Linguistics Abbreviations Guide

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Many of the abbreviations that you use in a syntax analysis of a language.

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Syntactic Analysis
1.

UAQ/FLL/LLM-I/IV sem.

Abbreviations and general terms for syntactic analysis
Classification

General term

Abbreviation

A. Events and Participants

Participant
Participant 1...
Event
Event 1...

Part.
Part. 1
Ev.
Ev. 1

B. Predicates and Arguments

Argument
Argument 1...
Predicate
Predicate 1...

Arg.
Arg. 1
Pred.
Pred. 1

C. Semantic roles

Agent
Patient
Theme
Beneficiary
Goal
Experiencer
Instrument
Recipient

AG.
PAT.
TH.
BEN.
GO.
EXP.
INST.
RECIP.

D. Syntactic roles

Subject
Object
Direct object
Indirect object
Prepositional object

SUBJ
OBJ
DIR. OBJ
IND. OBJ
PREP. OBJ

E. Word classes

Noun
Proper noun
Verb
Transitive verb
Intransitive verb
Ditransitive verb
Auxiliary verb
Pronoun
Adjective
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Determiner
Article
Indefinite
Definite

N
Pro. N
V
Trans. V
Intrans. V
Ditrans. V
AUX
PRO
ADJ
ADV
PREP
CONJ
DET
ART
INDEF
DEF

Elaborado Originalmente por la Dra. María de Jesús Selene Hernández Gómez

1

Syntactic Analysis

UAQ/FLL/LLM-I/IV sem.

F. Phrases

Noun Phrase
Verb Phrase
Adjective Phrase
Adverb Phrase
Prepositional Phrase

G. Grammatical categories

Nouns
Number
Singular
Plural
Dual
Trial
Exclusive
Inclusive
Gender or noun class
Feminine
Masculine
Neuter
Definiteness
Indefinite
Definite
Case
Nominative
Accusative
Ergative
Absolutive
Verbs
Tense
Present
Past
Future
Non-future
Non-present
Non-past
Aspect
Progressive
Imperfective / Imperfect
Perfective / Perfect
Punctual
Habitual
Mood
Indicative
Subjunctive
Imperative
Voice

Elaborado Originalmente por la Dra. María de Jesús Selene Hernández Gómez

NP
VP
Adj.P
Adv.P
PP

SG
PL
DU
TRI
EXCL
INCL
FEM
MASC
NEUT
INDEF
DEF
NOM
ACC
ERG
ABS

PRES
PAST
FUT
Non-FUT
Non-PRES
Non-PAST
PROG
IMPF
PERF
PUNC
HAB
IND
SUBJTV
IMPER

2

Syntactic Analysis

UAQ/FLL/LLM-I/IV sem.
Active voice
Passive voice
Finite verbs
Main verb
Auxiliary verb
Modal auxiliaries
Non-finite verbs
Infinitive
Participle
Present participle
Past participle

ACT V
PASS V

H. Adjectives

Comparison
comparative
superlative
Agreement (see nouns and verbs)

COMPAR.
compar.
superlat.

I. General Agreement

1 person
2 person
3 person

1
2
3

J. Other

Polarity
Negative
Affirmative
Affixes
Suffix
Prefix
Infix
Circumfix

K. Sentences

Simple sentences
Simple clause
Complex sentences
Coordinated clauses
Main clause
Subordinate or embedded clause
Complementizer
Relative clauses
Relativizer
Independent clause
Dependent clause

L. Examples of Glosses

Simultaneous functions:
with full stops (.)
3.SG.PRES.IND

Elaborado Originalmente por la Dra. María de Jesús Selene Hernández Gómez

M Verb
AUX
MOD AUX
INF
PART
PRES PART
PAST PART

NEG
AFFIR
SUF
PREF
INF
CIRF
SS
SIMP CL
CS
COORD CL
M CL
SUB CL
COMP
REL CL
REL
INDEP CL
DEP CL

3

Syntactic Analysis

UAQ/FLL/LLM-I/IV sem.
with colons (:)
3:SG:PRES:IND
with dashes (-) (for affixes)
3-SG-PRES-IND
ungrammatical sentence (*)
* she haves it

M. Gap tests and relativized
position

I am happy to_____
_____ found the cat
The man [(that) I know___]

N. Symbols

For phrases and relative clauses:
brackets: [ ]
For optional elements:
parenthesis ( )
For clause boundaries:
hash mark #

O. Word Order

Subject-Verb-Object
Subject-Object-Verb
Verb-Subject-Object
Verb-Object-Subject
Object-Verb-Subject
Object-Subject-Verb

SVO
SOV
VSO
VOS
OVS
OSV

P. Heads and dependents

Head
Dependent
- optional
- obligatory

H
Dep.
Opt.
Obl.

Q. Complements and adjuncts

Complement
Adjunct

COMPL.
ADJT.

Elaborado Originalmente por la Dra. María de Jesús Selene Hernández Gómez

4

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