Lincoln

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A Lecture by Dr. J. Rufus Fears




















1


is sponsored by the

Ad Astra Foundation
&
The Lincoln Bicentennial Commission
in association with
The Friends of the Oklahoma History Center
&
The Oklahoma History Center


Written by Jason Harris, Curator of Education,
and Printed by the Oklahoma History Center
And the Oklahoma Historical Society
2401 N. Laird Avenue
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73105










Copyright Oklahoma Historical Society 2009
2

Lincoln and Freedom

Table of Contents

Dear Teachers........................................................................3

PASS Objectives....................................................................4

Original Draft of Gettysburg Address................................6

Gettysburg Address...............................................................7

Lincoln’s Invitation to Gettysburg......................................8

Video Quiz..............................................................................9

Quiz Answer Sheet................................................................11

Word Search..........................................................................12

Lincoln in Print......................................................................13

Lincoln Links.........................................................................15

Lincoln Bibliography............................................................16

Oklahoma History Center related programs.....................18








3

Dear Teachers,

This DVD is intended to be used as a supplement to your classroom
curriculum. Dr. J. Rufus Fears lecture focuses on the Gettysburg Address
delivered November 19
th
, 1863 following the Union Armies decisive victory at
the Battle of Gettysburg in July. In addition, a deeper understanding of
President Lincoln and his position on the “peculiar institution” of slavery
comes to light as Dr. Fears explores events leading up to the address and
reaction following this pivotal moment in American History.

This video analyzes the four qualities that distinguishes a statesman from a
politician; a bedrock of principles, a moral compass, a vision, and the ability
to build a consensus to achieve the vision, and allows your students to explore
fundamentals of leadership and the political atmosphere within the country
during the American Civil War.

Particular attention is paid in breaking down each component of the
Gettysburg Address for your students. With vivid commentary Dr. Fears
explores each facet of the speech and places it within the context of both the
Civil War and our lives today.

The Oklahoma History Center offers a number of resources for use within
your classroom that can be used in conjunction with the video. Please visit
our website at Oklahomahistorycenter.org and check the education page for
more details.

Thank you,


The Oklahoma History Center











4

PASS Objectives

Grade 4

Standard 5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the unique
features which contributed to the settlement of the state of Oklahoma.
1. Identify major historical individuals, entrepreneurs, and groups, and describe their
major contributions (e.g., Sequoyah, the Boomers and the Sooners, and Frank
Phillips).
2. Describe major events of Oklahoma's past, such as settlements by Native
Americans, cattle drives, land runs, statehood, and the discovery of oil.
1. Develop an understanding of and an appreciation for the cultural diversity of his or
her community by examining the historical and contemporary racial, ethnic, and
cultural groups of the area.

Grade 8

Standard 1: The student will develop and practice process skills in social
studies.
1. Interpret patriotic slogans and excerpts from notable quotations, speeches and
documents (e.g., “Give me liberty or give me death,” “Don’t Tread On Me,” "One if
by land and two if by sea," "The shot heard 'round the world," "E Pluribus
Unum," the Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, “Fifty-
four forty or Fight,” and the Gettysburg Address).

Standard 2: The student will develop skills in discussion, debate, and
persuasive writing by analyzing historical situations and events.
2. Write on, speak about, and dramatize different historical perspectives of individuals
and groups (e.g., settlers, slaves, indentured servants, and slave holders; Patriots
and Loyalists; Federalists and Anti-Federalists; political parties; rural and urban
dwellers; and peoples of different cultural, economic, and ethnic backgrounds).
3. Write on, speak about, and dramatize different evaluations of the causes and effects
of major events (e.g., the American Revolution, the Constitutional Convention, the
Industrial Revolution, westward expansion, the Civil War, and Reconstruction).

Standard 10: The student will examine and describe how the North and South
differed and how politics and ideologies led to the Civil War.
1. Identify and explain the economic, social, and cultural sectional differences between
the North and the South.
3. Evaluate the importance of slavery as a principal cause of the conflict.
5. Discuss the significance of the presidential election of 1860, including the issues,
personalities, and results.


5

Standard 11: The student will describe the course and character of the Civil
War and Reconstruction eras and their effects on the American people, 1861 –
1877.
1. Compare the economic resources of the Union and the Confederacy at the beginning
of the Civil War and assess the tactical advantages of each side.
2. Identify the turning points of the war (e.g., major battles and the Emancipation
Proclamation) and evaluate how political, economic, military, and diplomatic
leadership affected the outcome of the conflict.
3. Compare and contrast the motives for fighting and the daily life experiences of
Confederate soldiers with those of Union soldiers, both white and African
American.

High school United States History

Standard 1: The student will demonstrate process skills in social studies.
1. Identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary sources (e.g., artifacts,
diaries, letters, photographs, documents, newspapers, media, and computer-
based technologies).
2. Recognize and explain how different points of view have been influenced by
nationalism, racism, religion, culture and ethnicity.

Standard 2: The student will analyze causes, key events, and effects of the
Civil War era.
3. Identify leaders on both sides of the war (e.g., Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S.
Grant, Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Frederick Douglass, and William Lloyd
Garrison).
4. Interpret the importance of critical developments in the war, such as major
battles (e.g., Fort Sumter, Gettysburg, and Vicksburg), the Emancipation
Proclamation, and Lee's surrender at Appomattox.











6

Original Draft of the Gettysburg Address
2009


7

Gettysburg Address
2009
Executive Mansion,
Washington,_______, 186 _.
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this
continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the
proposition that "all men are created equal"
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that
nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated, can long
endure. We are met on a great battle field of that war. We have
come to dedicate a portion of it, as a final resting place for those who
died here, that the nation might live. This we may, in all propriety
do. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not
consecrate -- we can not hallow, this ground-- The brave men, living
and dead, who struggled here, have hallowed it, far above our poor
power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long
remember what we say here; while it can never forget what they did
here.
It is rather for us, the living, to stand here, we here be dedica-ted to
the great task remaining before us -- that, from these honored dead
we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here, gave
the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve these
dead shall not have died in vain; that the nation, shall have a new
birth of freedom, and that government of the people by the people
for the people, shall not perish from the earth.


8

Lincoln’s Invitation to Gettysburg 2009
Gettysburg Nov. 2 1863
To His Excellency
A. Lincoln
President U. S.
Sir,
The Several States having Soldiers in the Army of the Potomac, who were killed at the
Battle of Gettysburg, or have since died at the various hospitals which were established in
the vicinity, have procured grounds on a prominent part of the Battle Field for a Cemetery,
and are having the dead removed to them and properly buried.
These Grounds will be Consecrated and set apart to this Sacred purpose, by appropriate
Ceremonies, on Thursday, the 19th instant. Hon Edward Everett will deliver the Oration.
I am authorized by the Governors of the different States to invite you to be present, and
participate in these Ceremonies, which will doubtless be very imposing and solemnly
impressive.
It is the desire that, after the Oration, you, as Chief Executive of the Nation, formally set
apart these grounds to their Sacred use by a few appropriate remarks.
It will be a source of great gratification to the many widows and orphans that have been
made almost friendless by the Great Battle here, to have you here personally; and it will
kindle anew in the breasts of the Comrades of these brave dead, who are now in the tented
field or nobly meeting the foe in the front, a confidence that they who sleep in death on the
Battle Field are not forgotten by those highest in Authority; and they will feel that, should
their fate be the same, their remains will not be uncared for.
We hope you will be able to be present to perform this last solemn act to the Soldiers dead
on this Battle Field.
I am with great Respect, Your Excellency's Obedient Servant
David Wills

Agent for A. G. Curtin Gov. of Penna. and acting for all the States


9

Lincoln and Freedom Video Quiz
2009
Lincoln and Freedom Name____________________________


1. When and where was Abraham Lincoln born?________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

2. What was Abraham Lincoln’s profession before running for his first political office?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

3. Abraham Lincoln is referred to as self educated. Why? ________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

4. What political opponent is Abraham famous for debating? What remark did
President Lincoln make concerning slavery to his challenger? ___________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

5. What war did Abraham Lincoln publicly oppose and why? _____________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

6. When did the American Civil War begin? ___________________________________

7. The Battle of Gettysburg occurred in what state? _____________________________

8. When was the Battle of Gettysburg? ________________________________________

9. What made the Battle at Gettysburg a pivotal battle during the American Civil
War?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

10

Lincoln and Freedom Video Quiz
2009
10. When did President Lincoln deliver the Gettysburg address? ___________________

11. What are the four qualities that distinguish a statesman from a politician and
briefly discuss each:
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

12. Where did President Lincoln die and when? _________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

13. What makes Abraham Lincoln a lasting legacy in the minds of Americans and why?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

11

Video Quiz Answer Key 2009

1. February 12, 1890 in Hardin County, Kentucky.
2. Lincoln worked a variety of jobs. Most notably as a hand on river boats and a
farmer before passing the Bar Exam.
3. Abraham Lincoln received only about 18 months of formal education during his life.
4. Stephen Douglas. During the debate President Lincoln asked Douglas if he as a
Christian. He then asked if he practiced the Golden Rule, “Do unto others as you
would have them do unto you.” Finally Lincoln asked Douglas if he would like to be
a slave.
5. Lincoln publicly opposed the war with Mexico. He viewed it as a land grab by
President Polk in an attempt to gain military fame. Lincoln’s most famous stand
against Polk occurred when Lincoln demanded proof that Mexican soldiers had
shed American blood on United States soil.
6. April 12, 1861.
7. Pennsylvania.
8. The Battle of Gettysburg is pivotal for a number of reasons. Use your classroom
discussion of the engagement to critique student answers.
9. July 1-3, 1863.
10. November 19, 1863.
11.
a. Bedrock of Principles. Lincoln believed in democratic freedom. All must be
free.
b. Moral Compass. Absolute right and absolute wrong. You must follow the
truth in support of the absolute right even when it is not politically
appealing.
c. You must have a vision. Lincoln believed our nation was the last great hope
for humanity. The Battle of Gettysburg offered the opportunity to bring a
vision to the masses and begin a new phase in the war.
d. The ability to build a consensus. President Lincoln used the victory at
Gettysburg and the issue of slavery to build a consensus among the
population in the North. The victory allowed Federal soldiers to continue the
war while providing the background for applying the vision that Lincoln had
for a future America.
12. President Lincoln was shot at Ford’s Theatre. He died on April 15, 1965 just six
days after the end of the war.
13. Teachers should judge the students individual answers based on classroom lectures,
activities, and the educators own judgment.







Lin
12

Lincoln Word Search
2009
W
R E P U B L I C A N L B E G I H W I A
C A G M L E V B C P J D M L F V K A R D
O K H Q C W A P O L I T I C S O B S M N
R T F N A T I O N E N B L J P L W H Q L
E Q D F V R G C F B W A I S E U L I T E
P J P R X I H B R D M K T C G N C N X R
R N F O E L S V D A X Q I O H T S G A T
E L I N C O L N R Y I C A J Z E R T Q A
S O U T H B A S T L E P H V B E G O X E
E M C I W H V Z A J N D Y K Q R L N Z H
N Z H E T F E G C R O A V C O P E Y F T
T K Q R P J X L Y B I U S E N A T E R O
A Y C B W A U H C M N K I T J Q A P C T
T L J G E T T Y S B U R G F D W B U N L
I O B C X D F A E Q L I F H X L E J W M
V G W I Q N O R T H V P R E S I D E N T
E R A L C W F Y K X N R W A B J Y K F Z
H E R U T A L S I G E L C G K R D E Q Y
Q A S J V B M H E M A N C I P A T I O N
L D C R E I D L O S W V F O B L G N X W

Lincoln WORDS
LINCOLN PRESIDENT POLITICS

LEGISLATURE MILITIA REPRESENTATIVE

SENATE REPUBLICAN WHIG

DEBATE UNION CONFEDERACY

EMANCIPATION GETTYSBURG THEATRE

FRONTIER SLAVE WASHINGTON

WAR SOLDIER NORTH

SOUTH VOLUNTEER NATION




13

Lincoln in Print
2009














14

Lincoln in Print
2009
August 1860


November 8, 1863
1864


Spring 1865
Lin
15

Lincoln Links
2009
The White House

http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/abrahamlincoln/

Northern Illinois University, Digital Lincoln Library

http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/

Abraham Lincoln Papers, Library of Congress

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/alhtml/malhome.html

Miller Center on Public Affairs, University of Virginia, Selected Essays

http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/lincoln

Lincoln Institute

http://www.abrahamlincoln.org/

America’s Stories, Library of Congress

http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/aa/lincoln

Lincoln Bicentennial Official Web Page

http://www.lincolnbicentennial.gov/

Gettysburg Address, Library of Congress Page

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/gadd/



Lin
16

Lincoln Bibliography
2009
Lincoln Books

Children K through 6

Adler, David A. A Picture Book of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Holiday House, Inc., 1989.

Ashabranner, Brent and Jennifer Ashabranner. No Better Hope : What the Lincoln Memorial
Means to America. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publishing Group, 2001.

Cohn, Amy L. and Suzy Schmidt. Abraham Lincoln. New York: Scholastic Press, 2002.

D'Aulaire, Ingri and Edgar Parin D’Aulaire. Abraham Lincoln. New York: Random House
Children’s Books, 1957.

Feinberg, Barbara S. Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner
Publishing Group, 2000.

Freedman, Russell. Lincoln: A Photobiography. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co. (School
Division), 2000.

Harness, Cheryl. Abe Lincoln Goes to Washington, 1837-1865. Washington, D.C.: National
Geographic Society, 2003. (also Minneapolis, MN: Tandem Library Books, 2003.)

Holzer, Harold. The President is Shot! : The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Honesdale,
PA: Boyds Mill Press, 2004. (also Minneapolis, MN: Tandem Library Books, 2004.)

Sullivan, George E. Abraham Lincoln. New York: Scholastic, Inc., 2001.

Turner, Ann W. Abe Lincoln Remembers. Minneapolis, MN: Tandem Library Books, 2003.
(also New York: HarperCollins, 2003.)

Winters, Kay. Abraham Lincoln : The Boy Who Loved Books. New York: Simon & Schuster
Children’s Publishing, 2006.


Children 6-12

Armentrout, David and P. Armentrout. The Emancipation Proclamation. Vero Beach,
FL: Rourke Publishing, 2004.

January, Brendan. The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Danbury, CT: Scholastic
Library Publishing, 1999.

January, Brendan. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates. Danbury, CT: Scholastic Library
Publishing, 1998.

Lin
17

Lincoln Bibliography
2009
Marrin, Albert. Commander in Chief Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War. New York:
Penguin Group, 2003. (also Minneapolis, MN: Tandem Library Books, 2003)

Porterfield, Jason. The Lincoln-Douglas Senatorial Debates of 1858. New York: Rosen
Publishing Group, 2004.

Schlesinger, Arthur M., Editor. The Election of 1860 and the Administration of
Abraham Lincoln. Broomall, PA: Mason Crest Publishers, 2003.

Sullivan, George E. Picturing Lincoln. Wilmington, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 2000.

Adult

Barrett, Joseph. Life of Abraham Lincoln: Original 1865 Edition. Mechanicsburg,
PA:Stackpole Books, 2006.

Burlingame, Michael, ed. Abraham Lincoln: The Observations of John G. Nicolay and
John Hay. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2007.

Donald, David Herbert. Lincoln. New York: Touchstone, 1996.

We are Lincoln Men: Abraham Lincoln and His Friends. New York: Simon &
Schuster, 2004.

Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln.
New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005.

Herndon, William H., Douglas L. Wilson, Rodney O. Davis. Herndon’s Lincoln.
Urbana:University of Illinois Press, 2006.

Striner, Richard. Father Abraham: Lincoln’s Relentless Struggle to End Slavery.
Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006

Trefousse, Hans L. First Among Equals: Abraham Lincoln’s Reputation During His
Administration. New York: Fordham University Press, 2005.

Wilson, Douglas L. Lincoln’s Sword: The Presidency and the Power of Words. New
York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006.



18

Traveling Trunks: Civil War in Indian Territory
4th-12th
grade
The Civil War in Indian
Territory is an interpretive
lesson that features hands-on
objects carried by soldiers
during the war. With the
hands-on approach, the
student will gain necessary
information to make
intelligent analysis of the
Civil War and its impact on
Oklahoma. Both a Union and
Confederate trunk are
available for use.

Philosophy
The student will find three-dimensional objects that they can touch and
examine to enhance their knowledge of the lesson and learn more about the
life of a soldier. The items included represent the personal belongings of
either a Union or Confederate soldier.

Grade Level
The Civil War trunk is designed for 4
th
grade and up. The teacher’s
curriculum guide is adaptable to a variety of grades to match the instructor’s
needs.

Topics Covered by Learning Activities Include:
Timeline • Food/Cooking
Vocabulary and slang • Entertainment
• Hygiene • Clothing
The Battle of Honey Springs

Trunk Contents Include:
• Civil War Knapsack
• Tin Plate and Eating Utensils
• Playing Cards
• Blanket
• Harmonica
• Clothing
• Sewing Kit (housewife)
• Video

19

Traveling Trunks: Civil War in Indian Territory
4th-12th
grade
The Civil War in Indian Territory program is designed to
meet the following PASS Skills and others:

• Build connections with social studies content and help students
develop an understanding of human history.
• Describe major events of Oklahoma’s past, such as settlements
by Native Americans, cattle drives, land runs, statehood, and
the discovery of oil.
• Analyze tribal alliances and battles pertaining to the Civil War
in Indian Territory.
• Locate significant physical and human features of the state on a
map, (e.g., military posts, towns, and rivers.)
• Compare and contrast the motives for fighting and the daily life
experiences of Confederate, Union, Native American, and
African American soldiers.
• Explain the significance of the Civil War in Indian Territory and
the prominent figures and groups that fought within the area
(e.g., General James G. Blunt, General Douglas H. Cooper, the
Indian Home Guard, 1
st
Kansas Colored Infantry, Stand Watie).
• Construct timelines of events in the development of the regions
of the United States.
• Explain how people are influenced by, adapt to, and alter their
environment, including agricultural efforts, housing,
occupations, industries, transportation, and communication.
• Analyze the use of Oklahoma's natural resources (e.g., salt,
bison, oil, coal, timber and sod) by early visitors and settlers.



20

Civil War programs 4th – 12th

Civil War Soldier
The Civil War Soldier program is an interpretive
living history program providing information and
analysis on the day to day life of a soldier
during the American Civil War through first
person interpretation. With narrative and
audience questions, this program allows
students to discover life in Indian Territory from
the perspective of a soldier. Multiple characters
are available including both Union and
Confederate troops. For older students, our
Field Surgeon offers a unique perspective on the
lives of the men in the field. For a more hands-
on approach our drill instructor can take your
students through the basics of Civil War drill
and life as a soldier.

Philosophy
Living History is a tool used by historians to engage the public and inspire
them through entertaining interactions to investigate the past. It allows the
audience to experience history by transcending from a two dimensional book
to a three-dimensional character. If done well, it enables the public to
suspend belief and travel in time through their mind’s eye to a point in the
past and give them a glimpse of what life was like. Used in a teaching
setting, living history allows the student to inquire about life of a time
passed. It allows for the Visual, Sensory, and Auditory learners access to
the past in a way no other medium in teaching can match. Living History
makes history personal to the student and they will long remember the
experience.












21

Civil War programs 4th – 12th

The Civil War in Indian Territory program is designed to
meet the following PASS Skills and others:

• Build connections with social studies content and help students
develop an understanding of human history.
• Describe major events of Oklahoma’s past, such as settlements
by Native Americans, cattle drives, land runs, statehood, and
the discovery of oil.
• Analyze tribal alliances and battles pertaining to the Civil War
in Indian Territory.
• Locate significant physical and human features of the state on a
map, (e.g., military posts, towns, and rivers).
• Compare and contrast the motives for fighting and the daily life
experiences of Confederate, Union, Native American, and
African American soldiers.
• Explain the significance of the Civil War in Indian Territory and
the prominent figures and groups that fought in within the area
(e.g., General James G. Blunt, General Douglas H. Cooper, the
Indian Home Guard, 1
st
Kansas Colored Infantry, Stand Watie).
• Construct timelines of events in the development of the regions
of the United States.
• Explain how people are influenced by, adapt to, and alter their
environment, including agricultural efforts, housing,
occupations, industries, transportation, and communication.
• Analyze the use of Oklahoma's natural resources (e.g., salt,
bison, oil, coal, timber and sod) by early visitors and settlers.




The Oklahoma History Center
The Oklahoma History Center offers a number of
educational opportunities including field trips, living
history characters, hands-on trunks, and instructive
classes.

For more information on other trunks and educational
programs contact the Oklahoma History Center Education
staff at 405-522-0785, 405-522-0791, 405-522-0792, or
405-522-0793 or visit our website at
www.oklahomahistorycenter.org.























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