Lean Manufacturing

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C e l u l a rM a n u f a c t u r i n g Total Quality Teams R a p i dS e t u p ( 5 M E D ) Kanban V a l u e S t r e a mM a p p i n g M Process apping Work Balancing 5-5 Autonomation Pokayoke Ji d o k a Elimination f waste o T o t a l P r o d u c t i v eM a i n t e n a n c e C o n t i n u o u sf l o w O n e P i e c eF l o w S t a n d a r dw o r k V i s u a lm a n a g e m e n t In station process ontrol c L e v e lp r o d u c t i o n TaktTime Pointof usestorage K ai z e n S u p p l i e rD e v e l o p m e n t

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A u t u m n2 0 0 7 M a n a g e m e n t S e r v t c e s

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with Fewindividuals organisations effectively more or cope high-priority objectives than2-4multiple,

These not touch the product system. do or add value,but they enableor assist the process. rastructurencludessched Iing, Inf i u training,culture,organisation structure, qualitymethods, utility systems, costing policies systems investment and and a host of other elements. Someof theseelements in are embedded attitudes, habitsand cultureratherthan explicitpolicies. Here, in again, experience leanmanufacturing is important.Not because problemis the difficult,but because paradigmis different. the ldentify your own lean elements Based the abovevisionof the future state,pickthe on appropriate elements lean manufacturing of from the lean laundrylist.You may alsoidentify other advanced manufacturing techniques that are not on the usuallists lean of manufacturing. ldentify precedents and priorities Next,identifypriorities and precedents. Precedence require may the useof certainelements makesomeother elementpractical. to RapidSetup(SMED) Forexample, may be necessary enable to kanban and workcells makekanban simpler and easier. Workcells alsofunctionbetterwith smalllots.The precedence might + thereforebe Workcells SMED kanban.In reality, + theseare likelyto be concurrent muchassequential, moreon this as but later. Priorities dependpartlyon precedence they alsodepend but products on ROl.By givingpriorityto thoseelements, and areas that promise the fastestand largestreturns, the system transformationbecomes self-financing. Forexample, manycompanies want to startwith 55.Theywant to clean the placeup.Thisseems a goodthing and Martha like generally, Stewartwould surelyapprove.Howeve4 cellular manufacturing a better placeto startfor the following reasons: is

Developthe plans With a broad overviewof the situationand a visionfor the future and knowledgeof precedents we and priorities, can beginto plan our course action. of Phasing We suggest three broad phases lean manufacturing: for l. Coredisciplines ll. Consolidation lll. Continuous imorovement

Phase implements minimumessentials I the necessary the for system work effectively. to Theseare often (but not always) . The returnon 55 is lowel less immediate, and less obvious the coredisciplines the home page.Perhaps 80% of the on 60than the returnfor workcells benefitsaccrue from Phase The changes Phase are dramatic, l. in I . lf workcells implemented are after 55,much of the 55work the results immediate When peoplespeak and the benefits clear. must be redoneafter the rearrangement of a leanimplementation, they usually think of Phase l. Phase buildson the coredisciplines Phase lt includes ll of l. the The rearrangement workcells automatically into will entailmuch latel secondary techniques honedby Toyotaand others.Examples of the cleanup, up work of a 55 program fix include and quickand easy 55 Kaizen. Phase llfine-tunes and improves initialsystem. includes lt the methods and trainingthat . Workcells smaller, are tighter and morefocused than inculcate values basic that sustain system years come. the for to functional areas. a result, As they are easier cleanand to Continuous, incremental improvement the hallmark is keepclean.With workcellsin place,55 becomes easier, faster of Phase Here, lll. the changes less are dramatic, more but and more effective important.Phase neverends;a corevalueat Toyotabut lll . The inventory and materialhandlingreductions from Cellular unappreciated most imitators. by Manufacturing makethe plant neaterand easier manage to a n d clean Timeframes Thetime required Phase varies for I significantly; depends lt Anotherfactor in settingpriorities the 'low hangingfruit' is upon the sizeof the firm, the product-process culture, mix, principle.Fora varietyof reasons, may be very quick and easy it leadership and many other factors.Let us assume 'typical' a to implement one or anotherof the selected parts, elements. thus lt factoryof, say,500employees, 2000or so manufactured makes sense givesuchelements to higherpriority. a dozenproductlines, and competent leadership. Phase lwill

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r t o s u p e r f i c i a l u l e sa n d r e g u l a t i o n s . . T h e l e a r n i n g i n a b l i t z i s s u p e r f i c i a lT h e r e i s s i m p l y n o t t i m e . t o e x p l o r e a l l p o s s i b l e o l u t i o n so r d e l v e d e e p l y i n t o i s s u e s . s M u c h o f t h i s l e a r n i n g i s t h r o u g h s l o g a n s , u l e sa n d e d i c t s , r not the fundamental reasons ehind them. lt works because b t h e f a c i l i t a t o r m a k e s( o r e n c o u r a g e s m a n y d e c i s i o n so f t e n ) , instinctively, that avoid seriouserrors. lmplementation project example H e r e i s a v e r y s i m p l e e x a m p l e o f a P h a s eI i m p l e m e n t a t i o nt h a t . i l l u s t r a t e sh e p r i n c i p l e s l t a n t i c i p a t e s h r e e w o r k c e l l s .E a c h t t w o r k c e l l w i l l r e q u i r e r a p i d s e t u p ( 5 M E D ) ,k a n b a n p r o d u c t i o n c o n t r o l ,t o t a l q u a l i t y a n d t e a m d e v e l o p m e n t .I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p i a n a n t i c i p a t e s m o r e g e n e r a l s u p p l i e rd e v e l o p m e n te f f o r t a t h a t w i l l e v e n t u a l l yb r i n g s u p p l i e r si n t o a k a n b a n s y s t e m . The Gantt chart showsthe timeframe for each activity.The w o r k c e l l s i l l b e i m p l e m e n t e ds e q u e n t i a l l y . h e m o r e g e n e r a l w T s u p p l i e rd e v e l o p m e n ta n d k a n b a n i s e s s e n t i a l l s e p a r a t e . y l T h i ss c h e d u l e i m i t st h e n u m b e r o f t a s k st h a t a p a r t i c u l a r d e p a r t m e n t m u s t u n d e r t a k e a t a n y o n e t i m e . C h a r t 2 s h o w s ,f o r e a c h d e p a r t m e n t ,t a s k st h a t r e q u i r e t h e i r h e a v y i n v o l v e m e n t . N o t e t h a t n o g r o u p h a s a h e a v y i n v o l v e m e n tw i t h m o r e t h a n t w o s i m u l t a n e o u s a s k s .T h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o no f l e a n m a n u f a c t t u r i n g s h o u l d n o t f o l l o w a c o o k i e - c u t t e r p p r o a c h .E v e r yf a c t o r y a is different and thesedifferences equire unique approaches. r T h e e l e m e n t sc h o s e n ,t h e i r s e q u e n c e f i m p l e m e n t a t i o na n d o m a n y o t h e r d e t a i l sd i f f e r f r o m f a c t o r y t o f a c t o r y .T h e o r i g i n a t o r s o f l e a n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ,p l a c e d i n d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s , o u l d w

h a v e d e v e l o p e dd i f f e r e n t s o l u t i o n s . T h e k e y st o s u c c e s i n c l u d e :a f u n d a m e n t a l a p p r o a c h ,s y s t e m s s , t h i n k i n g , l e a d e r s h i p a f l a i r f o r s t r a t e g ya n d r e c o g n i t i o no f t h e p r a c t i c a l i m i t so n r e s o u r c e s . References Hayes,Robert H and Wheelwright, Steven C, RestoringOur Competitive Edge, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984. Hill, Terry,Manufacturing Strategy, Macmillan, London, 1985. Skinner, Wickham, Manufacturing ln The Corporate Strategy, J o h n W i l e y & S o n s ,N e w Y o r k , 1 9 7 8 . Skinner, Wickham, Manufacturing: The Formidable Competitive Weapon, John Wiley & Sons,New York, 1985. Stalk, George And Hout, Thomas, Competing Against lime, The Free Press, New York, 1990. W r e n n a l l ,W i l l i a m , a n d L e e ,Q u a r t e r m a n ,H a n d b o o k o f Commercial and lndustrial FacilitiesManagemenf, McGraw Hill, August, 1993.

Quarterman Lee ('Q') started his career at the fountainhead of lean manufacturing, Ford Motor Company. He has worked in f o u n d r i e s , p a p e r m i l l s a n d a w i n d o w m a n u f a c t u r i n gp l a n t i n positions from Engineerto Plant Manager. Since 1977 he has been consulting, training and writing. Mr Lee has authored two books and hundreds of articles and programmes. He is currently President of Strategos, Inc www.strategosinc.com.

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