin$s to be corrected"
corruptio optimi
pessima
"the corruption of the
best is the worst"
corruptus in
extremis
"corrupt to the e!treme"
;otto of the fictional Sprin$field ;ayor Office in
The Simpsons T4BShow
%orruptissima re
publica plurimae
leges
"Ghen the republic is at
its most corrupt the laws
are most numerous"BB
Tacitus
%ras amet qui
nunquam amavit0
quique amavit/ cras
amet
";ay he love tomorrow
who has never loved
before# 'nd may he who
has loved, love
tomorrow as well"
It's the refrain from the '/ervi$ilium 4eneris', a
poem which describes a three day holiday in the
cult of 4enus, located somewhere in Sicily,
involvin$ the whole town in reli$ious festivities
?oined with a deep sense of nature and 4enus as
the "procreatri!", the lifeB$ivin$ force behind the
natural world.
%redo in 1num
Deum
"I 8elieve in One )od" The first words of the 6icene 7reed.
credo quia
absurdum est
"I believe it because it is
absurd"
' very common mis&uote of Tertullian's et
mortuus est $ei 0ilius prorsus credibile quia
ineptum est ("and the Son of )od is dead1 in short,
it is credible because it is unfittin$"), meanin$ that
it is so absurd to say that )od's son has died that it
would have to be a matter of belief, rather than
reason. The mis&uoted phrase, however, is
commonly used to moc the do$matic beliefs of
the reli$ious (see fideism). This phrase is
commonly shortened to credo quia absurdum, and
is also sometimes rendered credo quia impossibile
est ("I believe it because it is impossible")or, as
(arwin used it in his autobio$raphy, credo quia
incredibile.
crescamus in .llo
per omina
";ay we $row in 5im
throu$h all thin$s"
;otto of 7heverus 5i$h School.
crescat scientia vita
excolatur
"let nowled$e $row, let
life be enriched"
;otto of the 9niversity of 7hica$o.
crescit eundo "it $rows as it $oes" State motto of 6ew ;e!ico, adopted in <--0 as
the territory's motto, and ept in <L<, when 6ew
;e!ico received statehood. Ori$inally from
*ucretius' .n the (ature of Things boo 4I,
where it refers in conte!t to the motion of a
thunderbolt across the sy, which ac&uires power
and momentum as it $oes.
cruci dum spiro
fido
"while I live, I trust in
the cross", "Ghilst I
trust in the 7ross I have
life"
;otto of the Sisters of *oreto (I84;) and its
associated schools. ' second translation is "Ghilst
I trust in the 7ross I have life"
cucullus non facit
monachum
"The hood does not
mae the mon"
Gilliam Shaespeare, Twelfth 6i$ht, Scene I, 'ct
4 .-R=>
cui bono ")ood for whomS"
"Gho benefitsS" 'n ada$e in criminal
investi$ation which su$$ests that considerin$ who
would benefit from an unwelcome event is liely
to reveal who is responsible for that event (cf. cui
prodest). 'lso the motto of the 7rime Syndicate of
'merica, a fictional supervillain $roup. The
opposite is cui malo ("8ad for whomS").
cui prodest "for whom it advances"
Short for cui prodest scelus is fecit ("for whom the
crime advances, he has done it") in Seneca's
*edea. Thus, the murderer is often the one who
$ains by the murder (cf. cui bono).
cuius est solum eius
est usque ad coelum
et ad inferos
"Ghose the land is, all
the way to the sy and
to the underworld is
his."
"irst coined by 'ccursius of 8olo$na in the <Ath
century. ' :oman le$al principle of property law
that is no lon$er observed in most situations today.
*ess literally, ""or whosoever owns the soil, it is
theirs up to the sy and down to the depths."
cuius regio/ eius
religio
"whose re$ion, his
reli$ion"
The privile$e of a ruler to choose the reli$ion of
his sub?ects. ' re$ional prince's ability to choose
his people's reli$ion was established at the /eace
of 'u$sbur$ in <===.
%uiusvis hominis
est errare/ nullius
nisi insipientis in
errore perseverare.
"'nyone can err, but
only the fool persists in
his fault."
@ ;arcus Tullius 7icero, /hilippica KII, ii, =
culpa "fault"
'lso "blame" or "$uilt". In law, an act of ne$lect.
In $eneral, $uilt, sin, or a fault. See also mea
culpa.
cum gladiis et
fustibus
"with swords and clubs"
"rom the 8ible. Occurs in Template1bibleref and
*ue ,,1=,.
cum gladio et sale "with sword and salt" ;otto of a wellBpaid soldier. See salary.
cum grano salis "with a $rain of salt"
6ot to be taen too seriously or as the literal truth.
Qes, the brochure made it sound $reat, but such claims
should be taen cum grano salis.
cum laude "with praise"
The standard formula for academic *atin honors
in the 9nited States. )reater honors include
magna cum laude and summa cum laude.
cum mortuis in
lingua mortua
"with the dead in a dead
lan$ua$e"
;ovement from *ictures at an )xhibition by
;odest ;ussor$sy
cura personalis
"care for the whole
person"
cura te ipsum
"tae care of your own
self"
'n e!hortation to physicians, or e!perts in
$eneral, to deal with their own problems before
addressin$ those of others.
cur Deus Homo "Ghy the )odF;an"
The &uestion attributed to 'nselm in his wor of
by this name, wherein he reflects on why the
7hrist of 7hristianity must be both fully (ivine
and fully 5uman. Often translated "why did )od
become ;anS"
curriculum vitae "course of life" ' rTsumT.
custos morum "eeper of morals" ' censor.
c'gnus inter anates "swan amon$ ducs"
c'gnus insignis
"distin$uished by its
swans"
;otto of Gestern 'ustralia.
D
Latin Translation Notes
damnatio
memoriae
"damnation of
memory"
' :oman custom in which dis$raced :omans
(particularly former %mperors) were pretended to have
never e!isted.
damnum absque
in(uria
"dama$e without
in?ury"
' loss that results from no one's wron$doin$. In
:oman law, a man is not responsible for unintended,
conse&uential in?ury to another resultin$ from a lawful
act. This protection does not necessarily apply to
unintended dama$e by ne$li$ence or folly.
data venia
"with due respect" or
"$iven the e!cuse"
9sed before disa$reein$ with someone.
dat deus
incrementum
")od $rants the
increase"
;otto of Gestminster School, a leadin$ 8ritish
independent school.
de bonis asportatis
"carryin$ $oods
away"
Trespass de bonis asportatis was the traditional name
for larceny, or wron$ful tain$ of chattels.
Decus )t Tutamen
"'n ornament and a
safe$uard"
Inscription on one pound coins. Ori$inally on <0th
century coins, it refers to the inscribed ed$e as a
protection a$ainst the clippin$ of precious metal. The
phrase ori$inally comes from 4ir$il's 'eneid.
descensus in
cuniculi cavum
"The descent into the
cave of the rabbit"
(own the :abbit 5ole
de dato "of the date"
9sed in the conte!t of "'s we a$reed in the meetin$
d.d.,+th ;ai ,>>+.
de facto "in fact" Said of somethin$ that is the actual state of affairs, in
contrast to somethin$'s le$al or official standin$, which
is described as de jure. $e facto refers to the "way
thin$s really are" rather than what is "officially"
presented as the fact.
#lthough the emperor held the title and
trappings of head of state, the ,hogun was
the de facto ruler of -apan.
de fideli "with faithfulness"
' cler maes the declaration (e fideli on when
appointed, promisin$ to do his or her tass faithfully as
a servant of the court.
de futuro
"re$ardin$ the
future"
9sually used in the conte!t of "at a future time"
de gustibus non
est disputandum
"there is not to be
discussion re$ardin$
tastes"
*ess literally "In matters of taste there is no dispute" or
simply "There's no ar$uin$ taste". ' similar e!pression
in %n$lish is "There's no accountin$ for taste".
8artlett's "amiliar Duotations, without attribution,
renders the phrase as de gustibus non disputandum# the
verb "to be" is often assumed in *atin, and is rarely
re&uired.
de integro
"a$ain" or "a second
time"
de (ure "by law"
"Official", in contrast with de facto. 'nalo$ous to "in
principle", whereas de facto is to "in practice". In other
conte!ts, can mean "accordin$ to law", "by ri$ht" or
"le$ally". 'lso commonly written de iure, the classical
form.
de lege ferenda
"from law to be
passed"
de lege lata
"from law passed" or
"by law in force"
de minimis non
curat praetor
"The commander
does not bother with
the smallest thin$s."
'lso "The chief ma$istrate does not concern himself
with trifles." Trivial matters are no concern of a hi$h
official (cf. aquila non capit muscas, "the ea$le does
not catch flies"). Sometimes rex ("the in$") or lex
("the law") is used in place of praetor, and de minimis
is a le$al term referrin$ to thin$s unworthy of the law's
attention.
de mortuis aut
bene aut nihil
"about the dead,
either well or
nothin$"
*ess literally, "spea well of the dead or not at all" (cf.
de mortuis nil nisi bonum).
de mortuis nil nisi
bonum
"about the dead,
nothin$ unless a
$ood thin$"
"rom de mortuis nil nisi bonum dicendum est, "nothin$
must be said about the dead e!cept the $ood",
attributed by (io$enes *aertius to 7hilon. In le$al
conte!ts, this &uotation is used with the opposite
meanin$, as defamin$ a deceased person is not a crime.
In other conte!ts, it refers to taboos a$ainst criticiEin$
the recently deceased.
de nobis fabula
narratur
"about us is the story
told"
Thus, "their story is our story". Ori$inally referred to
the end of :ome's dominance. 6ow often used when
comparin$ any current situation to a past story or
historical event.
de novo "from the new"
"'new" or "afresh". In law, a trial de novo is a retrial.
In biolo$y, de novo means newlyBsynthesiEed, and a de
novo mutation is a mutation that neither parent
possessed or transmitted. In economics, de novo refers
to newlyBfounded companies, and de novo bans are
state bans that have been in operation for five years or
less.
de omnibus
dubitandum
"be suspicious of
everythin$, doubt
everythin$"
2arl ;ar!'s favorite motto. 5e used this to e!plain his
standpoint1 "7riti&ue everythin$ in a capitalist
economy".
de omni re scibili
et quibusdam aliis
"about every
nowable thin$, and
even certain other
thin$s"
' <=thBcentury Italian scholar wrote the $e omni re
scibili portion, and a wa$ added et quibusdam aliis.
De oppresso liber
""ree "rom 5avin$
8een Oppressed"
7ommonly mistranslated as "To *iberate the
Oppressed". The motto of the 9nited States 'rmy
Special "orces.
de profundis "from the depths"
Out of the depths of misery or de?ection. "rom the
*atin translation of /salm <A>.
de re "about the matter"
In lo$ic, de dicto statements (about the truth of a
proposition) are distin$uished from de re statements
(about the properties of a thin$ itself).
Dei #ratia -egina
"8y the )race of
)od, Dueen"
'lso $ei 4ratia /ex ("8y the )race of )od, 2in$").
'bbreviated as ( ) :%) precedin$ 0idei $efensor (" ()
on 8ritish pounds, and as ( ) :e$ina on 7anadian
coins.
Dei sub numine
viget
"under )od's Spirit
she flourishes"
;otto of /rinceton 9niversity.
delectatio morosa "peevish deli$ht"
In 7atholic theolo$y, a pleasure taen in sinful thou$ht
or ima$ination, such as broodin$ on se!ual ima$es. It
is distinct from actual se!ual desire, and involves
voluntary and complacent erotic fantasiEin$, without
any attempt to suppress such thou$hts.
deliriant isti
-omani
"They are mad, those
:omansC"
' translation into *atin from :enT )oscinny's "ils sont
fous, ces romains5", fre&uently issued by Obeli! in the
'steri! comics.
Deo ac veritati ")od and Truth" ;otto of 7ol$ate 9niversity.
Deo domuique
"for )od and for
home"
;otto of ;ethodist *adies' 7olle$e, ;elbourne.
Deo gratias "thans ObeP to )od" The semiB5ispaniciEed form $eogracias is a
/hilippine first name.
Deo 2ptimo
$aximo (D2$)
"To the 8est and
)reatest )od"
(erived from the /a$an Iupiter .ptimo *aximo ("To
the best and $reatest 3upiter"). /rinted on bottles of
8enedictine li&ueur.
Deo vindice
"with )od as
protector"
;otto of the 7onfederate States of 'merica. 'n
alternate translation is "Gith an aven$in$ )od".
Deo volente "with )od willin$"
This was often used in con?unction with a si$nature at
the end of letters. It was used in order to si$nify that
")od willin$" this letter will $et to you safely, ")od
willin$" the contents of this letter come true.
deus ex machina
"a $od from a
machine"
"rom the )ree UVW XYZ[\]^ _`W^ (Apo m6chan6s
Theos). ' contrived or artificial solution, usually to a
literary plot. :efers to the practice in )ree drama of
lowerin$ by machine an actor playin$ a $od or
$oddess, typically either 'thena or (as in %uripides)
the (ioscuri onto the sta$e to resolve an insuperable
conflict in the plot.
Deus vult ")od wills itC" The principal slo$an of the 7rusades.
deus otiosus ")od at leisure"
Dicto simpliciter
"O"romP a ma!im,
simply"
I.e. ""rom a rule without e!ception." Short for A dicto
simpliciter, the a often bein$ dropped by confusion
with the indefinite article. ' dicto simpliciter occurs
when an acceptable e!ception is i$nored or eliminated.
"or instance, the appropriateness of usin$ opiates is
dependent on the presence of e!treme pain. To ?ustify
the recreational use of opiates by referrin$ to a cancer
patient or to ?ustify arrestin$ said cancer patient by
comparin$ him to the recreational user would be a
dicto simpliciter.
dictum meum
pactum
"my word OisP my
bond"
;otto of the *ondon Stoc %!chan$e
diem perdidi "I have lost the day"
"rom the :oman %mperor Titus. /assed down in
Suetonius's bio$raphy of him in Lives of the Telve
!aesars (-)
Diem )x Dei "(ay of )od"
Dies .rae "(ay of Grath"
:efers to the 3ud$ment (ay in 7hristian eschatolo$y.
The name of a famous <AthBcentury ;edieval *atin
hymn by Tommaso da 7elano, used in the ;ass for the
dead.
differentia
specifica
"specific differences"
dirigo "I direct"
In 7lassical *atin, "I arran$e". State motto of ;aine.
8ased on a comparison of the state of ;aine to the star
/olaris.
dis aliter visum "it seemed otherwise In other words, the $ods have different plans than
to the $ods"
mortals, and so events do not always play out as people
wish them to.
dis manibus
sacrum (D.$..)
"Sacred to the $hostB
$ods"
:efers to the ;anes, :oman spirits of the dead.
*oosely "To the memory of". ' conventional
inscription precedin$ the name of the deceased on
pa$an $rave marin$s, often shortened to dis manibus
((.;.), "for the $hostB$ods". /receded in some earlier
monuments by hic situs est (5. S. %.), "he lies here".
Disce aut Discede "*earn or (epart" ;otto of :oyal 7olle$e, 7olombo.
disce quasi semper
victurus vive quasi
cras moriturus
"*earn as if always
$oin$ to live# live as
if tomorrow $oin$ to
die."
'ttributed to St %dmund of 'bin$don.
discipuli nostri
bardissimi sunt
"Our students are the
stupidest"
dis(ecta membra "scattered limbs"
That is, "scattered remains". /araphrased from 5orace,
Satires, I, ., +,, where it was written "disiecti membra
poetae" ("limbs of a scattered poet"). 'lso written as
disiecta membra.
ditat Deus ")od enriches"
State motto of 'riEona, adopted in <L<<. /robably
derived from the 4ul$ate's translation of )enesis
<.1,A.
divide et impera "divide and rule"
' :oman ma!im adopted by 3ulius 7aesar, *ouis KI
and ;achiavelli. 7ommonly rendered "divide and
con&uer".
dixi "I have spoen"
' popular elo&uent e!pression, usually used in the end
of a speech. The implied meanin$ is1 "I have said all
that I had to say and thus the ar$ument is settled".
34...4/ ...5 dixit "O"...", ...P said"
9sed to attribute a statement or opinion to its author,
rather than the speaer.
do ut des
"I $ive that you may
$ive"
Often said or written for sacrifices, when one "$ives"
and e!pects somethin$ bac from the $ods.
Docendo discitur
"It is learned by
teachin$"
'lso translated "One learns by teachin$." 'ttributed to
Seneca the Qoun$er.
Docendo disco/
scribendo cogito
I learn by teachin$,
thin by writin$.
dolus specialis special intent
"The ... concept is particular to a few civil law systems
and cannot sweepin$ly be e&uated with the notions of
aspecialb or aspecific intentb in common law systems.
Of course, the same mi$ht e&ually be said of the
concept of aspecific intent,b a notion used in the
common law almost e!clusively within the conte!t of
the defense of voluntary into!ication."@)enocide
scholar Gilliam Schabas
O<P
Domine dirige nos "*ord $uide us" ;otto of the 7ity of *ondon.
Dominus
illuminatio mea
"the *ord is my
li$ht"
;otto of the 9niversity of O!ford.
Dominus
vobiscum
"*ord be with you"
/hrase used durin$ and at the end of 7atholic sermons,
and a $eneral $reetin$ form amon$ and towards
members of 7atholic or$aniEations, such as priests and
nuns. See also pax vobiscum.
dona nobis pacem "$ive us peace"
Often set to music, either by itself or as part of the
Agnus $ei prayer of the ;ass (see above). 'lso an
endin$ in the video $ame 5auntin$ )round.
donatio mortis
causa
"$ivin$ in
e!pectation of death"
' le$al concept where a person in imminent mortal
dan$er need not meet the re&uisite consideration to
create or modify a will.
draco dormiens
nunquam
titillandus
"a sleepin$ dra$on is
never to be ticled"
;otto of the fictional 5o$warts school in the 7arr'
&otter series# translated more loosely in the boos as
"never ticle a sleepin$ dra$on".
dramatis personae
"the parts of the
play"
;ore literally, "the mass of the drama"# more
fi$uratively, "cast of characters". The characters
represented in a dramatic wor.
Duae tabulae
rasae in quibus
nihil scriptum est
"Two minds, not one
sin$le thou$ht"
Stan *aurel, inscription for the fanclub lo$o Sons of
the (esert.
Ductus exemplo
"*eadership by
%!ample"
This is the motto for the 9nited States ;arine 7orps'
Officer 7andidates School located at ;arine 7orps
8ase Duantico# Duantico, 4ir$inia.
dulce bellum
inexpertis
"war is sweet to the
ine!perienced"
Gar may seem pleasant to those who have never been
involved in it, thou$h the more e!perienced now
better. ' phrase from %rasmus in the <+th century.
dulce et decorum
est pro patria
mori
"It is sweet and
honorable to die for
the fatherland."
"rom 5orace, .des III, ,, <A. 9sed by Gilfred Owen
for the title of a poem about Gorld Gar I, $ulce et
$ecorum Est.
dulce et utile
"a sweet and useful
thin$"
5orace wrote in his Ars &oetica that poetry must be
dulce et utile ("pleasant and profitable"), both
en?oyable and instructive.
dulce periculum "dan$er is sweet"
5orace, .des III, ,=, <+. ;otto of the Scottish clan
7lan ;ac'ulay.
dulcissime/ totam
tibi subdo me
"darlin$, I $ive
myself to you totally"
;ovement from 7arl Orff's 7armina 8urana.
Dulcius ex asperis
"sweeter after
difficulties"
;otto of the Scottish clan 7lan "er$usson.
O,P
dum laborus
prosperous
"Ghile we wor, we
prosperin$"
or more commonly, "'s lon$ as we are worin$, we
are prosperin$" ;otto of 4incent ;assey Secondary
School, Gindsor, Ontario, 7anada
dum spiro spero
"while I breathe, I
hope"
State motto of South 7arolina. "rom 7icero.
dum -oma "while :ome 9sed when someone has been ased for ur$ent help,
deliberat
aguntum perit
debates, Sa$untum is
in dan$er"
but responds with no immediate action. Similar to
7annibal ante portas, but referrin$ to a less personal
dan$er.
dum vivimus
servimus
"Ghile we live, we
serve"
motto of /resbyterian 7olle$e.
dura lex sed lex
"OtheP law OisP harsh,
but Oit isP the law"
dura mater "tou$h mother" Outer coverin$ of the brain.
dum vita est/ spes
est
while there is life,
there is hope
dux bellorum Gar leader
)
Latin Translation Notes
e pluribus unum
'"rom many,
(comes) One.'
9sually translated 'Out of many, (is) One.' ;otto of
the 9nited States of 'merica. Inscribed on the
7apitol and many coins used in the 9nited States of
'merica. The motto of the Sport *isboa e 8enfica
/ortu$uese soccer club.
)cce Homo '8ehold the ;an'
"rom the *atin 4ul$ate )ospel accordin$ to St. 3ohn
(KIK.v) (<L.=, (ouayB:heims), where /ilate speas
these words as he presents 7hrist, crowned with
thorns, to the crowd. Oscar Gilde opened his defense
with this phrase when on trial for sodomy,
characteristically usin$ a wellBnown 8iblical
reference as a double entendre) It is also the title of
6ietEsche's autobio$raphy and of the theme music by
5oward )oodall for the 887 comedy *r) 1ean.
editio princeps 'first edition' The first printed edition of a wor.
e.g.
'for the sae of
e!ample'
'bbreviation for exempli gratia, below.
Often confused with id est (i.e.)
ego te absolvo 'I absolve you'
/art of the absolutionBformula spoen by a priest as
part of the sacrament of /enance (cf. absolvo).
ego te provoco 'I dare you'
emeritus 'veteran'
'lso 'wornBout'. :etired from office. Often used to
denote a position held at the point of retirement, as an
honor, such as professor emeritus or provost
emeritus. This does not necessarily mean that the
honoree is no lon$er active.
ens causa sui
'e!istin$ because of
oneself'
Or 'bein$ one's own cause'. Traditionally, a bein$ that
owes its e!istence to no other bein$, hence )od or a
Supreme 8ein$ (cf. &rimum *obile).
ense petit placidam 'by the sword she State motto of ;assachusetts, adopted in <00=.
sub libertate quietem
sees $entle peace
under liberty'
entitas ipsa involvit
aptitudinem ad
extorquendum
certum assensum
'reality involves a
power to compel
sure assent'
' phrase used in modern Gestern philosophy on the
nature of truth.
eo ipso 'by that very act'
eo ipso is a technical term used in philosophy. It
means 'by that very act' in *atin. Similar to ipso
facto. %!ample1 'The fact that I am does not eo ipso
mean that I thin.'
It is also used, with the same meanin$, in law.
equo ne credite
'do not trust the
horse'
4ir$il, 'eneid, II. .-B.L
eo nomine 'by that name'
ergo 'therefore'
9sed to show a lo$ical conclusion (cf. cogito ergo
sum).
erga omnes
'in relation to
everyone'
errare humanum est 'to err is human'
"rom Seneca the Qoun$er. The full &uote is errare
humanum est perseverare diabolicum1 'to err is
human# to persist is of the (evil'.
erratum 'error'
Or 'mistae'. *ists of errors in a previous edition of a
wor are often mared with the plural, errata
('errors').
esse est percipi
'to be is to be
perceived'
)eor$e 8ereley's motto for his idealist philosophical
position that nothin$ e!ists independently of its
perception by a mind e!cept minds themselves.
esse quam videri
'to be, rather than to
seem'
Truly bein$ somethin$, rather than merely seemin$ to
be somethin$. State motto of 6orth 7arolina and
academic motto of several schools, includin$ 6orth
7arolina State 9niversity, 8erlee 7olle$e of ;usic,
and 7olumbia 7olle$e 7hica$oas well as 7onnell's
/oint /ublic School and 7ranbroo 5i$h School in
Sydney, 'ustralia. "rom chapter ,+ of 7icero's $e
amicitia ('On "riendship'). %arlier than 7icero, the
phrase had been used by Sallust in his 1ellum
!atilinae (=..+), where he wrote that 7ato esse quam
videri bonus malebat ('he preferred to be $ood,
rather than to seem so'). %arlier still, 'eschylus used
a similar phrase in Seven Against Thebes, line =L,,
ou gar do6ein aristos/ all7 enai thelei ('his resolve is
not to seem the best, but in fact to be the best').
esto perpetua 'may it be perpetual'
Said of 4enice by the 4enetian historian "ra /aolo
Sarpi shortly before his death. 'lso the state motto of
Idaho, adopted in <-+0.
et alibi (et al.) 'and elsewhere'
' less common variant on et cetera used at the end of
a list of locations to denote unlisted places.
et alii (et al.) 'and others'
9sed similarly to et cetera ('and the rest'), to stand for
a list of names. Alii is actually masculine, so it can be
used for men, or $roups of men and women# the
feminine, et aliae, is appropriate when the 'others' are
all female. %t alia is correct for the neuter.
OAP
'/' style
uses et al) if the wor cited was written by more than
two authors# ;*' style uses et al) for more than
three authors.
et cetera (etc.) or (8c.) ''nd the rest'
In modern usa$es, also used to mean 'and so on' or
'and more'.
et facta est lux
''nd li$ht was
made'
This phrase is used by ;orehouse 7olle$e of 'tlanta,
)eor$ia, 9S', as the school's motto.
et hoc genus omne
''nd all that sort of
thin$'
'bbreviated to e.h.g.o. or ehgo
et in Arcadia ego
'and in 'rcadia OamP
I'
In other words, 'I, too, am in 'rcadia'. See memento
mori.
et nunc reges
intelligite erudimini
qui (udicati terram
''nd now, O ye
in$s, understand1
receive instruction,
you that ?ud$e the
earth.'
"rom the 8oo of /salms, II.!. (4ul$ate), ,.<>
((ouayB:heims).
et sequentes (et seq.) 'and the followin$'
/luraliEed as et sequentia ('and the followin$ thin$s'),
abbreviations1 et seqq), et seq)), or sqq)
et suppositio nil
ponit in esse
'a supposition puts
nothin$ in bein$'
;ore typically translated as "sayin' it don't mae it
so"
et tu/ +rute9 ''nd you, 8rutusS'
'lso '%ven you, 8rutusS' or 'Qou too, 8rutusS' 9sed
to indicate a betrayal by someone close. "rom
Shaespeare's 8ulius !aesar, based on the traditional
dyin$ words of 3ulius 7aesar. 5owever, these were
almost certainly not 7aesar's true last words# /lutarch
&uotes 7aesar as sayin$, in )ree (which was the
lan$ua$e of :ome's elite at the time), 'c[d ef,
g`c\h\#' (9ai su, te%non:), in %n$lish 'Qou as well,
(my) childS' Some have speculated based on this that
8rutus was 7aesar's child, thou$h there is no
substantial evidence of this.
et uxor (et ux.) 'and wife' ' le$al term.
ex abundantia enim
cordis os loquitur
'"or out of the
abundance of the
heart the mouth
speaeth.'
"rom the )ospel accordin$ to St. ;atthew, KII.!!!iv
(4ul$ate), <,.A. ((ouayB:heims) and the )ospel
accordin$ to St. *ue, 4I.!lv (4ul$ate), +..= ((ouayB
:heims). Sometimes rendered without enim ('for').
ex abundanti cautela
'from abundant
caution'
ex aequo 'from the e&ual' 'On e&ual footin$', i.e., 'in a tie'.
ex animo 'from the heart' Thus, 'sincerely'.
ex ante 'from before'
'8eforehand', 'before the event'. 8ased on prior
assumptions. ' forecast.
)x Astris cientia
'"rom the Stars,
2nowled$e'
The motto of the fictional Starfleet 'cademy on Star
Tre%. 'dapted from ex luna scientia, which in turn
was modeled after ex scientia tridens.
ex cathedra 'from the chair'
' phrase applied to the declarations or promul$ations
of the /ope when, preserved from even the possibility
of error by the action of the 5oly )host (see /apal
Infallibility), he solemnly declares or promul$ates to
the 7hurch a do$matic teachin$ on faith or morals as
bein$ contained in divine revelation, or at least bein$
intimately connected to divine revelation. 9sed, by
e!tension, of anyone who is perceived as speain$ as
thou$h with supreme authority or with arro$ance.
ex Deo 'from )od'
ex dolo malo 'from fraud'
'"rom harmful deceit'# dolus malus is the *atin le$al
term for 'fraud'. The full le$al phrase is ex dolo malo
non oritur actio ('an action does not arise from
fraud'). Ghen an action has its ori$in in fraud or
deceit, it cannot be supported# thus, a court of law
will not assist a man who bases his course of action
on an immoral or ille$al act.
ex facie 'from the face'
Idiomatically rendered 'on the face of it'. ' le$al term
typically used to note that a document's e!plicit terms
are defective without further investi$ation.
ex gratia 'from indness'
;ore literally 'from $race'. :efers to someone
voluntarily performin$ an act purely out of indness,
as opposed to for personal $ain or from bein$ forced
to do it. In law, an ex gratia payment is one made
without reco$niEin$ any liability or le$al obli$ation.
ex h'pothesi
'from the
hypothesis'
Thus, 'by hypothesis'.
ex lege 'from the law'
ex libris 'from the boos'
/recedes a person's name, with the meanin$ of 'from
the library of...'
ex luna scientia
'from the moon,
nowled$e'
The motto of the 'pollo <A moon mission, derived
from ex scientia tridens.
ex nihilo nihil fit 'nothin$ may come
from nothin$'
"rom *ucretius, and said earlier by %mpedocles. Its
ori$inal meanin$ is 'wor is re&uired to succeed', but
its modern meanin$ is a more $eneral 'everythin$ has
its ori$ins in somethin$' (cf. causality). It is
commonly applied to the conservation laws in
philosophy and modern science. Ex nihilo often used
in con?unction with the term creation, as in creatio ex
nihilo, meanin$ 'creation, out of nothin$'. It is often
used in philosophy or theolo$y in connection with the
proposition that )od created the universe from
nothin$.
ex oblivione 'from oblivion' The title of a short story by 5./. *ovecraft.
ex officio 'from the office'
8y virtue of office or position# 'by ri$ht of office'.
Often used when someone holds one position by
virtue of holdin$ another. ' common misconception
is that ex officio members of a committee or con$ress
may not vote, but this is not $uaranteed by that title.
The .ice /resident of the 0nited ,tates is
ex officio /resident of the 0nited ,tates
,enate.
ex opere operantis
'from the wor of
the one worin$'
' theolo$ical phrase contrasted with e! opere
operato, referrin$ to the notion that the validity or
promised benefit of a sacrament depends on the
person administerin$ it.
ex opere operato
'from the wor that
wored'
' theolo$ical phrase meanin$ that the act of
receivin$ a sacrament actually confers the promised
benefit, such as a baptism actually and literally
cleansin$ one's sins. The 7atholic 7hurch affirms that
the source of $race is )od, not ?ust the actions or
disposition of the recipient.
ex oriente lux
'from the %ast, the
li$ht'
Superficially refers to the sun risin$ in the east, but
alludes to culture comin$ from the %astern world.
ex parte 'from a part'
' le$al term meanin$ 'by one party' or 'for one party'.
Thus, on behalf of one side or party only.
ex pede Herculem 'from 5ercules' foot'
"rom the measure of 5ercules' foot you shall now
his siEe# from a part, the whole.
ex post 'from after'
''fterward', 'after the event'. 8ased on nowled$e of
the past. ;easure of past performance.
ex post facto
'from a thin$ done
afterward'
Said of a law with retroactive effect.
ex scientia tridens
'from nowled$e,
sea power.'
The 9nited States 6aval 'cademy motto. :efers to
nowled$e brin$in$ men power over the sea
comparable to that of the tridentBbearin$ )ree $od
/oseidon.
ex scientia vera
'from nowled$e,
truth.'
The motto of the 7olle$e of )raduate Studies at
;iddle Tennessee State 9niversity.
ex silentio 'from silence' In $eneral, the claim that the absence of somethin$
demonstrates the proof of a proposition. 'n
argumentum ex silentio ('ar$ument from silence') is
an ar$ument based on the assumption that someone's
silence on a matter su$$ests ('proves' when a lo$ical
fallacy) that person's i$norance of the matter or their
inability to counterar$ue validly.
ex tempore 'from time'
'This instant', 'ri$ht away' or 'immediately'. 'lso
written extempore.
ex vi termini
'from the force of
the term'
Thus, 'by definition'.
ex vivo 'out of or from life'
9sed in reference to the study or assay of livin$
tissue in an artificial environment outside the livin$
or$anism.
ex voto 'from the vow'
Thus, in accordance with a promise. 'n ex voto is
also an offerin$ made in fulfillment of a vow.
excelsior 'hi$her'
'%ver upwardC' The state motto of 6ew Qor. 'lso a
catch phrase used by ;arvel 7omics head Stan *ee.
exceptio firmat
regulam in casibus
non exceptis
'The e!ception
confirms the rule in
cases which are not
e!cepted'
' ?uridical motto which means that e!ception, as for
e!ample durin$ a 'state of e!ception', does not put in
dan$er the le$itimity of the rule in its $lobality. In
other words, the e!ception is strictly limited to a
particular sphere (see also1 exceptio strictissimi
(uris est.
excusatio non petita
accusatio manifesta
'an e!cuse that has
not been sou$ht is
an obvious
accusation'
;ore loosely, 'he who e!cuses himself, accuses
himself'@an unprovoed e!cuse is a si$n of $uilt. In
"rench, qui s#excuse, s#accuse.
exeat 'may he leave' ' formal leave of absence (cf. exit).
exempli gratia (e.g.)
'for the sae of
e!ample'
9sually shortened in %n$lish to 'for e!ample' (see
citation si$nal). Often confused with id est (i.e.).
Exempli gratia, i.e., 'for e!ample', is commonly
abbreviated 'e.$.'# in this usa$e it is sometimes
followed by a comma, dependin$ on style.
exercitus sine duce
corpus est sine
spiritu
'an army without
leader is lie a body
without spirit'
On a pla&ue at the former military staff buildin$ of
the Swedish 'rmed "orces.
exeunt 'they leave'
The plural of exit. 'lso e!tended to exeunt omnes,
'everyone leaves'.
experimentum crucis 'crucial e!periment'
*iterally 'e!periment of the cross'. ' decisive test of a
scientific theory.
experto crede 'trust the e!pert'
*iterally 'believe one who has had e!perience'. 'n
author's aside to the reader.
expressio unius est
exclusio alterius
'the e!pression of
the one is the
e!clusion of the
other'
';entionin$ one thin$ may e!clude another thin$'. '
principle of le$al statutory interpretation1 the e!plicit
presence of a thin$ implies intention to e!clude
others# e.$., a reference in the /oor :elief 'ct <+>< to
'lands, houses, tithes and coal mines' was held to
e!clude mines other than coal mines. Sometimes
e!pressed as expressum facit cessare tacitum
(broadly, 'the e!pression of one thin$ e!cludes the
implication of somethin$ else').
extant
'still in e!istence#
survivin$'
ad?ective1
e!tant law is still e!istin$, in e!istence, e!istent,
survivin$, remainin$, undestroyed. 9sa$e, when a
law is repealed the e!tant law $overns.
extra domus
'(placed) outside of
the house'
:efers to a possible result of 7atholic ecclesiastical
le$al proceedin$s when the culprit is removed from
bein$ part of a $roup lie a monastery.
)xtra )cclesiam
nulla salus
'Outside the 7hurch
there is no salvation'
This e!pression comes from the writin$s of Saint
7yprian of 7artha$e, a bishop of the third century. It
is often used to summarise the doctrine that the
7atholic 7hurch is absolutely necessary for salvation.
)xtra omnes 'Out, all of you.'
It is issued by the ;aster of the /apal *itur$ical
7elebrations before a session of the /apal 7onclave
which will elect a new /ope. Ghen spoen, all those
who are not 7ardinals, or those otherwise mandated
to be present at the 7onclave, must leave the Sistine
7hapel.
extra territorium (us
dicenti impune non
paretur
'he who administers
?ustice outside of his
territory is
disobeyed with
impunity'
:efers to e!traterritorial ?urisdiction. Often cited in
law of the sea cases on the hi$h seas.
Notes
:
Latin Translation Notes
fac fortia et
patere
"do brave deeds and
endure"
;otto of /rince 'lfred 7olle$e in 'delaide, 'ustralia.
fac simile
"mae a similar
thin$"
Ori$in of the word facsimile, and, throu$h it, of fax.
facta/ non verba "actions, not words"
;otto of 9nited States 6avy (estroyer S&uadron ,,,
and the 7anadian "ort )arry 5orse armoured re$iment
(;ilitia).
falsus in unum/
falsus in
omnibus
"false in one thin$,
false in everythin$"
' :oman le$al principle indicatin$ that a witness who
willfully falsifies one matter is not credible on any
matter. The underlyin$ motive for attorneys to
impeach opposin$ witnesses in court1 the principle
discredits the rest of their testimony if it is without
corroboration.
felo de se "felon from himself"
'n archaic le$al term for one who commits suicide,
referrin$ to early %n$lish common law punishments,
such as land seiEure, inflicted on those who illed
themselves.
fere libenter
homines id quod
volunt credunt
"as a rule, men
willin$ly believe
that which they wish
to"
/eople believe what they wish to be true, even if it
isn't. 'ttributed to 3ulius 7aesar.
festina lente "hurry slowly"
'n o!ymoronic motto of St 'u$ustine. It encoura$es
proceedin$ &uicly, but with calm and caution.
%&uivalent to ';ore haste, less speed'.
fiat iustitia et
pereat mundus
"let ?ustice be done,
even should the
world perish"
"rom "erdinand I.
fiat (ustitia ruat
caelum
"let ?ustice be done
should the sy fall"
'ttributed to *ucius 7alpurnius /iso 7aesoninus.
fiat lux "let li$ht be made"
*ess literally, "let li$ht arise" or "let there be li$ht" (cf.
lux sit). "rom the *atin translation of )enesis,
"dixitque $eus fiat lux et facta est lux" ("and )od said,
'*et li$ht be made', and li$ht was made"). The motto
of the 9niversity of 7alifornia, 'n$elo State
9niversity, 9niversity of *ethbrid$e and :ollins
7olle$e.
:idei Defensor
(:id Def) or (fd)
"(efender of the
"aith"
' title $iven to 5enry 4III of %n$land by /ope *eo K
on October <0, <=,< before 5enry became a
heresiarch. Still used by the 8ritish monarchs, it
appears on all 8ritish coins, usually abbreviated.
fides qua
creditur
"the faith by which
it is believed"
the personal faith which apprehends, contrasted with
fides quae creditur
fides quae
creditur
"the faith which is
believed"
the content of "the faith," contrasted with fides qua
creditur
fides quaerens
intellectum
"faith seein$
understandin$"
the motto of Saint 'nselm, found in his &roslogion
fidus Achates "faithful 'chates" ' faithful friend. "rom the name of 'eneas's faithful
companion in 4ir$il's Aeneid.
flagellum dei "scour$e of $od"
flectere si
nequeo superos/
Achaeronta
movebo
"If I cannot move
heaven I will raise
hell"
4ir$il's 'eneid B 8oo 0
floruit "one flourished"
Indicates the period when a historical fi$ure whose
birth and death dates are unnown was most active.
fluctuat nec
mergitur
"she wavers and is
not immersed"
;otto of /aris.
fons et origo
"the sprin$ and
source"
"The fountainhead and be$innin$". The source and
ori$in.
fortes fortuna
adiuvat
"fortune favours the
brave"
fortis est veritas "truth is stron$" ;otto on the coat of arms of O!ford, %n$land.
fortis et liber "stron$ and free" ;otto of 'lberta.
#
Latin Translation Notes
generalia
specialibus non
derogant
"universal thin$s do
not detract from
specific thin$s"
' principle of le$al statutory interpretation1 If a
matter falls under a specific provision and a $eneral
provision, it shall be $overned by the specific
provision.
genius loci "spirit of place"
The uni&ue, distinctive aspects or atmosphere of a
place, such as those celebrated in art, stories, fol
tales, and festivals. Ori$inally, the genius loci was
literally the protective spirit of a place, a creature
usually depicted as a snae.
#loria in )xcelsis
Deo
")lory to )od in the
5ei$hts"
Often translated ")lory to )od on 5i$h". The title
and be$innin$ of an ancient :oman 7atholic
do!olo$y, the )reater (o!olo$y. See also ad
maiorem $ei gloriam.
#loria *atri
")lory to the
"ather"
The be$innin$ of the *esser (o!olo$y.
gloriosus et liber "$lorious and free" ;otto of ;anitoba
#radibus
ascendimus
"'scendin$ by
de$rees"
;otto of )rey 7olle$e, (urham
graviora manent
"heavier thin$s
remain"
In other words, "more severe thin$s await" or simply
"the worst is yet to come".
gutta cavat
lapidem non vi
sed saepe cadendo
"a drop hollows a
stone not by force,
but by often fallin$"
"rom Ovid, Epistulae ex &onto I4, <>, =.
H
Latin Translation Notes
habeas corpus
"you may have
the body"
' le$al term from the <.th century or earlier. :efers to a
number of le$al writs to brin$ a person before a court or
?ud$e, most commonly habeas corpus ad subjiciendum
("you may have the body to brin$ up"). 7ommonly used as
the $eneral term for a prisoner's le$al ri$ht to have the
char$e a$ainst them specifically identified.
habemus
papam
"we have a pope"
9sed after a :oman 7atholic 7hurch papal election to
announce publicly a successful ballot to elect a new pope.
hac lege "with this law"
haec olim
meminisse
iuvabit
"one day, this
will be pleasin$
to remember"
7ommonly rendered in %n$lish as "One day, we'll loo
bac on this and smile". "rom 4ir$il's Aeneid <.,>A.
Hannibal ante
portas
"5annibal before
the $ates"
:efers to wastin$ time while the enemy is already here.
'ttributed to 7icero.
Hannibal ad
portas
"5annibal is at
the $ates"
:oman parents would tell their misbehavin$ children this,
invoin$ their fear of 5annibal.
haud ignota
loquor
"I spea not of
unnown thin$s"
Thus, "I say no thin$s that are unnown". "rom 4ir$il's
Aeneid, ,.L<.
hic abundant
leones
"here lions
abound"
Gritten on uncharted territories of old maps.
hic et nunc "here and now"
hic (acet (H;) "here lies" 'lso rendered hic iacet. Gritten on $ravestones or tombs,
precedin$ the name of the deceased. %&uivalent to hic
sepultus ("here is buried"), and sometimes combined into
hic jacet sepultus (53S), "here lies buried".
hic manebimus
optime
"here we'll stay
e!cellently"
'ccordin$ to Titus *ivius the phrase was pronounced by
;arcus "urius 7amillus, addressin$ the senators who
intended to abandon the city, invaded by )auls, in AL>
87% circa. It is used today to e!press the intent to eep
one's position even if the circumstances appear adverse.
hic sunt leones
"here there are
lions"
Gritten on uncharted territories of old maps.
hinc illae
lacrimae
"hence those
tears"
"rom Terence, Andria, line <,=. Ori$inally literal, referrin$
to the tears shed by /amphilus at the funeral of 7hrysis, it
came to be used proverbally in the wors of later authors,
such as 5orace (Epistula KIK, .<).
historia vitae
magistra
"history, the
teacher of life"
"rom 7icero, Tusculanas, ,, <+. 'lso "history is the
mistress of life".
homo homini
lupus
"man Ois aP wolf
to man"
"irst attested in /lautus' Asinaria ("lupus est homo
homini"). The sentence was drawn on by 5obbes in
Leviathan as a concise e!pression of his human nature
view.
homo sum
humani a mi
nihil alienum
puto
"I am a human
bein$# nothin$
human is stran$e
to me"
"rom Terence, 7eautontimoroumenos. Ori$inally "stran$e"
or "forei$n" (alienum) was used in the sense of
"irrelevant", as this line was a response to the speaer
bein$ told to mind his own business, but it is now
commonly used to advocate respectin$ different cultures
and bein$ humane in $eneral. &uto ("I consider") is not
translated because it is meanin$less outside of the line's
conte!t within the play.
homo unius
libri (timeo)
"(I fear) a man of
one boo"
'ttributed to Thomas '&uinas
honeste vivere
"to live
virtuously"
One of 3ustinian I's three basic le$al precepts.
honor virtutis
praemium
"esteem is the
reward of virtue"
O'"lynn family motto.
honoris causa
"for the sae of
honor"
Said of an honorary title, such as "(octor of Science
honoris causa".
hora somni "at the hour of ;edical shorthand for "at bedtime".
(h.s.) sleep"
horas non
numero nisi
serenas
"I do not count
the hours unless
they are sunny"
' common inscription on sundials.
hortus in urbe
"' $arden in the
city"
;otto of the 7hica$o /ar (istrict, a playful allusion to the
city's motto, urbs in horto, &.v.
horribile dictu "horrible to say"
That is, "a horrible thin$ to relate". ' pun on mirabile
dictu.
hostis humani
generis
"enemy of the
human race"
7icero defined pirates in :oman law as bein$ enemies of
humanity in $eneral.
h'potheses non
fingo
"I do not
fabricate
hypotheses"
"rom 6ewton, &rincipia. *ess literally, "I do not assert that
any hypotheses are true".
.
Latin Translation Notes
ibidem (ibid.) "in the same place"
9sually used in biblio$raphic citations to refer to
the last source previously referenced.
id est (i.e.) "that is"
"That is (to say)", "in other words", or sometimes
"in this case", dependin$ on the conte!t. 6ever
e&uivalent to exempli gratia (e.$.).
Id est, i.e., "that is", is commonly abbreviated
"i.e."# in this usa$e it is sometimes followed by a
comma, dependin$ on style.
idem (id.) "the same"
9sed to refer to somethin$ that has already been
cited. See also ibidem.
idem quod (i.q.) "the same as" 6ot to be confused with an intelli$ence &uotient.
i.e. "that is" 'bbreviation for id est, above.
.esus Na<arenus
-ex .udaeorum
(.N-.)
"3esus of 6aEareth,
2in$ of the 3ews"
8ased on a 7hristian belief that "this one is 2in$
of the 3ews" was written in *atin, )ree and
'ramaic at the top of the cross 3esus was crucified
on.
igne natura
renovatur integra
"throu$h fire, nature
is reborn whole"
'n alchemical aphorism invented as an alternate
meanin$ for the acronym I6:I.
igni ferroque "with fire and iron"
' phrase describin$ scorched earth tactics. 'lso
rendered as igne atque ferro, ferro ignique, and
other variations.
ignis fatuus "foolish fire" will o' the wisp.
ignoratio elenchi
"i$norance of the
issue"
The lo$ical fallacy of irrelevant conclusion1
main$ an ar$ument that, while possibly valid,
doesn't prove or support the proposition it claims
to. 'n ignoratio elenchi that is an intentional
attempt to mislead or confuse the opposin$ party
is nown as a red herring. Elenchi is from the
)ree elenchos.
ignotum per
ignotius
"unnown by means
of the more
unnown"
'n e!planation that is less clear than the thin$ to
be e!plained. Synonymous with obscurum per
obscurius.
ignotus (ign.) "unnown"
.llegitimi non
carborundum
"(on't let the
bastards $rind you
down"
;oc *atin ori$inatin$ durin$ Gorld Gar II, used
and nown in many forms since then.
imago Dei "ima$e of )od"
"rom the reli$ious concept that man was created
in ")od's ima$e".
imitatio dei "imitation of a $od"
' principle, held by several reli$ions, that
believers should strive to resemble their $od(s).
imperium in
imperio
"an order within an
order"
<. ' $roup of people who owe utmost fealty to
their leader(s), subordinatin$ the interests of the
lar$er $roup to the authority of the internal $roup's
leader(s).
,. ' "fifth column" or$aniEation operatin$ a$ainst
the or$aniEation within which they seemin$ly
reside.
imperium sine fine
"an empire without
an end"
In 4ir$il's Aeneid, 3upiter ordered 'eneas to found
a city (:ome) from which would come an
everlastin$, neverendin$ empire, the endless (sine
fine) empire.
imprimatur "let it be printed"
'n authoriEation to publish, $ranted by some
censorin$ authority (ori$inally a 7atholic 8ishop).
in absentia "in the absence"
9sed in a number of situations, such as in a trial
carried out in the absence of the accused.
in actu "in act" "In the very actFIn reality".
in articulo mortis
"at the point of
death"
in camera "in the chamber" "i$uratively, "in secret". See also camera obscura.
in casu "in the event" "In this case".
in cauda venenum
"the poison is in the
tail"
9sin$ the metaphor of a scorpion, this can be said
of an account that proceeds $ently, but turns
vicious towards the end @ or more $enerally
waits till the end to reveal an intention or
statement that is undesirable in the speaer's eyes.
in concreto
"in the concrete
(sense)"
9sually as opposed to fi$urative or metaphysical
usa$e.
in Deo speramus "in )od we hope" ;otto of 8rown 9niversity.
in dubio pro reo
"in doubt, on behalf
of the Oalle$edP
culprit"
%!presses the ?udicial principle that in case of
doubt the decision must be in favor of the accused
(in that anyone is innocent until there is proof to
the contrary).
in duplo "in double" "In duplicate".
in effigie "in the lieness"
"In (the form of) an ima$e", as opposed to "in the
flesh" or "in person".
in esse "in e!istence"
in extenso "in the e!tended"
"In full", "at full len$th", "completely",
"unabrid$ed".
in extremis
"in the furthest
reaches"
In e!tremity# in dire straits. 'lso "at the point of
death" (cf. in articulo mortis).
in fidem "into faith" To the verification of faith.
in fieri "in becomin$" Thus, "pendin$".
in fine (i.f.) "in the end"
't the end.
The footnote says (p. 112 in fine(3 (the
end of page 112(.
in flagrante delicto
"in a blaEin$ wron$",
"while the crime is
blaEin$"
%&uivalent to the %n$lish idiom "cau$ht redB
handed"1 cau$ht in the act of committin$ a crime.
Sometimes carried the connotation of bein$
cau$ht in a "compromisin$ position".
in flore "in blossom" 8loomin$.
in foro "in forum" *e$al term for "in court".
in girum imus nocte
et consumimur igni
"Ge enter the circle
at ni$ht and are
consumed by fire"
' palindrome said to describe the behavior of
moths. 'lso the title of a film by )uy (ebord.
in hoc signo vinces
"by this si$n you will
con&uer"
Gords 7onstantine claimed to have seen in a
vision before the 8attle of ;ilvian 8rid$e.
in illo tempore "in that time"
"at that time", found often in )ospel lectures
durin$ ;asses, used to mar an undetermined
time in the past.
in limine "at the outset"
/reliminary, in law referrin$ to a motion that is
made to the ?ud$e before or durin$ trial, often
about the admissibility of evidence believed
pre?udicial
in loco "in the place"
That is, "at the place".
The nearby labs were closed for the
weekend, so the water samples were
analy)ed in loco.
in loco parentis
"in the place of a
parent"
' le$al term meanin$ "assumin$ parental (i.e.,
custodial) responsibility and authority".
in luce Tua videmus
lucem
"in Thy li$ht we see
li$ht"
;otto of 4alparaiso 9niversity.
in lumine tuo
videbimus lumen
"in your li$ht we will
see the li$ht"
;otto of 7olumbia 9niversity and Ohio Gesleyan
9niversity.
in manus tuas
commendo spiritum
meum
"into your hands I
entrust my spirit"
'ccordin$ to *ue ,A1.+, the last words of 3esus
on the cross.
in medias res
"into the middle of
thin$s"
"rom 5orace. :efers to the literary techni&ue of
be$innin$ a narrative in the middle of, or at a late
point in, the story, after much action has already
taen place. %!amples include the Iliad, the
.d'sse', and &aradise Lost. 7ompare ab initio.
in memoriam "into the memory"
%&uivalent to "in the memory of". :efers to
rememberin$ or honorin$ a deceased person.
in necessariis
unitas/ in dubiis
"in necessary thin$s
unity, in doubtful
"7harity" (caritas) is bein$ used in the classical
sense of "compassion" (cf. agape). ;otto of the
libertas/ in omnibus
caritas
thin$s liberty, in all
thin$s charity"
7artellverband der atholischen deutschen
Studentenverbindun$en. Often misattributed to
'u$ustine of 5ippo.
in nuce "in a nut"
I.e. "in potentiality." 7omparable to "potential",
"to be developed".
.n omnia paratus
":eady for
anythin$."
;otto of the soBcalled secret society of Qale in the
sitcom 4ilmore 4irls.
.n omnibus
requiem quaesivi/ et
nusquam inveni nisi
in angulo cum libro
"%verywhere I have
searched for peace
and nowhere found
it, e!cept in a corner
with a boo"
Duote by Thomas a 9empis.
in partibus
infidelium
"in the parts of the
infidels"
That is, "in the land of the infidels", infidels here
referrin$ to nonB7hristians. 'fter Islam con&uered
a lar$e part of the :oman %mpire, the
correspondin$ bishoprics didn't disappear, but
remained as titular sees.
in pectore "in the heart"
' 7ardinal named in secret by the pope. See also
ab imo pectore.
in personam "into a person"
"(irected towards a particular person". In a
lawsuit in which the case is a$ainst a specific
individual, that person must be served with a
summons and complaint to $ive the court
?urisdiction to try the case. The court's ?ud$ment
applies to that person and is called an "in
personam ?ud$ment." In personam is
distin$uished from in rem, which applies to
property or "all the world" instead of a specific
person. This technical distinction is important to
determine where to file a lawsuit and how to serve
a defendant. In personam means that a ?ud$ment
can be enforceable a$ainst the person, wherever
he or she is. On the other hand, if the lawsuit is to
determine title to property (in rem), then the action
must be filed where the property e!ists and is only
enforceable there.
in propria persona
"in one's own
person"
"/ersonally", "in person".
in rerum natura
"in the nature of
thin$s"
See also *ucretius' $e /erum (atura ("On the
6ature of Thin$s").
in saeculo "in the times"
"In the secular world", that is, outside a
monastery, or before death.
in salvo "in safety"
in silico "in silicon"
7oined in the early <LL>s for scientific papers.
:efers to an e!periment or process performed
virtually, as a computer simulation. The term is
(o$ *atin modeled after terms such as in vitro and
in vivo. The *atin word for silicon is silicium, so
the correct *atiniEation of "in silicon" would be in
silicio, but this form has little usa$e.
in situ "in the place"
In the ori$inal place, appropriate position, or
natural arran$ement. In medical conte!ts, it
implies that the condition is still in the same place
and has not worsened, improved, spread, etc.
.n spe "in hope"
"future" (";y motherBinBlaw in spe", i.e. ";y
future motherBinBlaw"), or "in embryonic form", as
in "*oce's theory of $overnment resembles, in
spe, ;ontes&uieu's theory of the separation of
powers."
.n specialibus
generalia
quaerimus
"To see the $eneral
in the specifics"
That is, to understand the most $eneral rules
throu$h the most detailed analysis.
in statu nascendi
"in the state of bein$
born"
3ust as somethin$ is about to be$in.
in toto "in all" "Totally", "entirely", "completely".
in triplo "in triple" "In triplicate".
in utero "in the womb"
in vacuo "in a void" "In a vacuum". In isolation from other thin$s.
in vino veritas
"in wine Othere isP
truth"
That is, wine loosens the ton$ue.
(:eferrin$ to alcohol's disinhibitory effects.)
in vitro "in $lass" 'n e!perimental or process methodolo$y
performed in a "nonBnatural" settin$ (e.$., in a
laboratory usin$ a $lass test tube or /etri dish),
and thus outside of a livin$ or$anism or cell. The
reference to $lass is merely an historic one, as the
current usa$e of this term is not specific to the
materials involved, but rather to the "nonBnatural"
settin$ employed. 'lternative e!perimental or
process methodolo$ies would include in vitro, in
silico, ex vivo and in vivo.
In vitro fertili)ation is not literally
done (in glass(, but rather is a
techni4ue to fertili)e egg cells outside
of a woman*s body. %y definition, it is
thus an ex vivo process.
in vivo
"in life" or "in a
livin$ thin$"
'n e!periment or process performed on a livin$
specimen.
incredibile dictu "incredible to say" ' variant on mirabile dictu.
.ndex Librorum
*rohibitorum
"Inde! of "orbidden
8oos"
' list of boos considered heretical by the :oman
7atholic 7hurch.
indivisibiliter ac
inseparabiliter
"indivisible and
inseparable"
;otto of 'ustriaB5un$ary prior to its separation
into independent states in <L<-.
infra dignitatem
(infra dig)
"beneath one's
di$nity"
instante mense (inst.)
"in the present
month"
"ormerly used in formal correspondence to refer
to the current month. Sometimes abbreviated as
instant. 9sed with ult. ("last month") and pro!.
("ne!t month").
(Thank you for your letter of the 12th
inst.(
integer vitae
scelerisque purus
"unimpaired by life
and clean of
wicedness"
"rom 5orace. 9sed as a funeral hymn.
inter alia "amon$ other thin$s"
inter alios "amon$ others"
Often used to compress lists of parties to le$al
documents.
inter arma enim
silent leges
"In the face of arms,
the law falls mute,"
more popularly
rendered as "durin$
warfare, in fact, the
laws are silent"
Said by 7icero in &ro *ilone as a protest a$ainst
uncheced political mobs that had virtually seiEed
control of :ome in the '+>s and '=>s 87. 'lso
used in the Star Tre% (SL episode of the same
name to ?ustify 'dmiral Gilliam :oss' decision to
assist '$ent Sloan from Section A< in
destabiliEin$ the :omulan Senate.
inter caetera "amon$ others" Title of a papal bull.
inter spem et "between hope and
metum fear"
inter vivos "between the livin$"
Said of property transfers between livin$ persons,
as opposed to inheritance# often relevant to ta!
laws.
intra muros "within the walls"
Thus, "not public". Source of the word intramural.
See also Intramuros.
intra vires "within the powers" That is, "within the authority".
ipsa scientia
potestas est
"nowled$e itself is
power"
"amous phrase written by Sir "rancis 8acon in
<=L0.
ipse dixit "he himself said it"
"rom )ree =>[email protected] BCD
7ommonly said in ;edieval debates referrin$ to
'ristotle, who was considered the supreme
authority on matters of philosophy. 9sed in
$eneral to emphasiEe that some assertion comes
from some authority, i.e., as an appeal to
authority, and the term ipsedixitism has come to
mean any unsupported rhetorical assertion that
lacs a lo$ical ar$ument.
ipsissima verba
"the very words
themselves"
"Strictly word for word" (cf. verbatim).
ipso facto "by the fact itself" Or "by that very fact".
.ra Deorum "Grath of the )ods"
*ie the vast ma?ority of inhabitants of the ancient
world, the ancient :omans practiced pa$an rituals,
believin$ it important to achieve a state of &ax
$eorum ("/eace of the )ods") instead of Ira
$eorum ("Grath of the )ods")1 earth&uaes,
floods, famine, etc.
ita vero "thus indeed"
' useful phrase, as the :omans had no word for
"yes", preferrin$ to respond to &uestions with the
affirmative or ne$ative of the &uestion (i.e., "'re
you hun$ryS" was answered by "I am hun$ry" or
"I am not hun$ry", not "Qes" or "6o").
ite missa est
"$o, the thin$s have
been sent"
The final words of the :oman ;issal, meanin$
"leave, the mass is finished".
iura novit curia "the court nows the
laws"
' le$al principle in civil law countries of the
:omanB)erman tradition (e.$., in 8raEil,)ermany
and Italy) that says that lawyers need not to ar$ue
the law, as that is the office of the court.
Sometimes miswritten as iura novat curia ("the
court renews the laws").
;
Latin Translation Notes
(uris ignorantia
est cum (us
nostrum
ignoramus
"it is i$norance of
the law when we do
not now our own
ri$hts"
;ohannes est
nomen e(us
"3ohn is its name F
3uan es su 6ombre"
;otto of the Seal of the 7ommonwealth of /uerto
:ico
(us ad bellum "law towards war"
:efers to the "laws" that re$ulate the reasons for
$oin$ to war. Typically, this would address issues of
selfBdefense or preemptive stries
(us in bello "law in war"
:efers to the "laws" that re$ulate the conduct of
combatants durin$ a conflict. Typically, this would
address issues of who or what is a valid tar$et, how
to treat prisoners, and what sorts of weapons can be
used. The word jus is also commonly spelled ius.
(us primae
noctis
"law of the first
ni$ht"
The droit de seigneur.
(ustitia omnibus "?ustice for all" ;otto of the (istrict of 7olumbia.
L
Latin Translation Notes
Labor omnia
vincit
"Gor
con&uers all
thin$s"
State motto of Olahoma. ;otto of Instituto 6acional,
leadin$ 7hilean hi$h school. (erived from a phrase in
4ir$il's 4eorgics.
lapsus linguae "slip of the
ton$ue"
' "pro$lossis", "tip of the ton$ue" or "ape! of the ton$ue".
Often used to mean "lin$uistic error" or "lan$ua$e
mistae". It and its writtenBword variant, lapsus calami
("slip of the pen") can sometimes refers to a typo$raphical
error as well.
%!.1 "I'm sorry for mispronouncin$ your name. It wasn't
intentional# it was a lapsus linguae".
lapsus memoriae
"slip of
memory"
Source of the term memor' lapse.
laus Deo
"praise be to
)od"
legem terrae
"the law of the
land"
leges humanae
nascuntur/
vivunt/ et
moriuntur
"laws of man
are born, live
and die"
leges sine
moribus vanae
"laws without
morals OareP
vain"
"rom 5orace's Odes1 the official motto of the 9niversity of
/ennsylvania.
legitime "lawfully"
' le$al term describin$ a "forced share", the portion of a
deceased person's estate from which the immediate family
cannot be disinherited. "rom the "rench h"ritier legitime
("ri$htful heir").
lex artis
"law of the
sill"
The rules that re$ulate a professional duty.
lex ferenda
"the law that
should be
borne"
The law as it ou$ht to be.
lex lata
"the law that
has been
borne"
The law as it is.
lex loci
"law of the
place"
lex non scripta
"law that has
not been
written"
9nwritten law, or common law.
lex parsimoniae
"law of
succinctness
also nown as Ochams :aEor.
lex rex "the law OisP
in$"
' principle of $overnment advocatin$ a rule by law rather
than by men. The phrase ori$inated as a double entendre in
the title of Samuel :utherford's controversial boo Lex,
/ex (<+..), which espoused a theory of limited
$overnment and constitutionalism.
lex scripta "written law" Statute law. 7ontrasted with lex non scripta.
lex talionis
"the law of
retaliation"
:etributive ?ustice (cf. an eye for an eye).
liberate me ex
infernis
"free me from
hell"
9sed in a 5ellsystem album cover from ,>>=.
libera te tutemet
"you, free
yourself"
9sed in Event 7ori-on (<LL0), where it is translated as
"save yourself". It is initially misheard as liberate me ("free
me"), but is later corrected. Libera te is often mistaenly
mer$ed into liberate, which would necessitate a plural
pronoun instead of the sin$ular tutemet (which is an
emphatic form of tu, "you").
libertas quE sera
tamen
"freedom
which OisP
however late"
Thus, "liberty even when it comes late". ;otto of ;inas
)erais, 8raEil.
libra (lb) "scales"
*iterally "balance". Its abbreviation, lb, is used as a unit of
wei$ht, the pound.
loco citato (lc)
"in the place
cited"
;ore fully written in loco citato. See also opere citato.
locus classicus
"a classic
place"
' &uotation from a classical te!t used as an e!ample of
somethin$.
lorem ipsum @
' man$led fra$ment from 7icero's $e 0inibus 1onorum et
*alorum ("On the *imits of )ood and %vil", .= 87), used
as typo$rapher's filler to show fonts (a..a. gree%ing). 'n
appro!imate literal translation of lorem ipsum mi$ht be
"sorrow itself", as the term is from dolorum ipsum quia,
meanin$ "sorrow because of itself", or less literally, "pain
for its own sae".
luctor et emergo
"I stru$$le and
emer$e"
;otto of the (utch province of ieeland to denote its battle
a$ainst the sea.
lucus a non
lucendo
"Oit isP a $rove
by not bein$
li$ht"
"rom late .thBcentury $rammarian 5onoratus ;aurus, who
sou$ht to moc implausible word ori$ins such as those
proposed by /riscian. ' pun based on the word lucus
("dar $rove") havin$ a similar appearance to the verb
lucere ("to shine"), ar$uin$ that the former word is derived
from the latter word because of a lac of li$ht in wooded
$roves. Often used as an e!ample of absurd etymolo$y.
lupus in fabula
"the wolf in the
story"
Gith the meanin$ "spea of the wolf, and he will come".
Occurs in Terence's play Adelphoe.
lupus non
mordet lupum
"a wolf does
not bite a wolf"
lux et lex "li$ht and law"
;otto of the presti$ious liberal arts school, "ranlin j
;arshall 7olle$e. *i$ht in reference to 8en?amin
"ranlin's many innovations and discoveries. *aw in
reference to 3ohn ;arshall as one of the most notable
Supreme 7ourt 3ustices.
lux et veritas
"li$ht and
truth"
' translation of the 5ebrew 9rim and Thummim. ;otto of
Qale 9niversity and Indiana 9niversity. 'n e!panded
form, lux et veritas floreant ("let li$ht and truth flourish"),
is the motto of the 9niversity of Ginnipe$
lux hominum
vita
"life the li$ht
of men"
lux sit
"let there be
li$ht"
' more literal *atiniEation of the phrase "let there be
li$ht", the most common translation of fiat lux ("let li$ht
arise", literally "let li$ht be made"), which in turn is the
*atin 4ul$ate 8ible phrase chosen for the )enesis line " k
lmnBop qrost #lmn op qro ,uop q
v
wx n ly znv{st" ("'nd )od said1 '*et there be
li$ht.' 'nd there was li$ht"). ;otto of the 9niversity of
Gashin$ton.
$
Latin Translation Notes
magister dixit
"the master has said
it"
7anonical medieval reference to 'ristotle,
precludin$ further discussion
$agna %arta ")reat /aper"
' set of documents between /ope Innocent III, 2in$
3ohn, and %n$lish barons.
magna cum laude "with $reat praise"
' common *atin honor, above cum laude and below
summa cum laude.
$agna )uropa
est *atria Nostra
")reat %urope is Our
"atherland"
/olitical motto of panB%uropeanists (cf. ave Europa
nostra vera &atria)
magna est vis
consuetudinis
"$reat is the power of
habit"
magno cum
gaudio
"with $reat ?oy"
magnum opus "$reat wor" Said of someone's masterpiece.
maiora premunt
"$reater thin$s are
pressin$"
9sed to indicate that it is the moment to address
more important, ur$ent, issues.
mala fide "in bad faith"
Said of an act done with nowled$e of its ille$ality,
or with intention to defraud or mislead someone.
Opposite of bona fide.
mala tempora
currunt
"bad times are upon
us"
'lso used ironically, e.$.1 6ew teachers now all
trics used by pupils to copy from classmatesS Oh,
mala tempora curruntC.
malum
discordiae
"apple of dischord"
'lludes to the apple of %ris in the ?ud$ement of
/aris, the mytholo$ical cause of the Tro?an Gar. It
is also a pun based on the nearBhomonymous word
malum ("evil"). The word for "apple" has a lon$ a
vowel in *atin and the word for "evil" a short a
vowel, but they are normally written the same.
malum quo
communius eo
peius
"the more common an
evil is, the worse it is"
malum in se "wron$ in itself"
' le$al term meanin$ that somethin$ is inherently
wron$ (cf. malum prohibitum).
malum
prohibitum
"wron$ due to bein$
prohibited"
' le$al term meanin$ that somethin$ is only wron$
because it is a$ainst the law.
manu militari "with a military hand" 9sin$ armed forces in order to achieve a $oal.
manu propria
(m.p.)
"with one's own hand"
Gith the implication of "si$ned by one's hand". Its
abbreviated form is sometimes used at the end of
typewritten or printed documents or official notices,
directly followin$ the name of the person(s) who
"si$ned" the document e!actly in those cases where
there isn't an actual handwritten si$nature.
manus celer Dei
"the swift hand of
)od"
Ori$inally used as the name of a ship in the
*arathon $ame series, its usa$e has spread.
manus manum "one hand washes the famous &uote from *ucius 'nnaeus Seneca . It
lavat other" implies that one situation helps the other.
mare clausum "closed sea"
In law, a sea under the ?urisdiction of one nation and
closed to all others.
mare liberum "free sea"
In law, a sea open to international shippin$
navi$ation.
mare nostrum "our sea"
' nicname $iven to the ;editerranean Sea durin$
the hei$ht of the :oman %mpire, as it encompassed
the entire coastal basin.
$ater :acit ";other (oes It"
9sed as a ?oe to say ;other "uc It, thou$h it
really means "mother does it"
materfamilias
"the mother of the
family"
The female head of a family. See paterfamilias.
materia medica "medical matter"
The branch of medical science concerned with the
study of dru$s used in the treatment of disease.
'lso, the dru$s themselves.
me vexat pede
"it annoys me at the
foot"
*ess literally, "my foot itches". :efers to a trivial
situation or person that is bein$ a bother, possibly in
the sense of wishin$ to ic that thin$ away.
$ea %ulpa ";y "ault"
9sed in 7hristian prayers and confession to denote
the inherently flawed nature of manind. 7an also
be e!tended to mea maxima culpa ("my $reatest
fault"). 'lso used similarly to the modern %n$lish
slan$ "my bad".
$edia vita in
morte sumus
"In the midst of our
lives we die"
' wellBnown se&uence, falsely attributed to 6oter
durin$ the ;iddle '$es. It was translated by
7ranmer and became a part of the burial service in
the funeral rites of the 'n$lican 1oo% of !ommon
&ra'er.
meliora "better thin$s"
7arryin$ the connotation of "always better". The
motto of the 9niversity of :ochester.
$elita/ domi
adsum
"5oney, I'm homeC"
' relatively common recent *atiniEation from the
?oe phraseboo Latin for All .ccasions.
)rammatically correct, but the phrase would be
anachronistic in ancient :ome.
memento mori "remember that Oyou
willP die"
"i$uratively "be mindful of dyin$" or "remember
your mortality", and also more literally rendered as
"remember to die", thou$h in %n$lish this ironically
misses the ori$inal intent. 'n ob?ect (such as a
sull) or phrase intended to remind people of the
inevitability of death. ' more common theme in
7hristian than in 7lassical art. The motto of the
Trappist order.
memento vivere "a reminder of life"
'lso, "remember that you have to live." *iterally
rendered as "remember to live."
memores acti
prudentes futuri
"mindful of what has
been done, aware of
what will be"
Thus, both rememberin$ the past and foreseein$ the
future. "rom the 6orth 5ertfordshire (istrict
7ouncil coat of arms.
mens agitat
molem
"the mind moves the
mass"
"rom 4ir$il. ;otto of the 9niversity of Ore$on, the
9niversity of Garwic and the %indhoven
9niversity of Technolo$y.
mens et manus "mind and hand" ;otto of the ;assachusetts Institute of Technolo$y.
mens rea "$uilty mind"
'lso "culprit mind". ' term used in discussin$ the
mindset of an accused criminal.
mens sana in
corpore sano
"a sound mind in a
sound body"
Or "a sensible mind in a healthy body".
meminerunt
omnia amantes
"lovers remember all"
$iles #loriosus ")lorious Soldier"
Or "8oastful Soldier". Title of a play of /lautus. '
stoc character in comedy, the bra$$art soldier. (It is
said that at Salamanca, there is a wall, on which
$raduates inscribe their names, where "rancisco
"ranco had a pla&ue installed readin$
":'67IS79S ":'679S ;I*%S )*O:IOS9S.
Or perhaps some scholar $ot the better of the
dictatorC)
minatur
innocentibus qui
parcit nocentibus
"he threatens the
innocent who spares
the $uilty"
mirabile dictu "wonderful to tell"
mirabile visu
"wonderful by the
si$ht"
' :oman phrase used to describe a wonderful
eventFhappenin$.
miserabile visu "terrible by the si$ht" ' terrible happenin$ or event.
miserere nobis "have mercy upon us" ' phrase within the 4loria in Excelsis $eo and the
Agnus $ei, to be used at certain points in 7hristian
reli$ious ceremonies.
missit me
Dominus
"the *ord has sent
me"
' phrase used by 7hrist.
mittimus "we send"
' warrant of commitment to prison, or an
instruction for a ?ailer to hold someone in prison.
mobilis in mobili
"movin$ in a movin$
thin$" or, poetically,
"chan$in$ throu$h the
chan$in$ medium"
The motto of the (autilus from the 3ules 4erne
novel ;<<<< Leagues =nder the Sea.
modus operandi
($.2.)
"method of operatin$" 9sually used to describe a criminal's methods.
modus ponens "method of placin$"
*oosely "method of affirmin$", a lo$ical rule of
inference statin$ that from propositions & and if &
then > one can conclude >.
modus tollens "method of removin$"
*oosely "method of denyin$", a lo$ical rule of
inference sayin$ that from propositions not > and if
& then > one can conclude not &.
modus morons @
(o$ *atin based on wordplay with modus ponens
and modus tollens, referrin$ to the common lo$ical
fallacy that if & then > and not &, one could
conclude not > (cf. contraposition).
modus vivendi "method of livin$"
'n accommodation between disa$reein$ parties to
allow life to $o on. ' practical compromise.
montani semper
liberi
"mountaineers OareP
always free"
State motto of Gest 4ir$inia, adopted in <-0,.
$ontis .nsignia
%alpe
"8ad$e of the :oc of
)ibraltar"
more ferarum "lie beasts"
used to describe any se!ual act in the manner of
beasts
morituri te
salutant
"those who are about
to die salute thee"
9sed once in Suetonius' *ife of the (ivine
7laudius, chapter ,<, by the condemned prisoners
mannin$ $alleys about to tae part in a moc naval
battle on *ae "ucinus in '( =,. /opular
misconception ascribes it as a $ladiator's salute.
mors vincit "death con&uers all" 'n a!iom often found on headstones.
omnia
or "death always
wins"
motu proprio "on his own initiative"
Or "by his own accord." Identifies a class of papal
documents, administrative papal bulls.
multis e gentibus
vires
"from many peoples,
stren$th"
;otto of Sasatchewan.
multum in parvo "much in little"
7onciseness. The motto of :utland, a county in
central %n$land.
+atin phrases are often multum in parvo,
con"eying much in few words.
mundus vult
decipi
"the world wants to be
deceived"
"rom 3ames 8ranch 7abell.
munit haec et
altera vincit
"this one defends and
the other one
con&uers"
;otto of 6ova Scotia.
mutatis mutandis
"with those thin$s
chan$ed which
needed to be chan$ed"
Thus, "with the appropriate chan$es".
N
Latin Translation Notes
natura non
contristatur
"nature is not
saddened"
That is, the natural world is not sentimental or
compassionate.
natura non facit
saltum ita nec lex
"nature does not
mae a leap, thus
neither does the law"
Shortened form of "sicut natura nil facit per saltum
ita nec lex" ("?ust as nature does nothin$ by a leap,
so neither does the law"), referrin$ to both nature
and the le$al system movin$ $radually.
navigare necesse
est vivere non est
necesse
"to sail is necessary#
to live is not
necessary"
'ttributed by /lutarch to )naeus /ompeius, who,
durin$ a severe storm, commanded sailors to brin$
food from 'frica to :ome.
ne cede malis
"do not $ive in to
misfortune"
9sed as a level name in the *arathon series to
reflect the doomed theme of the level, and derived
from the family motto of one of the developers.
ne sutor ultra
crepidam
"7obbler, no further
than the sandalC"
Thus, don't offer your opinion on thin$s that are
outside your competence. It is said that the )ree
painter 'pelles once ased the advice of a cobbler
on how to render the sandals of a soldier he was
paintin$. Ghen the cobbler started offerin$ advice
on other parts of the paintin$, 'pelles rebued him
with this phrase in )ree, and it subse&uently
became a popular *atin e!pression.
nec dextrorsum/
nec sinistrorsum
"6either to the left
nor to the ri$ht"
(o not $et distracted. This *atin phrase is also the
motto for 8ishop 7otton 8oys School and the
8ishop 7otton )irls 5i$h school, both located in
8an$alore, India.
nec plus ultra
"nothin$ more
beyond"
'lso ne plus ultra or non plus ultra. ' descriptive
phrase meanin$ the best or most e!treme e!ample
of somethin$. The /illars of 5ercules, for e!ample,
were literally the nec plus ultra of the ancient
;editerranean world. 7harles 4's heraldic emblem
reversed this idea, usin$ a depiction of this phrase
inscribed on the /[email protected] plus ultra, without the
ne$ation. This represented Spain's e!pansion into
the 6ew Gorld.
nec temere nec
timide
"neither recless nor
timid"
The motto of the (utch <<th air manouvre bri$ade
<< 'ir ;anoeuvre 8ri$ade
nemine
contradicente
(nem. con.)
"with no one
speain$ a$ainst"
*ess literally, "without dissent". 9sed especially in
committees, where a matter may be passed nem)
con), or unanimously.
nemo dat quod
non habet
"no one $ives what
he does not have"
Thus, "none can pass better title than they have".
nemo iudex in sua
causa
"no man shall be a
?ud$e in his own
cause"
*e$al principle that no individual can preside over a
hearin$ in which he holds a specific interest or bias.
nemo me impune
lacessit
"no one provoes me
with impunity"
;otto of the Order of the Thistle, and conse&uently
of Scotland, found stamped on the milled ed$e of
certain 8ritish pound sterlin$ coins. It is also the
motto of the ;ontressors in the %d$ar 'llan /oe
short story "The 7as of 'montillado"
nemo nisi per
amicitiam
cognoscitur
"6o one learns
e!cept by friendship"
9sed to imply that one must lie a sub?ect in order
to study it.
nemo tenetur
seipsum accusare
"no one is bound to
accuse himself"
' ma!im bannin$ mandatory selfBincrimination.
6earBsynonymous with accusare nemo se debet nisi
coram $eo. Similar phrases include1 nemo tenetur
armare adversarium contra se ("no one is bound to
arm an opponent a$ainst himself"), meanin$ that a
defendant is not obli$ated to in any way assist the
prosecutor to his own detriment# nemo tenetur edere
instrumenta contra se ("no one is bound to produce
documents a$ainst himself", meanin$ that a
defendant is not obli$ated to provide materials to be
used a$ainst himself (this is true in :oman law and
has survived in modern criminal law, but no lon$er
applies in modern civil law)# and nemo tenere
prodere seipsum ("no one is bound to betray
himself"), meanin$ that a defendant is not obli$ated
to testify a$ainst himself.
nihil dicit "he says nothin$"
In law, a declination by a defendant to answer
char$es or put in a plea.
nihil novi "nothin$ of the new"
Or ?ust "nothin$ new". The phrase e!ists in two
versions1 as nihil novi sub sole ("nothin$ new under
the sun"), from the 4ul$ate, and as nihil novi nisi
commune consensu ("nothin$ new unless by the
common consensus"), a <=>= law of the /olishB
*ithuanian 7ommonwealth and one of the
cornerstones of its )olden *iberty.
nihil obstat "nothin$ prevents"
' notation, usually on a title pa$e, indicatin$ that a
:oman 7atholic censor has reviewed the boo and
found nothin$ ob?ectionable to faith or morals in its
content. See also imprimatur.
nil admirari
"be surprised at
nothin$"
nil desperandum
"nothin$ must be
despaired at"
That is, "never despair".
nil nisi bonum
"(about the dead say)
nothin$ unless (it is)
$ood"
Short for nil nisi bonum de mortuis dicere. That
is, "(on't spea ill of anyone who has died".
nil nisi malis
terrori
"no terror, e!cept to
the bad"
The motto of 2in$'s School, ;acclesfield.
nil per os (n.p.o.)
"nothin$ throu$h the
mouth"
;edical shorthand indicatin$ that oral foods and
fluids should be withheld from the patient.
nil satis nisi "nothin$ OisP enou$h ;otto of %verton "ootball 7lub, residents of
optimum unless Oit isP the best" )oodison /ar, *iverpool.
nil sine numine
"nothin$ without the
divine will"
Or "nothin$ without providence". State motto of
7olorado, adopted in <-+<. /robably derived from
4ir$il's Aeneid 8oo II, line 000, "non haec sine
numine devum eveniunt" ("these thin$s do not come
to pass without the will of the $ods"). See also
numina.
nil volentibus
arduum
"6othin$ OisP arduous
for the willin$"
"6othin$ is impossible for the willin$"
nisi Dominus
frustra
"if not the *ord, Oit
isP in vain"
That is, "everythin$ is in vain without )od".
SummariEed from /salm <,0, "nisi $ominus
aedificaverit domum in vanum laboraverunt qui
aedificant eam nisi $ominus custodierit civitatem
frustra vigilavit qui custodit" ("unless the *ord
builds the house, they wor on a useless thin$ who
build it# unless the *ord $uards the community, he
eeps watch in vain who $uards it"). The motto of
%dinbur$h.
nisi prius "unless previously"
In %n$land, a direction that a case be brou$ht up to
Gestminster for trial before a sin$le ?ud$e and ?ury.
In the 9nited States, a court where civil actions are
tried by a sin$le ?ud$e sittin$ with a ?ury, as
distin$uished from an appellate court.
nolens volens "unwillin$, willin$"
That is, "whether unwillin$ly or willin$ly".
Sometimes rendered volens nolens or aut nolens aut
volens. Similar to ill'?nill', thou$h that word is
derived from Old %n$lish ill?he nil?he ("OwhetherP
he will or OwhetherP he will not").
noli me tangere "do not touch me"
7ommonly translated "touch me not". 'ccordin$ to
the )ospel of 3ohn, this was said by 3esus to ;ary
;a$dalene after his resurrection.
noli turbare
circulos meos
"(o not disturb my
circlesC"
That is, "(on't upset my calculationsC" Said by
'rchimedes to a :oman soldier who, despite havin$
been $iven orders not to, illed 'rchimedes at the
con&uest of Syracuse. The soldier was e!ecuted for
his act.
nolle prosequi
"to be unwillin$ to
prosecute"
' le$al motion by a prosecutor or other plaintiff to
drop le$al char$es, usually in e!chan$e for a
diversion pro$ram or outBofBcourt settlement.
nolo contendere
"I do not wish to
contend"
That is, "no contest". ' plea that can be entered on
behalf of a defendant in a court that states that the
accused doesn't admit $uilt, but will accept
punishment for a crime. (olo contendere pleas
cannot be used as evidence in another trial.
nomen dubium "doubtful name"
' scientific name of unnown or doubtful
application.
nomen est omen "the name is a si$n" Thus, "true to its name".
nomen nescio
(N.N.)
"I do not now the
name"
Thus, the name or person in &uestion is unnown.
nomen nudum "naed name"
' purported scientific name that does not fulfill the
proper formal criteria and therefore cannot be used
unless it is subse&uently proposed correctly.
non bis in idem
"not twice in the
same thin$"
' le$al principle forbiddin$ double ?eopardy.
non causa pro
causa
"not the cause for the
cause"
'lso nown as the "&uestionable cause" or "false
cause". :efers to any lo$ical fallacy where a cause
is incorrectly identified.
non compos
mentis
"not in control of the
mind"
See compos mentis. 'lso rendered non compos sui
("not in control of himself"). Samuel 3ohnson,
author of the first %n$lish dictionary, theoriEed that
the word nincompoop may derive from this phrase.
non ducor duco "I am not led# I lead"
;otto of S|o /aulo city, 8raEil. See also pro
1rasilia fiant eximia.
non facias malum
ut inde fiat
bonum
"you should not mae
evil in order that
$ood may be made
from it"
;ore simply, "don't do wron$ to do ri$ht". The
direct opposite of the phrase "the ends ?ustify the
means".
non impediti
ratione
congitatonis
"unencumbered by
the thou$ht process"
;otto of radio show 7ar Tal.
non in legendo
sed in intelligendo
legis consistunt
"the laws depend not
on bein$ read, but on
bein$ understood"
non liquet "it is not proven"
'lso "it is not clear" or "it is not evident". '
sometimes controversial decision handed down by a
?ud$e when they feel that the law is not complete.
non mihi solum
"not for myself
alone"
non obstante
veredicto
"not standin$ in the
way of a verdict"
' ?ud$ment notwithstandin$ verdict, a le$al motion
asin$ the court to reverse the ?ury's verdict on the
$rounds that the ?ury could not have reached such a
verdict reasonably.
non olet "it doesn't smell" See pecunia non olet)
non omnis moriar "I shall not all die"
"6ot all of me will die", a phrase e!pressin$ the
belief that a part of the speaer will survive beyond
death.
non progredi est
regredi
"to not $o forward is
to $o bacward"
non prosequitur "he does not proceed"
' ?ud$ment in favor of a defendant when the
plaintiff failed to tae the necessary steps in an
action within the time allowed.
Non scholae sed
vitae discimus
"Ge learn not for
school, but for life."
from Seneca
non sequitur "it does not follow"
In $eneral, a non sequitur is a comment which is
absurd due to not main$ sense in its conte!t (rather
than due to bein$ inherently nonsensical or
internally inconsistent), often used in humor. 's a
lo$ical fallacy, a non sequitur is a conclusion that
does not follow from a premise.
non serviam "I will not serve"
/ossibly derived from a 4ul$ate mistranslation of
the 8oo of 3eremiah. 7ommonly used in literature
as Satan's statement of disobedience to )od, thou$h
in the ori$inal conte!t the &uote is attributed to
Israel, not Satan.
non sum qualis
eram
"I am not such as I
was"
Or "I am not the ind of person I once was".
%!presses a chan$e in the speaer.
non vi/ sed verbo
"6ot throu$h
violence, but throu$h
the word alone
;artin *uther on 7atholic church reform. (see
:eformation)
nosce te ipsum "now thyself" "rom 7icero, based on the )ree }\ ~d e`[fgW\ ῶ
(gnothi seauton), inscribed on the Temple of 'pollo
at (elphi. ' nonBtraditional *atin renderin$, temet
nosce ("thine own self now"), is translated in The
*atrix as "now thyself".
nota bene (n.b.) "mar well" That is, "please note" or "note it well".
Novus 2rdo
eclorum
"6ew Order of the
'$es"
"rom 4ir$il. ;otto on the )reat Seal of the 9nited
States. Similar to (ovus .rdo *undi ("6ew Gorld
Order").
Nulla dies sine
linea
"6ot a day without a
line drawn."
/liny the %lder attributes this ma!im to 'pelles, an
ancient )ree artist.
nullam rem
natam
"no thin$ born"
That is, "nothin$". It has been theoriEed that this
e!pression is the ori$in of Italian nulla, "rench rien,
and Spanish and /ortu$uese nada, all with the same
meanin$.
nulli secundus "second to none" ;otto of the 7oldstream )uards.
Nullius in verba
"On the word of no
man"
;otto of the :oyal Society.
nullum crimen/
nulla poena sine
lege
"no crime, no
punishment without
law"
*e$al principle meanin$ that one cannot be
penalised for doin$ somethin$ that is not prohibited
by law. It also means that penal law cannot be
enacted retroactively.
numerus clausus "closed number"
' method to limit the number of students who may
study at a university.
nunc dimittis
"now you are sendin$
away"
In the )ospel of *ue, spoen by Simeon while
holdin$ the baby 3esus when he felt he was ready to
be dismissed into the afterlife ("he had seen the
li$ht"). Often used in the same way the phrase
Eure%a is used, as a ?ubilant e!clamation of
revelation.
nunc est
bibendum
"now is the time to
drin"
7arpeB(iemBtype phrase from the Odes of 5orace,
"6unc est bibendum, nunc pede libero pulsanda
tellus" (6ow is the time to drin, now the time to
dance footloose upon the earth).
nunc pro tunc "now for then"
Somethin$ that has retroactive effect, is effective
from an earlier date.
nunc scio quid sit
amor
"now I now what
love is"
"rom 4ir$il, Eclogues 4III.
nunquam non "never unprepared" ;otto of the Scottish clan 3ohnston
paratus
2
Latin Translation Notes
2 homines ad
servitutem paratos
";en fit to be
slavesC"
'ttributed (in Tacitus, Annales, III, +=) to the
%mperor Tiberius, in dis$ust at the servile attitude
of :oman senators. 9sed of those who should be
leaders but instead slavishly follow the lead of
others.
2 tempora 2 mores
"O, the timesC O, the
moralsC"
'lso translated "Ghat timesC Ghat customsC"
"rom 7icero, !atilina I, <, ,.
obiit (ob.) "one died"
"5e died" or "she died", an inscription on
$ravestones. ob. also sometimes stands for obiter
("in passin$" or "incidentally").
2bit anus/ abit onus
"The old woman
dies, the burden is
lifted"
'rthur Schopenhauer.
obiter dictum
"a thin$ said in
passin$"
In law, an observation by a ?ud$e on some point of
law not directly relevant to the case before him,
and thus neither re&uirin$ his decision nor servin$
as a precedent, but nevertheless of persuasive
authority. In $eneral, any comment, remar or
observation made in passin$.
obscuris vera
involvens
"the truth bein$
enveloped by
obscure thin$s"
"rom 4ir$il.
obscurum per
obscurius
"the obscure by
means of the more
obscure"
'n e!planation that is less clear than what it tries
to e!plain. Synonymous with ignotum per
ignotius.
oculus dexter (2.D.) "ri$ht eye" Ophthalmolo$ist shorthand.
oculus sinister (2..) "left eye" Ophthalmolo$ist shorthand.
oderint dum
metuant
"let them hate, so
lon$ as they fear"
"avorite sayin$ of 7ali$ula, attributed ori$inally
to *ucius 'ccius, :oman tra$ic poet (<0> 87).
odi et amo "I hate and I love" The openin$ of 7atullus -=. The entire poem
reads, "odi et amo quare id faciam fortasse
requiris F nescio sed fieri sentio et excrucior" ("I
hate and I love. Ghy do I do this, you perhaps
as. F I do not now, but I feel it happenin$ and
am tormented.").
odi profanum
vulgus et arceo
"I hate the unholy
rabble and eep
them away"
"rom 5orace.
odium theologicum "theolo$ical hatred"
' name for the special hatred $enerated in
theolo$ical disputes.
omne ignotum pro
magnifico
"every unnown
thin$ Ois taenP for
$reat"
Or "everythin$ unnown appears ma$nificent".
omnia dicta fortiora
si dicta Latina
"everythin$ said OisP
stron$er if said in
*atin"
Or "everythin$ sounds more impressive when said
in *atin". ' more common phrase with the same
meanin$ is quidquid Latine dictum sit altum
videtur.
omnia munda
mundis
"everythin$ OisP pure
to the pure OmenP"
"rom The 6ew Testament.
omnia
praesumuntur
legitime facta donec
probetur in
contrarium
"all thin$s are
presumed to be
lawfully done, until
it is shown Oto beP in
the reverse"
In other words, "innocent until proven $uilty".
omnium gatherum "$atherin$ of all"
' miscellaneous collection or assortment. Often
used facetiously.
onus probandi "burden of proof"
opera omnia "all wors" The collected wors of an author.
opera posthuma "posthumous wors" Gors published after the author's death.
opere citato (op. cit.)
"in the wor that was
cited"
9sed in academic wors when referrin$ a$ain to
the last source mentioned or used.
ophidia in herba
"a snae in the
$rass"
'ny hidden dan$er or unnown ris.
opus anglicanum "%n$lish wor"
"ine embroidery. %specially used to describe
church vestments.
2pus Dei "The Gor of )od"
Opus (ei is a 7atholic institution founded by
Saint 3osemarMa %scriv•. Its mission is to help
people turn their wor and daily activities into
occasions for $rowin$ closer to )od, for servin$
others, and for improvin$ society.
ora et labora "pray and wor"
The ;otto of Order of Saint 8enedict as well as
the motto for O<P(alhousie *aw School, 5alifa!
6ova Scotia.
ora pro nobis "pray for us"
oratio directa "direct speech"
oratio obliqua "indirect speech"
orbis non sufficit
"the world does not
suffice"
"the world is not
enou$h"
Ori$inates from 3uvenal's Tenth Satire, referrin$
to 'le!ander the )reat. 3ames 8ond's adopted
family motto in the novel .n 7er *ajest'#s Secret
Service. It made a brief appearance in the film
adaptation of the same name and was later used as
the title of the nineteenth 3ames 8ond film, The
@orld Is (ot Enough.
ordo ab chao
"Out of chaos,
comes order"
The phrase is one of the oldest mottos of 7raft
"reemasonry.
orta recens quam
pura nites
"newly risen, how
bri$htly you shine"
;otto of 6ew South Gales.
*
Latin Translation Notes
pace "with peace"
*oosely, "be at peace", "with due deference to", "by
leave of" or "no offense to". 9sed to politely
acnowled$e someone who disa$rees with the speaer
or writer.
pace tua "with your peace" Thus, "with your permission".
pacta sunt
servanda
"a$reements must be
ept"
'lso "contracts must be honored". Indicates the
bindin$ power of treaties.
panem et "bread and circuses" "rom 3uvenal, Satire A, line -<. Ori$inally described
circenses
all that was needed for emperors to placate the :oman
mob. Today used to describe any entertainment used
to distract public attention from more important
matters.
parens patriae
"parent of the
nation"
' public policy re&uirin$ courts to protect the best
interests of any child involved in a lawsuit. See also
&ater &atriae.
pari passu "with e&ual step" Thus, "movin$ to$ether", "simultaneously", etc.
parva sub
ingenti
"the small under the
hu$e"
Implies that the wea are under the protection of the
stron$, rather than that they are inferior. ;otto of
/rince %dward Island.
passim "here and there"
*ess literally, "throu$hout" or "fre&uently". Said of a
word that occurs several times in a cited te!ts. 'lso
used in proof readin$, where it refers to a chan$e that
is to be repeated everywhere needed.
pater familias
"father of the
family"
Or "master of the house". The eldest male in a family,
who held patria potestas ("paternal power"). In
:oman law, a father had enormous power over his
children, wife, and slaves, thou$h these ri$hts
dwindled over time. (erived from the phrase pater
familias, an Old *atin e!pression preservin$ the
archaic Bas endin$.
*ater *atriae
""ather of the
6ation"
'lso rendered with the $enderBneutral parens patriae
("parent of the nation").
pater peccavi
"father, I have
sinned"
The traditional be$innin$ of a :oman 7atholic
confession.
pauca sed
matura
"few, but ripe"
"rom The 9ing and I by :o$ers and 5ammerstein.
Said to be one of 7arl )auss's favorite &uotations.
pauca sed bona "few, but $ood" )ood thin$s are better if few.
*ax Americana "'merican /eace"
' euphemism for the 9nited States of 'merica and its
sphere of influence. 'dapted from &ax /omana.
*ax Aut +ellum "/eace or Gar" The motto of the )unn 7lan.
*ax +ritannica "8ritish /eace"
' euphemism for the 8ritish %mpire. 'dapted from
&ax /omana.
pax Dei "peace of )od"
9sed in the /eace and Truce of )od movement in
<>thB7entury "rance.
*ax Deorum "/eace of the )ods"
*ie the vast ma?ority of inhabitants of the ancient
world, the :omans practiced pa$an rituals, believin$
it important to achieve a state of &ax $eorum (The
/eace of the )ods) instead of Ira $eorum (The Grath
of the )ods).
pax et bonum
"peace and the
$ood"
;otto of St. "rancis of 'ssisi and, conse&uently, of
his monastery in 'ssisi, in the 9mbria re$ion of Italy.
Translated in Italian as pace e bene.
pax et lux "peace and li$ht" ;otto of Tufts 9niversity.
pax maternum/
ergo pax
familiarum
"peace of mothers,
therefore peace of
families"
If the mother is peaceful, then the family is peaceful.
*ax -omana ":oman /eace"
' period of relative prosperity and lac of conflict in
the early :oman %mpire.
*ax inica "7hinese /eace"
' euphemism for periods of peace in %ast 'sia durin$
times of stron$ 7hinese imperialism. 'dapted from
&ax /omana.
pax vobiscum
"peace ObeP with
you"
' common farewell. The "you" is plural ("you all"),
so the phrase must be used when speain$ to more
than one person# pax tecum is the form used when
speain$ to only one person.
pecunia non olet
"the money doesn't
smell"
'ccordin$ to Suetonius, when %mperor 4espasian
was challen$ed by his son Titus for ta!in$ the public
lavatories, the emperor held up a coin before his son
and ased whether it smelled or simply said non olet
("it doesn't smell"). "rom this, the phrase was
e!panded to pecunia non olet, or rarely aes non olet
("copper doesn't smell").
pecunia/ si uti
scis/ ancilla est0
si nescis/ domina
"if you can use
money, money is
your slave# if you
can't, money is your
master"
Gritten on a old *atin tablet in downtown 4erona
(Italy).
pendent opera
interrupta
"the wor han$s
interrupted"
"rom the Aeneid of 4ir$il, 8oo I4.
per
"8y, throu$h, by
means of"
See specific phrases below.
per annum (p.a.) "throu$h a year" Thus, "yearly"@occurrin$ every year.
per ardua "throu$h adversity" ;otto of the 8ritish :'" :e$iment
per ardua ad
astra
"throu$h adversity
to the stars"
;otto of the 8ritish :oyal 'ir "orce, the :oyal
'ustralian 'ir "orce, the :oyal 7anadian 'ir "orce,
and the :oyal 6ew iealand 'ir "orce. The phrase
was derived from 5. :ider 5a$$ard's famous novel
The &eople of the *ist, and was selected and
approved as a motto for the :oyal "lyin$ 7orps on
;arch <=, <L<A. In <L,L, the :oyal 'ustralian 'ir
"orce decided to adopt it as well.
per aspera ad
astra
"throu$h hardships
to the stars"
"rom Seneca the Qoun$er. ;otto of 6'S' and the
South 'frican 'ir "orce. ' common variant, ad astra
per aspera ("to the stars throu$h hardships"), is the
state motto of 2ansas. Ad Astra ("To the Stars") is the
title of a ma$aEine published by the 6ational Space
Society. (e /rofundus 'd 'stra (""rom the depths to
the stars.") is the motto of the *'S"S.
per capsulam
"throu$h the small
bo!"
That is, "by letter".
per capita "throu$h the heads"
"/er head", i.e., "per person". The sin$ular is per
caput ("throu$h a head").
per contra
"throu$h the
contrary"
Or "on the contrary" (cf. a contrario).
per curiam "throu$h the senate"
*e$al term meanin$ "by the court", as in a per curiam
decision.
per definitionem
"throu$h the
definition"
Thus, "by definition".
per diem "throu$h a day"
Thus, "per day". ' specific amount of money an
or$aniEation allows an individual to spend per day,
typically for travel e!penses.
*er $are per
Terram
"8y Sea and by
*and"
;otto of the :oyal ;arines.
per mensem "throu$h a month" Thus, "per month", or "monthly".
per os (p.o.) "throu$h the mouth" ;edical shorthand for "by mouth".
per procura (p.p.)
or (per pro)
"throu$h the
a$ency"
'lso rendered per procurationem. 9sed to indicate
that a person is si$nin$ a document on behalf of
another person. 7orrectly placed before the name of
the person si$nin$, but often placed before the name
of the person on whose behalf the document is si$ned,
sometimes throu$h incorrect translation of the
alternative abbreviation per pro. as "for and on behalf
of".
per quod
"by reason of
which"
In a 92 le$al conte!t1 "by reason of which" (as
opposed to per se which re&uires no reasonin$). In
'merican ?urisprudence often refers to a spouse's
claim for loss of consortium.
per rectum (pr) "throu$h the rectum" ;edical shorthand. See also per os.
per se "throu$h itself"
'lso "by itself" or "in itself". Githout referrin$ to
anythin$ else, intrinsically, taen without
&ualifications, etc. ' common e!ample is ne$li$ence
per se. See also malum in se.
per stirpes "throu$h the roots"
9sed in wills to indicate that each "branch" of the
testator's family should inherit e&ually. 7ontrasted
with per capita.
per veritatem vis
"throu$h truth,
stren$th"
;otto of Gashin$ton 9niversity in St. *ouis.
perpetuum
mobile
"thin$ in perpetual
motion"
' musical term. 'lso used to refer to hypothetical
perpetual motion machines.
persona non
grata
"person not
pleasin$"
'n unwelcome, unwanted or undesirable person. In
diplomatic conte!ts, a person re?ected by the host
$overnment. The reverse, persona grata ("pleasin$
person"), is less common, and refers to a diplomat
acceptable to the $overnment of the country to which
he is sent.
petitio principii
"re&uest of the
be$innin$"
8e$$in$ the &uestion, a lo$ical fallacy in which a
proposition to be proved is implicitly or e!plicitly
assumed in one of the premises.
pia desideria "pious lon$in$s" Or "dutiful desires".
pia fraus "pious fraud"
Or "dutiful deceit". %!pression from Ovid. 9sed to
describe deception which serves 7hurch purposes.
pia mater "pious mother"
Or "tender mother". Translated into *atin from
'rabic. The delicate innermost of the three
membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.
pinxit "one painted"
Thus, "he painted this" or "she painted this". "ormerly
used on wors of art, ne!t to the artist's name.
pluralis
ma(estatis
"plural of ma?esty"
The firstBperson plural pronoun when used by an
important persona$e to refer to himself or herself# also
nown as the "royal e".
pollice verso
"with a turned
thumb"
9sed by :oman crowds to pass ?ud$ment on a
defeated $ladiator. It is uncertain whether the thumb
was turned up, down, or concealed inside one's hand.
'lso the name of a famous paintin$ depictin$
$ladiators by 3eanB*Ton )Tr€me.
pons asinorum "brid$e of asses"
'ny obstacle that stupid people find hard to cross.
Ori$inally used of %uclid's "ifth /roposition in
$eometry.
*ontifex
$aximus
")reatest 5i$h
/riest"
Or "Supreme /ontiff". Ori$inally an epithet of the
:oman %mperors, and later a traditional epithet of the
pope. The pontifices were the most important priestly
colle$e of the ancient :oman reli$ion# their name is
usually thou$ht to derive from pons facere ("to mae
a brid$e"), which in turn is usually lined to their
reli$ious authority over the brid$es of :ome,
especially the /ons Sublicius.
posse comitatus "to be able to attend"
Thus, to be able to be made into part of a retinue or
force. In common law, posse comitatus is a sheriff's
ri$ht to compel people to assist law enforcement in
unusual situations.
post aut propter
"after it or by means
of it"
7ausality between two phenomena is not established
(cf. post hoc, ergo propter hoc).
post cibum (p.c.) "after food" ;edical shorthand for "after meals" (cf. ante cibum).
post hoc ergo
propter hoc
"after this, therefore
because of this"
' lo$ical fallacy where one assumes that one thin$
happenin$ after another thin$ means that the first
thin$ caused the second.
post meridiem
(p.m.)
"after midday"
The period from noon to midni$ht (cf. ante
meridiem).
post mortem (pm) "after death"
9sually rendered postmortem. 6ot to be confused
with post meridiem.
post prandial
"after the time
before midday"
:efers to the time after an' meal. 9sually rendered
postprandial.
post scriptum
(p.s.)
"after what has been
written"
' postscript. 9sed to mar additions to a letter, after
the si$nature. 7an be e!tended to post post scriptum
(p.p.s.), etc.
post tenebras lux
"after darness,
li$ht"
' motto of the /rotestant :eformation inscribed on
the :eformation Gall in )eneva, SwitEerland. '
former motto of 7hile, replaced by the current one,
&or la /a-Bn o la 0uer-a (Spanish1 "8y :i$ht or
;i$ht"). 'nother obsolete motto is aut concilio aut
ense.
prima facie "at first si$ht"
9sed to desi$nate evidence in a trial which is
su$$estive, but not conclusive, of somethin$ (e.$., a
person's $uilt).
prima luce "at dawn" *iterally "at first li$ht"
*raemonitus
praemunitus
"forewarned is
forearmed." See
/raemonitus
praemunitus.
primum mobile "first movin$ thin$"
Or "first thin$ able to be moved". See primum
movens.
primum movens "prime mover"
Or "first movin$ one". ' common theolo$ical term,
such as in the cosmolo$ical ar$ument, based on the
assumption that )od was the first entity to "move" or
"cause" anythin$. 'ristotle was one of the first
philosophers to discuss the "uncaused cause", a
hypothetical [email protected] violator [email protected]
primum non
nocere
"first, to not harm"
' medical precept. Often falsely attributed to the
5ippocratic Oath, thou$h its true source is probably a
paraphrase from 5ippocrates' Epidemics, where he
wrote, "(eclare the past, dia$nose the present, foretell
the future# practice these acts. 's to diseases, mae a
habit of two thin$s1 to help, or at least to do no harm."
primus inter
pares
"first amon$ e&uals" ' title of the :oman %mperors (cf. princeps).
principia
probant non
probantur
"principles prove#
they are not proved"
"undamental principles re&uire no proof# they are
assumed a priori.
prior tempore
potior iure
"earlier in time,
stron$er in law"
' le$al principle that older laws tae precedent over
newer ones. 'nother name for this principle is lex
posterior.
pro bono "for the $ood"
The full phrase is pro bono publico ("for the public
$ood"). Said of wor undertaen voluntarily at no
e!pense, such as public services. Often used of a
lawyer's wor that is not char$ed for.
pro +rasilia fiant
eximia
"let e!ceptional
thin$s be made for
8raEil"
;otto of S|o /aulo state, 8raEil. See also non ducor
duco.
*ro deo et patria
""or )od and
7ountry"
;otto of 'merican 9niversity.
pro forma "for form"
Or "as a matter of form". /rescribin$ a set form or
procedure, or performed in a set manner.
pro hac vice "for this occasion"
:e&uest of a state court to allow an outBofBstate
lawyer to represent a client.
*ro multis "for many"
It is part of the :ite of 7onsecration of the wine in the
Gestern 7hristian tradition, as part of the ;ass.
pro patria "for country"
/ro /atria ;edal1B for operational service (minimum
== days) in defence of the :epublic South 'frica or in
the prevention or suppression of terrorism# issued for
the 8order Gar (counterBinsur$ency operations in
South Gest 'frica <L++B-L) and for campai$ns in
'n$ola (<L0=B0+ and <L-0B--)
pro rata "for the rate" i.e., proportionately.
pro re nata (prn)
"for a thin$ that has
been born"
;edical shorthand for "as the occasion arises" or "as
needed".
pro studio et
labore
"for study and wor"
pro se "for oneself"
to defend oneself in court without counsel ("pro per"
BpersonaBin 7alifornia)
pro tanto "for so much"
(enotes somethin$ that has only been partially
fulfilled. ' philosophical term indicatin$ the
acceptance of a theory or idea without fully acceptin$
the e!planation
pro tempore "for the time"
%&uivalent to %n$lish phrase "for the time bein$".
(enotes a temporary current situation.
probatio pennae "testin$ of the pen" ' ;edieval *atin term for breain$ in a new pen.
propria manu
(p.m.)
"by one's own hand"
propter vitam
vivendi perdere
causas
"to destroy the
reasons for livin$ for
the sae of life"
That is, to s&uander life's purpose ?ust in order to stay
alive, and live a meanin$less life. "rom 3uvenal,
Sat'ricon 4III, verses -AR-..
provehito in
altum
"launch forward into
the deep"
;otto of the band A> Seconds to ;ars.)
proxime accessit "he came ne!t" The runnerBup.
proximo mense
(prox.)
"in the followin$
month"
"ormerly used in formal correspondence to refer to
the ne!t month. 9sed with ult. ("last month") and inst.
("this month").
pulvis et umbra
sumus
"we are dust and
shadow"
"rom 5orace, !armina boo I4, 0, <+.
punctum saliens "leapin$ point" Thus, the essential or most notable point.
F
Latin Translation Notes
qua patet orbis
"as far as the world
e!tends"
;otto of the :oyal 6etherlands ;arine 7orps.
quaecumque vera "whatever is true"
;otto of the 9niversity of 'lberta. Taen from
/hillipians .1- of the 8ible
quaere "see"
Or "you mi$ht as..." 9sed to su$$est doubt or to
as one to consider whether somethin$ is correct.
Often introduces rhetorical or tan$ential &uestions.
quaerite primum
regnum Dei
"see ye first the
in$dom of )od"
;otto of 6ewfoundland and *abrador.
qualis artifex
pereo
"'s what ind of artist
do I perishS"
Or "Ghat an artist dies in meC" 'ttributed to 6ero
by Suetonius.
quamdiu bene
gesserit
*e$al latin1 "as lon$ as
he shall have behaved
well"
I.e., "Owhile onP $ood behavior." "rom which "ran
5erbert e!tracted the name for the sisterhood in the
$une novels.
quando omni "Ghen all else fails, ;ocB*atin phrase said at the end of The :ed
flun6us/ mortati play dead" )reen Show.
quantum libet
(q.l.)
"as much as p

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